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RECAP

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Assumptions:
There are many molecules moving in random
directions at a variety of speeds.
The molecules are, on average, far apart from
each other. Their separation >> their diameter.
Molecules obey classical mechanics laws
regarding collisions, energy etc. And they
interact only through collision, not through
attractive forces (PE).
Collisions with other molecules or the container
wall are perfectly elastic. Time of collision <<
time between collisions.

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Equations:
pV

= nRT
pV = nkT
PV/T = const.
Boyles Law (V, P), Charles Law (V, T), GayLussacs Law (P, T).
KE = 3/2 kT = mv2
Vrms = 3kT/m

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Linear

Expansion:
Volume Expansion:
Youre

having trouble opening a glass jar,


how can you make it easier?

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Linear

Expansion:
Volume Expansion:
Youre

having trouble opening a glass jar,


how can you make it easier?

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AP Physics B

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Density,

pressure, volume

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Two

systems are said to be in thermal


equilibrium if there is no net flow of heat
between them when they are brought into
thermal contact.

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Two

systems individually in thermal


equilibrium with a third system are in
thermal equilibrium with each other.

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Change

in internal energy of a system is


equal to the heat transferred to/from the
system plus the work done on/by the system:
U = Q + W

Comes

from the law of conservation of


energy.

Sign

convention: heat energy Q/W is positive


when the system gains heat and negative
when the system loses heat.

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Suppose you had a piston filled


with a specific amount of gas.
As you add heat, the
temperature rises and thus
the volume of the gas
expands. The gas then applies
a force on the piston wall
pushing it a specific
displacement. Thus it can be
said that a gas can do WORK.

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a)

Jogging along the beach one day you do 4.3 x 105 J of work and
give off 3.8 x 105 J of heat. What is the change in your internal
energy?

b)

Switching over to walking, you give off 1.2 x 105 J of heat and
your internal energy decreases by 2.6 x 105 J. How much work
have you done while walking?

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Sketch a PV diagram and find


the work done by the gas
during the following stages.
(a)

A gas is expanded from a


volume of 1.0 L to 3.0 L at
a constant pressure of 3.0
atm.

(b)

The gas is then cooled at a


constant volume until the
pressure falls to 2.0 atm

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c)

The gas is then


compressed at a constant
pressure of 2.0 atm from
a volume of 3.0 L to 1.0
L.

d)

The gas is then heated


until its pressure
increases from 2.0 atm to
3.0 atm at a constant
volume.

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What is the NET WORK?

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Internal

Energy is a function of state it


depends only on the state of a system, not
on the method by which the system arrives
at a given state

Quasi-static

a process that occurs slowly


enough that a uniform pressure and
temperature exist throughout all regions of
the system at all times. There is no friction
nor dissipative

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To keep the temperature


constant both the
pressure and volume
change to compensate.
(Volume goes up,
pressure goes down)
BOYLES LAW

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Heat is added to the gas


which increases the
Internal Energy (U) Work
is done by the gas as it
changes in volume.
The path of an isobaric
process is a horizontal
line called an isobar.
U = Q - W can be used
since the WORK is
NEGATIVE in this case

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ADIABATIC- (GREEKadiabatos"impassable")
In other words, NO
HEAT can leave or
enter the system.

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Example

A gas expands from an initial volume of 0.40 m3 to a final


volume of 0.62 m3 as the pressure increases linearly from 110
kPa to 230 kPa. Find the work done by the gas.

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Heat

will only flow spontaneously from a


body of higher temperature to a body of
lower temperature.

For

the reverse to happen, work must be


done.

Example?

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Disorder

in the universe can only increase.

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Heat flows from a


HOT reservoir to a
COLD reservoir

QH = remove from, absorbs = hot


QC= exhausts to, expels = cold

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In order to determine the


thermal efficiency of
an engine you have to
look at how much
ENERGY you get OUT vs
how much you energy
you take IN.
Eff. = Wout = 1 - Qout
Qin
Qin

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A heat engine with an efficiency of 24.0% performs 1250 J of


work. Find (a) the heat absorbed from the hot reservoir, and
(b) the heat given off to the cold reservoir.

