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Marathwada Mitra Mandals

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

LABORATORY MANUAL
SUBJECT: POWER PLANT ENGINEERING
[SUBJECT CODE: 402047]

CLASS: B.E. MECHANICAL YEAR: 2015-16


1. Visit to Thermal Power Plant/Co-generation Power plant
2. Visit to HEPP/GTPP/Non-Conventional Power Plant
3. Study of fluidized bed combustor (FBC) system
4. Study of high pressure boilers
5. Trial on Steam power plant
6. Trial on Diesel power plant
7. Study of Power Plant Instruments
8. Study of Nuclear power plants
9. Study of Environmental Impact of Power Plant
10. Assignment on simulated performance of steam power plant with suitable
software
11. Assignment on simulated performance of Diesel power plant with suitable
software
(Expt. No 10 and 11 are optional)

EXPERIMENT NO. :-1


TITLE: Study of fluidized bed combustor
AIM: Study of fluidized bed combustor
THEORY:
INTRODUCTION:
Fluidized bed combustion (FBC) is a combustion technology used in power
plants. Fluidized beds suspend solid fuels on upward-blowing jets of air during the
combustion process. The result is a turbulent mixing of gas and solids. The tumbling
action, much like a bubbling fluid, provides more effective chemical reactions and
heat transfer. FBC plants are more flexible than conventional plants in that they can
be fired on coal and biomass, among other fuels.
FBC reduces the amount of sulfur emitted in the form of SOx emissions.
Limestone is used to precipitate out sulfate during combustion, which also allows
more efficient heat transfer from the boiler to the apparatus used to capture the heat
energy (usually water tubes). The heated precipitate coming in direct contact with the
tubes (heating by conduction) increases the efficiency. Since this allows coal plants to
burn at cooler temperatures, less NOx is also emitted.
BASIC PRINCIPLES: The solid substrate (the catalytic material upon which
chemical species react) material in the fluidized bed reactor is typically supported by
a porous plate, known as a distributor. The fluid is then forced through the distributor
up through the solid material. At lower fluid velocities, the solids remain in place as
the fluid passes through the voids in the material. This is known as a packed bed
reactor. As the fluid velocity is increased, the reactor will reach a stage where the
force of the fluid on the solids is enough to balance the weight of the solid material.
This stage is known as incipient fluidization and occurs at this minimum fluidization
velocity. Once this minimum velocity is surpassed, the contents of the reactor bed
begin to expand and swirl around much like an agitated tank or boiling pot of water.

TYPES OF FBC:
FBC systems fit into essentially two major groups, atmospheric systems (FBC) and
pressurized systems (PFBC), and two minor subgroups, bubbling (BFB) and
circulating fluidized bed (CFB).
PRESSURISED FLUID BED COMBUSTION:
Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) is a variation of fluid bed technology
that is meant for large-scale coal burning applications. In PFBC, the bed vessel is
operated at pressure up to 16 atm (16 kg/cm2).
The off-gas from the fluidized bed combustor drives the gas turbine. The steam
turbine is driven by steam raised in tubes immersed in the fluidized bed. The
condensate from the steam turbine is pre-heated using waste heat from gas turbine
exhaust and is then taken as feed water for steam generation.
The PFBC system can be used for cogeneration or combined cycle power
generation. By combining the gas and steam turbines in this way, electricity is
generated more efficiently than in conventional system. The overall conversion
efficiency is higher by 5% to 8%.

CIRCULATING FLUIDISED BED COMBUSTION (CFBC):


In this CFBC technology utilizes the fluidized bed principle in which crushed (6 12
mm size) fuel and limestone are injected into the furnace or combustor. The particles
are suspended in a stream of upwardly flowing air (60-70% of the total air), which
enters the bottom of the furnace through air distribution nozzles. The fluidising
velocity in circulating beds ranges from 3.7 to 9 m/sec. The balance of combustion air
is admitted above the bottom of the furnace as secondary air. The combustion takes
place at 840-900oC, and the fine particles (<450 microns) are elutriated out of the
furnace with flue gas velocity of 4-6 m/s. The particles are then collected by the solids
separators and circulated back into the furnace. Solid recycle is about 50 to 100 kg per
kg of fuel burnt.

