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Business Objects Step by Step Tutorial

BUSINESS OBJECTS CLASS Step by Step


Business Objects is the reporting tool from SAP Company (2010).
As Business Objects is the reporting tool from SAP Company, it is called as SAP BO
Current Version of BO is: BO-XI R/3
BO: Business Objects.
XI: Version 11(in rowman characters)
R/3: Release 3. ------
BO Version Release 3.
BO-XI R/3 = BO-XI R/2 + SAP Integrations (It is available from 2008 onwards)
SAP BW/BI Integration services
(SAP BW and BI are ETL tools from SAP Company)
VOYAGER connection
Xcelcius
Dashboard Manager
Live Office
Widgets

BO-XI R/2: It is the reporting tool from Business Objects.


BO-XI R/2 = BO 6.5 + Crystal Reports (2001)
BO 6.5 = BO 5.0 + WEBI (Web reporting) (1998)
B0 5.0 = BO Local Reports (4.5) + Universe + DESKI (local reports) (1995)

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UNIVERSE:
Universe is interface between database environment and reporting environment.
Universe is a file created with extension .unv. It has source database connection
information and source business information in the form of Tables to be used by
Reporting Environment.
To create Universe following are the main Steps:
Universe Parameters
6. Create Classes
Insert Tables
7. Create Objects
Insert Joins
8. Create Hierarchies
Detect Loops
9. Export Universe
Resolve Loop
Universe Parameters:
Creating the Universe with required Database connectivity is called as Universe.
Here universe is the file created with extension .unv.
Insert Tables:

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Adding required business Tables from Database Environment into Universe structure
panel is called as Insert Table. Whenever a table is added into Universe, only table
Metadata is added but not the table with data. As universe is used to support SQL
Query development, for preparing SQL Queries table Metadata is enough.
Insert Joins:
Using this step we apply the relation between the Tables in Universe Structure
Panel.
To apply relation between Two Tables we need to use following Two Concepts:
Type of Join
Type of Cardinality.
Type of Join:
It specifies how data to be merged between two Tables. In Universe following are
the type of joins to specify which type data to be merged.
Inner Join. [Returns common data between two tables.]
Left Outer Join. [Returns common data between two tables and all extra records in
Left Table.]
Right Outer Join. [Returns common data between two tables and all extra records
in Right Table.]
Note: Universe does not support FULL Outer Join.

FAQ: In what cases data in Database table can be duplicated?


Ans: if there is no primary key in the table or using Composit Key also there is
possibility of data duplications in the column.

Composite Keys: If the Primary key is assigned to more than one table column then
it is called as Composit key.

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Cardinality: It defines data relation between the Tables as


One to- One
One to- Many
Many to- One
Many to- Many
FAQ: In the database technically how many One to- One relations are possible?

Ans: In this example One record in Table-1 can have exactly One record in Table-2.
This relation is called as One to- One Relation.
FAQ: How many One-to-Many or Many-to-One relations are possible?

Ans: If one table has Primary key and another table has Foriegn key relation, from
First Table is One-to-Many relation and from second Table is Many-to-One relation.

FAQ: How many Many-to-Many relations is possible?


Ans: If the Tables are related between Two non key columns or Two Composit key
columns then there is a possibility of Many-to-Many relations.
IME SLASH:
Time taken between Query Request and Query Response is called Time Slash.

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LOOP:
If there are N Tables with N Relations applied with each other, it is called as LOOP.
Loop is a Drawback in reporting. Because of Loop, reports will display the data in
Time Slash.
Finding the possible loops in Universe structure panel is called as Detecting Loops.
(Detect Loop is the option used in Universe to find possible Loops)
To resolve the Loops we can use 4 techniques in Business Objects.
Note: if the loops are deleted from structure panel, the report output is displayed
with high efficiency.
To resolve the LOOPS:
Delete Unnecessary Joins
Create Alias Tables
Create Shortcut Joins
Create Context
Delete Unnecessary Joins:

As per reporting rules, for N tables we need N-1 Joins for SQL Queries.

