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ME 3281 Spring 2013, University of Minnesota

April 2, 2013

Final Value Theorem

Given F(s), how can we find lim f(t)
t

Final Value Theorem (FVT):

lim f(t) = lim sF(s)

s0

When is the FVT applicable?

1). F(s) should have no poles in the right half of the complex plane( Real
part should not be +v).
2). F(s) should have no poles on the imaginary axis, except at most one
pole at s=0.
Examples:
A

s

s0

b) F(s) =

A
s2

, FVT cannot be applied.

A

Note: 1 *()+ = 1 { 2} = .
s
Final value is not defined.

s0

A
=A
s

c) F(s) =

s2 +2

s.
=0
s0 s 2 + 2

limF(s) = lim
s0

1 *()+ = t

No well-defined final value

The poles are s 2 + 2 = 0, s 2 = 2 , s = j
Real part=0
Hence the FVT cannot be applied.
d)
F(s) =

s
s 2 + 2

Example on use of IVT and FVT

s 2 + 2s + 4
F(s) = 3
s + 3s 2 + 2s
IVT: Can it be applied? YES
2 4
1+ + 2
s 3 + 2s 2 + 4s
s s
f(0+ ) = lim sF(s) = lim 3
= lim
=1
2
3 2
s
s s + 3s + 2s
s
1+ + 2
s s
FVT: Can it be applied?
Poles are obtained from:

ME 3281 Spring 2013, University of Minnesota

s 3 + 3s 2 + 2s = 0
or s(s 2 + 3s + 2) = 0
or s(s + 2)(s + 1) = 0
Note: A second order polynomial with positive coefficients always has
roots with ve real parts.
e.g. ms 2 + bs + k = 0 the poles are always stable.
A higher order polynomial (3rd order or higher) need not be stable if all
coefficients are positive.
However, even if one coefficient is ve, the system will be unstable.
(will have at least one pole with +ve real part)
The FVT is applicable in this example.
s 3 + 2s 2 + 4s
s 2 + 2s + 4 4
lim f(t) = lim sF(s) = lim 3
= lim 2
= =2
t
s0
s0 s + 3s 2 + 2s
s s + 3s + 2
2
Example:
5s 2 + 8s 5
F(s) = 2 2
s (s + 2s + 5)
Find f(t), feature: Repeated pole at s=0.
F(s) =

As + B
Cs + D
+
s2
s 2 + 2s + 5

After calculation, it turns out

A = 1, B = 2, C = 2, D = 2
Hence

ME 3281 Spring 2013, University of Minnesota

F(s) =

s + 2
2s 2
1 2
2(s 1)

s2
s 2 + 2s + 5
s s 2 (s + 1)2 + 4
1 2 2(s + 1 2)
= + 2
s s
(s + 1)2 + 4
1 2
2(s + 1)
4
= + 2
+
s s
(s + 1)2 + 22 (s + 1)2 + 22
1 2
2(s + 1)
2
= + 2
+
2.
s s
(s + 1)2 + 22
(s + 1)2 + 22
f(t) = 1 + 2t 2et cos2t + 2et sin2t

Example: To illustrate how to handle numerator and denominator of the

same order.
2s 2 + 7s + 8 2(s 2 + 3s + 2) + s + 4
F(s) = 2
=
s + 3s + 2
s 2 + 3s + 2
2(s 2 + 3s + 2)
s+4
s+4
= 2
+ 2
=2+
(s + 2)(s + 1)
s + 3s + 2
s + 3s + 2
=2+

A
B
2
3
+
=2
+
s+2 s+1
s+2 s+1

Standard Representation of a Second Order System

+ + = ()
In the Laplace domain,
( 2 () (0) (0)) + *() (0)+ + () = ()
(ms 2 + bs + k)X(s) = F(s) + (ms + b)x(0) = m (0)
X(s) =

(ms + b)x0 + mv0

1
F(s)
+
ms 2 + bs + k
ms 2 + bs + k

1
Zero state reponse
ms 2 + bs + k
(ms + b)x0 + mv0
Zero input response
ms 2 + bs + k
For a stable system, the zero input response 0 as t .
The zero-state response need not converge to zero as t .
It will have some terms that converge to zero and some terms that do not
converge to zero.
For example: if F(s) =

F0
s

lim f(t) =

F0
( does not converge to zero)
k

The terms that do not converge to zero constitute the steady state
response of the system, and all the terms that converge to zero constitute

the transient response.