ADVANTAGES OF FLUIDISED BED COMBUSTION BOILERS


1. High Efficiency:
FBC boilers can burn fuel with a combustion efficiency of over 95% irrespective of
ash content. FBC boilers can operate with overall efficiency of 84% (plus or minus
2%).
2. Reduction in Boiler Size:
High heat transfer rate over a small heat transfer area immersed in the bed result in
overall size reduction of the boiler.
3. Fuel Flexibility:
FBC boilers can be operated efficiently with a variety of fuels. Even fuels like
flotation slimes, washer rejects, agro waste can be burnt efficiently. These can be fed
either independently or in combination with coal into the same furnace.
4. Ability to Burn Low Grade Fuel:
FBC boilers would give the rated output even with inferior quality fuel. The boilers
can fire coals with ash content as high as 62% and having calorific value as low as
2,500 kcal/kg. Even carbon content of only 1% by weight can sustain the fluidized
bed combustion.
5. Ability to Burn Fines:
Coal containing fines below 6 mm can be burnt efficiently in FBC boiler, which is
very difficult to achieve in conventional firing system.
6. Pollution Control:
SO2 formation can be greatly minimized by addition of limestone or dolomite for
high sulphur coals. 3% limestone is required for every 1% sulphur in the coal feed.
Low combustion temperature eliminates NOx formation.
7. Low Corrosion and Erosion:
The corrosion and erosion effects are less due to lower combustion temperature,
softness of ash and low particle velocity (of the order of 1 m/sec).
8. Easier Ash Removal No Clinker Formation:
Since the temperature of the furnace is in the range of 750 900o C in FBC boilers,
even coal of low ash fusion temperature can be burnt without clinker formation. Ash
removal is easier as the ash flows like liquid from the combustion chamber. Hence
less manpower is required for ash handling.

9. Less Excess Air Higher CO2 in Flue Gas:


The CO2 in the flue gases will be of the order of 14 15% at full load. Hence, the
FBC boiler can operate at low excess air - only 20 25%.
10. Simple Operation, Quick Start-Up:
High turbulence of the bed facilitates quick start up and shut down. Full automation of
start up and operation using reliable equipment is possible.
11. Fast Response to Load Fluctuations:
Inherent high thermal storage characteristics can easily absorb fluctuation in fuel feed
rates. Response to changing load is comparable to that of oil fired boilers.
12. No Slagging in the Furnace-No Soot Blowing:
In FBC boilers, volatilization of alkali components in ash does not take place and the
ash is non sticky. This means that there is no slagging or soot blowing.
13. Provisions of Automatic Coal and Ash Handling System:
Automatic systems for coal and ash handling can be incorporated, making the plant
easy to operate comparable to oil or gas fired installation.
14. Provision of Automatic Ignition System:
Control systems using micro-processors and automatic ignition equipment give
excellent control with minimum manual supervision.
15. High Reliability:
The absence of moving parts in the combustion zone results in a high degree of
reliability and low maintenance costs.
16. Reduced Maintenance:
Routine overhauls are infrequent and high efficiency is maintained for long periods.
17. Quick Responses to Changing Demand:
A fluidized bed combustor can respond to changing heat demands more easily than
stoker fired systems. This makes it very suitable for applications such as thermal fluid
heaters, which require rapid responses.
18. High Efficiency of Power Generation:
By operating the fluidized bed at elevated pressure, it can be used to generate hot
pressurized gases to power a gas turbine. This can be combined with a conventional
steam turbine to improve the efficiency of electricity generation and give a potential
fuel savings of at least 4%.

EXPERIMENT NO.2
TITLE: Study of power plant instruments
AIM: Study of power plant instruments
THEORY:
In power plants the instruments are used for a number of reasons as to operate the
power plant as efficiently as possible. Instruments provide accurate information for
guidance to safe, continuous and proper plant operation.
CLASSIFICATION OF INSTRUMENTS:
The two general classifications of instruments are:
1. Those employing purely mechanical methods
2. Those employing electro-mechanical methods

The instruments can also be classified as follows:


1. Indicating instruments
2. Recording instruments
3. Indicating and Recording instruments
4. Indicating and integrating instruments
5. Recording, Indicating and integrating instruments
Commonly used instrument in a power plant
1. Pressure gauges
2. Thermometers
3. Liquid level gauges
4. Flow meters
5. Gas analyzers
6. Humidity measuring instrument
7. Impurity measuring instrument
8. Speed measuring instrument
9. Steam calorimeter and fuel calorimeter
10. Electrical instruments