In Industries most of the reports are created using Transaction based master data.
As order_details is the Transaction Table and sales_branch and sales_staff are
master tables J1 and Jj2 are commonly used joins. By deleting J3, if business
requirements can be satisfied then delete J3 join.
Second Solution: In a Loop, if there is Many-Many Cardinality joins existing then
Many-Many joins can be deleted directly.

Create Alias Table:

* Generate a report to display orders collected by staff in which branch (J1 and J2)
*Generate a report to display orders of Branch (J1)
* Generate a report to display orders collected by Staff (J2)
* Generate a report to display list of employees working for Branch

CONTEXT:
Context is another resolving solution for LOOPS in Business Objects, which creates
memory block in BO Repository with set of join results. As the memory is already
created in BO Repository Data retrieval, is possible.
BO Repository is the Database of Business Objects. This is divided in to 3 areas as:
1) Security Domain Area
2) Universe Domain Area and
3) Document Domain Area
Security Domain Area:
Security Domain Area has the users and user groups to control Authentication
of BO Repository.
Universe Domain Area:
Universe Domain Area is the part of BO Repository to hold all the universes
which are exported from BO Designer to be accessed by reporting environment like
WEBI,DESKI and etc.,
Document Domain Area:
Document Domain Area is the area where created documents are saved to be
accessed by client environment with corresponding Authentications.
SHORTCUT:
In 2001, in BO XI R2 Shortcut Joining are introduced. Using this property BO assigns
secondary level priority for the joins in the LOOP. If all Tables are used in Reports
then OLAP Engines uses the Main Joins and ignores the Secondary Join. If main Joins
are not used then we use Secondary Level Joins in Reporting.

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***Best Resolving techniques for LOOPS in BO are:


Delete Unnecessary Joins
Use Shortcut Joins.
6) CREATE CLASSES:
A class is the presenting Object in Universe to present Business Information to
the reporting Environment.
A class is assigned with one or more Tables information to be presented to the
Reporting layer.
A class represents Schema in Universe.

A class is a collection of Objects.


Objects represent a table column for reporting.
Simply, reporting columns in Business Objects are called as Objects.
*Basesd on type of data to be displayed in reporting, Objects are classified as 3
types.
* Dimension Object
* Detail Objects
* Measure Objects
Dimension Object: It is the default property applied for every database column
added inside the class. This property can be assigned with all data types of source
database to display source business data as it is.

Detail Objects: Depedent Objects in Business Objects are called as Detail Objects.
Using this property we need to select a parent Dimension Object. While reporting
detail object is also added with parent dimension object automatically.
Measure Objects: This property is appled only for Numeric Columns added with
corresponding Aggregated functions to display summary information in the
reporting.
6) HIERARCHY:
Hierarchy is collection of Dimension objects arrangement to support Drill
Down and Drill Up functionalities.
In hierarchies we can find two options as
1) Default Hierarchies.
2) Custom Hierarchies.
All objects added under the class panel are displayed as Default Hierarchies.
Based on these default hierarchies we can create required Custom hierarchies to
support RRI Concepts.
RRI: Report to Report Interactions.

----Communicating TOP Level hierarchy to next level hierarchy is called as Drill


Down.
----Communicating from Bottom level hierarchy to Previous level hierarchy is called
as Drill Up.
*Export Universe: Using this option, the .unv file is send from local system into BO
Server System (BO Repository) Universe Domain Area to make universe accessed by
reporting authors.

