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Reg. No.


Assignment no 1

Problem no 1(2.2 b):

Chinese to Japanese Translator

Chinese Prime



German to Japanese

French Prime French to German




Chinese prime minister ask his translator to translate his message

into Japanese and call in Germany where Japanese to German translator convert this message
into German and in France this German message will be converted into French and vice versa.

Problem no 2(2.6 a):

In case of segmentation, it is not necessary that each (N-1) level
header segment contain a copy of N level header because if layer’s functionality is not involved
in communication then its header will also be not included in the segment at (N-1) level.

Reg. No.145

If we are sending the data in the same network then we do not

need internet layer functionality involved in it, we need network access and other layers
involved in it. Therefore, in this case header of internet layer will not be involved in segment.

Problem no 3(2.9):
IP, TCP and UDP discard all the packets that arrive with checksum
error and do not attempt to notify the source because it is not its responsibility. It is the
responsibility of source to identify whether data has arrived with correctness. If data has
arrived with some error then there will be certain mechanism to fix the error from source side
but IP, TCP and UDP will not attempt to notify the source in case some error.

Problem no 4 (2.10):
Because in TCP data header, there is a field “options and
padding” which is an optional field. Header length actually shows the total size of TCP header
which is 20 octets+”options and padding“field but in case of UDP there is no such field and its
size is fixed 8 octets, therefore it does not contain field header length.

Problem no 5:
In transport layer error detection/correction is performed to
check whether the data is in sequence and original which was sent from application layer and at
network layer it is checked whether host and network are those towards which we are sending.
So error detection/correction is performed at both layers.

Problem no.6:
Yes, it is possible if we add more fields add more fields in the
header of UDP e.g. sequence number, acknowledgment number and Urgent pointers etc then
will be reliable but it will not be as quick as original UDP like TCP because of header’s heavy