1. PRESSURE GAUGES:
Many techniques have been developed for the measurement of pressure and vacuum.
Instruments used to measure pressure are called pressure gauges or vacuum gauges. A
manometer could also be referring to a pressure measuring instrument, usually limited
to measuring pressures near to atmospheric. The term manometer is often used to
refer specifically to liquid column hydrostatic instruments. A vacuum gauge is used to
measure the pressure in a vacuumwhich is further divided into two subcategories,
high and low vacuum (and sometimes ultra-high vacuum). The applicable pressure
range of many of the techniques used to measure vacuums has an overlap. Hence, by
combining several different types of gauge, it is possible to measure system pressure
continuously from 10 mbar down to 1011 mbar.

2. THERMOMETERS:
Developed during the 16th and 17th centuries, a thermometer is a device that
measures temperature or temperature gradient using a variety of different principles. A
thermometer has two important elements: the temperature sensor (e.g. the bulb on a
mercury thermometer) in which some physical change occurs with temperature, plus
some means of converting this physical change into a numerical value (e.g. the scale
on a mercury thermometer).
3. LIQUID LEVEL MEASUREMENT:
Level sensors detect the level of substances that flow, including liquids, slurries,
granular materials, and powders. Fluids and fluidized solids flow to become

essentially level in their containers (or other physical boundaries) because of gravity
whereas most bulk solids pile at an angle of repose to a peak. The substance to be
measured can be inside a container or can be in its natural form (e.g., a river or a
lake). The level measurement can be either continuous or point values. Continuous
level sensors measure level within a specified range and determine the exact amount
of substance in a certain place, while point-level sensors only indicate whether the
substance is above or below the sensing point. Generally the latter detect levels that
are excessively high or low. There are many physical and application variables that
affect the selection of the optimal level monitoring method for industrial and
commercial processes. The selection criteria include the physical: phase (liquid, solid
or slurry), temperature, pressure or vacuum, chemistry, dielectric constant of medium,
density (specific gravity) of medium, agitation (action), acoustical or electrical noise,
vibration, mechanical shock, tank or bin size and shape. Also important are the
application constraints: price, accuracy, appearance, response rate, ease of calibration
or programming, physical size and mounting of the instrument, monitoring or control
of continuous or discrete (point) levels.
4. FLOW METER:
Flow measurement is the quantification of bulk fluid movement. Flow can be
measured in a variety of ways. Positive-displacement flow meters accumulate a fixed
volume of fluid and then count the number of times the volume is filled to measure
flow. Other flow measurement methods rely on forces produced by the flowing stream
as it overcomes a known constriction, to indirectly calculate flow. Flow may be
measured by measuring the velocity of fluid over a known area.

5. HUMIDITY MEASUREMENT:
Humidity is a term for the amount of water vapor in the air, and can refer to any one
of several measurements of humidity. Formally, humid air is not "moist air" but a
mixture of water vapor and other constituents of air, and humidity is defined in terms
of the water content of this mixture, called the Absolute humidity. In everyday usage,
it commonly refers to relative humidity, expressed as a percent in weather forecasts
and on household humidistats; it is so called because it measures the current absolute
humidity relative to the maximum. Specific humidity is a ratio of the water vapor
content of the mixture to the total air content (on a mass basis). The water vapor
content of the mixture can be measured either as mass per volume or as a partial
pressure, depending on the usage. In meteorology, humidity indicates the likelihood of
precipitation, dew, or fog. High relative humidity reduces the effectiveness of
sweating in cooling the body by reducing the rate of evaporation of moisture from the
skin. This effect is calculated in a heat index table, used during summer weather.
There are various devices used to measure and regulate humidity. A device used to
measure humidity is called a psychrometer or hygrometer. A humidistat is used to
regulate the humidity of a building with a dehumidifier. These can be analogous to a
thermometer and thermostat for temperature control. Humidity is also measured on a
global scale using remotely placed satellites. These satellites are able to detect the
concentration of water in the troposphere at altitudes between 4 and 12 kilometers.
Satellites that can measure water vapor have sensors that are sensitive to infrared
radiation. Water vapor specifically absorbs and re-radiates radiation in this spectral
band. Satellite water vapor imagery plays an important role in monitoring climate
conditions (like the formation of thunderstorms) and in the development of future
weather forecasts.
6. IMPURITY MEASUREMENT:
Impurities are substances inside a confined amount of liquid, gas, or solid, which
differ from the chemical composition of the material or compound. Impurities are
either naturally occurring or added during synthesis of a chemical or commercial
product. During production, impurities may be purposely, accidentally, inevitably, or
incidentally added into the substance. The levels of impurities in a material are
generally defined in relative terms. Standards have been established by various

