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Solutions

Components of Solutions
Solution: a homogenous mixture of two or more substances in a single phase. Does not
scatter light or separate on standing. Cannot be separated by filtration.
Soluble: capable of being dissolved.
Solvent: the dissolving medium in a solution.
Solute: the substance dissolved in a solution.
Suspensions
If the particles in a solvent are so large that they settle out, unless the mixture is
constantly stirred or agitated, the mixture is called a suspension.
Particle size greater than 1000nm.
Particles can settle out.
Can be separated by filtration.
May scatter light, but not transparent.
Colloids
Particles that are intermediate in size between those in solutions and suspensions form
mixtures known as colloidal dispersions, or simply colloids.
Particle size 1-1000 nm.
Do not settle or separate on standing.
Cannot separate by filtering.
Scatters light (Tyndall effect).
Solutes: Electrolytes vs. Nonelectrolytes
Electrolyte: a substance that dissolves in water to give a solution that conducts electric
current
Nonelectrolytes: a substance that dissolves in water to give a solution that does not
conduct an electric current
Light bulb demo.
Factors Affecting the Rate of Dissolution
Increasing the surface area of the solute
Agitating a solution
Heating a solvent
Solubility
Solution Equilibrium: the physical state in which the opposing processes of dissolution
and crystallization of a solute occur at equal rates
Saturated Solution: a solution that contains the maximum amount of dissolved solute
Unsaturated Solution: a solution that contains less solute than a saturated solution under
the existing conditions
Solubility continued&‐
Supersaturated Solution: a solution that contains more dissolved solute than a saturated
solution contains under the same conditions
Solubility: the amount of that substance required to form a saturated solutions with a
specific amount of solvent at a specified temperature
What is the relationship between temperature and solubility? (KNO3 graph)
Solute-Solvent Interactions
Hydration: the solution process with water as the solvent
Immiscible: liquid solutes and solvents that are not soluble in each other
Miscible: liquids that dissolve freely in one another in any proportion
Solute-Solvent continued& ¡
Henry’s Law: the solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the partial
pressure of that gas on the surface of the liquid
Effervescence: the rapid escape of a gas from a liquid in which it is dissolved.
Alka-selzer
Heats of Solution
Solvated: a solute particle that is surrounded by solvent molecules
Heat of Solution: the amount of heat energy absorbed or released when a specific amount
of solute dissolves in a solvent.
kJ/mol
Concentration of Solutions
The concentration of a solution is a measure of the amount of solute in a given amount of
solvent or solution
Molarity: the number of moles of solute in one liter of solution
Molality: the concentration of a solution expressed in moles of solute per kilogram of
solvent
Sample Problems& ¡
You have 3.50 L of solution that contains 90.0g of sodium chloride, NaCl. What is the
molarity of that solution?
Given: solute mass= 90.0g NaCl
solution volume= 3.50 L
Sample Problem #2
You have 0.8 L of a 0.5M HCl solution. How many moles of HCl does this solution
contain?
Given: volume of the solution: 0.8L
concentration of the solution: 0.5 M
Unknown: Moles of HCl in a given volume.
Sample problem #3
To produce 40.0g of silver chromate, you need at least 23.4g of potassium chromate in
solution as a reactant. All you have on hand in the stock room is 5L of a 6.0 M K2CrO4
solution. What volume of the solution is needed to give you the 23.4g K2CrO4 needed
for the reaction?
Molality Sample #1
A solution was prepared by dissolving 17.1 g of sucrose (table sugar, C12H22O11) in 125
g of water. Find the final molal concentration of this solution.

Solutions
Components of Solutions
Suspensions
Colloids
Solutes: Electrolytes vs. Nonelectrolytes
Factors Affecting the Rate of Dissolution
Solubility
Solubility continuedÖ
Solute-Solvent Interactions
Solute-Solvent continuedÖ
Heats of Solution
Concentration of Solutions