Source NON BW/BI Systems

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Universe Parameters

Tables
Insert Joins
Detect Loops
Resolve Loops
Create Classes
Create Hierarchies
Export Universe

Source BW/BI Systems

1)Universe Parameters
Insert Tables

2) Insert

3) Insert Joins
4) Detect Loops
[not allowed]
5) Resolve Loops
6) Create Classes
Create Objects
7) Create Objects
8) Create Hierarchies
9) Export Universe

NON-SAP, whenever Business Objects is loaded there is sample Database loaded


asefashion.mdb.
Data Merging/ Aggrigation
DATA MERGING:
The joins applied in Universe structure panel between the Two Tables is the
Data Merging.
DATA AGGREGATION:
It is the process of converting Source detail data into Summary data, for the
numeric objects (FACTS) under the class panel.
---Double click on amount_sold
---Select Object from the class panel
---Click on Properties Tab
---Select the Qualification as Measure and select the required aggregated function.
By default is Sum.
---Click on Ok

Note: One source table column is not only added for one time under the class panel,
it can be added for any number of times based on Business needs.
If report requirement is to display summary totals of amount_sold and also average
total of amount_sold, add amount_sold for two times as an Object in a class. For the
first Object add the qualification Measure with the function Sum. For the second
Object add the qualification Measure with the function Average.
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Data Scrubbing in Universe
DATA SCRUBBING CONCEPT IN UNIVERSE:
----Click on Insert Menu
----Object
----Name the Object [overall_cost]
----Data Type----Number
Place the cursor in Select
----Browse
----Expand shopfacts---Double click on amount_sold multiplied by Double click on
quantity_sold [amount_sold * quantity_sold]
---- Click on Parse
If Parsing is Ok ----Click on Ok
CONDITION BASED DATA SCRUBBING:
----Click on Insert Menu
----Object
----Name the Object [discount]
----Data Type----Number
Place the cursor in Select area
----Browse
----Expand Character functions
----Double click on IIF (If and only If)
----Double click on quantity_sold and type >=10, place the cursor in true condition
area----Double click on amount_sold multiplied by 0.12, place the cursor
in false condition area ---Double click on amount_sold multiplied by 0.04
Finally the expression is
IIF (shop_facts.quantity_sold>=10, shop_facts.amount_sold*0.12,
shop_facts.amount_sold*0.04)
---- Click on Parse
If Parsing is Ok ----Click on Ok
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Data Cleansing in Universe
DATA CLEANSING CONCEPT IN UNIVERSE:
----Click on Insert Menu
----Object
----Name the Object

----Type----character
Place the cursor in Select
----Click on Browse
----From Functions area------Expand character
----Double click on Ucase Function.
----Expand Tables and Columns
----Double click on Month name
The expression is applied as Ucase (Table name. Column name)
----Click on Parse
If Parsing is Ok ----Click on Ok
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STEP 7: Create / Insert Objects
7) CREATE / INSERT OBJECTS:
Reporting columns are called as Objects.
To create the Object without selecting any Tables from structure panel, drag the
Required column into Class Panel.
By default for every Source Column Dimension Object is the property added, to
display source business data as it is in reporting.
Second Procedure to create the Objects:
---- Select the required class from Class Panel
---- Click on Insert Menu
---- Select Object
---- Name the Object [Article ID]
Note: Here Object name can be added with Spaces.
---- Select the Data type as Number
---- Place the Cursor in select Statement
---- Click on Browse in select Area.
---- From Tables and Columns Expand the required Table
---- Double click on the required column
---- Click on Parse to check the Syntax.
---- If parsing is Ok
---- Click on Ok
Data Cleansing:
Converting Source Non-Unique Data Format into Unique data Format is called
as Data Cleansing.
Data Scrubbing:
Adding Extra column with required Business expression is called as Data
Scrubbing.
Data Merging:
Combining two Tables data is called as Data Merging.
Data Aggregation:
Converting Source Detailed data into summary Format is called as Data
Aggregation.
Note: Manual Navigation is recommended to support Data Cleansingand Data
Scrubbing options.
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STEP 6: Creating Classes
6) CREATING CLASSES:
One class represents Schema.
A class is assigned with one or more Tables information.
A Table converted in to class can be accessed by Reporting.
To create the class use the following Navigations:
---- Click on Insert Menu------Class
---- Name the Class
---- In the same way create one more Class.
*** Class: Enterprise Information
SubClass: Business Activity Information.
SD (class)
Sales (subclass)
Billing (subclass)
Shipping (subclass)
Agreements/Contracts (subclass)
FICO
Accounts Receivables (subclass)
Accounts Payables (subclass)
Cost Centre (subclass)
Bank Accounts (subclass)
G/L Accounts (subclass) [General Ledger]
STEP---4: Detecting Loops:
STEP---4:
Detecting Loops: Using this option we find number of Loops possible from Universe
Structure Panel Tables.
Navigations:
----Click on Tools Menu
----Automated Detections
----Detect Loops
----Click on it
It displays the number of Loops and selected Joins from Structured Panel.
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STEP3: Insert Joins
STEP3:
Insert Joins
To display the Joins between Tables in Universe Structure Panel use following
Navigations
1) Manual Join
---- Without selecting a Table drag a table column [Article_ID of
Article_lookup] in to corresponding column of second table [Article_ID of
Article_color_lookup]
---- Double click on Applied Join [link]