organizations that attempt to define the permitted levels of various impurities in a


manufactured product. Strictly speaking, then, a material's level of purity can only be
stated as being more or less pure than some other material.

EXPERIMENT NO-3
TITLE:-Trial on steam power plant.
AIM:Trail On Steam Turbine Power Plant To Determine:A] Plant Efficiency, Rankin Efficiency Vs Load.
B] Steam Consumption and Specific Steam Consumption Vs Load.
C] Rate of Energy Input Vs Load
D] Heat Rate and Incremental Heat Rate Vs Load.
BOILER SPECIFICATION:
SPECIFICATION:Rated steam generation=Kg/hr
Working pressure of boiler= bar
Rated fuel consumption= Kg/hr
Time required for steam generation=min
Electricity supply=415 AC,3 PHASE
ELECTRICAL LOAD CONNECTED:
Blower motor= 3 HP
Feed water pump motor=1 HP
Fuel supply pump motor= 0.5 HP
Condensate extraction pump motor=0.5 HP
Soft water feed pump motor=0.5 HP
Pump motor for circulation of cold water into condenser= 3 HP
TURBINE DETAILS:TYPE= impulse turbine
No. of blade=130
No. of nozzle=06
Fuel supply pump motor= 0.5 HP

Impeller diameter=mm [OD], mm[ID]


Blade height= mm
Nozzle dia= mm and mm
Nozzle length= mm
CONDENSER DETAILS:
Shell and tube heat exchanger
Cold water tube=

no.

Hot water tube=

no.

Outer dia. of tubes=

mm

Inner dia. of tubes=

mm

Length of the tube=

cm

DYNAMOMETER:
Eddy current dynamometer
Radius of armature= m
OBSERVATIONS:T1=temp.at the inlet to economizer in

C.

T2=temp.at the OUTLET to economizer in

C.

T3=temp. of flue gases at the inlet to economizer in C.


T4=temp. of flue gases at the outlet to economizer in C.
T5=temp. of steam generated in boiler.
T6=temp. of steam before throttling.
T7=temp. of steam after throttling.
T8=temp. of steam inlet to turbine.
T9=temp. of cold water inlet to condenser .
T10=temp. of cold water outlet to condenser.
T11=temp. of condensate
T12= temp. of steam coming out of turbine
P1=steam pressure inside the boiler

P2=steam pressure before throttling.


P3=steam pressure after throttling.
P4=steam pressure inlet to orifice meter.
P5=steam pressure outlet to orifice meter.
P6=steam pressure inlet to turbine
P7=steam pressure outlet to turbine
C.V= 42000 KJ/KG
Area of fuel tank= 0.5*0.5 m^2
Density of coil=870 kg/m^3
OBSERVATION TABLE:T1

P3

T2

P4

T3

P5

T4

P6

T5

P7

T6

T7

Mw

Ms

T8

T12

Water

Mass

flow

of

rate

fuel

P1

Load

P2

RPM

CALCULATION:

CONCLUSION:-

EXPERIMENT NO:-4

TITLE: study of non-conventional power plant


AIM: study of non-conventional power plant
THEORY:
1. WIND POWER PLANT:
Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form of
energy, such as using wind turbines to make electricity, windmills for
mechanical power, wind pumps for water pumping or drainage, or sails to
propel ships.

2. SOLAR POWER PLANT:


Solar power is the conversion of sunlight into electricity, either
directly using photovoltaic (PV), or indirectly using concentrated solar
power (CSP). Concentrated solar power systems use lenses or mirrors and
tracking systems to focus a large area of sunlight into a small beam.
Photovoltaic convert light into electric current using the photoelectric
effect.

