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TransformSolutions

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April 2, 2013

Given F(s), how can we find lim f(t)

t

lim f(t) = lim sF(s)

s0

1). F(s) should have no poles in the right half of the complex plane( Real

part should not be +v).

2). F(s) should have no poles on the imaginary axis, except at most one

pole at s=0.

Examples:

A

s

s0

b) F(s) =

A

s2

A

Note: 1 *()+ = 1 { 2} = .

s

Final value is not defined.

s0

A

=A

s

c) F(s) =

s2 +2

s.

=0

s0 s 2 + 2

limF(s) = lim

s0

1 *()+ = t

The poles are s 2 + 2 = 0, s 2 = 2 , s = j

Real part=0

Hence the FVT cannot be applied.

d)

F(s) =

s

s 2 + 2

s 2 + 2s + 4

F(s) = 3

s + 3s 2 + 2s

IVT: Can it be applied? YES

2 4

1+ + 2

s 3 + 2s 2 + 4s

s s

f(0+ ) = lim sF(s) = lim 3

= lim

=1

2

3 2

s

s s + 3s + 2s

s

1+ + 2

s s

FVT: Can it be applied?

Poles are obtained from:

s 3 + 3s 2 + 2s = 0

or s(s 2 + 3s + 2) = 0

or s(s + 2)(s + 1) = 0

Note: A second order polynomial with positive coefficients always has

roots with ve real parts.

e.g. ms 2 + bs + k = 0 the poles are always stable.

A higher order polynomial (3rd order or higher) need not be stable if all

coefficients are positive.

However, even if one coefficient is ve, the system will be unstable.

(will have at least one pole with +ve real part)

The FVT is applicable in this example.

s 3 + 2s 2 + 4s

s 2 + 2s + 4 4

lim f(t) = lim sF(s) = lim 3

= lim 2

= =2

t

s0

s0 s + 3s 2 + 2s

s s + 3s + 2

2

Example:

5s 2 + 8s 5

F(s) = 2 2

s (s + 2s + 5)

Find f(t), feature: Repeated pole at s=0.

F(s) =

As + B

Cs + D

+

s2

s 2 + 2s + 5

A = 1, B = 2, C = 2, D = 2

Hence

F(s) =

s + 2

2s 2

1 2

2(s 1)

s2

s 2 + 2s + 5

s s 2 (s + 1)2 + 4

1 2 2(s + 1 2)

= + 2

s s

(s + 1)2 + 4

1 2

2(s + 1)

4

= + 2

+

s s

(s + 1)2 + 22 (s + 1)2 + 22

1 2

2(s + 1)

2

= + 2

+

2.

s s

(s + 1)2 + 22

(s + 1)2 + 22

f(t) = 1 + 2t 2et cos2t + 2et sin2t

same order.

2s 2 + 7s + 8 2(s 2 + 3s + 2) + s + 4

F(s) = 2

=

s + 3s + 2

s 2 + 3s + 2

2(s 2 + 3s + 2)

s+4

s+4

= 2

+ 2

=2+

(s + 2)(s + 1)

s + 3s + 2

s + 3s + 2

=2+

A

B

2

3

+

=2

+

s+2 s+1

s+2 s+1

+ + = ()

In the Laplace domain,

( 2 () (0) (0)) + *() (0)+ + () = ()

(ms 2 + bs + k)X(s) = F(s) + (ms + b)x(0) = m (0)

X(s) =

1

F(s)

+

ms 2 + bs + k

ms 2 + bs + k

1

Zero state reponse

ms 2 + bs + k

(ms + b)x0 + mv0

Zero input response

ms 2 + bs + k

For a stable system, the zero input response 0 as t .

The zero-state response need not converge to zero as t .

It will have some terms that converge to zero and some terms that do not

converge to zero.

For example: if F(s) =

F0

s

lim f(t) =

F0

( does not converge to zero)

k

The terms that do not converge to zero constitute the steady state

response of the system, and all the terms that converge to zero constitute

If the force is a sinusoid, the steady state response will be a sinusoid.

If the force is some others bounded periodic function, the steady state

response will be a bounded periodic function.

1

ms2 +bs+k

n 2

s 2 + 2n s + n 2

April 4, 2013

Continuing with the previous m, k, b system.

If the initial conditions are zero,

X(s) =

ms 2

1

F(s)

+ bs + k

1). Divide numerator and denominator by m,

1

m

X(s) =

F(s)

b

k

2

s + s+

m

m

Coefficient of s 2 in the denominator is now 1.

2). Need to make the constant terms in the numerator and denominator

equal

k

1

m

X(s) =

F(s)

k s2 + b s + k

m

m

Compare with

n 2

s 2 + 2n s + n 2

We get

k

b

= n 2 , 2n =

m

m

n : Undamped natural frequency of the system

=

1 b

=

2n m

b

b

=

k m 2km

2

m

If > 1, the system id said to be over-damped. It has no overshoot and

no oscillations.

If < 1, the system id said to be under-damped. It has oscillatory

behavior and it has overshoot.

To see why, note that the characteristic equation is:

s 2 + 2n s + n 2 = 0

2

s 2 + 2n s + n 2 2 2 n + n 2 = 0

2

(s + n )2 2 n + n 2 = 0

(s + n )2 = n 2 (2 1)

If < 1, then:

(s + n ) = jn 1 2 , j = 1

s = n jn 1 2

Since

1

n 2

X(s) = . 2

F(s)

k s + 2n s + n 2

1

s

1

n 2

1

X(s) = . 2

.

k s + 2n s + n 2 s

After partial fraction expansion, the response will be of the type:

x(t) = xss + Aen t sind t + Ben t cosd t

(Likely xss =

F

k

where d = n 1 2

system is oscillatory.

The charact eqn gives:

(s + n )2 = n 2 (2 1)

Hence the poles are:

s = n n 2 (2 1)

s = n n 2 1

Hence the response to

1

n 2

1

X(s) = . 2

.

k s + 2n s + n 2 s

is given by:

x(t) = xss + Ae(nn

2 1)t

+ Be(n n

2 1)t

What about = 1?

The value of = 1 is called critical damping. It is the transition point

between no oscillations and oscillations.

The poles are given in this case by:

s = n n 2 1

s = n = n

Hence

1

n 2

1

X(s) = . 2

.

k s + 2n s + n 2 s

1

n 2

1

1

n 2

1

= . 2

. (for = 1) = .

.

2

k s + 2n s + n s

k (s + n )2 s

After partial fraction expansion and inverse Laplace transforms, the

response is found to be :

x(t) = xss + Aen t + Bten t

(Why? 1 {

1

(+)2

} = )

Complex Numbers: Recall that every complex number has a magnitude

and a phase.

Example: z = a + bj,

j = 1

b is called the imaginary part of z, b = Im(z)

Magnitude of z: |z| = (a2 + b 2 ) = Re(z)2 + Im(z)2

b

Im(z)

)

a

Re(z)

Both the magnitude and phase of a complex number are real.

What is the steady state response of any LTI system for a sinusoidal input

of frequency ?

Assume that the system is stable : All its poles have negative real parts.

For example:

1

F(s)

ms 2 + bs + k

(sinusoid)

If F(s) = 2

s + 2

1

Then X(s) =

.

ms 2 + bs + k s 2 + 2

X(s) =

find:

x(t) = Aent sind t + Ben t cosd t + Csint

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