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Sometimes it is useful to express the


energy usage of an engine as a
RATE.
For example:
The RATE at which heat is absorbed!
The RATE at which heat is expelled.
The RATE at which WORK is DONE

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QH
t
QC
t
W
POWER
t

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Our goal is to figure out just how


efficient such a heat engine can
be: whats the most work we can
possibly get for a given amount of
fuel?

The efficiency question was first posedand solvedby Sadi


Carnot in 1820, not long after steam engines had become
efficient enough to begin replacing water wheels, at that time the
main power sources for industry. Not surprisingly, perhaps,
Carnot visualized the heat engine as a kind of water wheel in
which heat (the fluid) dropped from a high temperature to a
low temperature, losing potential energy which the engine
turned into work done, just like a water wheel.

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Carnot a believed that there was an


absolute zero of temperature, from
which he figured out that on being
cooled to absolute zero, the fluid would
give up all its heat energy. Therefore,
if it falls only half way to absolute zero
from its beginning temperature, it will
give up half its heat, and an engine
taking in heat at T and shedding it at
T will be utilizing half the possible
heat, and be 50% efficient. Picture a
water wheel that takes in water at the
top of a waterfall, but lets it out
halfway down. So, the efficiency of an
ideal engine operating between two
temperatures will be equal to the
fraction of the temperature drop
towards absolute zero that the heat
undergoes.

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Carnot Eff. = TH TC
TH

Carnot temperatures
must be expressed
in KELVIN!!!!!!

The Carnot model has 4 parts


An Isothermal Expansion
An Adiabatic Expansion
An Isothermal Compression
An Adiabatic Compression
The PV diagram in a way shows us that the ratio of the heats are
symbolic to the ratio of the 2 temperatures

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If the heat engine from the example before is operating at a


maximum efficiency, and its cold reservoir is at a
temperature of 295 K, what is the temperature of the hot
reservoir?

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A particular engine has a power output of 5000 W and


an efficiency of 25%. If the engine expels 8000 J of
heat in each cycle, find (a) the heat absorbed in each
cycle and (b) the time for each cycle

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The efficiency of a Carnot engine is 30%. The engine absorbs


800 J of heat per cycle from a hot temperature reservoir at
500 K. Determine (a) the heat expelled per cycle and (b) the
temperature of the cold reservoir

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C
The relationship for a Carnot engine,
C can be
rearranged to
Q H TH

QC QH

TC
TH

. The quantity Q/T is the change in entropy, S:

Q
S
T R

The temperature, again, must be in Kelvins, the subscript R refers


to reversible process.
Units for entropy = J/K
Entropy is a function of state (like internal energy) only the state
of the system determines the entropy

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Calculate the change in entropy when a 0.125 kg chunk of


ice melt at 0C. Assume the melting occurs reversibly.

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The entropy of a Carnot Engine:


as the engine operates, the entropy of the hot reservoir
decreases, since heat QH leaves. the change in the entropy of
the hot reservoir is

QH
S H
TH

(minus indicates decrease in S)

the change in the entropy of the cold reservoir is

QC
S C
TC

Thus, the total change in entropy is

QC QH
QC Q H
(equals
zero
because
)

S C S H

0
TC TH
TC
TH

Thus, S = 0 for a Carnot Engine. This is also true for any


reversible process: the total entropy of the universe does not
change

Reversible processes do not change the total entropy of the universe. (The
entropy of one part of the universe may change, but if so, the entropy of
another part must change in the opposite way by the same amount.)
Irreversible processes increase the entropy of the universe. S > 0

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A hot reservoir at the temperature 576 K transfers 1050 J of


heat irreversibly to a cold reservoir at the temperature 305
K. Find the change in entropy of the universe.

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The Second Law of Thermodynamics in terms of


Entropy:
The total entropy of the universe does not change when a
reversible process occurs and increases when an
irreversible process occurs.

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AP Physics B

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By definition, a fluid is a substance that has no fixed


shape and yields easily to external pressure.

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Typically, liquids are considered to be incompressible.


That is once you place a liquid in a sealed container you
can DO WORK on the FLUID as if it were an object. The
PRESSURE you apply is transmitted throughout the
liquid and over the entire length of the fluid itself.

