DECEMBER TUTOR ¢

WINDOWS 2000

born to

serve
You don’t have to buy Wi n d ows 2000 server to set up a perfe c t ly decent We b, FTP or mail server—Wi n d ows 2000 Professional will do the job for you at a fraction of the cost. You’ll have to tweak the operating system by adding some services not loaded by default, but our guide will take you through the pro ce s s .
hat if you want to set up a peerto-peer TCP/IP network, a Web s e r v e r, an F T P server or a mail server without springing for the pricey Microsoft Windows 2000 Server? Can you opt for the less expensive Professional version if your needs just aren’t that demanding? Microsoft would like you to choose Windows 2000 Server, but Win 2000 Professional can actually perf o rm a respectable amount of Web serving. Win 2000 Professional ships with many networking enhancements that a ren’t installed by default; by selectively adding them to the operating system, you can transform it into a capable We b s e r v e r.

W

ADDING THE SERVER TO O L S
To see what’s available, call up the Cont rol Panel and open the Add/Remove P rograms applet. You’ll see three icons
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down the panel on the left: click the bottom one, Add/Remove Windows Components. This yields the Windows Components Wizard, shown in Figure 1. Here you’ll find the components that Win 2000 P rofessional does not install by default. You’ll need only a few of the available options to turn your machine into a useful Web and Internet server, but it’s a good idea to click on each option and read the brief description in the bottom portion of the dialog box. If the Details button is available, click it to reveal a submenu. The primary component needed to turn your machine into an Internet server is the second on the list, Internet Information Services, more commonly known as IIS. IIS is primarily a World Wide We b server—that is, a software program that sends Web information to outside users— but as you’ll see by clicking on the Details

button, there’s more to it than just that. In fact, the Web server is only one of several choices, as you can see in Figu re 2. We’ll look at them all, because you’ll want to install the majority. The Common Files are required for the IIS Web Server component, and if you s c roll to the bottom of the list and check World Wide Web Server, Common Files will automatically be selected as well. So will the Internet Information Services Snap-In, an add-on that lets you administer IIS from Win 2000 Pro f e s s i o n a l ’ s M i c rosoft Management Console ( M M C ) . To g e t h e r, these three sub-components let you use Win 2000 Professional to serve a Web site with a full range of pages and features, one that you can make as detailed and as professional as you wish. But let’s not stop there. One great asset to any Internet or intranet site is an F T P
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(File Transfer Protocol) server. FTP allows visitors to download files either anonymously (full public access) or via user names and passwords. The FTP service included with IIS allows both (as do all decent FTP servers), so you can set up some downloads to be password protected and others to be freely accessible. Then, of course, there’s the matter of designing and managing your site. If you own Microsoft FrontPage, you should consider installing the FrontPage 2000 Server Extensions. These will let you save files directly to the Web site, eliminating the need to transfer the files manually—a great help when it comes to managing the site. FrontPage 2000 Server Extensions also lets you easily build database dependent pages and other documents based on advanced interactivity. Farther down the components list, you’ll see Visual InterDev RAD Remote Deployment Support, but unless you’re considering advanced applications development for your site using Visual InterDev, you don’t need this. For now, let’s bypass it. All that remains is the documentation, which you may as well install, the Personal Web Manager and the SMTP S e rvice. Simple Mail Transport Pro t o c o l remains the dominant protocol for handling outgoing mail (P O P3 is dominant for incoming mail), and you won’t need it unless you intend to establish your own mail server. That is better done via third-party software (Microsoft Exchange Server tends to be overkill for Intern e t mail only). That leaves the Personal Web

M a n a g e r, which you should install to assist with configuration of your site. With all these components checked, click OK, then Next and watch Win 2000 P rofessional install them.

CONFIGURING THE NEW E N V I RO N M E N T
Once you have the Internet services installed, you can access them thro u g h the Administrative Tools application in the Control Panel. You can also call them up via Start | Programs | Administrative Tools, as long as you set the Ta s k b a r and Start Menu Properties dialog to display them. (To do so, right click the taskbar and choose Properties, then click the Advanced tab in the resulting dialog. Check the Display Administrative To o l s box and click OK.) The admin tool you’ll use for IIS configuration is Computer Management, shown in Figure 3. Fro m here, open the Services and Applications a rea (by clicking on the plus sign to its le f t) . In te r ne t I n for ma tio n Ser vi ces appears at the bottom of the list. Click on the plus sign to reveal its contents: Default FTP Site and Default Web Site. To configure the FTP service, right click on Default FTP Site and select Pro p e rties. The resulting dialog (Figure 4) lets you configure the details. For the most part, you can leave the settings as they a re, although you may want to change the directory where the FTP files re s i d e (click the Home Directory tab), and you might consider restricting the users who can access the FTP site. On the Security Accounts tab, you’ll see Allow Anonymous Connections checked by default;