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----Click on Detect to find the Cardinality


----Click on OK
Insert Menu Join
----Click on Insert Menu ----Join
It opens Edit Join Interface
---- Select the First table as Article_lookup
---- Select the Second table as Article_lookup_criteria
---- Select Article_ID between the two tables
----Click on Detect
----Click on OK
Auto Detecting Joins
---- Click on Tools menu----Automated Detections----Detect Joins
It displays the possible Joins from Universe Structure Panel.
----Select the Required Joins----Click on Insert.
For Detecting Joins we need to depend on Detect Cardinalities to Apply Data
Relationships.
Navigations:
----Click on Tools menu
----Automated detection
----Detect Cardinalities
FAQ:
How many types of joins can be applied from Universe?
Ans: There are 5 types of joins
Inner Join [Equi Join]
Left Outer Join
Right Outer Join
[Full Outer Join is not supported by Universe]
Theta Join
Shortcut Join

Inner Join: If the Join condition is applied with only = [equal to] operator is
called
as Inner Join or Equi Join
Using this property only common data of two tables is returned.
Right Outer Join: In the Edit join screen if Left side Outer join is selected it is treated
as Right Outer Join
Internally it returns common data between the two tables and all extra records in
Right Table.

Left Outer Join: In Edit Join screen, if the Right side Outer Join is selected it is treated
as Left Outer Join
Using this property, it returns common data between the two tables and all extra
records in Left Table.
Theta Join: While applying the join condition if we select other than to Equal
operator then it is called as Theta Join or Non-Equi Join
Shortcut Join: This property is recommended to resolve the Loop by applying Second
Priority for the Joins.
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STEP2: Navigations For efashion sample database.
STEP2:
Navigations For efashion sample database.
Insert Tables
Click on Insert menu
----Tables
----Displays the list of Source Database Tables
----Select the Required Tables
----Click on Insert
----Select the Required Tables
----Click on Insert
These are added in to Universe Structure Panel.
----Click on Close
----Arrange the Tables in Database Design Format
----SAVE the Universe
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Creating the Universe for SQL Server
Server name: ABC [system name where SQL Server services are running]
Login User: sa
Password: sa
Database: gosl
Navigations:
----Create the Universe
----Name the Universe
----Click on NEW to create a Connection to the SQL Server
----Click on Next in Initial Screen
----Name the Connection
----Expand the Microsoft
----Expand MS SQL Server 2005
----Select OLEDB providers
----Click on Next
----Give the Connection details
----Click on Test Connection
If the server is Responding Click on OK

