FOUl NICA1iIIDlNi

By:

Mufti Muhamm!ad Khan Qadri

Translated by:

Muha,mmad Sajiid V:ounas

)

The month ofRamadiuum in which the Quran was

sent dawn (reoealed), (the QU7~'Qnis) a quidanee for mankind; clear pl'OO/ fo~· quidanee and a criterion.

So uihoever of yo u finds the' month should fasi tha l month) and uiboe ver is ill O'r on a journey (and ca.nnot fast) should make up the Sanl€ number qf daus from other days.

Allah intends for you ease and does not want difficulty/or you .. So complete the sanle' number of da.ys (as YOH missed) and n'lagn ify Allah/or guiding yOll so that you mai) be grateful to Him.

(The Holy Quran, A] Baqarah 2~ v 185)

The Prophet's

Ramadhaan

How the Prophet sallallaahu alaihi wa sallam observed the month of Ramadhaan

by:

Mufti Muhammad Khan Q,adri

Translated by::

Muhammad Sajid Younas

AU rights. reserved,

No plan of this publication may be reproduced stored in retrieval system, or transmitted in any form

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Of otherwise, with written

L--_ permission from the publishers. -------'

The Prophet's RUlnadhaan Published by': Sutfah Foundation.

Nov.2o{17

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Ch 1: The Prophet & Ramadhaan 9

Ch 2: At the beginning of Ramadhaan ll7

eh 3,: At Sehri 30

Ch 4: During the day whilst Fasting 38

Ch 5:: At Sunset &Utaar 62.

Ch 6: Tl'H'?: Taraaweeh Prayer 76

Cb 7: The Fast of Wisaal 81

Ch B: The Last Ten Days of Ramadhaan 85

ell 9: Itikaaf 92

ell ]0: The Night of Qadr 106

Ch 11: The End of Ramadhaan & the Last Night 132 Ch 12:, The Night & Day of Eid 138

I ducti .ntro ... uction

Themonth of Ramadhaan is Allah Us specific reward and gift to the Muslim. Ummah. In it the revelation of the Quran commenced and in it the Prophet sallallaahu alaihi tva sallanlVV,El,S ordered to announce his Prophethood. In gratitude tor the beginning of the Qurat .1'8 revelation and announcement of the final prophethood the Ummah has been ordered to fast in this n1011'th .. Allah Ta 'aula says:

'O you who believe, Fasting is prescribed upon you as it was prescribed upon those before you, that you may become pious." (AI Baqarah 2" V182)

The Prophet sallallaahu alaihi wa sallam himself explained the importance of Ramadhaan in the following way :

'If theywelre to know the importance of Ramadhaan they would wish for the whole year to be Ramadhaan.' (Musnad'Abu Ya'laa)

By chaining the devils and ordering the human to come to Allah's door a complete programme of betterrnent is estab 1 ished so that the dark veils of neglect lean be lifted and the human can heroine closer to the forgiveness and proximity of His Lord, This is the purpose of the Human's life, Fasting is not simply the giving up of eating and drinking but is about becoming pure from apparent and concealed errors,

The best way to spend the days and nights of

7

Ramadhaan is theway the Prophet sa llallaohi: alaihi W'Q sallam chose because he Vti,8:S well aware of Allah's desire and pleasure and the importance of Ramadhaan, Consequently in this book WIt! have gathered matter that shows how the ProphetsaUallaClhu alaihi tva sallam observed the month of Ramadhaan, in other words what were his actions so that we too can follow him ill observing the month of Ramadhaan and at ttain Allah' s infinite reward and favours.

If we can truly spend OUf' Ramadhaan in this way then not just the whole year but our whole life will become blessed and fun of'Barakah

It is in Ramadhaan that we have the opportunity to listen to the whole Quran in the Taraaweeh pl'ayer .. We also have the chance to undertake night vigils and Itikaaf, If only we could continue the habits of Ramadhaan into the 'whole of the year.

I pray that with His Mercy and the tawassul of the Prophet Allah grants us the ability to act according to the teachings of the Shariah,

Aameen BiJaQ,HiKa wa b,{ Ja.arli Sayyid il.Mtu"sileen

A mere' s··ervant ofls·laa,m Muh.a:mm.adl<haan Q1aadiri. .Iamia Islaamia, Lahore Pakistan

B

The Prophet's Ramadhaan

Chapterr

The Prophet and

the Month of Ramadhaan

Faatlngbecame obligatory on a Monday:

Monday not only has the virtue ofbeing the day in. which Allah's messenger arrived in this world but it is also the day in wh ich the fasts of Ram adhaan became obligatory .

'On 'Monday, the second daj 'Of Shabaan, in the second year of Hijrah, Allah Ta'aala made fasting in Ramadhaan obligatory upon the believers, r (Risaoki Ramadhaan)

The .obligation to fast oeeurred in the second yeal· ofMigr,atioll ..

Remember also that the cnmmand to fast in Ramadhaan VIlas revealed in Madeenah in the second year of Hijrah, It is narrated from Syeduna Ibn Abbaas that the first two things given to the believers after migrationwere the Bait ullah becoming the Qiblah and the fasts ofRamadhaan,

'Verily Rarnadhaan became obligatory in Shabaan in the second year of Hijrah,' (At-hauf Ahl ul Islaam)

He fasted. nIne Ramadhaanse

The above fact also proves that the Prophet satlallanhu alflihi tva sallam observed nine Ramadhaans after fasting had beeolne obligatory. This is because he lived

9

The Prophet·s. Ramadhaan

10 years of his apparent life in Madeenah and Ramadhaan became obligatory in the second year of Hiirah. Imam Ibn Hajar Haitami '\lV1'1t88 that some Huffaaz of Hadith have clarified 'The Prophet fasted nine Ra rnadhaans .. !

The Prophet's Ra·ma.dbaan before fasting:

It is important to remember that the Prophet's saltallaalvu alaihi :tva sallatn relationship with Rarnadhaan did not begin with the obligation to fast He had a eon nection with it before this. It Vi/as during this month that he would achieve seclusion in Mount Hira and connect with his Lord, using it as EI. source of tranquillity and focus. Furthermore it was during Rarnadhaan, whilst he \NaS in the eave of Hint, that J ibraeel brough t AUaJ11s eternal message :

'Read in the name of thy Lord who created . .' (Surah Alaq, Vi)

Ibn Isaac nas-rates from Syeduna Ubaid b.in Umair :

'Each year the Prophet sallallaahu ,alaihi Iva sallant would go to Mount l-lira for a month in search .of solitude and it was in that same month that 'he announced his Propnethood and that "was the month ofRamadhaan . .'

(AsSeel'Q fun Nabu,tviyya. V1JP2.3S)

In describing the revelation of the Quran Allah Ta 'aala has confirmed in anum ber of places that it was revealed in Ramadhaan :

'The month of Rantadhaan, in which the Quran was revealed.' (Surah Baqarah)

'Verilywe revealed it in the night of Qadr.'

(Surah Qadr)

10

The Prophet's Rarnadhaan

Remember that as mentioned previously fasting in Ramadhaan became corn pulsory in Madeenah (and the revelation of the Quran began in Ramadhaan before the migration to Madeenah),

Dr Muhammad Abdu Yamaani "\'\Tites:

'We should be able to infer from the above how deep and important the Prophet's sailallaamx alaihi uia sallam relationship is with Ramadhaan and how he observed it before his prophet hood and before the revelation ofverses ,I

Shaykh .Atia Muhalnmad Saalim states:

'The Prophet's sallatlaohu alaihi WQ SaUUl7l relationship with Rarnadhaan was not like that of other people. His relationship with Ramadhaan predated fasting, One could say that 11e had a relationship with Rarnadhaan both before his announcement of Prophethood and after.'

Love for the· Blessed Ramadltaam

The Prophet's sailallaahu alaihi wa sallam initial act was to love Ramadhaan and make dua for if's attainment, It is in Imam Tihraani's Aowsat and Musnad Bazaar that as soon as hewould see the 11100n of the month of Rajah he would supplicate:

'Oh Allah make Rajab and Shabaan blessed for us and grant us Rarnadhaan.'

Thewords narrated by Syeduna Anas are: 1'When Rajah would enter' he would supplicate 'Oh Allah make Raj eb and Shabaan blessed for us and make Ramadhaan blessed for us.'

(Musnad Al: rna,d.259J

Tibraani narrates from Syeduna Arias that , .. vhen the

]1

The Prophet~s Ramadhaan

months of Rajab and Shabaan would begin he would supplicate

'Oh Allah make Rajab and Shabaan blessed for us and grantus Ramadhaan.'

After narrating these words Ibn Rajah writes that one learns from this that one should su pplicate fen blessed times to get closer to one' s Lord by undertaking more good deeds in them,

'In this hadith 1S evidence of the goodness of making dua to stay alive and find good times in which one can undertake good deeds. For a believer increased lifetime is a source of good and. the best person is the one "whose life is long and deeds good.'

Look at what our pious predecessors did after they became aware of both this practice of the Prophet saUaUaalul alaihi tva sallam and the status of

" . "

Ramadhaan, Sveduna Yalaa bin Fadhl writes :

.

'They (the companions and ta'bieen) would spend

six months suppl icating to attai n Rarnadhaan and s pend the other six: months pleading for it's acceptance. ' (Lataaiful Mu, i,Oa rij)

Preparingfor Ramadhaan in Shabaaru

The Prophet sallaliaohu ataihi UJll sallam would prepare for Ramadhaan in the month of Shabaan, It is narrated from Syeda Aisha that apart from Ramadhaan the month in which he fasted the most ",'as Sha baan:

'The Prophet sallallaah'u alallu' iva salksrn would fast the most in Shabaan.'

One of the wisdoms in this practice mentioned is that in

12

The Prophet's Ramadhaan

Shah . '. h.' .. l!... - ... f- B" . hi ( til '. ht) .' . .. 1,-' I

aa aan IS t . e night to !_ araar '. 15 mg t m wrucn

deeds are presented in the 'court of Allah. The Prophe t sallallaah. u alaihi wa sallam "ranted his deeds to. be presented in the state of fasting, just as has been mentioned in hadith,

Howe Ter another wisdom in fasting in Shabaan mentioned by the Muhadditheen is that he prepared for Ramadhaan in Shabaan; because Shabaan is a forerunner for Ramadhaan it's actions should also be those ofRamadhaan.

'In. order to attain the barakah of Ramadhaan (this practice was to) ensure complete preparation and the satisfaction of the nafs upon the complete obedience of Allah. I

In this way it is similar to the Sunnah prayersbefore the Fard, The Muslim uses the Sunnah prayers to turn his mind towards the court of Allah in preparation of the Fard prayer. The practice of the Sahaaba supports this reasoning. Syeduna Arias sheds light on the practice of the companions,

"As soon as Shabaan entered the Muslims would turn towards the Quran, They would also take Zakah out from their wealth a ad (by it) strengthen the poor and destitute for the fasts of Ramadhaan. ~.

S.ptecific anrangemenfs to s.ight the moon ofShabaan.

Fasting is based on the 111.Qon. Consequently the Prophet eaiiallaonu alaihi W'U soilam made special : rrangements to sight it. If the mOOD was sighted he would fast and if it was not due to douds etc. he would rll~,L only after completing thirty days of Shu baan,

13

The Prophet's Ramadhaan

Syeduna Abdullah bin Abi Qais narrates that he heard Umm ul Momineen Syeda Aisha say:

'The Prophet eollallaatu: alaihi wa scllam used to safeguard the month of Shabaan more than he safeguarded any other month.' (Abu Daunid)

The Prophet sallaliaahu claihi tva saliam would order the companions to sight the moon and count it's days. Syeduna Abu Hurayra states that the Prophet sallallaahu alaihi uia sallam would say to them:

'Count the moon of Shabaan for Ramadhaan and do not mix it with Ramadhaan, Only he of) ou can fast who. bas fasted the day before.' (Tirmidhi)

Not fasting when in doubt:

If th.e moon could not be sighted due to clouds the Prophet sallallaohu alaihi Iva sa lia m would not begin Ramadhaanbut'vvQuldcoD1plete,30da. s of Shabaan,

It is narrated frOID

Umm ul Momineen SyedaAisha ..

'H'e bega n fasting after sighting the moon of Rarnadhaan and if it was cloudy he would count 30 days. (of'Shabaan) and then fast.' (Abu Daurud)

For the ease and comfort of his ummah he taught the same; fast when the moon is sighted and if the moon cannot he sighted due to douds etc do not fast on the day of doubt but complete thirty days of Shabaan and then begin Rarnadhaan. I";Ie ordered the same for Eid. Syeduna Abdunah bin Umar narrates that the Prophet saUallaahu ala ilt i tva. sallarn said:

ISO do not fast until you see the n100n and do not break the fast until you see the moon, If it is cloudy then complete thi rty days. I (Abu Dawud)

14

The Prophe,es Ramadhaan

It is from Syeduna Abdullah ibn Abbaas that the Prophetsallallaohu alaihi tva sallam said:

'Verily Allah Ta'aala has given us time until the sighting of the moon and verily if it is dourly then complete the term of thirty days. I

(MusUnz, book ofSiyaa1n)

He would accept the testi mony of one person,

If the Prophet sallallaahu olaihi W'U sallam and most of the companions had not sighted the moon themselves but only a single Muslim had testified that he had seen the moon the Prophet sallallaahu alaibi tva sallam )\ ould proclaim (the beginning of) Ramadhaan,

It is from Syeduna Abdullah bin Abhaas that a bedouin carne to the Prophet sallallauhu alaihi WIQ saihur; and pleaded:

'I have seen the moon tonight.' He sallallaaltu alaihi lva sallam asked ifhe believed in Tawheed, Allah and Proph ·tllood" i.e, ifhe was a Muslim, he replied 'Yaa Rasoolallah Lam aM USHU1: The Prophet sallollaahu aiaihi Loa ~aUanl. called for Syeduna Bilaal and ordered 'Announce to the People that they should fast tomorrow, I

,(Ab,u Daunid)

It is from Syedama Abdulla.h bin Umar :

'The people were searching for the moon and I sighted it and said to the Prophet sa.Uall'aahu alaihi lva sallam 'Verily I have seen it' so he himself fasted and ordered [he people to fast.' (Abu Daunul)

FIe would make a. special dua

un sighting the moon ofRamadhaan:

ll W~j1S the practice of the Prophet sallallaahu ataihi :wa

l5

The Prophet's Ramadhaan

saliam to make dua on sighting the moon every 1110nth but for the: 0100n of Ramadhaan be would make a special dua. It is narrated in Nisai:

'Whe'u he would see the moon of Rarnadhaan he would say 'This moon is of good and barakah, this moon is of good and barakah and I hav'8 faith upon the one who created you.'