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Can exert pressure in any direction.


Pressure always acts perpendicular to the surface.

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Pat is a direct result of


the weight of the air
above us.

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Suppose a Fluid (such as a liquid) is at REST, we call this


HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE.

Notice that the arrows on TOP of the objects are smaller than at the
BOTTOM. This is because pressure is greatly affected by the DEPTH of
the object. Since the bottom of each object is deeper than the top the
pressure is greater at the bottom.

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Suppose we had an object


submerged in water with the
top part touching the
atmosphere. If we were to
draw an FBD for this object
we would have three forces

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But recall, pressure is force per unit area.

Note: The initial


pressure in this
case is atmospheric
pressure, which is a
CONSTANT.
Po=1x105 N/m2

FINAL EQUATION:

DP = rgh

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a) Calculate the absolute pressure at an ocean


depth of 1000 m. Assume that the density of
water is 1000 kg/m3 and that Po= 1.01 x 105 Pa
(N/m2).
b) Calculate the total force exerted on the outside
of a 30.0 cm diameter circular submarine window
at this depth.

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Therefore: PA = PB = PC = PD
(because they all have the same depth)
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Mercury

Barometer:
measures
atmospheric
pressure

Open

Tube
Manometer:
measures pressure
in a container

Po = 0
P = Patm
Patm = 0 + gh
Patm = gh

P = Patm + gh
Example: blood pressure cuff

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If you take a liquid and place it in a


system that is CLOSED like plumbing
for example or a cars brake line, the
PRESSURE is the same everywhere.
Since this is true, if you apply a force at
one part of the system the pressure is
the same at the other end of the
system. The force, on the other hand
MAY or MAY NOT equal the initial force
applied. It depends on the AREA.
You can take advantage of the fact that
the pressure is the same in a closed
system as it has MANY applications.
The idea behind this is called PASCALS
PRINCIPLE

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To inspect a 14,000 N car, it is raised with a hydraulic lift. If


the radius of the small piston is 4.0 cm, and the radius of
the large piston is 17cm, find the force that must be
exerted on the small piston to lift the car.

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When an object is immersed in a fluid, such as a liquid, it is buoyed


upwards by a force called the buoyant force.

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" An object is buoyed up by a force equal to the


weight of the fluid displaced."
In the figure, we see
that the difference
between the weight
in AIR and the weight
in WATER is 3 lbs.
This is the buoyant
force that acts
upward to cancel out
part of the force. If
you were to weight
the water displaced it
also would weigh 3
lbs.

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*V = A(h2 h1)

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A bargain hunter purchases a "gold" crown at a flea market. After she gets
home, she hangs it from a scale and finds its weight in air to be 7.84 N.
She then weighs the crown while it is immersed in water (density of
water is 1000 kg/m3) and now the scale reads 6.86 N. Is the crown made
of pure gold if the density of gold is 19.3 x 103 kg/m3?

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A piece of wood with a


density o 706 kg/m3 is tied
with a string to the bottom
of a water-filled flask. The
wood is completely
immersed, and has a
volume of 8.00 x 10-6 m3.
What is the tension in the
string?

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Steady velocity of the fluid


particles at any point is
constant as time passes

Unsteady velocity at a
point in the fluid changes
as time passes (ex:
Turbulent flow: extremely
unsteady flow)
Incompressible density
of the fluid remains
constant as pressure
changes (usually liquids)

Compressible density of the


fluid changes as pressure
changes (usually gases)

Viscous a large viscosity


doesnt readily flow: the
viscosity hinders the
neighboring layers of fluid
from sliding past each other.

Nonviscous a low
viscosity flows readily
layers are not hindered
from sliding past each
other.

Rotational a part of the fluid


has rotational as well as
translational motion. Place a
paddle wheel in the fluid, if it
rotates, flow is rotational.

Irrotational fluid has


only translational motion.
The paddle wheel will not
turn.

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Consider a pipe with a fluid


moving within it.
A
L

Mass flow rate is:


m = Vr = ALr = Avr
Dt
Dt
Dt
A

(m = rV)

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v1 A
1

L2=v2t
L1=v1t

The first thing you


MUST understand is
that MASS is NOT
CREATED OR
DESTROYED!
IT IS CONSERVED.