this means that anyone on the Intern e t can download from your FTP dire c t o r y . If you wish, you can uncheck this and then add the names of account holders or groups that are allowed access. Each user or group must be set up using the Local Users and Groups area of the Computer Management configuration tool. Configuring the Web site is similar in that you can leave most of the defaults set (Figure 5). Check once again that the Home Directory tab points to the default d i rectory where you want to store your Web documents, and look under the Documents tab to determine the name of the default document (you may want to add index.html, for example, as a default). If you don’t want your Web site publicly accessible, click the Dire c t o r y Security tab and edit the perm i s s i o n s . As with FTP configuration, you’ll need to add Win 2000 user accounts for your employees or clients should you disable anonymous access. Many other settings are available, but most of the default settings are fine until you determine your specific needs.

EMAIL, NEWS G RO U PS, TELNET AND MORE
Of course, there are Internet services beyond FTP and the Web. The primary one is email. As we mentioned earlier, one of the services available when selecting the IIS components is S M T P, w h i c h is basically one half of a fully usable email service. As we mentioned above, SMTP is the main protocol used to send messages over the Net, but the vast majority of Windows-based email pro g r a m s

Figure 1: Scrolling through Windows Components lets you see the various extra services you can install on your Win 2000 Professional System

Figure 2: To set up your Internet Server, enter the IIS dialog and check the services that you will require.

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Figure 4: The Default FTP site properties dialog lets you set the maximum number of simultaneous FTP sessions and also lets you see who is currently connected to the site.

Figure 3: The Computer Management Window shows Default FTP site and Default Web site on the left and the sub-components on the right.

use POP (Post Office Protocol) or (less c ommon ly) IMAP ( I n t e rnet Mes sage Access Protocol) to read messages. If you want your new Win 2000 Pro f e ssional Internet server to handle email fully, you’ll need a separate pro g r a m known as a mail server. Several mail server packages exist; some of them are downloadable as share w a re. Most mail servers offer both SMTP and POP s e rvices, and some include IMAP and mailing list services as well. Other well known Internet services not available in Win 2000 Professional include NNTP and telnet. NNTP (Network News Transfer Protocol) handles newsgro u p posting, distribution and retrieval, and telnet allows remote log-ons. You’re not likely to need either of these, because newsgroups are widely available through ISPs, and telnetting into a Windows 2000 or Windows NT system doesn’t re a l l y accomplish very much, so it’s impractical. Older Internet protocols, such as F i n g e r, are similarly not very useful, but many mail server packages include the Finger service anyway. Win 2000 Professional doesn’t let you establish a complete Internet service, but it does let you set up fully capable
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World Wide Web and FTP services, and these are the most useful for information sharing. We ’ re not recommending that you use a Win 2000 Professional machine to act as a Web or FTP server for high t r a ffic volumes; should you need that level of service, you can either invest in a Win 2000 Server system (or a U N I X/Linux system running the Apache Web server) or you can sign up with a Web hosting service and not worry about keeping your servers up. Even then, you may find a Win 2000 Professional server machine useful for testing and prototyping, for internal communications and for special information for specific clients.

LANS USING WIN 2000 P ROFESSIONAL
Win 2000 Professional doesn’t offer Microsoft’s much touted Active Directory Service, which ships only as a part of Wi ndows 2000 Server or Advanced Server. But unless you’re running a large org a nisation, you don’t need such a service. You also cannot set up a Win 2000 Professional LAN based on Win 2000 Server’s domain structure, but once again, that’s a need for larger org a n i s a t i o n s .

I n d e e d , o n c e y o u s ta r t b u i l d i n g client/server networks, at which Wi n 2000 Server excels, you’re also into the realm of client licensing—another level of network construction. But Win 2000 Professional does off e r the possibility of small, peer- t o - p e e r L A Ns. Each computer re q u i res its own network adapter. Ethernet gives you the fastest connections, but recent HomePN A phone line network products are becoming available for this OS. In either case, you’ll need to install the NetB E U I p rotocol with the adapter (this is usually done by default). Each computer must s h a re the same workgroup name and each must have a separate computer name. The primary diff e rence between a Wi n 2000 peer-to-peer network and a Wi n 95/98 peer-to-peer network is that Wi n 2000 workstations offer far better file security and user control. Individual users can be restricted to specific programs, folders and installation and configuration pro c e d u res. As a result, a single workstation can be used with no fears of accidental data corruption or any kind of snooping by one user on another’s system.
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