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MARKETING

MANAGEMENT
CONSUMER
BUYER
BEHAVIOUR

SESSION
EIGHT

Session Objectives
Understanding the consumer decision making
process.
Appreciate how those processes differ between
different buying situations.
Understand the influences that affect decisionmaking.
Appreciate the implications of those processes
and influences for marketing strategies.

The Consumer Buying Decision-Making Process

The Consumer Buying Decision-Making Process


Problem Recognition

Information search

Information evaluation

Decision
Post-Purchase Evaluation

The Consumer Buying Decision-Making Process


Problem Recognition

Consumers can identify or recognise a problem


independently from the marketer and look for a solution.
Marketers can use the marketing mix to bring a problem
to consumers attention.
Problem recognition requires the willingness and the ability
to fulfil the emerging need.

The Consumer Buying Decision-Making Process


Information Search
On-going
Search

Purposeful
Search

What kind of purchase will address problem?


How can the product be obtained?
What information is needed?

The Consumer Buying Decision-Making Process


Information Evaluation

Involves a process of narrowing down a wide list of


potential options to an evoked set, typically by constructing
performance criteria with which to judge choices.

The Consumer Buying Decision-Making Process


Decision

Choose the cheapest ?


Choose the most expensive ?
Select the brand used before ?
Other ?

The Consumer Buying Decision-Making Process


Post Purchase Evaluation

Affects likelihood of repeat purchase


May evoke cognitive dissonance

The Consumer Buying Decision-Making Process


Post Purchase Evaluation
Marketers can help reduce cognitive
dissonance by:
Ensuring that customers needs and wants have been
carefully researched.
Tailoring the marketing mix to suit the audience.
Painting a realistic picture of the product/service
in all advertising literature.

The Consumer Buying Decision-Making Process

Im hungry

Problem recognition

Whats available?

Information search

Cakes or chocolate?

Information evaluation

Snickers!

Decision

I shouldve had salad

Post-purchase evaluation

Types of Consumer Purchase Situations


Routine Response Behaviour
Limited Decision-Making
Extensive Decision-Making
Impulse Buying

Types of Consumer Purchase Situations


Routine Response Behaviour
Low risk, low price

Types of Consumer Purchase Situations


Limited Decision Making
Moderate price, moderate risk
Relatively infrequent purchase

Types of Consumer Purchase Situations


Extensive Decision Making
High cost, high risk
Infrequent purchase

Types of Consumer Purchase Situations


Impulse Purchases
Unplanned purchases

The Consumer Buying Decision-Making Process


Situational (Environmental) Influences

Sociocultural
Regulatory

Technological

Political

Economic
Competitive

The Consumer Buying Decision-Making Process


Individual Influences

Personality
Perception
Motivation
Attitude

The Consumer Buying Decision-Making Process


Individual Influences: Personality

Introvert
Extravert

The Consumer Buying Decision-Making Process


Individual Influences: Perception

Selective attention
Selective perception
Selective retention

The Consumer Buying Decision-Making Process


Individual Influences: Motivation

Fulfilment
Success
Membership
Security
Sex

Self-actualisation
Esteem
Belongingness
Safety
Physiological

Potential
Status
Affection
Protection
Hunger

The Consumer Buying Decision-Making Process


Individual Influences: Attitude

Cognitive
Affective
Conative

The Consumer Buying Decision-Making Process


Group Influences

Social class

Reference groups

Culture

Family

Sub-culture

The Consumer Buying Decision-Making Process


Group Influences: Influences on Culture

Individual

Institutions
Culture

Societal
environment

The Consumer Buying Decision-Making Process


Group Influences: Reference Groups

Membership
Aspirant

The Consumer Buying Decision-Making Process


Group Influences: Family Life Cycle

The Consumer Buying Decision-Making Process


Group Influences: Family as Decision Making Unit

Initiator
Influencer

User
Purchasing
Decision

Purchaser

Decider

Session 8: Key Terms

 _____ refer to the stance that individuals take on a


subject that predisposes them to act and react in certain
ways.
 If one has _____ of a product, it means that he or she is
conscious that the product exists.

Session 8: Key Terms

 The state of psychological discomfort that arises when a


consumer tries to reconcile two conflicting states of
mind is known as _____.
 _____ is the process that consumers go through in
deciding what to purchase.

Session 8: Key Terms

 What term refers to the personality of the society in


which an individual lives, manifest in terms of the built
environment, literature, the arts, beliefs and value
systems?

 The shortlist of potential products that the consumer has


to choose from when making a purchase decision is
known as the _____.

Session 8: Key Terms

 What type of problem solving is involved with the


purchasing situation requires a great deal of time and
conscious information searching and analysis?
 The model that represents the way in which a family's
structure changes naturally over time is known as the
_____.

Session 8: Key Terms

 When consumers have so much information available


that they cannot assimilate it and/or feel overwhelmed,
they are suffering from _____.
 _____ is the change in behaviour that results from
experience and practice.

Session 8: Key Terms

 What form of problem solving is used for moderately


priced products that are infrequently purchased?
 _____ is the driving force that make people act as they
do.

Session 8: Key Terms

 _____ is the way in which individuals analyse and


interpret incoming information and make sense of it.
 The term,_____, refers to the features, traits, behaviours
and experiences that make each person a unique
individual.

Session 8: Key Terms

 During which stage of the consumer decision-making


process does the consumer reflect upon whether the
product met expectations, exceeded them or was
disappointing?
 During which stage of the consumer decision-making
process does the consumer realise that he or she has a
problem that can be solved through purchasing goods
or services?

Session 8: Key Terms

 The context in which a consumer purchasing decision is


made, defined by the frequency of purchase, the risks
involved, and the level of information searching
undertaken is called the _____.
 _____ are groups to which an individual belongs or
aspires to belong and which affect consumer behaviour.

Session 8: Key Terms

 Firms want consumers to purchase a product on more


than one occasion, known as _____.
 Which type of problem solving is used when selecting
products that are regularly purchased, and low priced?

Session 8: Key Terms

 _____ refers to a form of stratification that structures


and divides a society, often on the basis of income and
occupation, for marketing purposes.
 When a consumer purchases and/or uses a product for
the first time, a _____ has occurred.