Techniques of Integration

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Techniques of Integration

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December 2015

Integration by Substitution

If the integral is made up of two terms, one of which is a derivative of another, then

(Integration by Substitution) can be used. For example:

Z

sin(x) cos(x) dx

letu = sin(x)

du = cos(x)dx

Z

1

1

u du = u2 du = sin2 (x)

2

2

tor.

x

x2

Integration by Parts

Z

Z

u dv = uv

2.1

v du

x sin(x)

Z

x sin(x) dx

u=x

du = dx

dv = sin(x) dx

v = cos(x)

1

Z

x sin(x) dx =

u dv

Z

= uv v du

Z

= xcos(x)

cos(x)dx

= xcos(x) + sin(x) + C

2.2

Natural Log

Z

ln(x)dx

u = ln(x)

dv = dx

1

v=x

du = dx

x

Z

Z

ln(x)dx = u dv

Z

= uv v du

Z

1

= ln(x) x x dx

x

= ln(x) x x + C

2.3

Doing it Twice

Z

u = t2

du = 2t dt

Z

t2 et dt

dv = et dx

v = et

2 t

t e dt =

u dv

Z

= uv v du

Z

2 t

= t e 2 et t dt

dv = et dx

v = et

u=t

du = dt

2

2 t

t e 2

2 t

e t dt = t e 2(uv

= t2 et 2(tet

v du)

Z

et dt)

= t2 et 2(tet et ) + C

= t2 et 2tet + 2et + C

2.4

Reduction Formula

Z

sinn (x)dx

u = sinn1 (x)

du = (n 1)sinn2 (x)cos(x) dx

Z

n1

Z

(x) + (n 1)

Z

Z

n

n1

sin (x) = cos(x)sin (x) + (n 1)

Z

n1

= cos(x)sin (x) + (n 1)(

Z

n1

= cos(x)sin (x) + (n 1)

Z

Z

n

n1

n sin (x) = cos(x)sin (x) + (n 1)

Z

Z

n1

1

n1

n

sin (x) = cos(x)sin (x) +

n

n

dv = sin(x)dx

v = cos(x)

sinn2 (x)cos2 (x) dx

Z

n2

sin (x) dx sinn2 (x)sin2 (x) dx)

Z

n2

sin (x) dx (n 1) sinn (x) dx)

sinn2 (x) dx

sinn2 (x) dx

By using substitution, we can solve some integrals that are more complex, for example odd

numbered integrals. However, we need to ensure that the integrand has both sin(x) and

d

cos(x) terms (because of dx

sin(x) = cos(x).)

If we wanted to find:

cos3 (x) dx

Wed need to know the identity sin2 (x) + cos2 (x) = 1 and cos2 (x) = 1 sin2 (x)

Z

cos (x) dx =

Z

=

cos(x)cos2 (x) dx

cos(x)(1 sin2 (x)) dx

u = sin(x)

Z

du = cos(x) dx

(1 u2 ) du

1

= u u3 + C

3

1

= sin(x) sin3 (x) + C

3

If there is an odd power of sin or cos, we can seperate it to convert the remaining even power

and substitute. However, if there are only even powers, we need to use half angle identities

such as:

1

sin2 (x) = (1 cos(2x))

2

1

cos2 (x) = (1 + cos(2x))

2

1

sin(x)cos(x) = sin(2x)

2

If the power of secant is even, save a factor of sec2 (x) and use sec2 (x) = 1 + tan2 (x) to

express the remaining factors in terms of tan(x) with the substitution u = tan(x).

If the power of tangent is odd, save a factor of sec(x)tan(x) and use tan2 (x) = sec2 (x) 1

to express the remaining factors in terms of sec(x) with the substitution u = sec(x).

Also note that:

Z

tan(x) dx = ln|sec(x)| + C

Z

sec(x) dx = ln|sec(x) + tan(x)| + C

3.1

1

sin(A)cos(B) = [sin(A B) + sin(A + B)]

2

1

sin(A)sin(B) = [cos(A B) cos(A + B)]

2

1

cos(A)cos(B) = [cos(A B) + cos(A + B)]

2

4

Trigonometric Substitution

R

Trignometric substitution is primarily used when encoutering the form

a2 x2 where

Pythagoras can be used and applied to a right angle triangle. This technique works because

we substitute x = asin() thus:

p

p

p

Here are general trigonometric substitutions:

Expression

Substitution

Identity

a2 b 2 x 2

x = ab sin()

1 sin2 () = cos2 ()

a2 + b 2 x 2

x = ab tan()

1 + tan2 () = sec2 ()

b 2 x 2 a2

x = ab sec()

tan2 () = sec2 () 1

Ex. 1

Z

9 x2

dx

x2

Let x = 3 sin(). Then dx = 3 cos() d and

p

p

Z

Z

9 x2

3 cos()

dx =

3 cos() d

2

x

9 sin2 ()

Z

cos2 ()

=

d

sin2 ()

Z

= cot2 () d

Z

= (csc2 () 1) d

= cot() + C

Ex. 7

Z

x

dx

3 2x x2

3 2x x2 = 3 (x2 + 2x) = 3 + 1 (x2 + 2x + 1) = 4 (x + 1)2

5

Z

Z

x

u1

dx =

du

3 2x x2

4 u2

Z

Z

2 sin() 1

x

dx =

2 cos() d

2 cos()

3 2x x2

Z

= (2 sin() 1) d

= 2 cos() + C

1 u

2

+C

= 4 u sin

2

x+1

1

2

= 3 2x x sin

+C

2

Substitution with partial fraction is used as a strategy for integrands in the form of:

Z

P (x)

where deg(P (x)) < deg(Q(x))

Q(x)

Factor the denominator as completely as possible and find the partial fraction. For each

factor in the denominator we get term(s) in the decomposition according to the following

table.

Ex.

Z

Solution I:

7x2 + 13x

dx

(x 1)(x2 + 4)

4

3x2

16

+

+ 2

dx

x1 x+4 x +4

3

x

= 4 ln|x 1| + ln(x2 + 4) + 8 tan 1( )

2

2

Z

Solution II:

7x2 + 13x

A

Bx + C

=

+ 2

2

(x 1)(x + 4)

x1

x +4

=

(x 1)(x2 + 4)

7x2 + 13x = (A + B)x2 + (C B)x + 4A C

Set coefficients equal to get a system and solve to get constants.

C B = 13

B=3

A+B =7

A=4

4A C = 0

C = 16

Formulas

d

dx

d

dx

1

1x2

d

dx

d

dx

sin1 (x) =

sinh1 (x) =

1

1+x2

d

dx

1

cos1 (x) = 1x

2

d

dx

sec1 (x) =

d

dx

cosh1 (x) =

d

dx

1

x x2 1

1

x2 1

1

sech1 (x) = x1x

2

d

dx

tan1 (x) =

1

1+x2

d

dx

1

cot1 (x) = 1+x

2

d

dx

tanh1 (x) =

d

dx

1

1x2

1

coth1 (x) = 1x

2

Z

tan(u) du = ln|sec(u)| + C

cot(u) du = ln|sin(u)| + C

Z

sec(u) du = ln|sec(u) + tan(u)| + C

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