----Click on Next
----Click on Finish
----Click on OK
----Save the Universe
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Navigations for Creating the Universe Connection for the Source ORACLE
Navigations for Creating the Universe Connection for the Source ORACLE.
----Create New Universe, Name the Universe.
----Click on New to create a Connection.
----Click on Next in initial screen
----Name the Connection
----Expand the ORACLE Database
----Expand the corresponding versions of Oracle
----Select Oracle Client
----Click on Next
----Username: Scott
Password: tiger
Service: oracle
----Click on Test Connection
If the server is responding Click on Next
----Click on Next
----Click on Finish
----Click on OK
----Save the Universe
Note: The drivers which are installed with corresponding Database are
called Native Drivers.
OCI-------Oracle Call Interface
Navigations for Creating the Universe Connection for the Source ORACLE
Navigations for Creating the Universe Connection for the Source ORACLE.
----Create New Universe, Name the Universe.
----Click on New to create a Connection.
----Click on Next in initial screen
----Name the Connection
----Expand the ORACLE Database
----Expand the corresponding versions of Oracle
----Select Oracle Client
----Click on Next
----Username: Scott
Password: tiger
Service: oracle
----Click on Test Connection
If the server is responding Click on Next
----Click on Next
----Click on Finish
----Click on OK
----Save the Universe

Note: The drivers which are installed with corresponding Database are
called Native Drivers.
OCI-------Oracle Call Interface
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A sample Database and Creating Universe
This sample Database has following Tables.....

STEP-1
Creating the universe for source efashion Database (efashion.mdb)

Use the following Navigations to use ODBC Drivers for efashion Database.
---Click on Start menu
---Settings
---Control Panel

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---Double click on Administrator tools


---Double click on Datasources (ODBC)
---Click on System DSN ---Click on Add
---Select Microsoft Access Driver --- Click on Finish
---Name the Database
---Click on Select
---Select efashion.mdb Database from C drive
---Click on Ok ---Click on Ok---Click on Ok
To enable the BO services click on
---Click on Start menu
---Programs
---BO XI 3.1
---Business Objects Enterprise
---Central Configuration Manager
It displays the list of BO services.
---Right click on Server Intelligent Agent ---Start
---Right click on Apache Tomcat ---Start
We can start /stop services which are needed for us.
NOTE:
System: ABC [name of the computer where BO services are running]
Username: Administrator
Password: ............... [By default BLANK]
Authentication: Enterprise
In Authentication Enterprise indicates BO services.
LDAP-----indicates Directory Services
SAP -----indicates Source BW Systems
Standalone(no CMS)----Local Database
Windows AD----Windows Administrator Services.
Windows NT----Windows Network Services
To create the Universe, use the following Navigations.
---Click on Start menu
---Programs
---BO XI 3.1
---Business Objects Enterprise
---Designer
---Enter BO Login Information
---Select Authentication as Enterprise ---Click on Ok
---Click on Cancel for Quick Design
---Click on New Universe (ctrl+N)
---Name the Universe (accessUniverse)
---Click on NEW to create a new Connection
---Click on Next in initial screen
---Name the Connection
---Expand Microsoft
---Expand the required Version of Access
---Select ODBC drivers
---Click on Next
---Select the Created DSN--- [DSN11AM]
---Click on Test Connection

---If the server is responding Click on Ok


---Click on Next
---Click on Next
---Click on Finish
---Click on Ok
---SAVE the Universe (ctrl+S).
By default the Universe is saved with the extension (.unv)

STEP1: Creating the Universe for SQL Server

STEP2: Navigations For efashion sample database.

STEP3: Insert Joins

STEP---4: Detecting Loops:

STEP---5: To resolve Loops:

STEP 6: Creating Classes

STEP 7: Create / Insert Objects

Data Cleansing in Universe

Data Scrubbing in Universe

Data Merging/ Aggrigation

Query Filter/ Report Filter/ Level Restrictions

STEP 8: CEATING HIERARCHIES:

STEP 9: EXPORT UNIVERSE