A solar cell, or photovoltaic cell (PV), is a device that converts light


into electric current using the photoelectric effect.
3. TIDAL POWER PLANT:
Tidal power, also called tidal energy, is a form of hydropower that
converts the energy of tides into useful forms of power - mainly
electricity. Although not yet widely used, tidal power has potential for
future electricity generation. Tides are more predictable than wind energy
and solar power. Among sources of renewable energy, tidal power has
traditionally suffered from relatively high cost and limited availability of
sites with sufficiently high tidal ranges or flow velocities, thus
constricting its total availability. However, many recent technological
developments and improvements, both in design (e.g. dynamic tidal
power, tidal lagoons) and turbine technology (e.g. new axial turbines,
cross flow turbines), indicate that the total availability of tidal power may
be much higher than previously assumed, and that economic and
environmental costs may be brought down to competitive levels.
Tidal power is extracted from the Earth's oceanic tides; tidal forces
are periodic variations in gravitational attraction exerted by celestial
bodies. These forces create corresponding motions or currents in the
world's oceans. The magnitude and character of this motion reflects the
changing positions of the Moon and Sun relative to the Earth, the effects
of Earth's rotation, and local geography of the sea floor and coastlines.
Tidal power is the only technology that draws on energy inherent in
the orbital characteristics of the EarthMoon system, and to a lesser
extent in the EarthSun system. Other natural energies exploited by
human technology originate directly or indirectly with the Sun, including

fossil fuel, conventional hydroelectric, wind, biofuel, wave and solar


energy. Nuclear energy makes use of Earth's mineral deposits of
fissionable elements, while geothermal power taps the Earth's internal
heat, which comes from a combination of residual heat from planetary
accretion (about 20%) and heat produced through radioactive decay
(80%).
A tidal generator converts the energy of tidal flows into electricity.
Greater tidal variation and higher tidal current velocities can
dramatically increase the potential of a site for tidal electricity generation

4. GEOTHERMAL POWER PLANT:


Geothermal energy is thermal energy generated and stored in the
Earth. Thermal energy is the energy that determines the temperature of
matter. Earth's geothermal energy originates from the original formation
of the planet (20%) and from radioactive decay of minerals (80%). The
geothermal gradient, which is the difference in temperature between the
core of the planet and its surface, drives a continuous conduction of
thermal energy in the form of heat from the core to the surface.
The heat that is used for geothermal energy can be stored deep
within the Earth, all the way down to Earths core 4,000 miles down. At
the core, temperatures may reach over 9,000 degrees Fahrenheit. Heat
conducts from the core to surrounding rock. Extremely high temperature

and pressure cause some rock to melt, which is commonly known as


magma. Magma convects upward since it is lighter than the solid rock.
This magma then heats rock and water in the crust, sometimes up
to 700 degrees Fahrenheit From hot springs, geothermal energy has been
used for bathing since Paleolithic times and for space heating since
ancient Roman times, but it is now better known for electricity
generation. Worldwide, about 10,715 megawatts (MW) of geothermal
power is online in 24 countries. An additional 28 Gigawatts of direct
geothermal heating capacity is installed for district heating, space
heating, spas, industrial processes, desalination and agricultural
applications. Geothermal power is cost effective, reliable, sustainable,
and environmentally friendly, but has historically been limited to areas
near tectonic plate boundaries. Recent technological advances have
dramatically expanded the range and size of viable resources, especially
for applications such as home heating, opening a potential for widespread
exploitation. Geothermal wells release greenhouse gases trapped deep
within the earth, but these emissions are much lower per energy unit
than those of fossil fuels. As a result, geothermal power has the potential
to help mitigate global warming if widely deployed in place of fossil fuels

5. BIOGAS PLANT:
Biogas typically refers to a gas produced by the biological
breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. Organic waste
such as dead plant and animal material, animal dung, and kitchen waste
can be converted into a gaseous fuel called biogas. Biogas originates from
biogenic material and is a type of biofuel.