If the force is a sinusoid, the steady state response will be a sinusoid.
If the force is some others bounded periodic function, the steady state
response will be a bounded periodic function.

1
ms2 +bs+k

2nd order form:

n 2
s 2 + 2n s + n 2

April 4, 2013
Continuing with the previous m, k, b system.
If the initial conditions are zero,
X(s) =

ms 2

1
F(s)
+ bs + k

To write in the standard second order form,

1). Divide numerator and denominator by m,
1
m
X(s) =
F(s)
b
k
2
s + s+
m
m
Coefficient of s 2 in the denominator is now 1.
2). Need to make the constant terms in the numerator and denominator
equal

ME 3281 Spring 2013, University of Minnesota

k
1
m
X(s) =
F(s)
k s2 + b s + k
m
m
Compare with
n 2
s 2 + 2n s + n 2
We get
k
b
= n 2 , 2n =
m
m
n : Undamped natural frequency of the system
=

1 b
=
2n m

b
b
=
k m 2km
2
m

is called the damping ratio.

If > 1, the system id said to be over-damped. It has no overshoot and
no oscillations.
If < 1, the system id said to be under-damped. It has oscillatory
behavior and it has overshoot.
To see why, note that the characteristic equation is:
s 2 + 2n s + n 2 = 0
2

s 2 + 2n s + n 2 2 2 n + n 2 = 0
2

(s + n )2 2 n + n 2 = 0
(s + n )2 = n 2 (2 1)
If < 1, then:
(s + n ) = jn 1 2 , j = 1

s = n jn 1 2
Since
1
n 2
X(s) = . 2
F(s)
k s + 2n s + n 2
1

If F(s) = (the response to a step input), then

s

1
n 2
1
X(s) = . 2
.
k s + 2n s + n 2 s
After partial fraction expansion, the response will be of the type:
x(t) = xss + Aen t sind t + Ben t cosd t
(Likely xss =

F
k

where d = n 1 2

d is called the damped natural frequency. Thus the response of the

system is oscillatory.

On the other hand, consider > 1,

The charact eqn gives:
(s + n )2 = n 2 (2 1)
Hence the poles are:
s = n n 2 (2 1)
s = n n 2 1
Hence the response to
1
n 2
1
X(s) = . 2
.
k s + 2n s + n 2 s

ME 3281 Spring 2013, University of Minnesota

is given by:
x(t) = xss + Ae(nn

2 1)t

+ Be(n n

2 1)t

Thus the response is not oscillatory. No overshoot.

What about = 1?
The value of = 1 is called critical damping. It is the transition point
between no oscillations and oscillations.
The poles are given in this case by:
s = n n 2 1
s = n = n
Hence
1
n 2
1
X(s) = . 2
.
k s + 2n s + n 2 s
1
n 2
1
1
n 2
1
= . 2
. (for = 1) = .
.
2
k s + 2n s + n s
k (s + n )2 s
After partial fraction expansion and inverse Laplace transforms, the
response is found to be :
x(t) = xss + Aen t + Bten t
(Why? 1 {

1
(+)2

} = )

Frequency Response of Linear Time Invariant Systems

Complex Numbers: Recall that every complex number has a magnitude
and a phase.

Example: z = a + bj,

j = 1

a is called the real part of z, a = Re(z)

b is called the imaginary part of z, b = Im(z)
Magnitude of z: |z| = (a2 + b 2 ) = Re(z)2 + Im(z)2
b

Im(z)

Phase of z: z = tan 1 ( ) = tan 1 (

)
a
Re(z)
Both the magnitude and phase of a complex number are real.

What is the steady state response of any LTI system for a sinusoidal input
of frequency ?
Assume that the system is stable : All its poles have negative real parts.
For example:

ME 3281 Spring 2013, University of Minnesota

1
F(s)
ms 2 + bs + k

(sinusoid)
If F(s) = 2
s + 2
1

Then X(s) =
.
ms 2 + bs + k s 2 + 2
X(s) =

After partial fraction expansion, and inverse Laplace transforms, we will

find:
x(t) = Aent sind t + Ben t cosd t + Csint