(Ath.aa! Ahl' u.l IslaamfromNisai)

16

The Prophet's Ramadhaan

Chapter.2

At The Beginning of Ramadhaan

The Practice of making a special dua on the arrival of Ramadhaam

At the beginning of Rarnadhaan the Prophet sallallaabu alaihi tva sallam would make a special dU3 in the court of Allah:

'When the 1110nth of Ramadhaan would begin he saUaUaahu alaihi wa satlam would say 'Oh Allah" give me security (health and wellbeing) in Ramadhaan and safeguard Ramadhaan for me and protect me from Your disobedience in it. t

Hie would turn pale:

When Ramadhaan would arrive the Prophet's sallallaahu alaihi tva sallam complexionwould turn tale in tear of any impediment preventing him fulfilling the requirements of worship, UmlTI u] Momineen Syeda Aisha narrates the condition of the Prophet sallallaahu alaihi WQ. sallam:

'When Ramadhaan would enter his colour would change .. '

II11am Munaadi explains the reason for this:

I In fear of a weakness occurring that eould result in him not fulfilling the requirements of worship, ~ (rj~lildh u./Qadeer)

17

The Prophet's Ramadhaan

Congratulating companions on the art-ivalof'Ramadhaaru

When this holy and blessed month arrivedwith all if's mercies the Prophet sallallaahu alai/Ii U)Q sallam would congratulate the companions. Imam. Ahmad and Imam Nisai mention this practice from Syeduna Abu Hurayra in the followingway:

The Prophet sollallaohu alaihi tva sallam would congratulate his companions by saying 'The month of Ramadhaan has C0111e to you, it is a blessed month, Allah has prescribed it's fasts 'upon you. In it the gates of Paradise are opened, the doors of Hell closed and the devils locked up. In it is a night better than a thousand months and whoever is deprived of It's guidance is surely deprived,' (An Nisai)

Imam Jalaaluddi.n Suyooti and Shaykh Ibn Rajah state that this ha,ditb is the basis of congratulations:

"The hadith is the basis for congratulating on the month of'Ramadhaan.'

I

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I

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II

Why should this month not be a cause of eongratulatiour! In which tbe gates ofparadise are opened, the devils restricted and the gates ofHell shut? 1

To greet the ITlontb of'Ramadbaam

Alorigwith congratulating the companions and revealing it's importance he would also greet the month of Ramadhaan. It is in Kanz ulAmmaal and Mujma HZ Za waahid that be said:

IOh People, Ramadhaan; the ehiefof aU the. months has come to you, so we welcome and greet it.' (Mu}rna uzZauiaahid)

18

The Prophet's Ramadhaan

ToO give a sermon on the arrival of Ramadhaan:

On the last day of Shabaan ~ when the moon of Ramadhaan was expected, be would gather' all the companions in Masjid un Nabawi and deliver a sermon. In it he would reveal it's virtues, duas and im portance. This was to ensure that people benefited from Ramadhaan day and night, showed no neglect; and treated each moment as invaluable. Syeduna Abu Hurayra describes this very important practice:

·When the month of Rarnadhaan would arrive he \, v rould proclaim that verily a very blessed month had come to you.' (Musnad.Ahmad)

The W,el,eoming sermon:

The details of the sermon delivered on the arrival of this blessed month can be found in the books of ahadith; Syeduna Salmaan Faarisi narrates that ].(1 a sermon delivered on the last day of Shabaan he said:

'Oh People, a very blessed month is about to come over you. Arnonth in whi 'h is at night better than a thousand months. A 1110nth whose fasts Allah has prescribed. for you and made it's Qiyaam (prayers) a source of reward.

Wh··oe- 'v·· e ,;if' gets close to All ah in it U.Mt~"!, (volunta :Mi)

." , .. , ' .. ,.IIi:.," .' . ."i;j '.' cl'"'U '_ I "" , y-,¥' ,J!., JL.lII. - . JI.. J"JIj. . .1& J __ '-

good deeds will be like the one undertaking fard in other mon hs, And whoever fulfils a fard in it will be like fulfilling 70 fard in another 'month.

It is a month of patience and the reward of patience is paradise. It is a month of empathy fln.da ulonthi nwbkh the believer's rizq (livelihood) is increased.

Whoever (provides food to) opens the fast of nnother will have forgiveness for his sins and

19

The Prophet's Ramadhaan

freedom from Hen. l-ie ,IViU receive: the same reward as the fasting person and there will be no reduction in the reward of the fasting person.

On this the companions pointed out 'Not al] of us have the means to feed a fasting person to his full.' The Prophet replied '(My purpose was not that he be fed to' his fiU but) Allah Ta'aala will give such reward to anyone who gives even one date or one drop-of water or 111 inc. ,

It is a month whose first is mercy, whose middle is forgiveness and vI/hose last is freedom from Hell, 'Wboever lightens the hurd en of his worker Allah Vfill forgive and free him from Hell.

I I

Make plentiful four things in it.with two of them you can please YOlU' Lord and without the other two you cannot survive.

The two things with which you can please your Lord are the Kalima Tayyiba (it's dhikr) and Istigfaar (seeking forgiveness).

The two things without which you cannot survive are asking Allah for paradise and seeking His refuge from the fire.

And whoever gives water to a fasting person Allahwill (on the day of Qiyaarnah) quench him frommy fountain fromwhich he will not feel any thirst. up, until entering paradise, r

(SahilI Ibn Khuzauma)

Who are _you 'waitingfor?:

It is narrated from Syeduna Anas bin Maalik

20

The Prophet's Rarnadhaan

'When the month of Ramadhaan would arrive the Prophet saliallaahu alaihi wa saUa111 would say 'Subhaanallah, do you know who you are greeting and whois greeting you?' Syeduna Umar replied 'Yaa Rasoolallah, maybe arevelation is coming or an attack from an enemy?" The Prophet sallallaahu alaihi LU'.Q Sf1UCl1ll replied 'No, it is nothing like that; you are in fact waiting for the month of Ramadhaan in whose first night Allah forgives all the people of this Qibla.' (Fadhaui! Ii 1 Aotuqaat ofB'(J_yha,qi)

He would iter-ate the Importance and virtues of'the Inonth:

As is evident from [he blessed Kh utbah the Prophet sallaliachu alaihi wa sallam would describe the significance and virtues of this vmonth to the companions so they could become well aware of it's. worth and increase Ibaadah in it.

I) Abu Hurayra narrates ~hat the Prophet eallolloahu ulai:hi wa sallam said:

'When Ramadhaan begins. the doors of paradise are opened, the doors of hell closed and the devils tied up.' (Buk 11 aa ri & Muslim)

II ) Afber narrating the above words Ibn Majah, Ibn 11'1 baan, Ha&IdITI and Bayhaqi narrate the hadith:

"On every night ofRamadhaana caller calls out '0 doer of good, be swift! 0 doer of evil, refrain! Every night Allah frees from the fire. I

{AsSunanal KuhlYI.J

U 1III>n Masood narrated that the Prophet soilailaahu ,I r/ull~i wa sallam said ::

IIII every night of Ramadhaan. a call is made 'Is ,llPl'p anyone seeking forgiveness tor he will be

21

The Prophetts Ramadhaan

forgiven? Is there anyone supplicating for his supplication \viU be answered? Is there anyone asking for he wiU begiven?' At Iftaar every day 60)000 are freed from the fire and on the day of Eid an amount equal to all those freed during the whole month are freed!' (Kanz ul Anlmaal)

4) Abu Hurayra narrates that the Prophet sallallaabu alaihi tva sallam said:

'Every day and e, erv night of Ramadhaan AUah Ta'aala frees ] million people from the fire and on the 29 th night He frees an amount equal to. those freed during the whole monthl ij

(Athaaj Ah.l Hi Isl,QQnL)

s) Imam Tibraani and Bayhaqi narrate from Abu Saeed Khudri that the Prophet sailallaahu olaihi uia sallam "d-

sal :.

I Ramadhaan is the chief of all the months and Friday is the chief of all the days. I (Ibn Asaakir)

6) Abu Hurayra narrates that the Prophet sallalla.ahu alaihiuia sollatn. said:

'Whoever fasts in Ramadhaan with faith. and for the pleasure of Allah "vill have all his previous sins forgiven. (Bukhaari & Muslim)

I J I

" I

I II

, ,I

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7) Itis narrated in Tibraani that the P'r1opl1ets:aUallauh.u alaih! W'(t sailam said:

'I saw a man whose tongue was hanging out with thirst and whenever he approached the fountain he was turned away, Then the fasts of Ramadhaan arrrved and quenched him. a (Risaa.la Ramadhaan)

8) Abdullah bin Ulnar narrates that the Prophet sallallaahu alaihi wa sallam said:

22

The Prophet's Ramadhaan

'Paradise is. decorated throughout the year 'in. preparation of Rarnadhaan. On the first day of Ramadhaan the scent from the leaves of Jannah Is sprayed below the Arsh Olver the Hoor. Those HOOI' then plead 'OhAllah, f110m yOUI' servants make husbands for us who win cool our eyes and! whose eyes willbecooled byus.'

(Shab ullmaan Bayhaqi)

9) Syeduna Ubaada bin Saamit narrates that the Prophet sallallaului alaihi wa Hallam once said about the arrival of Ramadhaan:

'Rarnadhaan; the month of Barakah 'has come to you, in it Allah pays specific attention to you and sends downs mercy, forgives mistakes and accepts dua, In this month Allah Ta'aala looks at your dedication and takes pride over you with the angels. So in this monthendeavour hard in deeds and goodness, ,,"Vhoe-ver remains deprived of Allah's mercy is. surely most unfortunate.'

(AI Mo)arll ul Kabeer of'Tibraani)

ro) Abu I-Iurayra narrates that the Prophet sallallaahu ulaihi Iva sallam described the virtues 'Of the last night of Ramadhaan:

'Allah forgives the Ummah in the last night of Ramadhaan,' The Prophet .'3aUallaahu cdaihi W,Q sal/am was asked 'Is that the Night of Qadr? He replied 'No, the 'worker only receives his due after completing his workl I (Musnad Ahmad)

Ill! would describe the virtues of'Fastjng:

lung with the virtues of the month he sallallaahu .,illihi wa sallam would also enlighten the virtues and I~',II iflcance offasting,

2.3

The Prophet's Ramadhaan

L Uthmaan bin Abi Aas narrates that the Prophet sallallaah» alaihiiua saliam said:

'The fast is ,8 shield from heU just like one of your shields (protects you) in battle.' (AnNisai, book OjSiYfla m)

Imam Bayhaqi narrates the following words from Uthmaan binAbiAas ,:

'The fast is a shield from the wrath of Allah.' (At'haaf)

,2. Abdullah bin Umar urarrates that the Prophet salialtaah. u aloin i "Loa sa Ilam said :

'My ummah has two sanctuaries; the fast and the nocturnal qiyaam (prayer at night).' (MUS710d Ahlnad, Tibrnani)

3. Abu Hurayra narrates that the Prophet solialiaoins to laihi lUG sa llCHTI said:

'Every good deed is rewarded by 10 to 700 except the fast (i.e, there is no limit to its reward), ~ (Fa th ul.Baari)

4. Abu Hurayra and Abu Saeed Khudri narrate that the Prophet salta Ilaahu Q Ia fhi 'U),Q sallam said:

'Allab proclaims that the fast is for Me and I am it's reward.' (MuslinlJ, knaet: us Siueam)

5. Syeduna Sahl bin Saad narrates that the Prophet sallallaahu alaihi wa sallarn.said:

'Every thing has a zakah and the zakah of the body is the fast.' (AlMojcnn ulkabeer)

6. Abu Darda narrates that the Prophet sallaitaabu alaihi wa sa llam said:

'Every thing has a gate and the gate toworship is

24

fasting.' (Athaa]. As Saada btl Muusqeen)

7. Abu Hurayra narrates that th Prophet sa/laUaahu ataibi iva sallam said:

'Fasti ng is half of patience,'

Remem bel' that in another narration patience has been described as halfof Imaan so fastingmust consequently be one quarter of lmaan,

8) Uqba bin Aarnir narrates that the Prophet sullallo.,ah u ala ihi lDQ salkim said:

'WhU0Ve'l" fasted nne day for Allah IS pleasure Ana h Ta'aala will Teate a distance of 100 years between him and I Iell, I (Nisei)

9) Abu Amaarna states:

or presented 'myself in the court of the Prophet sallalluahu alaihi tva sallam and pleaded 'Yaa Rasoolallah, advise me of a good deed. I I Ie replied 'Fast for it bas no equal.' I. asked again 'Tell me of a no: her deed.' I le said 'Fast for there is nothing like it." I asked a third time and he said 'Fast for there is nothing like it.'

The narration of Ibn Hibbaan has the words:

I. asked Yaa Rasoolallah, tell me of an act that will cause me to enter Jannah, I He replied 'Fast for there is nothing Eke it. I

Tho narrator states that after this Syeduna Abu Amaama fasted so frequently that during the day smoke (Irom his stove) was never seen from his house except wh \ll he had guests. (Gaaua lui IhSQCl71)

This indicates that food was cooked during the day only when he had guests.

The Prophet's Ramadhaan

He would describe the virtues of th.e fasting person:

Along with the barakah of the month and fasting he would also describe the rank and status of the fasting person:

I

I I

I 1/

Enters Paradise through a speeiflc gate:

Sahl bin Saad narrates that the Prophet sallaUaahu. aiaihi toa sallam said:

'One of tile gates of 'Paradise is caned 'Riyyaan', On the day of Qiyaarnah it will be proclaimed "Where are those who fasted?' and those who fasted will stand and be entered into paradise through the Riyyaan gate. Aftertheir entering the gate wil] be locked and no one else will be entered through it .. • (Bukhaa r,i & Muslim)

Win never feel 'thirsty:

Sahl bin Saad narrates that the Prophet sallattaahu alaihi {va sallam. said:

'Whoever enters th rough that gate will be given a beverage and whoever drinks it will never feel thirsty',' (An Nisai, book oj8.iyaanl)

Five Glad tiding..~ for the fasting person:

Abu Hurayra narrates that the Prophet sallallaahu. alaihiusa sallarn said:

'In relation to Ramadhaan my urnmah has been given five things never granted to any previous nation.

1) The smell from the fasting person's mouth is more bekived to Allah than the fragrance of Musk.

2) Until Iftaar the fish in the sea keep seeking forgiveness for the person fasting ..

3) Allah Ta'aaladeeorates Jannah every day,

26

The Prophet's Ramadhaan

4) The devils are chained up in this mouth. s) The Urnrnah is forgiven in the last night,

The whole tinle in Ibaadah:

It is narrated by Atlas that the Prophet sallailaahu alaihi lva sallum said:

'The person fasting is alway sin a state of Ibaadah, even ifhe is sleeping in his bed.'

(KaHz ul Ammoal)

The food and drink of J annah:

It is narrated by Anas that the Prophet sallallaahu alaihi uiasallam said ,:

'Whoever is prevented fr0111 food and drink by the fast Allah Ta'aala \\;]1, feed him with the fruits of paradise and drink him with it's beverages.' (AthaofAhl ullsiaam)

Twojoys for the fasting persons

U is narrated by Abu Hurayra that the Prophet sallallaohu alaihi tva sallam said:

"There are t\,J\~O joys for the fasting person, one at Iftaar and one at meeting his Lord.' (MusnadAh1nad)

The dna. of the Angels for the fasting per-son:

When one person is fasting voluntarily and a second person eats next to him then until the second person has finished eating the Angels of Allah perform dua for the fasting person.

