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Energy Conservation

in
Induction furnace
Programme on
Energy Conservation in Foundry Industry
E Nand Gopal
The Energy and Resources Institute
11th August2014

Contents

Introduction and working principle


Losses in induction furnace
Energy conservation measures
Selection and sizing
Best operating practices
Case Studies
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Melting furnaces
Melting
furnace
Arc furnace
Secondary
refining
furnace

Electric
furnace

Melting
furnace

Medium
frequency
furnace
Induction
furnace

Mains
frequency
furnace

Coke

Channel type
furnace

Cupola
Natural gas

Reverberatry
furnace

Heavy oil

Introduction and working principle


Two main
types

Coreless
Channel

Medium
frequency
coreless
type

Frequency:
500 2000 Hz
Crucible size:
50 kg 20MT
Switching device: SCR or IGBT

Laws
governing
induction
heating

Electromagnetic induction
The joule effect
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Introduction and working principle

Losses in induction furnace


Transmission losses
Converter losses
Capacitor bank losses

Conduction heat loss


Radiation losses
Coil losses
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Losses in induction furnace

Energy conservation measure


Selection
and
sizing

Best
operating
practices

Induction furnace selection


Technology: SCR or IGBT
Furnace sizing
Cooling water circuit installation

Charge preparation and charging


Melting and making melt ready
Emptying the furnace
Furnace lining
Energy monitoring and data
analysis
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Selection and sizing Before


installation

Crucible
size

Melt rate handling capacity


Moulding capacity
Number of crucible

Panel
capacity
and type

Technology:
SCR or IGBT
Panel capacity: Power density (kW / kg)

Cooling
water
circuit

Pump specification
Type of piping and size of piping

Selection and sizing Before


installation

Pump
specification

Piping

Flow rate, lpm (litres per minute)


Head, m
Power rating, hp / kW
Pump-motor set efficiency, %
34%, 37%, 40%, 47%, 59%

To minimize friction loss


Water velocity typical design 1.8 2.0 m/s
Based on economics

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Specific energy consumption


Typical values for cast iron foundries

SEC (kWh/tonne)

650

624

603

600
550

571

539
511

507

500

Average
Best

450

400
Kolhapur

Belgaum

Europe

Kolhapur 63 units
Belgaum 15 units
Europe WB report 2012

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Analysis Power Curve


600

Induction furnace power curve

500

Power, kW

400
300

Delay in
spectro
analysis

200
100
0

12

250

200

1:05:00 PM
1:07:00 PM
1:09:00 PM
1:11:00 PM
1:13:00 PM
1:15:00 PM
1:17:00 PM
1:19:00 PM
1:21:00 PM
1:23:00 PM
1:25:00 PM
1:27:00 PM
1:29:00 PM
1:31:00 PM
1:33:00 PM
1:35:00 PM
1:37:00 PM
1:39:00 PM
1:41:00 PM
1:43:00 PM
1:45:00 PM
1:47:00 PM
1:49:00 PM
1:51:00 PM
1:53:00 PM
1:55:00 PM
1:57:00 PM
1:59:00 PM
2:01:00 PM
2:03:00 PM
2:05:00 PM
2:07:00 PM

Power, kW

Analysis - Discussion
500

450

400

Temperature
drop

350

300

Delay in
spectro
analysis

150

100

50

13

150

100

50

10:38 AM
10:40 AM
10:42 AM
10:44 AM
10:46 AM
10:48 AM
10:50 AM
10:52 AM
10:54 AM
10:56 AM
10:58 AM
11:00 AM
11:02 AM
11:04 AM
11:06 AM
11:08 AM
11:10 AM
11:12 AM
11:14 AM
11:16 AM
11:18 AM
11:20 AM
11:22 AM
11:24 AM
11:26 AM
11:28 AM
11:30 AM
11:32 AM
11:34 AM
11:36 AM
11:38 AM
11:40 AM
11:42 AM

Power, kW

Analysis - Discussion
Induction furnace power curve

450

All moulds
not ready

400

350

300

250

200

Small ladle
pouring, power
loss during
pouring

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250

4:10 PM
4:12 PM
4:14 PM
4:16 PM
4:18 PM
4:20 PM
4:22 PM
4:24 PM
4:26 PM
4:28 PM
4:30 PM
4:32 PM
4:34 PM
4:36 PM
4:38 PM
4:40 PM
4:42 PM
4:44 PM
4:46 PM
4:48 PM
4:50 PM
4:52 PM
4:54 PM
4:56 PM
4:58 PM
5:00 PM
5:02 PM
5:04 PM
5:06 PM
5:08 PM
5:10 PM
5:12 PM
5:14 PM
5:16 PM

Power, kW

Analysis - Discussion
Induction furnace power curve

450

400

350

300

???

