You are on page 1of 92

# RECAP

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

Assumptions:
There are many molecules moving in random
directions at a variety of speeds.
The molecules are, on average, far apart from
each other. Their separation >> their diameter.
Molecules obey classical mechanics laws
regarding collisions, energy etc. And they
interact only through collision, not through
attractive forces (PE).
Collisions with other molecules or the container
wall are perfectly elastic. Time of collision <<
time between collisions.

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

Equations:
pV

= nRT
pV = nkT
PV/T = const.
Boyles Law (V, P), Charles Law (V, T), GayLussacs Law (P, T).
KE = 3/2 kT = mv2
Vrms = 3kT/m

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

Linear

Expansion:
Volume Expansion:
Youre

## having trouble opening a glass jar,

how can you make it easier?

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

Linear

Expansion:
Volume Expansion:
Youre

## having trouble opening a glass jar,

how can you make it easier?

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

AP Physics B

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

Density,

pressure, volume

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

Two

## systems are said to be in thermal

equilibrium if there is no net flow of heat
between them when they are brought into
thermal contact.

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

Two

## systems individually in thermal

equilibrium with a third system are in
thermal equilibrium with each other.

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

Change

## in internal energy of a system is

equal to the heat transferred to/from the
system plus the work done on/by the system:
U = Q + W

Comes

energy.

Sign

## convention: heat energy Q/W is positive

when the system gains heat and negative
when the system loses heat.

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

## Suppose you had a piston filled

with a specific amount of gas.
As you add heat, the
temperature rises and thus
the volume of the gas
expands. The gas then applies
a force on the piston wall
pushing it a specific
displacement. Thus it can be
said that a gas can do WORK.

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

a)

Jogging along the beach one day you do 4.3 x 105 J of work and
give off 3.8 x 105 J of heat. What is the change in your internal
energy?

b)

Switching over to walking, you give off 1.2 x 105 J of heat and
your internal energy decreases by 2.6 x 105 J. How much work
have you done while walking?

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

## Sketch a PV diagram and find

the work done by the gas
during the following stages.
(a)

## A gas is expanded from a

volume of 1.0 L to 3.0 L at
a constant pressure of 3.0
atm.

(b)

## The gas is then cooled at a

constant volume until the
pressure falls to 2.0 atm

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

c)

## The gas is then

compressed at a constant
pressure of 2.0 atm from
a volume of 3.0 L to 1.0
L.

d)

## The gas is then heated

until its pressure
increases from 2.0 atm to
3.0 atm at a constant
volume.

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

## What is the NET WORK?

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

Internal

## Energy is a function of state it

depends only on the state of a system, not
on the method by which the system arrives
at a given state

Quasi-static

## a process that occurs slowly

enough that a uniform pressure and
temperature exist throughout all regions of
the system at all times. There is no friction
nor dissipative

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

## To keep the temperature

constant both the
pressure and volume
change to compensate.
(Volume goes up,
pressure goes down)
BOYLES LAW

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

## Heat is added to the gas

which increases the
Internal Energy (U) Work
is done by the gas as it
changes in volume.
The path of an isobaric
process is a horizontal
line called an isobar.
U = Q - W can be used
since the WORK is
NEGATIVE in this case

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

In other words, NO
HEAT can leave or
enter the system.

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

Example

## A gas expands from an initial volume of 0.40 m3 to a final

volume of 0.62 m3 as the pressure increases linearly from 110
kPa to 230 kPa. Find the work done by the gas.

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

Heat

## will only flow spontaneously from a

body of higher temperature to a body of
lower temperature.

For

## the reverse to happen, work must be

done.

Example?

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

Disorder

## in the universe can only increase.

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

## Heat flows from a

HOT reservoir to a
COLD reservoir

## QH = remove from, absorbs = hot

QC= exhausts to, expels = cold

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

## In order to determine the

thermal efficiency of
an engine you have to
look at how much
ENERGY you get OUT vs
how much you energy
you take IN.
Eff. = Wout = 1 - Qout
Qin
Qin

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

## A heat engine with an efficiency of 24.0% performs 1250 J of

work. Find (a) the heat absorbed from the hot reservoir, and
(b) the heat given off to the cold reservoir.