It is narrated by Umm Amrnaara 'that the Prophet eullallaahu ala ihi tva sallam said:

"Whene\el' anyone eats next to a fasting person the angels perform dua forthe fasting person until t he other finishes eating.' (JVluSTlod Ahmad)

The Prophet's Ramadhaan

Th,· ~'" terrti . off sti .. ' .• e m en on o .18S mg:

Remember the reward of deeds depends upon intentions. The Prophet satlallaohu ulaihi uia sallarn said :

'Actions are based on intentions.' (Bukhaari)

I ntention is the conviction and determ ination of the heart, which means that when undertaking a deed one should he convinced that it is being done for the pleasure ofAllah, (This "is especially so. as) The fast is the givingup of food" water and conjugal relations from dawn till dusk pure ly for the pleasure of Allah Tat aala,

The intention for Qadhaa (making, up) or Kaffaara (penalty Iconlpens~tion) fasts:

The whole Ummah is agreed on the necessity of making intention for Qadhaa and Kaffaara fasts the preceding night.

Imam Nawawi states:

'\i\fe do notknow anyone who disagrees with. it: (AI ,ia1noo 'a)

The Interrtion for the Fasts ofRamadhaan:

In this there is disagreement. Some Ulama believe it is necessary to make intention the night before but th conclusion of the Hanafee Ulama is tilat intention can be made before most of the fasti '['"liS dayhas passed. Salama bin Aku narrates:

IOn the day of Ashura the Prophet saliallaahu aiaih! wa sallam ordered a rnan to proclaim 'Whoever has already eaten should stop and whoever has not eaten should not eat I (Bukhaari)

Others have used the following hadith as proof of having to nlake the intention the night before; Syed:'~ Hafsa

28

Tbe Pl'ophet's Ramadhaan

narrates that the Prophet sallollaahu alaihi u)a sallam said:

·Whoever did not make intention the night before, there is nofastfor him .. ~ (An Nisai)

The Hanafee Ulama state that this is not the statement of the Prophet sallallaahu al'aihi ,wa sallam but of a

.

companion:

Imam Bukhaari narrates =

'The authentic position is that this is the statement of Syeduna Abdullah bin Umar.'

whilst Imam Tirrnidhi writes :

'The authentic position is that this is the statement ofa companion.'

Imam Nisai states:

'Tome the correct position is that this is the statement of a companion and not the Prophet sallallauhu ala ihi wa sallam .. ' (Fi,qh us Sa w'rn)

Even if this ',"'85 the statement of the Prophet sallallaohu olaihi Iva sallam it would only mean that a perfect fast IDS the one for which the intentionwas made the night before. Imam Badr ud Deen Aini po i nts this outin the followingway :

'Ifwe accept it is sahih and. free from deficiencies it only negates perfection and virtue Just as the Prophet's statement 'There is no prayer outside the mosque for the one who ] ives next to the mosque', {Umdatul Oaari)

The Prophet's Ramadhaan

Chapter g

At Sehri

He would 'eat Sehri:

In Ramadhaan the Prophet sallallaahu alaihi tva sallam would eat Sehri and would declare it a blessed meal.

Syeduna Anas narrates:

'The Prophet sallu:ilaahtl alaihi tva: sallam ordered me to bring him SOITI.e food at the time of sehri so l brought dates and w ater, l-le then ordered 'See if there is anyone who will eat with 1118,1 I caned Zaid bin Thaabit who pleaded IYaa Rasoolallah, I have already eaten and made the intention to fast. I The Prophet sallallaohu alaihi Lva sallan1replied 'We too are going to fast' so he joined the Prophet sullaUaahu alaih! w'Cz sallam in sharing the Seh ri, I (Nisai)

It is narrated from Zaid bin Haarith::

r\l\Te would eat Sehri with the Prophet salla Ilaahu alaihiiua salkim,'

Syeduna Aisha narrates that at Senri the Prophet sallallaahii alaihi tva: sallam would say

'Bring us the blessed meal, I' {Nisai)

A. eompanion naeratest

;1 went to the Prophet sollallaalni olaihi lVQ sallam at the time of Sehri, 'when I entered the Prophet's room he was eating Sehri and said 'It is but a blessing that Allah has bestowed upon you

The Prophet's Ramadhaan

so do not lose it.' (Niso i)

It is nanrated b:yArbaadh bin Saariya :

'The Prophet sallallaahu alaihi W,Q sallam invited HIe to Sehri in Ramadhaan by saying 'Comel Join in the blessed meal,' (MusnadA}nnadJ

He described Sehrt as a blessed meah

The Prophet sa Uallclahu alaih! wa sa lla m desci .. ibed the Sehri as the moming's blessed IneLU!, as mentioned in

"h b .

tll,e,a, ave narrations.

Syeduna Ma'uadi Karb riazrates.

~'Alhen ordering us to eat Sehri the Proph et saiiallaahu alaihi tva sallam said 'Verily it is the blessed morning meal. '

Arbaadh bin Saariya narr-ates :

!The Prophet sallallaahu alaih! W'Q' sallam in itcd me tojoin him in Sehri by saying 'Corne and Join in the blessed meal.' (Nisai)

He would perform SehriwlthDatesr

Like Iftaar the Prophet sallallaahu alaihi ioa sallam performed Sehri with dates, but with not too many, often it wasjust two dates and water,

SyedunaAisba describes the Prophet's Sehri : 'Often it was not more than two dates." (Mu 'a RasoolfiRamudhaan)

SyledunaAnas narrates;

'The Prophet sallaUaahu aiaihl W'a sallam ordered me to prepare Sehri because he intended to fast so I brought dalles and a pan filled. with water. I (Nisai)

31

The Prophet's Ramadhaan

He declared Dates as the Best Se,bri:

The Prophet sallallaahu alaihi tva sallam described eating dates at Sehri a' the best Sehri. Syeduna Abu Hurayra narrates t118t the Prophet sallaitaahu alaihi uia sallam said:

"The best Sehri of the believer is dates, I (Abu Dial-Dud)

Imam Tibraani narrates fr01TI Syeduna Saaib bin Yazeed and Syeduna Uqba bin Aarnir that the Prophet sallallaahu alaihi wa saUa112 said :

'The best Sehriis dates." (A,lMo)alH ul Kabeer)

Can Sehri be, performed with any food"?

The Prophet sallallaahu olaihi wa sallam has not specified anything for the Umrnah's Sehri. Syeduna .Iaabir narrates that the Prophet sallallaahu alaihi tva sallam s.aid! :

'Whoever intends to fast should perform Sehr] with something .. " [Musnad Ahmad)

Syeduna Ali narrates that the Prophet sallallaahu alaihi tva sal/ani. said:

'Perform Sehrl, even if it is one sip of water.' (AI Kaamil q{lbnAdi)

The difference between

Muslims and the People of the Book:

The Sehri has been declared. the difference between the fasts of the Muslhns. and the fasts of the Ahl ul Kitaab (People ofthe Book), SyedunaUmar bin Aas narrates that the Prophet sallallaahu alaih iwa sallam said:

'I The difference between our fasts and the fastsof the people of the Book is the eati ng of Sehri. ~ (Tirmidhi, Abu Dauiud)

32

The Prophet's Ramadhaan

He taught the Ummah to partake in Sehri:

To avoid difficulties the Prophet suilallauhu alaihi lva sultanl taught his Ummah to eat Sehri in Ramadhaan. Syeduna Arias narrates that the Prophet sal'lal.lQ.Qhu alail1i uiasallam said:

'Perform Sehri for verilJ there' is barakah (blessi ng) ~n Sehri, j' (Muslim, book ofSiyaam)

Syeduna Ab 1 Saeed narrates that the Prophet salla llaahu ala ihi ,wa sallam said:

!'Ai1 of the. Sehri is barakah, so do not miss it. I (Musnad Ahmad)

Allah's mercy is. upon those whoperform Sebri:

The Prophet sc llaltaahu alaihi tua saUamsaid ~

i Perform Sehri, even if one sip, ofwater for surely Allah and His angels send mercy upon those who perform Sehri, T (M.usnadAhnlad)

He would supplicate for blessings, in Sehri:

The Prophet sallallaahu alaihi tva sollam supplicated for barakah in his Ummah's Sehri.

~ rnam Dar ul Qutni ill 'AI Ifraad' quotes the following rlua of the Prophet sollallauhu. .a1ailli wa sallom narrated by Syeduna Abu Amaama:

'0 Allah, bless my Umrnah in their Sehri, I

Art r this he ordered the eating of Sehri, even if' it was rust one sip of water or one date because the angels II' [>p I icate for those who perform Sehri.

(. , t 'haaf. Ahl ul Islaam).

Ill" would make dna for those performing Sehri: \ I In~ with supplicating for blessing in the Sehri itself he I ,!, ~ ipplicated for those people who perform Sehri.

The Prophet's Ramadhaan

Imam Tibraani narrates the following dna of the Prophet sallallaahu alaih! wa sallam from Syeduna Abu Saeed:

'Oh Allah, send blessings on those 'who perform Sehri.' (AthaaJ Ahl ui Islaam)

He would describe the benefits and 'wisdoms in Sebri:

I) The Prophet sallailaahu aiaini wa sallum described the Sehri as a wholly blessed meal. What meal could be more blessed than the nne which helps and aids obedience to Allah!

2) He described it, as stated above, as contrary to the practice of the People of-the Book,

3) It assists the fasting person. Abdullah Ibn Abbaas narrates that the Prophetsa.l1aUaahu a laihi wa sallom said:

'Seek the help of the Sehri in your dais fast and seek the help of the Siesta in your night Qiyaam.' (Ibn Maj'ah,Al Mustadrik)

He would delay th,e Sehri:

The Prop.het sallallaahu alaihi wa saliam would not be hasty in performing Sehri, rather he would delay it as much as possible, In other words 'he would perform Sehri dose to the breaking, of dawn,

Abdullah ibn Abbaas narrates that the Prophet sellalluahu ala ilti wra soliam said:

'W'e are the group of Prophets and we have been ordered to delay our Sehri.'

(As Suna.n 0:1 Kubra, bookofsiuaam)

Sye dun a Anas riarr-atesr

- 'The Prophet sallallaahu alaihi wa sallam and Zaid bin Thaabit performed Sehri together and

,34

The Prophet's Ramadhaan

then left to pray Fajar, The narrator asked Arras how much time there was between them finishing Sehri and the prayer, He replied "The time it would take to recite SO verses.' (Bukhaari, Baab Waqt ul FaJul')

In another narration a sim Hal" amount of time has been mentioned between Sehri and the Adhaan of Fajar, (Bukhaari, book cf Saunn)

Syeduna Khuzayfa had the honour of eating Sehri with the Prophet sa llallaatu: alaihi wa sallam. He was asked

'At what time did you perform Sehri with the Prophet sailallaahu alaihi tva sallami' He replied I Itwas light but the Sun had not yet risen. I (Nisai)

In other words it was very close to Fajar, Itis narratedfrom Sahl bin Saad:

'I would perform Sehri at horne and then go very swiftly to attain the prayer with the Prophet saliallaahu alaihi W'Q sallam: (Bukhaari, book a.f' Saurm)

In another hadith in Bukhaari he states:

II would perform Sehri and then leave quickly to pray Fajar with the Prophet sallallaahu alaihi W'Q sollam, (Bukiiaari, book of the times of the Prauer)

Itis narrated from Syeduna Bilaal:

II went to the Prophet sallaliaahu alaihi wa. sollam to inform him of the Fajar prayer. The Prophet sallallaatui alaihi uia sallam had intended to fast and caned £01' a. bowl, drank from it and then left for the mosque for the prayer.' (Musnad.Ahmad)

35

The Prophet's Ramadhaan

Ifit wasn 'tfor Bilaal:

It is in Musannaf Abdur Razzaaq, narrated by Jaabir, that Bilaal "vent tothe Prophet sallallaahu alaihi W'!Cl seilam who was performing Sehri:

Bilaal said 'Yaa Rasoolallah, the Prayer'. The Prophet sallallaahu ala ihi wa sallam carried on with the Sehri, Syeduna Bilaal returned and the Prophet saUaUaahu alaih: wa sallam was still performing sehri, He then said 'Yaa Rasoolallah, by Allah, it is Morning'. On this the Prophet sollallaatu» alaihi tva sallam said '011. Allah, have mercy upon Bilaal, if it wasn It for Bilaal we would have had permission to extend sehri until sunrise.' (HakuzaaAsaQrH ur RasoQl)

These narrations make clear that the Prophet soltaltaahu alaihi tva sallam performed sehri very close to the beginning ofFajer.

Shaykh ibn AbiJ amra describes the wisdom behind the Prophet's sehri and it's delay:

'He did this to showkindness tohis Ummah, Ifhe did not perform Sehri some people would have found it difficult to imitate him, and if he had performed Sehri in the middle of the night it would also have been difficult for those overcome

- - ' , - -

by sleep. They would either have missed the morning prayer or would have had to stay awake for a long time.'

l

The important benefit in delaying Sehri is to ensure the fasting person is able to offer the morning prayer. If Sehri was performed at long time before the rise of dawn then through sleepiness there was danger that the Fajar prayer would have been missed, Thus the Prophet saU'allaahu alaihi lJ)Q saUarrz taught the un11uah to

,36

The Prophet's Ramadhaan

perform sehri close to d18 rise of dawn and instead of returning to sleep to go straight to the mosque and pray with the congregation.

A request to the Imams of the Mosques:

Consequently the ImaU1S of mosques are requested to arrange the congregation of Fajar close to Sehri (about lS-20minutes after) so. that people need not wait long: for the prayer. If there is a long delay there is real danger that due to sleep some people wifl not be able to wait for the J amaat and may e en miss the prayer altogether ..

The Ummah bas been ordered to delay the Sebri::

To ensure maximum ease for his Ummab the Prophet sa.Uctllaahu IQ la flIi iva S(1Ua HI ordered them, to delay Sehri,

Anas narrates that the Prophet saltallaah. During the daywhilst Fasting u a.loihi tva sollam said:

'Be earlywith Iftaarand late with Sehri.'

(Ai Kaamil lilbn.Adi)

Uqba bin Aamir and Abu Darda narrate that the ProphetsuUaUaahualaihi uiasollarii said:

'Perform Sehri in the final part of the night.' (MujmaAzZawaaid)

The Ummah sh.aU remain on good:

Abu Zar narrates that the Prophet sella llaalm ala.ihi wa sallam said:

'My Ummah will stay on good as long as it delays it's Sehri and hastens it's Iftaar.' (MusnadAhlnad)

The Prophet's Ramadhaan

Chapter 4

Dur-ing fhe Day whilst Fasting

Increasing the recitation of the Quran:

The Quran's deep relationship with the month of Ramadhaan is not hidden from anyone. If's revelation upon the sacred heart of the ProphetsaUallaahu alaihi W',Q 8(1110111 began in this month and no one was more aware of this link than the Prophet sallallaahu alaihi wa sallam himself

The relationship between file Quran and this month is evident from this statement of the Prophet sallallcabu alaihiuxi sollam narrated by Abdullah bin. Ulnar:

'The Fast and the Quran will both intercede for the servant on the day of Qiyaamah, The Fastwill plead '0 Lord, I prevented him from food and desires during the day.' The Quran will plead 1 prevented him from sleep at night." (MusnadAhmad)

Even though reciting the Quran was his norm throughout the year he would increase his recitation during this month. And though he always recited a. great deal of Quran in his Nawaafil and Tahajjud of ordinary nights in the nights of Ramadhaan his recitationwould be longer.