200

150

100

50

15

400

10:02:00 AM
10:08:00 AM
10:14:00 AM
10:20:00 AM
10:26:00 AM
10:32:00 AM
10:38:00 AM
10:44:00 AM
10:50:00 AM
10:56:00 AM
11:02:00 AM
11:08:00 AM
11:14:00 AM
11:20:00 AM
11:26:00 AM
11:32:00 AM
11:38:00 AM
11:44:00 AM
11:50:00 AM
11:56:00 AM
12:02:00 PM
12:08:00 PM
12:14:00 PM
12:20:00 PM
12:26:00 PM
12:32:00 PM
12:38:00 PM
12:44:00 PM
12:50:00 PM
12:56:00 PM
1:02:00 PM
1:08:00 PM
1:14:00 PM

Power, kW

Analysis - Discussion
2000

1800

1600

Dual-trak
furnace,
poorly utilized

1400

1200

1000

800

600

???

200

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Analysis - Discussion
Induction furnace power curve
700
600

Power, kW

500
400

300

Almost Ideal

200
100
0

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Best operating practices

Charge preparation
and charging

Melting and making


melt ready

Furnace lining

Emptying the
furnace

Energy monitoring
and data analysis

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Charge preparation and charging


Weighing and arranging the charge
Free from sand, dirt, oil and grease. Rusty scrap: Less
metal per charging. Clean, dry and dense: 10 kWh per ton
Maximum size of charge: (1/3)rd of opening diameter
Do not charge beyond coil level
Proper charge sequence to be followed. Pig iron to be
charged. Fill the gaps with turning and borings
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Charge preparation and charging


Foundry return should be tum/shot blasted.
Contains 3 5% sand by weight
Process control through melt managers,
leads to less interruptions

Limit use of baled steel and loose boring

Use charge driers and pre-heaters to remove moisture


and pre heat the charge
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Charge preparation and charging

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Charge preparation and charging

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Melting and making melt ready


Follow melt process, always run furnace at full power
Use lid mechanism, 5 8 % energy lost through radiation
Typically 20 30 kWh per tonne saving using lid
Avoid build-up of slag on furnace walls
Proper tools and techniques should be used for de-slagging
Spectro-testing lab must be located near to melt shop
Avoid un-necessary super-heating of metal. 50 C leads to more than
25 kWh per tonne
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Melting and making melt ready

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Emptying the furnace


Optimization of the ladle size to minimize the heat losses and empty the
furnace in the shortest time
Optimization of the ladle transportation
Plan melting according to moulding. Metal should never wait for mould
rather mould should be ready before metal
Use of ladle pre-heater. Proper positioning of burner is important to get
uniform heating
Quantity of liquid metal returned to furnace must be as low as possible
Glass-wool or ceramic-wool cover for pouring ladle
Minimize plant breakdown by implementing a planned maintenance
schedule
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Emptying the furnace

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Furnace lining
Select the correct lining material
Do not increase lining thickness at bottom or sidewalls. Increase in
lining means reducing capacity of furnace
Do not allow furnace to cool very slow. Forced air cooling helps in
developing cracks of lower depth, this helps in faster cold start cycle
Cold start cycle time should be ideally not more than 120% of normal
cycle time
Coil cement should be smooth, in straight line and having thickness of
3 to 5 mm
While performing lining ensure that each layer is not more than 50mm.
Compaction is better with smaller layer
Monitor lining performance
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Energy monitoring and data analysis


Separate energy meter for furnace must be installed
Monitor energy consumtion on heat by heat basis
Analyse them in correlation with production data to arrive
at specific energy consumption of furnace on daily basis
Any peak or valley in data must be studied and
investigated

ENERGY MONITORING is the first step for achieving


ENERGY SAVING
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Be the change you want to see in the world

E Nand Gopal
+91 99715 17752
e.nandgopal@yahoo.com
enand.gopal@teri.res.in