The MASS that flows into a region = The MASS


that flows out of a region.

v2
A2

Using the Mass


Flow rate equation
and the idea that
a certain mass of
water is constant
as it moves to a
new pipe section:
We have the Fluid Flow
Continuity equation

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The speed of blood in the aorta is 50 cm/s and this vessel has a
radius of 1.0 cm. If the capillaries have a total cross
sectional area of 3000 cm2, what is the speed of the blood in
them? (Equation of continuity the last equation we derived
last class.)

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What happens to the roof


of the wind tunnel?

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The Swiss Physicist Daniel Bernoulli, was interested in how


the velocity changes as the fluid moves through a pipe of
different area. He especially wanted to incorporate
pressure into his idea as well. Conceptually, his principle
is stated as: "an increase in velocity of a stream of
fluid results in a decrease of pressure in the fluid

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Assumptions:
Laminar flow.
Steady flow.
Incompressible fluid.

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X=L

F1 on 2

-F2 on 1

Work is done by a section of water applying a force on a


second section in front of it over a displacement. According
to Newtons 3rd law, the second section of water applies an
equal and opposite force back on the first. Thus is does
negative work as the water still moves FORWARD.
Pressure*Area is substituted for Force.

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v2

A2

y2

L1=v1t
L2=v2t

v1

y1

A1
ground

Work is also done by GRAVITY as the water travels a vertical


displacement UPWARD. As the water moves UP the force due to gravity
is DOWN. So the work is NEGATIVE.
The fluid in section 1 flows towards section 2 a distance L1 and in doing
so pushes the fluid in section 2 a distance L2.

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The fluid in the first section is pushed by the


fluid to the left of it, and work is done.
W1 = F1L1 = P1A1L1
(Since P = F/A)

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The fluid in the first section is pushed by the


fluid to the left of it, and work is done.
W1 = F1L1 = P1A1L1
(Since P = F/A)
The fluid in the second section is held back
by the fluid to the right of it, and
negative work is done.
W2 = -F2L2 = -P2A2L2

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The fluid in the first section is pushed by the fluid


to the left of it, and work is done.
W1 = F1L1 = P1A1L1
(Since P = F/A)
The fluid in the second section is held back by the
fluid to the right of it, and negative work is done.
W2 = -F2L2 = -P2A2L2
And negative work is also done by gravity,
resisting the motion:
W3 = -mg (y2 y1)

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Total work done:


W = W1 + W2 + W3

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Total work done:


W = W1 + W2 + W3
And this work is equal to the change in kinetic
energy of the system, so:
mv22 mv12 = P1A1L1 - P2A2L2 - mgy2 + mgy1

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Total work done:


W = W1 + W2 + W3
And this work is equal to the change in kinetic
energy of the system, so:
mv22 mv12 = P1A1L1 - P2A2L2 - mgy2 + mgy1
Realize that m = rV = rAL

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Total work done:


W = W1 + W2 + W3
And this work is equal to the change in kinetic
energy of the system, so:
mv22 mv12 = P1A1L1 - P2A2L2 - mgy2 + mgy1
Realize that m = rV = rAL
Plug this value of m in and cancel the AL in each
term, using the fact that A1L1 = A2L2 to get:
rv22 rv12 = P1 P2 rgy2 + rgy1

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rv22 rv12 = P1 P2 rgy2 + rgy1


Rearrange to get:
P1 + rv12 + rgy1 = P2 + rv22 + rgy2

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rv22 rv12 = P1 P2 rgy2 + rgy1


Rearrange to get:
P1 + rv12 + rgy1 = P2 + rv22 + rgy2
Or more simply:

P + rv2 + rgy = const.


Notice, if v = 0, this becomes the hydrostatic equation.

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Water circulates throughout the house in a hot-water


heating system. If the water is pumped at a speed of 0.50
m/s through a 4.0 cm diameter pipe in the basement
under a pressure of 3.0 atm, what will be the flow speed
and pressure in a 2.6 cm-diameter pipe on the second
floor 5.0 m above?

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