The Prophet's dose companion Syeduna Khuzayfa describes the recitation in Ramadhaan:

'One night in Ramadhaan I had the honour of praying with him, he recited Surah Baqarah, then AaI e hnran and then An Nisaa. When he reached

,3,8

The Prophet's Ramadhaan

the verses of fearing Allah he would supplicate to Allah, The Prophet had not completed t\N'O Rakahs when Bilaal called the Adhaan for Fajar.' (MusnadAJ1.nIUd)

In other words the recitation lasted the whole night. Imam Ibn I Iajar Makki explains the link between Ramadhaan and the Quran :

'The Prophet sallclloahu alaihi usa saUaJn would lengthen, over the other nights, his recitation of the Quran in the night prayers of Ramadhaan.' (AthaafAlll ul Isla a m)

He would r-ecite to others

the whole Quran in Ramadhaanr

Syeduna Abdullah bin Maasood had the honour of hearing the \'\ hole Quran from the Prophet sallallaahu alaihi wa sollam every Ramadhaan, And in the last year he heard it twicel

Syeduna Abdullah bin Abbaas was asked whose recitation was the best, he replied:

'The recitation of Abdullah bin Masood because the Prophet sallallaohu alaihi tva sallam would recite the Quran to him once every Ramahaan and twice in the year of his passing.' (Ibn Saad)

Be would listen to the recitation of the Quram Abdullah bin Masood also has the honour' of having the Prophet sallallaahu alaihi lUG sallam listen to bis owa recitation of the Quran. It is narrated by Bukhaari and Muslim from Abdullah bin Masood :

'The Prophet sallallaahu alaihi Iva sallam asked me to recite to him the Quran, I pleaded I (HOV\f can I) Recite to you when the Quran was revealed upon youl?' He replied Verily I love to hear it from

39

~

The Prophet's Ramadhaan

others. I l recited Surah An Nisa and when I recited the verse 'And 'what timewill it be. ... ! he said 'That is enough. 'When i looked towards his blessed face his eyes were moist withtears.'

Revision of the Qurun with .Jmbrae·eh

The Prophet's recitation of the Quran in Ramadhaan was such that even Jibraeel , . vould leave Sidra tu'l Muntahaa every night and come to the Prophet's rOOITI. On arrival .Iibraeel would recite to the Prophet sallallaahu olaihi loa saltam the parts of the Quran revealed between that and the previous Rarnadhaan. 1'11en the Prophet sallallaahu alaihi wa satlom woul d recite the same back to tJ ibraeel,

It is narrated from Abdullah bin Abbaas :

'Jibraeel would meethim every night in Ramadhaan and revise the Quran with him .. '

(Bukhaari, book of'Sauim)

Other narrations have the following words:

'Jibraeel would <come. every year and revise 'with him the parts of the Quran revealed between that and the previous Ramadhaan.' (Patt: ul Baari)

Two revisions in the last Ramadhaane AlthoughJfbraeel wonld revise the Quran with him once every Ramadhaan.Jn the Ramadhaan of the year of his passing he revised it twice with him. Drum ul Momlneen Syeda Aisha narrates that in the year of his passing away the Prophet salkdlaahu alaihi lva sallam saidtome:

'Verily.Jibraeel used to revise the Quran withme once each year but this year he revised it with me twice.' (Ibn Saad)

40

The Prophet's Ramadhaan

Shower of kindness:

The Prophet sallailaahu alaih» wa sallam is the most generous person in the whole universe. No needy person ever left from him empty, even if he himself had nothing hewould borrow and fulfilthe needs of others.

Some examples ofbis genel·os:j~:

o It is from Syeduna Arias that the Prophet sallallaahu aloitii tva. sallam would givewhatever was asked from him. One man asked the Prophet saUa.Uaahu alaihi wa sollam to g['ve hiI11 goats equal to the number that pass between two mountains, The Prophet salluUuuhu alaihi ura sallam did so and the man went back to his people and said 'Accept Islaarn because M uha no mad gif es as if he has no fear of poverty.' (MUSU,TI Book ofFadhaail)

,0 Syeduna Safwaan bin Ummayya narrates 'I had great dislike forth Prophet sallatiaalu: alaihi t.va sallam but he always gave Inc so much that he became mymost beloved person.'

(Muslim Book ofFadttaa il).

Imam Ibn Shuhaab Zuhri explains that on the way back from Hunayn the Prophetsallallaahll alaihi WfJ sollam gave Safwaan bin U111mayy'1 100 camels on three separate occasio ns.

a Syeduna .labcerbin Mat'arn narrates that onthe "Nay back from Hunayn lots of bedouins grabbed hold of the Prophet sallallaahu alaihi tva sallam and kept asking him and he responded 'If I had as much wealth as the number of trees around us m would distribute rut all between you. In this matter )OU will not find IDe a miser, liaror a coward.' (Bukhaari, Kitaab ul Jjhaad)

41

The Prophet's Ramadhaan

o I tis from Syeduna . Iaa bir 'Whetever was as ked of the Prophetsallallaahu alaihi tva sallam, he never said no.' (Bukhaari, Kitaob ul.Adab)

The Prophet .saUaUaahu alaihi wa sailoHl1ived his 0'1\111. life in hunger and poverty but showered others in a 'way that even the emperors of Rome and Persia would have been left in the shade! Furthermore his generosity was not restricted to goods and chattel but extended to all matters:

'Where rwealth was distributed so too was knowledge, he strived and struggled to strengthen Allah's deen and guide His people, for example, feeding the poor". advising the ignorant, fulfilling the needs of the creation and sharing their burdens.'

The Prophet's generosity did not begin after his announcement of Prophethood but dates back to when he began dealing with people. Look at the words by which Syeda Khadija praised him when he announced his prophethocd :

'By Allah, He will never let you be worried for you are the one who joins relations, looks after the guest, reduces other's burden, helps the helpless and gives support in the problems faced in the path oftruth, , (Bukhaari, Baa b Bada ulWuhi)

Although his generosity grew with each day when the moon of Ramadhaan was sighted his generosity increased even further. The Companions state that they saw the Prophet solialiaahu alaihi tva sallam shower generosity in Ramadhaan faster than the wind,

Abdullah bin Abbaas states that the Prophet.sallaUo:ahu alaihi U)(l saUatn ,vas the Inost generous of aU the

42

T'heProphef's Rantadhaan

people hut "vas ev en more generous in the month of Ramadhaan :

'and when .Iibraeel would arrive his showering of generosity was faster than the sweeping wind.' (Bukhaari, Book o/S1)jaam)

The words of this narrationin Ibn Saad are:

! At night Jibraee] would recite the Quran with him and the next day his generosity would h faster than the sweeping wind. Nothing \NaS askedfrom him except that he gave.it, I'

Wisdom behind his Inereased g,enerosity:

There are numerous wisdoms behind increasing generosity in the 1110 nth of Ramadhaan:

i) In Rarnadhaan Allah Ta'aala increases reward and blessing upon every one of His servants and the Prophet sallallaahu alaihi wa sallam would also adopt this practice ofAllah Ta'aala and too be generous to the people. (Gaaya iu'llhsaan)

2) The charity of this month is more virtuous than the charity of other months, Syeduna Anas narrates that the Prophet sailallaahu alaih: Lva sa lla nl said:

'The most virtuous Sadaqalr is the Sadaqah in Ramadhaan.' (Kanz u 1 Anlmual)

3) Charity gives support to those fasting and fulfilling Allah's command and the giver receives equivalent reward. It is narrated by Zaid bin Khaled that the Prophet sallollaahu ulaihi tva sallatn said ~

'Whoever opens the fast of a fastingperson will receive reward equal to the fasting person's with no reduction in the reward of the fasting person .. '1 (Tirmidhi, book of Sa unn)

43

t I

The Prophet's ,Ralnadhaan

4) The. blessed Rarnadhaan is specifically the month of empathy and helping, Syeduna Salmaan Faarisi narrates that the Prophet sallalkiabu aloih: tva sa Ilam said:

'It is a month for empathising and a month in which the rizq (livelihood) of the believer" is increased.' (Sallih Ibn Khuzauma)

5) Combining fasting and charity leads to the attainment of .lannah, Syeduna Ali narrates that the P]>ophetsaJlaUaahu akiihiioa sallam said:

'There is a palaeo in paradise.' The Sahaaba asked 'For who shall that be?' He replied "For he whose speech is good, who feeds others and prays at night when others sleep." (Tirm idh i)

6) .Jihraeel's visit was in fact a message of love from Allah Ta'aala and consequently the Prophet suUa.Ua.ahu alaihi tva sallarn gave plenty of charity whenever Jibraeel carne. FrUIn this the UIU111ah's Ulama have inferred the fact that whenever one meets a holy or pious person one should thank Allah by spending on others. The famous commentator of Sahib Muslim Imam Nawawi writes that one should be very generous when one meets aholyperson. (Sharo Nauxuui)

Important Point:

I f it is a very favoured practice to offer sadaqah on meeting a pious and holj person, indeed it is a sunnah of the Prophet sallalla ihu alaihi lva sallam, 110\'\1 wonderful would it be to offer sadaqah in happiness at the time of Allah's, sending I-Hs beloved Prophet to the Ummahrl Ifit is permissible to spend when meeting people who only became pious after following and serving the Prophet sallalioahu alaihi loa salialnthen one must wonder how tragic it is to xonslder it

44

The Prophet's Ramadhaan

misguided to offer sadaqah IOn the arrival of the leader and source of'tbis our and guidance?!

Releasingof'Peisunea-s:

One form of his generosity and benevolence in Ramadhaan ,<\ as his freeing of prisoners. Imam Bayhaqi narrates from Abdullah bin Abbaas whilst Ibn Saad in 'fa baqaat narrates from Syeda Ais ha :

'When Ramadhaan began the Prophet would free all the prisoners and gh e to all the seekers.' (Fadl1aa.il ul A.w(j(lat)

Imam Abdur Rauf Al Munaadi writes under this hadith : 'In this practice of the Prophet sallcllaabu alaihi WQ, sallam is the lesson that at the beginning of Rarnadhaan prisoners should be released and generosity shown to the poor and destitute.'

(Faidh loll Qadeer)

He would use Mii.swaakwhi.lst Fastinge

Every person. of understanding knows wellhow much the Prophet sallalloahu ala ih iwa satkim loved the

Miswaak. 1 Ie evenused it whilst fasting. .

Abu Da'IA'Ud and Tirmldhi narrate this practice of the Prophet sallallaohu alaihi wa sallam from Aamir bin Rabee'a with the follov .. in,g words:

II saw the Prophet s.a.llaUaahu alaih! ,wa sallam using the miswaak whilst fasting on many and

, • 1

countless occafHons ..

Ibn Majah has the following proclama tion of the Prophet:

'The best act for the one fasting is the Mis\!'. auk. ~ (As Sunan ul Kub'1U)

45

Tbe Prophet's Ramadhaart

Use Leeches:

To rid the body of bad toxins he would apply leeches. It is narrated by Abdullah ibn Abba as :

'The Prophet sallollnabu alaihi wa sallam used to cup whilst he was fasting .. "

(Bukhaari and Muslim)

Th is proves that gh ing blood does not invalidate the fast. However one should not give so much that causes a weakness that endangers the fast,

Applying Kuh] (Surma):

The Prophet saitallaahu claihi ,wa sallam~vould also apply Kuhl (8 urna) to his eyes whilst fasting. Syeduna Anas states:

'H e would apply Kuhl whilst he was fasting.' (Abu Daunui, Kitaab us Siuaam)

Imam Abu DaVV1J.d explains the hadith in which Kuhl is apparently prohibited during fasting and quotes Imam Yahya bin Mueen:

'That hadith is Munkar (not worthy of being used as evidence). I

Vis.iring Masjid ul Quba on the 1701 .Morning:

.Just as it was the practice of the Prophet saUal1aahu alaib; 'wa sallam to visit Masjid u~ Quba every Saturday he would also visit it on the 17l~1 morning of every Ramadhaan, irrespective ofwhichever day it was ..

ShaykbAbu Musil nal~r,ates from Syeduna J aabir:

'The Prophet sollallaoh» alaihiuxi sal/am would visit Masj id ul Qu ba on the 17th morning, of Ramadhaan, whichever day it was .. ~

(AlltaajAhl ulIslaanl)

The Prophet's Ramadhaan

Attain Coolness:

If it was very hot the Prophet sallatlaahu alaihi loa sallam"vDuld keep cool by pouring water over his blessed head. It is. narrated by a companion:

'I saw the Prophet sollallaahu claihi WQ sollam at Urj, he was fasting and pouring water over his headdu€ to either-the heat orthirst,'

(Abu Dauiud)

Urj is a place between Makkah and Madeenah, It is narrated about Abdullah bin Umar:

'Whilst fasting a damp cloth would be put over him .. ' (As Siuaam Will Ramadhaan)

Remember- in doing these acts one should never show signs of impatience or frustration because fasting IDS an act of Ibaadah. If there is then these acts 'NiU become Makruh, These acts should purely be to aid the act of Ibaadah,

Hewould describe the etiquettes offastings Every ibaadah has its O\\i'D. etiquettes and there are clear benefits in performing ibaadahwith etiquette, Consequently the Prophet sallalkuihu Q Iaihi wa SaUa7TI described the etiquettes of fasting so that the ummah could take great care of them wh ilst fasting,

Abu Ubaydah bin .Jaraa'h narrates that he heard the Prophet sa lia Ilaoiu: aluihi iva sallamsay:

"I'he fast acts as a shield as long as it is not cracked,'

Abu Hurayra narrates that when he said this he was asked:

'How does onemake a crack in it?' He explained "By lying and backbiting .. '

(Al.MojamAIAowSQl' ofTibraani)

47

The' Prophet's Ramadhaan

Preventing the tongue and

aU bodily parts fronrforbfdden matters:

Syeduna Abu Hurayra narrates:

'The Prophet sallallaahll (Jlail1i tva salkur: said i\lVhen. one of you is fasting he should not speak evil nor undertake evil and if anyone fights or swears .811 "\ au respond bv saving. 'Verilv I am

,,,.I ;,J' J''''' .}

fasting.' (Muslirn" Book offasting)'

Imam Haakim and Bayhaqi narrate from AbuHurayra that the Prophetsalla.UQahu alaihiuxs s,aUamsaid: 'Fasting is not just refraining from food and drink but is also refraining from useless and indecent talk.' (As 3unanAI Kubra)

It is not enough to just give up food or drink:

Abdullah bin Masood narrates that the Prophet sella liaobu alaihi Hla sallam said ':

'Allah Ta'aala proclaims 'Whosocvees bodily parts do not refrain from forbidden matters has no need to refrain from food and drink for Me." (Athaaf Ahl ul Islaam}

Imam Nisai narrates from Abu Hurayra that the Prophet sallallaanu alaihi tva saliam said:

'If the fasting person does not give up lying and evil then Allah Ta'aala has no need for his giving up food and drink. t (Nisai)

to'

'Keep the tongue safe from Backbiting:

Just as it is important to guard the tongue from lies. and obscenities it is also extremely necessary to protect it from backbiting, The Quran has likened backbiting, to eating the flesh of one's dead brother!