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

## Sometimes it is useful to express the

energy usage of an engine as a
RATE.
For example:
The RATE at which heat is absorbed!
The RATE at which heat is expelled.
The RATE at which WORK is DONE

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

QH
t
QC
t
W
POWER
t

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

## Our goal is to figure out just how

efficient such a heat engine can
be: whats the most work we can
possibly get for a given amount of
fuel?

## The efficiency question was first posedand solvedby Sadi

Carnot in 1820, not long after steam engines had become
efficient enough to begin replacing water wheels, at that time the
main power sources for industry. Not surprisingly, perhaps,
Carnot visualized the heat engine as a kind of water wheel in
which heat (the fluid) dropped from a high temperature to a
low temperature, losing potential energy which the engine
turned into work done, just like a water wheel.

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

## Carnot a believed that there was an

absolute zero of temperature, from
which he figured out that on being
cooled to absolute zero, the fluid would
give up all its heat energy. Therefore,
if it falls only half way to absolute zero
from its beginning temperature, it will
give up half its heat, and an engine
taking in heat at T and shedding it at
T will be utilizing half the possible
heat, and be 50% efficient. Picture a
water wheel that takes in water at the
top of a waterfall, but lets it out
halfway down. So, the efficiency of an
ideal engine operating between two
temperatures will be equal to the
fraction of the temperature drop
towards absolute zero that the heat
undergoes.

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

Carnot Eff. = TH TC
TH

Carnot temperatures
must be expressed
in KELVIN!!!!!!

## The Carnot model has 4 parts

An Isothermal Expansion
An Isothermal Compression
The PV diagram in a way shows us that the ratio of the heats are
symbolic to the ratio of the 2 temperatures

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

## If the heat engine from the example before is operating at a

maximum efficiency, and its cold reservoir is at a
temperature of 295 K, what is the temperature of the hot
reservoir?

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

## A particular engine has a power output of 5000 W and

an efficiency of 25%. If the engine expels 8000 J of
heat in each cycle, find (a) the heat absorbed in each
cycle and (b) the time for each cycle

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

## The efficiency of a Carnot engine is 30%. The engine absorbs

800 J of heat per cycle from a hot temperature reservoir at
500 K. Determine (a) the heat expelled per cycle and (b) the
temperature of the cold reservoir

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

C
The relationship for a Carnot engine,
C can be
rearranged to
Q H TH

QC QH

TC
TH

Q
S
T R

## The temperature, again, must be in Kelvins, the subscript R refers

to reversible process.
Units for entropy = J/K
Entropy is a function of state (like internal energy) only the state
of the system determines the entropy

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

## Calculate the change in entropy when a 0.125 kg chunk of

ice melt at 0C. Assume the melting occurs reversibly.

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

## The entropy of a Carnot Engine:

as the engine operates, the entropy of the hot reservoir
decreases, since heat QH leaves. the change in the entropy of
the hot reservoir is

QH
S H
TH

QC
S C
TC

QC QH
QC Q H
(equals
zero
because
)

S C S H

0
TC TH
TC
TH

## Thus, S = 0 for a Carnot Engine. This is also true for any

reversible process: the total entropy of the universe does not
change

Reversible processes do not change the total entropy of the universe. (The
entropy of one part of the universe may change, but if so, the entropy of
another part must change in the opposite way by the same amount.)
Irreversible processes increase the entropy of the universe. S > 0

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

## A hot reservoir at the temperature 576 K transfers 1050 J of

heat irreversibly to a cold reservoir at the temperature 305
K. Find the change in entropy of the universe.

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

## The Second Law of Thermodynamics in terms of

Entropy:
The total entropy of the universe does not change when a
reversible process occurs and increases when an
irreversible process occurs.

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

AP Physics B

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

## By definition, a fluid is a substance that has no fixed

shape and yields easily to external pressure.

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

## Typically, liquids are considered to be incompressible.

That is once you place a liquid in a sealed container you
can DO WORK on the FLUID as if it were an object. The
PRESSURE you apply is transmitted throughout the
liquid and over the entire length of the fluid itself.