Biogas is produced by the anaerobic digestion or fermentation of


biodegradable materials such as biomass, manure, sewage, municipal
waste, green waste, plant material, and crops. Biogas comprises
primarily methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) and may have small
amounts of hydrogen sulphide (H2S), moisture and siloxanes. The gases
methane, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide (CO) can be combusted or
oxidized with oxygen. This energy release allows biogas to be used as a
fuel. Biogas can be used as a fuel in any country for any heating
purpose, such as cooking. It can also be used in anaerobic digesters
where it is typically used in a gas engine to convert the energy in the gas
into electricity and heat. Biogas can be compressed, much like natural
gas, and used to power motor vehicles. In the UK, for example, biogas is
estimated to have the potential to replace around 17% of vehicle fuel.
Biogas is a renewable fuel, so it qualifies for renewable energy
subsidies in some parts of the world. Biogas can also be cleaned and
upgraded to natural gas standards when it becomes bio methane.

EXPERIMENT NO:5
TITLE: study of environmental impact of power plant.
AIM: study of environmental impact of power plant.
THEORY:GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
CLIMATE CHANGE:
The greenhouse effect means the absorption of some of the heat
radiated from the Earths surface by so-called greenhouse gases (water
vapor, CO2 and other compounds in the lower atmosphere). If the levels
of, e.g., CO2 in the atmosphere progressively increase as a result of
human activity, it is thought that this will eventually increase the natural
greenhouse effect and result in a rise of temperature in the lower
atmosphere leading to wide-spread climate change.
OZONE LAYER DEPLETION:
Ozone layer depletion is the destruction of the stratospheric ozone
layer that shields the earth from ultraviolet radiation that is harmful to
life. This destruction of ozone is mainly caused by the breakdown of
certain chlorinated, brominates or other halogenated hydrocarbons.
These compounds break down when they reach the stratosphere and
then catalytically destroy ozone molecules.
LOCAL AND REGIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
ACIDIFICATION:
The environment can either be acidified by direct emissions of
acids to aquatic or terrestrial systems or through complex chemical
reactions. Such reactions occur when emissions of sulphur and nitrogen
compounds and other substances are transformed in the atmosphere,
often far from the original sources, and then deposited on earth in either
wet or dry form. The wet forms, popularly called acid rain, can fall as
rain, snow, or fog. The dry forms are acidic gases or particles.
Acidification is linked to adverse effects on aquatic ecosystems and
terrestrial plant life, especially in areas with poor neutralizing (buffering)
capacity. Acids can also leach out poisonous trace metals from the rock
matrix in the soil, thus causing damage to flora, fauna and humans. The
effects are very site-specific. Here an approach, in which the effect is

defined as the amount of protons (H+) released in a terrestrial system in


SO2-equivalents, is used.
EUTROPHICATION:
There are two main issues of eutrophication. The first is the
adverse effect from a decline in dissolved oxygen levels in the aquatic
environment. This can happen either when the introduction of a limiting
nutrient (generally P or N) leads to increased growth of algae (sometimes
leading to blooms of toxic species) and thus to more biomass, or when
more biomass is introduced directly. The decay of this biomass may lead
to a decrease in oxygen levels. The second issue of eutrophication is the
fertilization of terrestrial plants, due to the introduction of nitrogen
species (NOX, NH3 or NH4) (International Organization for
Standardization, 1998).
PHOTOCHEMICAL OXIDANT FORMATION :
Photochemical smog affects human health, as well as plants and
animals. Its production is the result of a highly complex combustion or
mineralization reaction of organic materials in the atmosphere (volatile
organic compounds, VOCs). The reaction occurs when the organic
molecules are combined with NOX. The active component is ozone, a byproduct of the above reaction (International Organization for
Standardization, 1998).
ECOTOXIC IMPACT :
In this sub-category all (e.g., carcinogenic, pathogenic) substances
that can have a toxic effect on the environment, i.e. flora, fauna or
humans, are aggregated.
Eco toxicity is aggregated in three classes:
1. Toxically contaminated soil
2. Toxically contaminated water
3. Radioactivity