The Muhaddith Ibn Abj Duniya and Abu Yalaa narrate

48

The' Prophet's Ramadhaan

the following episode from Uhayd, the Prophet's servant:

A luau came to the Prophet sallallaohu alaihi uia sallam and informed him oftwo fasting women so thirsty that it was feared they both may die, The Prophet sallallaaln: a/nihi wa sallcuJ1 kept quiet, The man carne back again and repeated his plea. The Prophet called for both of them, When they arrivedthe Prophet sallaliaahs» alaihi toa sallam. asked for two bowls, I-Ie gave each of them a bow] and ordered them to vomit into it.Woen they vomited out carne blood, puss and pieces of flesh. The Prophet satioiiaahu u.l,Q,ihi was'allam commented 'Both of them kept their fast on Halaal but broke itwith Haraam; they sat with each other and ate the flesh of people (they backbited), !

]n another narration be said:

II swear by He in whose Hand is my life, if that had stayed in their stomachs the firewould have burnt them,' (Gaaya. tul Ihsaan)

It is narrated by SyedunaAbdullah ibn Ahbaes :

'Two fasting men prayed ZUhI' and Asr, The Prophet eallallaahu alaih,i tva Sall(11U ordered them to repeat their wudhu and prayers and continue with the fast but to fast another day in compensation. They pleaded !'\V"by, Yaa Rasoolallah?' He explained 'Because you backbited so and 80. T

The fast of the ear', eye and tongue:

Jaabirbin.Abdullah used to say:

'"When you fast your hearing, sight and tongue should also fast from lies Bud sins.'

(Ga:aya tulIhsaan)

49

The Prophet's Ramadhaan

Based on the above some scholars, such as Imam O'zaaee and Imam Ibraheem Nakhfi (Imam Abu Haneefa's teacher), state that backbiting causes the fast to break. However most of the Ulama do not regard it to break the fast but rather only extinguishing. it's rewards and benefits, such as duas being accepted and sins being forgiven,

The practice of ~bu Hurayra and his students. During fasting it was the practice of Abu Hurayra and his students to quickly finish their daily work and head. to the mosque, When asked why they did so they replied 'To keep 'Our fasts pure '.

In light of these ahadith and statements of the' companions ImarnHaleemi writes :

"Ihe fasting person should fast with his whole body, his flesh, his eyes, his tongue and his heart. He should not backbite" swear, quarrel Of' lie. He should not waste his time in bad poetry, stories, jokes, praise of the unworthy Of' criticism or compliment ofanotherwithout cause. He should not extend his hand towards evil nor walk towards evil and neither employ any of his physical strengths for evil.' (AthaafAhl ullslaam)

The practice offasting

and Iftaar whilst. travelling:

The prophet sallallaabu alaihi W'Q sailam. and his companions strived and struggled for Islaam in an the months of the year. However in Ramadhaan tJH~Y strived even harder, They made no excuses to refrain from striving in this month and whenever the command of Allah came they proclaimed 'Labbaik' (We are present).

50

The Prophet's Ramadhaan

'The Prophet sallallClflhu alaihi tua sallam undertook three maj or journeys during the month of Ramadhaan: r) Forthe battle of Badr in. the znd year ofHij ra,

2) For the conquest of Makkah in the 8th year of !, ffijra ..

3) For the battle of Tabooq in the 9th year of Hijra,

It is proven that during journeys the Prophet sollallaahu alaihi W'Q sallam both did and did not fast whilst Oll some occasions he broke the fast after starting it [11 other words depending on circumstances he either fasted or did not

Fasting on ajourney:

SyedunaAbu Darda narrates

iWe· were travelling with the Prophet sallallaahu alaihi Wfl sallam on a vel)' hot day and everyone was covering their heads due to the beat. None of us were fasting except the Prophet and Abdullah bin Rawaaha.' (Bukhaari,& Muslim)

The permissibility offasting on ajourney:

Umm ul Momineen Syeda Aisha narrates :

'Hamza bin Ulnar Aslama would regularly fast and asked the Prophet sallallaahu alaihi tva sallam about fasting on a journey" The Prophet sailallaahu alaihi IV,Q sallam replied 'If you want you can fast and if you want you can leave it. I (Bukhaari &.MusHm)

Started a fast but fhen opened it:

Sometimes the Prophet sallallaabu akiih! tva sallam began the day fasting and if he suffered or felt the need during the journey he opened the fast. ¥/hen the Prophet sallallaahu alaihi wa sollam left for th oonquest of Makkah he had 10.,000 people ,vith hinl.

51

AU of them were fasting hut after reaching the place of Afaan the Prophet sa Ilailaahu al'aihi uia sallam noticed the fast was ca using people distress and caned for a bowl of water. He raised it aloft to allow everyone to see it and then drank from it and opened his fast. \¥hen the Prophetsallallaahu olaihi wa sallam was later told that some people had still not opened their fasts be

mments d Itll Aa .. ~

.cae·fIIIi e',.~ley are - .S~ ..

Abdullah bin Abbaas narrates :

'The Prophet sallallaahu alaihi tva sallam undertook a journey during Ramadhaan, When he reached the place of Afaan he called for a bowl of water and drank from it during the day so that

- -

people could see and open their fast." (Bukhaari)

Noone would slander the other:

On occasions on the same journey some companions would be fasting and others would not but because both methods were permissible no one slandered another.

I t is narrated from Abu Saeed Khudri :

1We travelled with the Prophet sallallaahu alaihi wa sallam, some were fasti ng and some were riot but noone slandered the other,"

In another narration he states:

'The companions' view was that whoever had the ability to fast should do 50 and that was better for him and whoever found weakness should leave the fast and that was better for him.' {Muslim)

Today tbose not fasting have taken the rewardr Syeduna Anas narrates:

'We were travelling with the Prophet salialloahu alaihi tva sallam. All those fasting were lying on

52

The Prophet's Ramadhaan

the ground tiredwhilst those not fasting were up pitching tents and watering the animals. Upon this the Prophet sallallaahu alaihi UJQ sallam commented 'Today those not fasting have taken the reward.' (Bukhoari & Muslim)

F'· '. 1· dition l d d d

astmg tnt msconc rttonfs not agoed c ee :

It is not virtuous to fast if one becomes weak during a journey or it becomes necessary to break the fast because one is facing an. enemy,

Itls narratedby Kaab bin Aasim Ashari :

TWe were travelling with the Prophet sallaliaohu alaihi wo sallam in severe heat and one of OUf companions lay down beneath a tree in severe pain. The Prophet sallallaahu alaih! toa sallam asked 'What is the matter with your companion?' We, explained "There is no matter, he is fasting and the heat is severe'. The Prophetsallallafl'nu alaihi W'O sallam said 'It is not a deed to fast 011 a journey. The dispensation given to-you by Allah is corn pulsory u pun you.' (Fiqh uS'Solvm)

Syeduna Jaabir na rrates:

I'Whilst on at journey the Prophet saUalluaJru alaihi wa sallam noticed people surrounding a man. I Ie asked 'Wbat is with him t The people said 'He i"s fasting and in distress.' The Prophet sallallaahu alaihi W'Q sallam said 'It is not a deed to fast on ajourney.' (Mtlsnad.Ahnlad)

At the time of confronting the ene111Y:

If one is facing an enemy them to avoid problems caused byweakness it: is better to open the fast. It is narrated from Abu Saeed Khudri =

'Whilst fasting we travelled with the Prophet

saUallaahu alaihi wa sallam towards Makkah, we alighted at a place and tile Prophet said 'You are near-your enemy and opening the fast is better for your strength. ~

In this there. was discretion to either fast or not. However at another place he said :,

'Verily in the. morning you will face your enemy and opening, your fast is better so open it.' (Muslim)

Consequently after this no one fasted.

The ruling of mistakerdy eatmg or drinking:

The fast does not break if someone mistakenly eats or drinks.

Abu Hurayra narrates that the Prophet sailallaahu. alaihi usa sallam said :,

·Whoever mistakenly eats or drinks should continue the fast for itis not broken, it was no one but Allah who fed and drunk him .. '

(Bukhaari & Muslim)

Abu H urayra narrates that the Prophet sallallaahu alaihi W'(] sallam said .:

'There is no compensation (of making up the fast) upon the one whom istakenly eats or drinks for it was only Allah who gave him, that Rizq (food).' (Daar Qutni)

About this hadith Imam Daar Qutni writes : 'It'ssanad is Sahih.'

Another narration of Dear Qutni has the following words:

'There is no compensation or penalty upon him.' (Daar Outni)

54

The: Prophet's Ramadhaan

Umm Isaac Ghanviya narrates that once she and Dhul Yadain were in the company of the Prophet sallallaahu alaih! wa sallam ..

!W,e began eating with the Prophet sallallaahu aiaihi wa saUanl and the Prophet. sallallauhs: alaihi wa sau,anlencouraged me'Umm e Isaac, take some meat.' Immediately I remembered that Iwas fasting and my hand froze and I explained II was fasting and I forgot.' Dhul Yadain commented '(Y ou still think you're fasting) Even after fining yourself (with food)!' The Prophet saUallaahu alaihi tva sallam ordered "Complete your fast, it was no one but Allah who gave you this "food. I (Mujma HZ Zausaahid from Musnad Ahmad)

Penalty forpurposefully breaking the fast:

If someone intentionally breaks the fast without valid reason he m tun pay the penalty of freeing a slave (which is impossible in today's time) or fasting for 60 consecutive days or feeding 60 poor people.

It is narrated by Abu Hurayra that a man presented himself before the Prophet sallalluahu alaihi ,wa sallo111 and pleaded :

'Yaa Rasoolallah, I am destroyed and ruined. I I-Ie was asked what had happened. He explained 'I had relations. with 'my wife whilst fasting in Ramadhaan.' The Prophet .saUallaahu alaihi tva sallam told him to free -a slave. He replied that he did not have the ability to do so, The Prophet sallall.aahu alaihi W',jJ sallam told him to keep 60 consecutive fasts. He said that be did not the strength to do that either. The Prophet sallallaahu alaihi W'a sallam asked if he had the ability to feed 60 poor people, He said he hadn't,

S5

The Prophet's Ramadhaan

The Prophet sallallaahu aiaihi usa sallam ordered him to. sit do wn "After a while the Prophet sallaUaaltu alaih: loa saliam "vas presented with a tray ill led with 15 saah of dates, The Prophet sallallaahu alaihi tva sallam ordered the man 'Take them and give your charity with them,' He then pleaded INo one between

h ." d h i Th

t ese two mountains IS nee _ler t' _ an us. _ ' e

Prophet sa llallaahu olaih i wa salla m smiled such that his molar teeth became visible and ordered 'Go and feedyourfarnily withit.'

(Bukhaari & Muslim)

The narration ofIbn Majab has the additionalwords: 'And fast one day in its place, I

The narration of Abu Dawud alsoadds the command to seek ~orgiveness:

!'-F d d kA1"l 11 I.t' .' , 'I

, ast lOne' a:y an " see " , '" . all s.l.o~~grveness.

The r-ules of'Makmg up, Fastse

Allah Tal aala orders that if one is unable to' fast in Ramadhaan due to illness orjourney:

'Then make it 'Up on other days, I (AI Baqarah)

In other words it is compulsory to make up all the days missed, It is narrated from Abu Hurayra that the Prophet sallallaahu alaihi wa sallam revealed that until 'missed fasts are made up all other fasts are unacceptable:

Whoever finds Rarnadhaan and has missed days, verily (nothingjis not accepted from himuntil he makes them up.' (Ml4jrnaAz Zaw'Qahid)

The way to make UPI,:

I t is not necessary to make up all the missed fasts

56

The Prophet's Ramadhaan

consecutively (in one single attempt). It is permissible to. leave a few days before making up the fasts.

Abdullah bin Umar narrates that the Prophet sallallaahu alaihi tva sallam said:

'The Qadhaa ofRamadhaan, ithe wishes they may be intermittent 01' consecutive.' (Daar Qu tni)

Ibn .lowzi denoted this narration as sahih. (As Siuaam wa Ramadhaan)

Jaabir narrates that the Prophet sollallaahu alaihi wa sallamw.as asked:

'Is it necessary to. make up the TIl issed fasts aU together Of can there be a gap between them?' He sail'aU(l:al1u alaihi lva sallam. responded 'Ten rue, if you owed a debt to someone and paid it one or two Dhirams at a time would the debt not get paid off? I The man responded 'It will be paid off' He sallal'laahu alaihi u»: sallam responded 'Allah is the most forgiving. I (Dual' Outni)

Making up in any part of the life:

Although it is better to make up missed fasts as soon as possible they can be made up at any time in one's lifetime.

Syeda Aisha narrates:

'We would make up in Shabaan the fasts \v€ missed dun ng our specific days .. ,' (Bukhaa ri)

The practice of making up in the 10 days of Dhul Hijj:

V\T,e learn from the ahadith that when the Prophet saUaUouhu olaihi wa sallam missed any fasts due to journeys etc he would make them up in the 100 days of

57

The Prophet's Ramadhaan

Dhul Hijj.

Syeduna Umar Al Farooq narrates that this is the practice. of the Prophet sa.llallaahu olaihiusa sallam

'VV11en he sallallaahu alaihi wa sallam would miss. anything from Ramadhaan he would make it up in the 10 days of Dhul Hijj, I (At Tibraani)

Fidya on behalf'of'the deceased:

If someone died and had outstanding fasts (had missed some fasts of Ramadhaan and bad not made them up) it is better for his. heirs, if they have the ability, to give fidya in com pensation of those fasts.

(However there are some ahadith that apparently mean that the heirs can fast on behalf of the deceased)

Mujma az Zawaahid comments about this narration: 'And its Sanad is Hasan';

Aisha narrates that the Prophet sallallaahu alaihi lVU sailam said:

"vVhoever dies with fasts upon him the walli (heir) should fast for him. I' (Bukhaari,& MusUrn)

It is Musnad Bazaar:

'Ifhewants the walh can fast for him. i

Abdullah bin Abbaas narrates:

I'A man carne to the Prophet sallallaahu alaih! wa sallam and asked 'Yaa Raaoolallah, My mother has passed away and she bad one month of fasts upon her, Can I fast on her behalf? The Prophet sallallaahu alaihi tva sollam. replied IIf you mother had an outstanding debt would you pay it

The Prophet's Ramadhaan

for her?' He replied 'Yes' The Prophet sallallaabu alaihi wa sallam replied 'Well the debt of Allah has a greater right to' be fulfilled. (Bukhaari ,& Muslim)

This hadith does not mean that the heir should fast on the deceased's behalf it means that he pay a eompensating fidya. Syeda Aisha states :,

'Do not fast on behalf of your deceased but feed on their behalf.'