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

## Can exert pressure in any direction.

Pressure always acts perpendicular to the surface.

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

## Pat is a direct result of

the weight of the air
above us.

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

## Suppose a Fluid (such as a liquid) is at REST, we call this

HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE.

Notice that the arrows on TOP of the objects are smaller than at the
BOTTOM. This is because pressure is greatly affected by the DEPTH of
the object. Since the bottom of each object is deeper than the top the
pressure is greater at the bottom.

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

## Suppose we had an object

submerged in water with the
top part touching the
atmosphere. If we were to
draw an FBD for this object
we would have three forces

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

## Note: The initial

pressure in this
case is atmospheric
pressure, which is a
CONSTANT.
Po=1x105 N/m2

FINAL EQUATION:

DP = rgh

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

## a) Calculate the absolute pressure at an ocean

depth of 1000 m. Assume that the density of
water is 1000 kg/m3 and that Po= 1.01 x 105 Pa
(N/m2).
b) Calculate the total force exerted on the outside
of a 30.0 cm diameter circular submarine window
at this depth.

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

Therefore: PA = PB = PC = PD
(because they all have the same depth)
Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

Mercury

Barometer:
measures
atmospheric
pressure

Open

Tube
Manometer:
measures pressure
in a container

Po = 0
P = Patm
Patm = 0 + gh
Patm = gh

P = Patm + gh
Example: blood pressure cuff

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

## If you take a liquid and place it in a

system that is CLOSED like plumbing
for example or a cars brake line, the
PRESSURE is the same everywhere.
Since this is true, if you apply a force at
one part of the system the pressure is
the same at the other end of the
system. The force, on the other hand
MAY or MAY NOT equal the initial force
applied. It depends on the AREA.
You can take advantage of the fact that
the pressure is the same in a closed
system as it has MANY applications.
The idea behind this is called PASCALS
PRINCIPLE

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

## To inspect a 14,000 N car, it is raised with a hydraulic lift. If

the radius of the small piston is 4.0 cm, and the radius of
the large piston is 17cm, find the force that must be
exerted on the small piston to lift the car.

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

## When an object is immersed in a fluid, such as a liquid, it is buoyed

upwards by a force called the buoyant force.

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

## " An object is buoyed up by a force equal to the

weight of the fluid displaced."
In the figure, we see
that the difference
between the weight
in AIR and the weight
in WATER is 3 lbs.
This is the buoyant
force that acts
upward to cancel out
part of the force. If
you were to weight
the water displaced it
also would weigh 3
lbs.

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

*V = A(h2 h1)

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

A bargain hunter purchases a "gold" crown at a flea market. After she gets
home, she hangs it from a scale and finds its weight in air to be 7.84 N.
She then weighs the crown while it is immersed in water (density of
water is 1000 kg/m3) and now the scale reads 6.86 N. Is the crown made
of pure gold if the density of gold is 19.3 x 103 kg/m3?

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

## A piece of wood with a

density o 706 kg/m3 is tied
with a string to the bottom
of a water-filled flask. The
wood is completely
immersed, and has a
volume of 8.00 x 10-6 m3.
What is the tension in the
string?

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

## Steady velocity of the fluid

particles at any point is
constant as time passes

Unsteady velocity at a
point in the fluid changes
as time passes (ex:
Turbulent flow: extremely
Incompressible density
of the fluid remains
constant as pressure
changes (usually liquids)

## Compressible density of the

fluid changes as pressure
changes (usually gases)

## Viscous a large viscosity

doesnt readily flow: the
viscosity hinders the
neighboring layers of fluid
from sliding past each other.

Nonviscous a low
layers are not hindered
from sliding past each
other.

## Rotational a part of the fluid

has rotational as well as
translational motion. Place a
paddle wheel in the fluid, if it
rotates, flow is rotational.

## Irrotational fluid has

only translational motion.
The paddle wheel will not
turn.

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

## Consider a pipe with a fluid

moving within it.
A
L

## Mass flow rate is:

m = Vr = ALr = Avr
Dt
Dt
Dt
A

(m = rV)

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

v1 A
1

L2=v2t
L1=v1t

## The first thing you

MUST understand is
that MASS is NOT
CREATED OR
DESTROYED!
IT IS CONSERVED.