EXPERIMENT NO: 6
TITLE: Trial on diesel power plant
AIM:-

To prepare variable speed performances test on a four-Stroke,


four- Cylinder Diesel Engine and prepare the curves:
(i) BP, BSFC, BMEP, Torque Vs Speed and
(ii) Volumetric Efficiency & A/F Ratio Vs Speed.
APPARATUS USED:Four-Stroke, four-Cylinder Diesel Engine Test Rig, Stop Watch, and
Digital Tachometer.
THEORY:In the diesel engine, air is compressed adiabatically with a
compression ratio typically between 15 and 20. This compression raises
the temperature to the ignition temperature of the fuel mixture which is
formed by injecting fuel once the air is compressed.
Diesel fuel is used in C.I engines which is less volatile than gasoline, and
will only ignite under severe pressure and/or very high temperatures.
That makes diesel fuel safer to handle, and reduces the chance of a fire
or explosion should the fuel tank rupture in a crash.
Diesels produce large amounts of torque (pulling power) at low engine
speeds; a small four-cylinder diesel can easily produce as much torque as
a larger six-cylinder gasoline engine. This strong mid-range torque gives
diesel cars excellent passing power. Horsepower ratings for diesels tend to
be lower, because horsepower is a function of speed and diesels tend to
have a lower redline (maximum operating speed) than gasoline engines.
FORMULE USED:(i) Torque,
T = 9.81 x W x R N-m.
; Where R= (D + d)/2 or (D + t)/2 m, and
W (Load) = ( S1- S2) Kg,
(ii) Brake Power,
B P = (2N T) / 60, 000 KW
; Where N = rpm, T= Torque N-m,

(iii) Indicated Power,


IP = n (Pm Lstroke A N ) / 60,000 KW
; Pm = Mean effective pressure N/m2
Lstroke = stroke m, A( cross section of the cylinder) = D2/4 m2
N = N/2 (four stroke)
(iv) Fuel Consumption,
mf = ( 50 ml x 10-6 x fuel) / ( t ) kg/s
Here; 1 ml = 10-3 liters, and 1000 liters = 1 m3
So 1 ml = 10-6 m3

(V) Brake Mean Effective Pressure,


BMEP = ( BP x 60,000)/ Lstroke x A x N N/m2
Lstroke = stroke m, A( cross section of the cylinder) = D2/4 m2
N = N/2 (four stroke)
(vi) Brake Specific Fuel Consumption,
BSFC = ( mf x 3600 ) / B P Kg/ KW . hr
(vii) Indicated Specific Fuel Consumption,
ISFC = ( mf x 3600 ) / I P Kg/ KW .hr
(viii) Indicated Thermal Efficiency,
= ( I P x 100 ) / (mf x C.V. ) %
(ix) Brake Thermal Efficiency,
= ( B P x 100 ) / (mf x C.V. ) %
(X) Mass of the air, mair = Cd x Ao g h air water kg/s
Where Cd (coefficient of discharge) = , air = (pa x 102 )/ (R x Ta ) kg/m3,
Ao (area of orifice) = ( do2)/4 m2, P1 = 1.10325 bar , R = 0.287 KJ/Kg.K,
Ta = ( ta + 273 ) K, ta = Ambient temperature oC

(XI) Air fuel ratio, A/F = (mair / mfuel ) Kg/Kg of fuel


(XII) Volumetric efficiency, = (Vair x 100 )/ Vs %
; where Vair ( volume of air inhaled/sec) = ( mair/ air ) m3/sec.
Vs (swept volume /sec) = n. (Lstroke A N) /60 m3/sec

(XIII) Mechanical efficiency , BP/IP


PROCEDURE:1. Before starting the engine check the fuel supply, lubrication oil.
2. Set the dynamometer to zero load.
3. Run the engine till it attains the working temperature and steady state
condition.
4. Adjust the dynamometer load to obtain the desired engine speed. Note
down the fuel consumption rate.
5. Adjust the dynamometer to the new value of the desired speed. Note
and record the data as in step 4
6. Repeat the experiment for various speeds up to the rated speed of the
engine.
7. Do the necessary calculations.
OBSERVATIONS:No. of Cylinders, n =
Brake Drum Diameter, D =
Rope Diameter, d =
Bore, Dbore =
Stroke, Lstroke =
Engine Displacement, Vswept =
Engine Horse Power, BHP =
Density of fuel (Petrol), fuel =
Density of Manometer fluid, water =
Orifice Diameter, do =
Co-efficient of Discharge, Cd =
Ambient Temperature, ta =
Atmospheric Pressure, Pa = 1.01325 Bar
Calorific value of fuel =

OBSERVATION TABLE:
Fuel
Sr.
no

Speed RPM

Load KG

consumption

Manometer

time for 30 ml

reading

CALCULATION :

CONCLUSION:
Performance curves are plotted and they are similar to the standard
performance Curves.