Similarly it is from Abdullah bin Abbaas :

'No one should pray fOT another and no one should fast for another. T

Imam Nisai narrated this with a sahib chain:

The above TIN'O companions (Syeda Aisha and Abdullah bin Abbaas) a re the very narrators of the ahadith (V\ hich apparently allow the heir to fast on behalf of the deceased) and they themselves have explained the meanings of those hadith; that the walli shouldnot fast but instead offer fidya on behalf of the deceased.

Imam Badruddeen Aini writes:

'There is consensus that no one should pray for another and nor fast for another for both are forms of physical Ibaadah, t

Further to this he quotes Shaykh Ibn Qisaar :,

'Had it been permissible for one to. fast for another it would have been permissible for one to pray for another.' (Umda tul QaarO

Some further Ahadith:

Just as the above ahadith show that the deceased benefit from the fidya offasts so too they benefit by Hajj.

59

Abdullah bin Abbaas narrates that a man carne to the Prophet eallallaahu alaih! wa sallam and pleaded 'Myfather has passed away and Hajj was compulsory upon him, ean I perform Hajj on his behalf?" The Prophet sallallaaiui alaihi wa sallam then replied 'Had your father owed a debt would you pay it for him?' He replied Yes' The Prophet sollallaahu alaihi wa sallam replied 'So perform Hajj foryo ir father .. 'r (An Nisa i)

Abdullah bin Abbaas narrates that awoman from the .Iuhalniya tribe came to the Prophet sallallaahu aluihi' lVQ' sallam and pleaded 'My mother had made a Nazar of performing Hajj but she has passed RV\l81). Can I perform the Hajj on her behalf?' The Prophet sallallaahu alaihi usa sallam asked 'If your mother owed a debt would you pay it for her?' She replied 'Yes .. ' The Prophet sallallaahu alaihi tva sallam repliedTulfi] the debt of Allah for I-I,e has the' greatest right to fidelity,' (Al Bukhaari)

Ahadith a:nd Eesaal e Sawaab:

All of the authentic ahadith above explicitly demonstra re the permlssibility of sending rew Gird [Eesaal us Sawaab) to the deceased.

Shaykh Abdur Rehman Hasan A1Maidaani, teacher at J amia U mm ul Quraa, Makkah M ukkarama, in proving this point states:

'It is narrated from AbuH urayra that the Prophet sallallaahu alaih! tva sallam said 'Whoever guides someone to a good will receive the reward of an those who follow it and there wlll be no reduction in the reward of the followers, \Vhoever guides someone to an evil will receive the sin of all those, ho follow it and there Volin be

60

The Prophet's Ramadhaan

no reduction in their sin,'

In countering the argument of the critics he states that those who use-the verse 'There is nothing for the human except what he earns' to clalm that the human only receives the reward of his 0\'''11 actions and not of others,

'(They) do not realise that the letter of Jar in Li'l Insaan denotes prope ty and rights, And negating ownership or rights to reward does not im ply that they cannot receive reward through the Grace of Allah, So when there is evidence proving, the Grace of Allah and proving that one can undertake good deeds on behalf of others it is not right to disregard them or explain them in at way that is tantamount to turning away from their apparent meaning, Rather this evidence should he treated es a guiding light for the correct understanding and where an the pieces of evidence can be reconciled.

As for the narration of Abu Hurayrainwhich the Prophetsallallanhll olaihiuxi sallam said

'When the human dies his deeds are cut except three; Sadaqah Jaariya; Beneficial knowledge and

.- h '. . ffs . h 1'· 1

the ptous ortspringt iatsupp icates ..

This means that the deceased has no right to any reward except thatwhich arises from these three acts and thus cannot demand any other l'leward. But this does not mean that he cannot receive reward through the grace of All, ,h from any other source, such as the dua of the believer or the intercession of the one whom A1lah has permitted to intercede. ~

61

The Prophet's Ramadhaan

II

I Chapterg

At Sunset and Iftaar

Art·anging to view the setting of the Sun,

The opening of the fast is based on the setting of the Sun asAllah says:

'Complete the fast until the night .. '

The night begins with the setting of the sun and if the Prophet sallallaahu alaihi' tva. sallam wes in a place where he 'could not see the Sun he would order so:meone to stand on a high place and would only open his fast after that person had announced the Sun had set.

Syeduna Abu Darda narrates ::

"""hen the Prophet eallallaahu alaihi wa satlam fasted be wouldorder a man to stand on a high place and when that man proclaimed the Sun had set hewould open the fast.'

(Al,MujnlQ az Zauxiahid)

Syeduna Sahl binSaad narrates:

'When the Prophet sollallaahu alaih! l,va sallam was fasting he would order a man to stand on a high place and when he would proclaim the Sun

h . d ··t hi '. -ld· . the f· .. t '

a ,se e'\.vou_'open .. e 3.81 ..

(AlMtlSl'adrik,. BookofSa.Wl11)

Oneethey had to make Up' 'the fast:

During, the time of the Prophet sallallaohu alailii uia sallam there was a day so cloudy that most thought the Sun had set and had opened their fast. Aftera while the

62.

douds lifted and it became evident that the Sun had not set and they an had to make up that fast.

Syeda Aasrna bint Abu Bakr narrates this episode in the following words :

'We opened the fast onecloudy day in Ramadhaan during the time of the Prophet and then the sun appeared.' (AbuDuwud)

The Purrishment of opening the fast before time:

To perform Iftaar (break the fast) it is necessary for the Sun to have set. If someone opens the fast before this the' fast will be invalidated and he will be lia ble for

"h

severe purns iment,

Imam Ibn Khuzayma and. Imam Hibbaan relate the narration of Abu Amaama Baahali in which the Prophet saUaUaahu olaihi wa sallam said:

II was sleeping when two men carne, awoke me and took me to a mountain (thelengthy hadith continues) ..... they took me to where a group of people were hanging upside down with their mouths torn apart and blood flowing, I asked 'Who are these people?' ] was told IThey are the people who opened their fasts of Ramadhaan before the time, I' (Bahih Ibn Khuzauma)

It is for th is TeaSOJJ:1, that if the Sun could not be sighted the Prophet sallailaahu alaihi lD(1 sallam would send someone to a. high place to' sight it. When that person would inform him that the Sun had set he would open the fast.

He: would be swift in Iftaar:

After the Prophet S',a:llaUaahu alailll wa. saUanz was ','eltaiu the Sun had set he would open the fast (Iftaar)

63

II

The' Prophet's Ramadhaan

without delay,

Syeduna Abdullah bill Abi Awfaa narrates:

I In Rarnadhaan we we re on a journey with the Prophet sallallaahu ala ih i ill'Q sailam .. , Once the sun had set he ordered Syeduna BilaalDescend (from the conveyance) and prepare barleyfor us.' He pleaded 'Yaa Rasoolallah, it is still Hght.' The Prophet sollallaahu alaibi wa sallam repeated 'Descend and. prepare the barley for us.' He descended and prepared the barley and presented it to the Prophet sallallaahu alaihi wa sallum who opened his fast with it and said 'When the Sun descends from this side and the night comes from here open the fast .' '

(Al Muslim, Book .qfSiyaarn)

Imam Nawawi in explaining this hadith states :

"When the sun had set the Prophet sallallaahu alaihi w'a sollam ordered Bilaal to prepare the Iftaar but because after Sunset there is stilt light and redness Bilaal thought that Iftaar should only begin after all this light had' finished. However the Prophet sallallaa!u.l alaihi uia sallam made clear that Iftaar should be performed after the SUI) had set, even ifthere is some brightness left. 'I

His narrated in Tibraani from Abdullah bin Abbaas that the Prophet sallallaahu alaihi tv',a sallam said:

tAU us Prophets have been ordered to be swift in our Iftaar, to delay our Suhoor and put. our right hand over our left in the prayer.'

(AlMly·am at Kabeer)

Maalik binAamir narrates:

'I and Masrooq "vent to Umm ul Momineen Syeda Aisha and said 'there are two. companions, one of them is swift in Iftaar and Maghrib prayer whilst

The Prophet's Ramadhaan

the other delays them ', She asked who was the swift companion?' He mentioned Abdullah bin Masood to which she said 'Thatwasthe practice of the Prophet sallalkiahu alaihi tva sallam: (An Nisai)

It is narrated from Abu Hurayra that the Prophet eallallaatus aiaihi uia sallam revealed Allah's pleasure in this act and that Allah proclaimed:

II love My servants who are swift in lftaar.' (Tirmidhi)

Sahl bin Saad states that the Prophet sollollaahx» alaihi WQ' sailam. said:

'The people' 'MB remain on good as long as they remain swift in Iftaar, I (Muslinl Book ofSiyaarn)

Abu Darda narrates that the Prophet sallallaahu olaihi W'U sallam said:

'My Ummah will remain on myway whilst it does not wait for the rising of the stars to perform Iftaar.' (MujmaAzZuwaahid)

It is narrated fro U1 Abu Darda :

II never saw the Prophet saUaUaahu alaihi W'Q sallam pray Maghrib without performing Iftaar, even if it was only a sip of water,' (Ai Mustadrik, bookofSi!Jaarn) .

Toparfieipate in Iftaars

Whenever a companion invited the Prophet sallaUaah.u alaihi tva saliam to. join him in Iftaar he would accept the invitation.

Syeduna Arias narrates:

'The Prophet sallaUaahu aiaihi tva sallam went

The Prophet's Ramadhaan

to. the house of the companion Saad bin Ubaada who presented him with bread and olives. The Prophet sallallaahu alaihi Ulg sallam ate and said 'The fasting have broken their fast with you, the pious have eaten your food and the angels have supplicatedfor you.' (Abu Daunid)

Abdullah bin Zubair narrates:

'The Prophet sallallaahu alaihi tva sallam performed Iftaar with Saad bin Muadh and said 'The fasting have performed Iftaar with you, the pious have eaten your food and the angels have supplicated for you,' (JbnMqjah)

Communaf Iftaarr

Some narrations reveal that on occasions there were large Iftaar gatherings. Syeduna Anas narrates:

!We once performed Iftaar with the Prophet: sallallaahu alaihi wa sallam, he was presented with olives and he and we ate them. After eating he supplicated 'The pious have eaten your food, the angels have supplicated for you and the fasting have broken their fast with you. T

(Fa:taawQ R.id'U.J'iyya)

Iftaar with the Poor':

Itwas one of the miracles of the Prophet's teachings that his companions did not perform Iftaar alone but involved the poor and destitute of society with them.

It is narrated about Syeduna Abdullah. bin Umar that he would never perform, Iftaar except with the poor and 'if his family ever prevented him from doing so he would not eat allnight, Furthermore it was his practice that if a poor person ever came to him. whilst he '<vas eating he lvould immediately give him his portion of 'food. If

66

The Prophet's Ramadhaan

when he returned the family had eaten the rest of the food he would not eat anything and stay 'fasting until the morning. (LataaifulMuaarif)

He pel-.for'med Iftaar before Prayer:

The Prophet sallallaahu alaihi wa sallam would perform Iftaar before the Maghrib prayer.

Syeduna Anas narrates:

'The Prophet sallallaohu alaihi U)o so llu,m\<\o'Duld perform Iftaar before praying." (Abu Dausud)

The Muhaddith Ibn Hibbaan in ~t Thiqaat' mentions this practice of the Prophet salkillaabu elaihi usa sailo:r;uin the following words:

'When the Prophet sallallaahu alaihi wa sallam fasted i11 the summer he did not pray until having fresh dates and water and when he fasted in winter he would not pray until having dried dates and water.'

Haafiz Ibn Hajar Makki writes that this blessed practice makes dear that it is against the Sunnah to delay Iftaar until after the prayer. (Ashaof. Ahl ul islaam)

This is also supported by the commandment from Shariah that when hungry (outside fasting) one should iatflrst and then pray.

I, ftaar with Dates and water:

The items that the Prophet sallallaahu aiaihi wa . uillam preferred for rftaar were dates and 'water.

A nas bin Malik narrates:

'The Prophet ealiallaahu alaihi wa sallam performed Iftaa.r '~.vith fresh dates, if thereweren't

67

The Prophet's Ramadhaan

any then with dried dates and if there weren't any then with water.' (Abu Daunid)

It bas been mentioned before that if the weather was bot he would break the fast with fresh dates andwater and if the 'weather was cold with dried dates and water,

Use ofM'ilk:

On most occasions he would have dates and water for Iftaar but sometimes he would also have milk.

It is narrated from Syeduna Anas ':

'The Prophet sollailaahu alaihi wa sallam performed Iftaar withmilk and AjW3 dates.'

The Prophet sallallaahu alaihi wa sollam also taught the Ummah to perform Iftaar with these foods, It is narrated by Salmaan Faarisi that the Prophet sallallaahu olaihi tva salloln said:

'When you break the fast, break it 'With dates and if you can't find any then withwater .. '

(Sahih Ibn Hibbaan)

He mentioned thl~ee things ~

We also find these three things mentioned in the Prophet's blessed sermons" When the eompanions asked the Prophet sa Uc;dla ahu alaihi wa sallam that not all of them had the ability to fully feed the fasting he replied:

'Allah Ta'aala 'Win give this reward to whoever breaks the fast of a fasting person with dates, a sip of 'water or a sip afmilk. !

Items not cooked with fire::,

Syeduna Anas narrates that the Prophet sallallaahu alaihi tva sallam favoured Iftaar with food not touched

68

The Prophet's Ramadhaan

byfire:

'He preferred Iftaar with three; dates or anything not touched by fire. I (Al J aameA.s Sageer)

The "vise have explained thewisdom in this being the desire to attain a similarity with the food of paradise: 'And in refraining from food touched by fire is a similarity with the food of paradise.'

(ll-ta '0 Rasoolfi R amadhc: an)

Abeautiful spectacle of'paradisee

Imam Abdul Wahhaab Sha'raani in his book 'Kashf ul Gumma an Jamee at Ummah' describes a beautiful spectacle of the Prophet's Iftaar: he would hold a date in his hand waiting for the sun to set and. as it would set he would place the date into his mouth" It is narrated by Umm ul Momineen Syeda Aisha:

'I S8l'V the Prophet saikiilaahu' alaihi wa sallam fasting waiting for the Sun to set. As soon as it had he placed a date into his mouth. ~

What did he begfn with'?

We know that he preferred dates, water and milk but what did he eat first? The above mentioned hadith reveals that he would eat dates first and then drink something:

'Perform Iftaar with dates and if you can't find any then with sips of water.' (Sahih.lbnflibbaan]

Consequentlylmam .. Nawawi in iHMajmu<a:' clarifies : 'The correct position is that he performed Iftaar first with dates and then water, just as is mentioned i n Sahib ahadith.'