## The MASS that flows into a region = The MASS

that flows out of a region.

v2
A2

## Using the Mass

Flow rate equation
and the idea that
a certain mass of
water is constant
as it moves to a
new pipe section:
We have the Fluid Flow
Continuity equation

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

The speed of blood in the aorta is 50 cm/s and this vessel has a
radius of 1.0 cm. If the capillaries have a total cross
sectional area of 3000 cm2, what is the speed of the blood in
them? (Equation of continuity the last equation we derived
last class.)

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

## What happens to the roof

of the wind tunnel?

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

## The Swiss Physicist Daniel Bernoulli, was interested in how

the velocity changes as the fluid moves through a pipe of
different area. He especially wanted to incorporate
pressure into his idea as well. Conceptually, his principle
is stated as: "an increase in velocity of a stream of
fluid results in a decrease of pressure in the fluid

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

Assumptions:
Laminar flow.
Incompressible fluid.

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

X=L

F1 on 2

-F2 on 1

## Work is done by a section of water applying a force on a

second section in front of it over a displacement. According
to Newtons 3rd law, the second section of water applies an
equal and opposite force back on the first. Thus is does
negative work as the water still moves FORWARD.
Pressure*Area is substituted for Force.

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

v2

A2

y2

L1=v1t
L2=v2t

v1

y1

A1
ground

## Work is also done by GRAVITY as the water travels a vertical

displacement UPWARD. As the water moves UP the force due to gravity
is DOWN. So the work is NEGATIVE.
The fluid in section 1 flows towards section 2 a distance L1 and in doing
so pushes the fluid in section 2 a distance L2.

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

## The fluid in the first section is pushed by the

fluid to the left of it, and work is done.
W1 = F1L1 = P1A1L1
(Since P = F/A)

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

## The fluid in the first section is pushed by the

fluid to the left of it, and work is done.
W1 = F1L1 = P1A1L1
(Since P = F/A)
The fluid in the second section is held back
by the fluid to the right of it, and
negative work is done.
W2 = -F2L2 = -P2A2L2

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

## The fluid in the first section is pushed by the fluid

to the left of it, and work is done.
W1 = F1L1 = P1A1L1
(Since P = F/A)
The fluid in the second section is held back by the
fluid to the right of it, and negative work is done.
W2 = -F2L2 = -P2A2L2
And negative work is also done by gravity,
resisting the motion:
W3 = -mg (y2 y1)

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

## Total work done:

W = W1 + W2 + W3

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

## Total work done:

W = W1 + W2 + W3
And this work is equal to the change in kinetic
energy of the system, so:
mv22 mv12 = P1A1L1 - P2A2L2 - mgy2 + mgy1

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

## Total work done:

W = W1 + W2 + W3
And this work is equal to the change in kinetic
energy of the system, so:
mv22 mv12 = P1A1L1 - P2A2L2 - mgy2 + mgy1
Realize that m = rV = rAL

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

## Total work done:

W = W1 + W2 + W3
And this work is equal to the change in kinetic
energy of the system, so:
mv22 mv12 = P1A1L1 - P2A2L2 - mgy2 + mgy1
Realize that m = rV = rAL
Plug this value of m in and cancel the AL in each
term, using the fact that A1L1 = A2L2 to get:
rv22 rv12 = P1 P2 rgy2 + rgy1

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

## rv22 rv12 = P1 P2 rgy2 + rgy1

Rearrange to get:
P1 + rv12 + rgy1 = P2 + rv22 + rgy2

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

## rv22 rv12 = P1 P2 rgy2 + rgy1

Rearrange to get:
P1 + rv12 + rgy1 = P2 + rv22 + rgy2
Or more simply:

## P + rv2 + rgy = const.

Notice, if v = 0, this becomes the hydrostatic equation.

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)

## Water circulates throughout the house in a hot-water

heating system. If the water is pumped at a speed of 0.50
m/s through a 4.0 cm diameter pipe in the basement
under a pressure of 3.0 atm, what will be the flow speed
and pressure in a 2.6 cm-diameter pipe on the second
floor 5.0 m above?

Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com)