However from one narration VIle learn that the Prophet saUallaahu alaihi wa sullam first drank water and then ate dates .. Umm ul Momineen Umm e Salama narrates :

69

'When the Prophet sallallual1u a laihi wa saliam

c. ,. h ldb '11 .. a ith d 1- I'

was tasting s wou .' ;rea.1t\ rt wtt . a . mn C,'

Imam Abd ur Rauf al Munaadi writes about this hadith : ·When the Prophet sallallaahu alaihi wa sallam intended to break the fast he would precede the foodwith water.' (Faidh :ul Qadeer)

However this apparent contradiction is reconciled through thefollowing narration of Imam Tirmidhi : 'The Prophet sallallaahu alaihi W'Q sallam 'would break his fast in winter with dates and in the summer with water.' (At ;haa! Altl ul Islaam)

Remember that this narration from Tirmidhi could be about Nafl fasts (voluntary) because during the lifetime of the Prophet sallallaahu alaih."iwa sallam Ramadhaan was always during the summer,

He would drink very slo"\\r,ly :

Umm ul Momineen SyedaAisha has also described his way of drinking; be did not drink all in one gulp but rather drank very slowly gulp by gulp:

'.He did not drink in onego but twice or thrice.' (Al,JaameusSageer)

A request. to the Imams, of the Mosques:

It has been noted that in 'most mosques there is very Iittle time between I ftaar and the Maghrib Jamaat and because of this many people either miss the Jamaat, because they are eating, or Iniss om" hasten their tftaar to make the Jammaat.. We request there be a ten minute gap between Iftaar and the J a rna at so that people can both eat properly and pray properly with.Iamaat,

lie would deserfbe the reward of offering Iftaarr To encourage peol#le to respect the fast by opening other

70

people'sfasts the Prophet sallallaahu elaihiina sailal'll described it's reward in his cheetah. He explained that opening the fast of a fasting person leads to forgiveness of sins) freedom from hen and reward equal to the fasting person IS with no reduction dn the fasting

'I d

person s rewar, ' ..

Ibn Khuzayma in his Sahih and Abu's Shaykb mn Kitaab at Thaioaab narrate from Salmaan Faarisi '\"v110 asked ~ 'Yaa Rasoolallah, What if someone is notable to. fully feed a. fasting, person?' The Prophet saliallaahu alaihi wa saliam explained 'He should give a handful offood.' I asked ~What ifhe doesn't even have a. piece of bread?' He sallaliaabu olaihiioa sallam explained 'A drop of

·'11· ~ 1[' sk ·d·' I I f b did '! . . h-'· . n . . ·'1'1. ';> i 1:..1'-

muk, rasseo t hedtdn'tevenhaveany malk; .ie

sollaltaohu alaihi tva sallam explained "A drink ofwaterwill suffice.' (Kanz ulAm,man.l)

'The r-ewaed of breaking the fast with Halaa] food:

It is important fora Muslim to refrain frOID haraam food and ensure that hie does not 'waste his fast by breaking it with haraam, If he does open it with haraam then he win be deprived of blessings and goodness. Consequently the Prophet saUuUaahu alailli wa saUam ordered Iftaar with halaal food and mentioned the reward for doing so" It is narrated by Salmaan Farisi that the Prophet sallallaohu ala ill i W'U sallam said:

'i'vVhoev'er gives food and drink to a fasting person from his halaal earnings the angels willperform dna. for him all Ramadhaan and Jibraeel will make dU3 for him on the Night of Qadr .. r

(AI MojalH ol Kabeer)

In a second narrationit is ::

'Jibraeel shakes his hand on the Night of QadI and

71

The PI'ophet's Ramadhaan

whosoevers hand ,Jlbraeel shakes he attains softness ~ - d ~ t - - - t - - - - t ., ~ - hi .h - , -t 1

I _ ,.,. 'I ", " i' I' 'I '~' I I": I' I " , _ "I' I -' _'- "I, I_

an con. en men iIln IS , ear .

Performlng dna at the time of'Iftaars

Iftaar is from those times when duas are granted acceptance in Allah's court. The Prophet sallallaahu alaihi wa saliam himself performed dUB at this time and taught his ummah to do the same. We find the following dua's of the Prophet soiialloahu alaih. i Loa sallam at the time of Iftaar

Muaadh bin Zahra narrates that when the Prophet sollallaahu. a..lal~hi toa $a.Uamwoullid perform Iftaar he would. supplicate:

'OhAllah I have fasted for you and upon your" food performedIftaar.' (Ab:u Daunul)

72

Imam Ibn Sunni narrates from Muaadh bin Zahra the following words of the Prophet sallallaahu alathi wa sailam:

'All Praise is for Allahwho helped me fast and bestowed me rizqto perform Iftaar .. 1' (Ama! ul YowmW'Q rlLaU)

-Abdullah bin Umar narrates that when the Prophet sal.laUaahu alaihi ;W'Q sa liam performedfftaar he would say:

'Thirst has gone.veins are 'moistened and Allah willing 'reward has been achieved,'

The following dua of Ibn Umar at the time of Iftaar ills narrated

I'AU Praise is for AU.ab., Oh Allah, l ask You. by Your mercy which overwhelms everything to forgive me. ~ (Ath.aaf AhlulIslaa~n)

He taught the U mmah to supplicate at the time ofIftaar

The Prophet's Ramadhaan

'With the name ofAllah AU praise is for Allah, Oh Allah l fasted for you upon your Rizq, and upon you I trust, You are Pure and with Your praise accept from me" Verily You are the most Hearing and most Knowing, ~ (A mal ul' Yowm tva 'l LaiJa)

The dua of the: "fasting person:

The Prophet saliallaohu olaihi ioa sallawn also pointed out that the dua of the fasting person is not rejected in the court of Allah. The Prophet sollatlaahu alaih! wa sanarn said:

'The dua of three people is notrejected, the just ruler; the fasting person at the time of Iftaar and the oppressed. The doors ofMercy are opened for him and Allah proclaims ~By My Honour, I \<\.;U help you, even if'after some time.'

(Tirmidhi, Ibn Maj'ah)

Abdullah bin Urnar narratesthefollowing statement of the Prophet sallallaahu ala illi U}I'J sallam:

'Verily at the time ofIftaar the fasting person has a dua that is not rejected .. I (Ibn Majah)

Important Note:

The relationship between the fasts of Ramadhaan and dna is so deep and strong that in the Quranic passage revealing the obligation to fastAllah Ta'aala also stated:

'And when My Servants ask you concerning Me then (answer them) I am indeed near. 1 respond to theduas of the supplicant when he calls on Me.' (Al Baqarah 186)

This tells the human to be plentiful in dua in these days ..

He would be plentiful in, Duar

The Prophet sullallaahu alaihi wa sa.i1am ·w,8!S wen

73

The Prophet's Ramadhaan

aware of this point and so was plentiful in dua in this month.

Umrn ulMomineen SyedaAisha states:

'When the month of Ramadhaan entered be would ibtihaal {endeavour humbly) in dua.'

Imam Munaadi explains ibtihaal:

'It means greater supplication. and effort," (Faidl: ul Oadeer)

Dua artier lftaar is Sunnab:.

Even though dua before I ftaar is vperrrrissible the Prophet's practice and his sunnah is tamale dua after Iftaar for that is what the hadith reveal, for example Muaadh bin Zahra narrates ~

'Having performed Iftaar he would say 'Oh Allah I have fasted for You and with Your food performed I ftaar, T (Abu Dauiud)

MullaAli Qaari quotes Shaykh Ibn Malik:

'The text of this hadith shows that he 'would say thesewordsafter Iftaar.' {Mirqaat ul Mafaateeti)

Some people state that the words 'Having performed Iftaar' actually means intention to perform Iftaar but ImamAhmad Rida Khan rejects this:

'The word Iftaar has a specific meaning, and it is

" ·b- 1 h . . ith

not perrmssr ue to G . ange Its meanmg VVIt out

any need. I (Fataauia Riduiyya)

If one looks closely at the words of the Prophet's dua it becomes apparent that this dua was made after Iftaar, Forexample 'And upon your food I have performed Ift I

.. ·aar.-

74

The Prophet's Ramadhaan

A dua of the Prophet sana llaahu alaihi iua salla 11'1 is narrated by Abdullah bin Umar as:

'Thirst has disappeared, the veins moistened and Allah wining there will be reward." (Al Mustadrik)

These words clearly show that this dua was after performing Iftaar,

In listing the duas at Iftaar Imam Ibn Hajar· Makki entrtled his chapter 'The dua and W'azaaif recited after Iftaar', Further on wheo commenting on the narrated words 'Having performed Iftaar'Iie explains

'It is Sunnah to utter these words after Iftaar.'

Further because some people have claimed that it makes :0,0 difference to either perform dua before or after Iftaar Imam Ibn Hajar clarifies:

'It is clearly weak to claim that dua before and after is the same because it is contrary to the abovementioned explicit ahadith,' (AthaafAld v.l' [510(1111)

In response to claims that dua before and after Iftaar was equal Imam .. Ahmad Riza also wrote 'iA] UraGS Ma'taar min Dua en Iftaar' in which he explicitly proved that the Prophet sallollachu alaihi :wa sailam performed dua after Iftaar ..

75

The Prophet's Ramadhaan

ChapterS

The Practice of'Safaat uI Taraaweeh:

Thro .ighout the year the Prophet sa tlalluaiu» a laihi IVa: sallam would worship his Lord at night and in Ramadhaan he would specifically offer the prayer of Taraaweeh. In addition he sallallaahu alaihi wa sallam would also mention the virtue of standing in worship in Ramadhaan,

Abu Hurayra narrates that the Prophet sallalltuihu alaihi tva saltam said:

IWhoe'Ver stands (to pray) in Ramadhaan through faith and for Allah's pleasure all his sins from the past will be, forgiven" I (Bukhaari)

AbuH urayra also na rrates :

'The Prophet saUa.l'l,a.ahu alaihi Iva sollam would encourage the Qryaam (prayer) of Ramadhaan

b ld d' '. h lsi r ut woul . not ore er It witt com pu 1 SIOn.

(Muslirn)

In the sermon narrated by Salmaan Faarisi the Prophet sallatlaahu alaih 1~ U)O sallam said:

'This is a month whose fasts Allah has ma.de obligatory and if's Qiyaam voluntary .. ' (Sahi'h Ibn Khuzayrna}

On one occasion the Prophet sallallaabn alaihi wa sallam said:

'Verily Allah has made compulsory upon you the fasts of Ramadhaan and 1 have madeit's Qiyaarn

The Prophet's Ramadhaan

'Three days Taraaweehwith Jamaat:

Umm ul Momineen Syeda Aisha narrates:

'Once the Prophet sallallaabu alaihi wa sallam 'left the house at midnight to pray in the mosque" The com panions also prayed behind him. During the following day the com panions discussed the night 'prayer amongst themselves and that night more eompanions were waiting and all of them followed the Prophet sallallaahu ala:illi wa sallam in prayer. The next day more people found out about thIDS prayer and that night there were even more people in the mosque and the Prophet sallaiiaahu.a laih i 'Loa sallam led them all in prayer. When the fOU11h night came, the mosque was unable to accommodate an the people (whoha.d come) but the Prophet sal,lallaa.hu aiaihiu)Q sallam did not arrive. Instead he came for the morning pl'ayer and explained 'You!" preseneewilS not hidden from me, however I feared that that this (prayer) could become compulsory upon you and you would become weak from it.' (Bukhaari)

Zaid bin Thaabit narrates :::

'The Prophet sallaUaahu aiaihi wa sallam had a roommede out of mats erected in the mosque and prayed in it for some nights, The companions found out about this and gathered and began to. join in the prayer. One night the blessed voice of the Prophet sallallaahu alalhiwa sallatn. was not beard and people thought hewas resting. Some of the companions began coughing to alert him to' their presence, The Prophet saUaUoahu alaihi wa sallam came out and. said '1 am, aware of your

77

The Prophet's Ramadhaan

presence and your want, but I feared that this (prayer) <could become compulsory upon you and ifit did become compulsery you would not be able to' fulfil it, People! Pray in your house for the. best place for prayer is the house, except for the Fard Prayer." (Muslim)

Umm ul Momineen Syeda Aisha narrates:

'In Masjid un Nabawi companions used to pray individually or recite the Quran to one another in groups of five or she One night the Prophet sallallaahu aiaihi wa sa Ilam ordered me to make a veil out of mats in front of his room. The Prophet sallallaahu alaihi loa sallam went to the mosque where a great number of com p ani Ol1S were present and he led them in prayer well into the night. lie then entered his room and the veil stayed as it was ready for the next day's prayer. The next day other companions became aware of this and the mosque was full of people. The Prophet sa llallaahu alaihi tva sallam prayed Isha and wenthome but the people kept waiting for the prayer. The Prophet saUaUaahu alaihi wa sallam asked me about the people and I said 'Yaa Rasoolallah, after hearing about your night prayer the companions have gathered in order to pray behind you,' He ordered 'Atsha, Gather up yOUI' 'mats. I' I did so and the Prophet sollallaahu alaihi wa sallam prayed all night at hornewhilst the people continued waiting in the mosque. (In the morning) The Prophet sallal'laahu alaibi wa sallam went to pray Fajar and said "By Allah) \Vith the Praise of Allah I stayed awake all night and was aware of your gathering in the mosque but feared that this prayer might become com pulsory upon you.' (Muslim)

The Prophet's Ramadhaan

The practice ofhventyr.akahs:

The special prayer (of Taraaweeh) which the Prophet sallaUaahu. alaihi wa sallam established in the month ofkamadbaan comprised twenty rakahs,

Imam Tibraani narrates from Abdullah bin Abba as : 'In Ramadhaan the ProphetsaUaUaahu alaihi W'G. sallam would pray jwenty rakahs and witr.' (Gaaya tul Ihsaan}

As stated previously he only led the Taraaweeh prayer for three nights, after this no congregation (Jamaat) took place and [JJ(U' did it during the caliphate of Syeduna Abu Bakr Siddiq, During this time people prayed Taraaweeh individually either at home 0]1:" in the mosque.

During his caliphate Syeduna Umar Farooq ordered the famous Qaari of the Quran Abi bin Kaab to lead the Jamaat of Taraaweeh and from that time this practice bas continued to the present day.

It is narrated by Saaib bin Yazeed :

'During the time of Umar there were twenty three rakahs.' (Umda tul Qr:ul1'i}

Twenty rakabs were of Taraaweeh and three of witr ..

Syeduna A'mash narrates about Abdullah bfn Masood : 'He would offer twenty rakahs taraaweeh and. three witr, I [Umda tul.Oaari)

It is narrated about Syeduna Ali that he 'Ordered a Qaari of the Quran to lead the .Jamaat of' Taraaweeh 111 Ramadhaanwith twenty rakahs, [Umda rut Quari)

79

The Prophet's Ramadhaan

As for the narration of U mm ul Momineen Syeda Aisha that the Prophet sallallaahu alaihi W'O sallam would not pray more than eight rakahs both in Ramadhaan and outaide Ramadhaan; this statement is not about Taraaweeh but about Tahajjud prayer for there is no Taraaweeh outside Ramadhaan, Further until this day the practice of both Makkah and Madeenahis twenty rakahs of Taraaweeh, The Qaadi of Madeenah Atiya Muhammad Saalirn has written a complete book :At Taraaieeen Akthar ruin Alf Aanl fi IVlasj'ld in Nabi' on this topic in which he has clearly demonstrates the practice Of20 rakahs,

The Prophet's giving something

d- .. · H'

oes not mean ilt LS .. araame

Despite the fact the Prophet eallollaahu alaihi U)Cl sallam stopped praying Taraaweeh in Jarnaat the Ummah continues this practice . and 'Will do so until Qiyaamah, This makes clear that if the Prophet sallallaahu. alaihi wa sailam. stops an act it does necessarily mean it is unlawful, Rather there may be numerous reasons and wisdoms behind giving up a practice, just as the Prophet sallallaahu alaihi tva sallam himself explained the wisdom of giving up Taraaweeh with jamaat: so that it did not become compulsory upon the Ummah,

80

The Prophet's Ramadhaan

Chapt:er7

The Fast of Wis a al, hts narti I .ty 1S parttcu arJl--

There were occasions when instead of breaking the fast at Maghrib hesallaUaahu alaihi tva SaUa1TI would break it at the time of Se hri (in the morning). In other words his Sehri would also be his Iftaar! This practice was known as the fast ofWisaal.

Syeduna Ali narrates that the Prophet sallallaahu alaihi uxisollam:

'Would perform Iftaar at Seh ri,' (MuJma uz Zauiahid)

SyedunaJaabir uarrates :

'The Prophet sallallaahu alaihi wa sallam would fast from one Sehri to the next.' (Al" MaJum ul Aowisat cf'Tibraani)

Fasting during the day and! through the night! :

Sometimes the Prophet sallallaahu alaihi lUG sallam did not break his fast (at Iftaar or Sehri) but would continue it into the next day, This is shown in the narration of Bukhaari from Sveduna Abu Saeed Khudri

~.

in \!' hich he prohibited the companions from

performing the fast ofwisaal but allowed them to extend their fast until Sehri, The companions commented :'

'Yaa Rasoolallah, You yourself perform 'the fast of wisaal (and do not perform Iftaar)', The Prophet sallollaah u ala al i tva sallam replied I I am not like you, at night the feeder Deeds me and the saaui

81

The Prophet's Ramadhaarr

quenches me,' (AiBukhaaJ'i, Baab ul Wisaal)

Under this hadith Shaykh ibn Rajab writes :

'This hadith makes clear that the Prophet eallalleabu a..l.aihi wa sallam would spend the night fasting. • (Lataaif ul Muaarif)

Imam Badr ud Deen Aini explains that this is actually the true meaning ofWThsaa] ';

iTo join one day of fasting with the next without eating or drinking, this is the true meaning of wisaal.' (Umda tul Qaari 11:73)

What is meant by tbis eating?

What did the Prophet saUaUaahu alaihi usa sallam mean by his claim of eating and drinking in the above badith of Bukhaari?

1) Some have taken this literally to mean actual eating, and dinking and thatA11ah Ta'aala bestowed this specific blessing upon him. during the night.

2) Some believe it refers to a special strength that

prevented him suffering hunger and th irst, However both these interpretations have difficulties. If be was given actual food and drink then he would no longer be fasting and not performing the fast of wisaall In the second explanation if he did not feel hunger or thirst then what was the purpose of fasting? It's whole purpose would hax e been void! Consequently some of the AhI ul Maarjfa provide a different meaning of eating and drinking, for example Imam Nawawi in Shar ul Mazhab Mites:

'It means that the Love of Allah keeps me blL1SY from eating and drinking, t (Athaa]. Ahl u/' Is lo (un)

Shaykh ibn Qayyim 'explains this in great detail :

The Prophet's Ramadha.an

'It refers to the nourishment Allah bestow ed upon him in the form of His Maarifa. It is the joy of worship which his heart was blessed with; the coolness from Allah's proximity, the reward of I is love and desire and all the other states and conditions \1\ hich act as nourishment for the heart, blessing for the sou] and coolness for the eyes. It is nourishment for the body, soul and heart that is better and more beneficial than any other nourishment This nourishment is so powerful that it leaves 'the human withoutwant of material nourishment for a long time, how true '~t has been said

'Your renlembrance leaves me urithou: needfor food atuiuiater. Your vision and encounter is the source oj Ugh t and your speech is stimulation, uih en the [ourneu exhausts rne your remembrance brings life back to the soul and hea1't'

Whoever has even the briefest experience or desire of love knows that {he food of the soul and heart leaves one without need for material or physical nourishment, especially the joy and happiness at attaining one's desire and purpose for the eyes attain coolness from the vision of the beloved. His. intimacy and pleasure is his greatest blessing and the gifts and favours of the beloved are always before him, Everything of the beloved is beloved and. with complete love he is immersed in his comfort and honour. Is this not the greatest nourishment fen" tbe lover?' How wonderful it will he when be meets his beloved.who is the greatest, most virtuous, most honoured, most beautiful" most perfect and most generous" When the

The Prophet's Ramadhaan

lover's heart is immersed in love, when an the parts of his heart and body are intoxicated and abundant in the love of beloved. This was the state of the Prophet sallaiiaabu alaihi tOll. SQUUTn with his Lord! \Nould such a. lover not be attaining, nourishment from the beloved? That is why the Prophet salialksahu alaih! wn sallam said he spent the night with his Lord who fed him and gave him to drink. Had this eating and drinking been physical then that would not have been fasting and when the companions stated that he kept the \lVisaal fast he did not reject them but said ~I am not like you, I am given toeat anddrink.'

The Prophet's Remadhaan

Chapter-S

The Last Ten Days

Ghusl (Bathing) between.M:aglu·ib and Ishar

In the last 10 days of Ramadhaan the Prophet saUaUQ(]n u a. iaihi tva sallam would perform Ghusl between Maghrib and Isha,

Imam Ibn Abu Aasim narrates from Urnm ul Mornineen SvedaAisha:

01

"When the last 10 days of Ramadhaanwouldbegin

hewould endeavour even more in worship and would ghusl between Maghrib and Isha.'

(La taaif ul M tUl arif)

Syeduna Ali describes this blessed practice as follows: 'He would perform ghusl between Maghrib and Isha every night oftheIast 10 days, ~

(La faa iflll M UQarif)

Imam Ibn Abu Aasim writes about Syeduna Hudayfa who stayed awake one night in Ramadhaan with the Prophet satlailaahu a:lfll'hi Iva sallam:

"T!1e Prophet sattallaalns alaihi toa sollam performed ghusl and 1':1 ud ayfa covered him and then Hudayfa performed ghusl and he covered

1." I

111m.

The following words are found in another narration: 'The Prophet salloilaahu alaihi Iva sallam spent the night in a room made out of the branches of ,a. palm tree and I poured a bucket of water over

85

The Prophet's Ramadhaan

him .. ~ (A.thaafA.hl ul lslaam)

Shaykh Ibn Rajah and Imam Ibn Hajar Makki both write about the Prophet' s practices of the last 10 days: 'Performing ghusl between Maghrih and Isba is also from his sallallaahu alaih! tva sallam '8 practices .. n (AthaafAhl ullsifU:lln)

Imam Ibn .Iareer describes the practice of the scholars:

"The people 0 f knowledge and Maarifa denote it rnustahab to ghusl between Isha and Maghrib in the last 10 days of Ramadhaan, ~

(Hakazaa 8iyaam R.asoolillah)

The Practice of Im am Ibraheem Nakh'ee was:

'Be would ghus] each night of the last 10 days.' (Latauifu! MuaarifJ

lit is narrated about Anus bin Maalik, the Prophet's servant:

'"When the 24th night arrived (which he thought was LaH atul Qadr) he would wear a Hula, trousers and blanket In the morning he would put ~t away and not wear similar clothes until the following year.' (La taa iful MuaarlfJ

Had his blessed head. washed:

It was also the Prophet's practice during I tikaaf in the mosque to He down in a way that his head would be 'Outside themosque and that Syeduna Aisha wouldwash and comb it.

I tis narrated from Umm ul Mo 'mineeen Syede Aisha : tvvnUst in Itikaaf he would put his head outside the mosque and I would wash it. I (Bukhaari)

86

The Prophet's Ramadhaan

In a second narration Syeduna Urwa narrates about Syeda Aisha :

'She would comb etc the head of the Prophe sana liaahu alaihi l,VQ, sailam whilst he was in Itikaaf and whilst she was in her room. I (Bukhaari)

Imam Badr ud Deen Aini describes this scene:

'The door of the enlightened room faced the mosque, Aisha would be inside her room that was behind the Quba and the Prophet sollalkuihu alaihi wa sallam outside the room in the-mosque inclining his head towards the rOOlU:

(Umda tuIQa.a:d)

Thiswashing of the blessed head makes dear that a pel'son in Itikaaf (Mu'takif) can bath. It is for this reason that Imam Bukhaari quoties this hadith under The Chapter of tile Ghusl of the Mu 'takif (the' person in itikaaf]',

This discussion also proves that the Mu'takif is allowed to Ghusl for .Jumuah or to create greater fervour in worship. It is also clear that such a ghusl would take place outside the mosque and not inside it.

Shaykh Abdul Haque Muhaddith ul Dehlvi writes about the Gh usl of the M u'takif:

rWe have not found any authentic narration in Usul for the Ghusl of J umuah, I t is in Shara Awraad that the Mu'takifcan go outside for Ghusl, irrespective of whether the Ghusl is compulsory or voluntary.' (Isiia 'tul Lu rn1:oat)

You have previously read in detail that the Prophet ,sa,llallaahu: alaihi :wa sall'an1 performed ghusl bebNrecn

87

The Prophet's Ramadhaan

Maghrib and Isha in thelast 10 days of the month and it is obvious that this ghusl was voluntary. However this practice may not have been before the Shaykh (Abdul Haque Muhaddith e Dehlvil so consequently be said that no clear narration had been found except for that which is in SharaAwraad, (Howeverothers have given) permission for Ghusl and it is evident that these scholars would have had this practice of the Prophet before them because they would not have made such a statement based purely on theirreasonl ng: (Ijtihaad),

'In the last Ashar:a he would Increase his effort in Ibaadahi

Even though there was nothing lacking in the Prophet's Ibaadah in any part of the year he sollallaahucloihiusa sallam would further increase his i baadah in Ramadhaan and when the last ]LO days would arrive he sallatlaaln: alaihi WQ sallam would make sped fie arrangements foribaadah,

U is narrated from U rnm ul Momineen Syeda Aisha : 'The Prophet scdloilaabu olaihi wa sallam 'vi/auld endeavour in the lastAshara in a way greater than other days.' (Muslim)

The fast ofWisaal and the Iast Ashaeas

U has passed previously that along with fasting during the day the Prophet sa llallaahu aiaihi tOG! sallam would also continue his fast into the night. This practice would most often happen in the last: Ashara. He did so t r ,', :'" ," th ,t . '", .' " fh " . , : ' c. tes 't" tl -: 'e'"' r·'e' qui reid to' eat

o ensure ~ a_ even __ e lunlU .~S . ,dnl .,.', , 91!

and drink could be spent in Ibaadah,

88

Shaykh Ibn Qayyimwrites:

'The Prophet sallalkxahu ala ihi tva sallam would worship in Ramadhaan such that sometimes he

The Prophet's Ramadhaan

would keep the fast of wisaal to ensure that ev .ry hour of the day and night could be for Ibaadah. r (Sawrn un Nabi)

Tie his back tightly:

The Prophet's Ibaadah in the last Ashara was such that he would tightly tie' his back, which is a metaphor for great effort and endeavour.

The companions narrate that when the last Ashara would begi n the Prophet sella Ilaahu alaihi Loa sallam: 'Would endeavour and tie his back tightly.' (Musli1n)

Imam Nawaw i explains the term 'tie his bad,' as ;'

'It was his greater endeavour in Ibaadah and increase over his practice ofother days."

(ShUTQ Muslim)

Imam Abdur Rahmaan A] Munaadi translates it as :

'I d ··t Il U • b . hi I

ttdescri oes tDn18 ertort tn I _ aadah.'

{Faidh ul Qladee,~')

Imam Ibn Haja r Makki describes the practices of the lastAshara :

'The Prophet .sall.al'laahu alaih! tva sailam would tie his back tightly, r (A thaaf A h! e I slaam)

He would stay awake an nights

Whilst in the rest of Ramadhaan he would rest for a while during the night, in the last Ashara be would abstain from even the slightest rest and stat)' awake an night in Allah's "V 0 rs hip, Syeda Aisha describes this practice:

'When thelast As hara entered hewould stay wa ke at night,'

89

The Prophet's Rarnadhaan

ShaykhIbn Rsjab narrates this with the following words 'He would stay awake all night.' (Lataaif Hi ,Muaal·W

The narration in Musnad Ahmad confirms this:

'In twenty days Q1f Ramadhaan he <combined prayer and sleep but when the last Ashara arriv ed he would tie his back." (Musnod Ahmad)

Imam Abu Nuaim quotes the Prophet's practice from Syeduna An2H:r:

'When the Prophet saliallaahu aloihi lva sallam would find Ramadhaan he would stand and sleep but when it was the 24ft) he would not sleep for

"('l' '"I" 'J even a moment. A, llzlya,1

It is frornUmm ul Momineen S.i eda Aisha :

II-Ie salialtaohu olaihi WrQ, sallam would not rest on his bed until Ramadhaan had ended.'

In another na rration the words ofSyeduna Anas are: 'His blessed bedding would be packed away.' (AthaafAhl ul Islaam)

Whereit was previously stated that in Itikaaf his bed and bedding was laid out for him It does not necessarily imply that the Prophet sallallaatu: alaihi lva sallam slept in it, it is possible that this was done for the Ummah's benefit so it eouldeome to know that bedding could be 'laid out in the mosque fOT the Mu'takif to sleep

.

m,

Staying awake aU thr-ough Ramadhnan

Some narrations in fact reveal that this practice of staying awake all night was not just of the last Ashara but was all through the month of Ramadhaan,

90

The Prophet's Ramadhaan

Imam Bayhaqi in Fadhaa it' ul Awqaat and Imam Suyooti in Jaame us Saqeer narrate the following from Umm ul.Momineen Syeda Aisha:

'''[hell Rarnadhaan vwould begin the Prophet sollallaahu alaihi wo sallam '" auld tie his bad, tightly and not come to his bed until Ramadhaan had ended. I (AI'JeU2me us Saqeer)

He would awaken the rest of the households

The Prop het sotlallaah« alaihi tva sallam would not just stay a wake himself in the last nights hut would also keep awake the rest of his household. Un1111 ul Mornineen Syeda Aisha states that when the last ten days would start:

"He would stay awake at night and awaken the family,' ,(Muslinl)

Here the family does not just mean his pure wives hut all the young and old 'who were able to pray, It is stated in the narration in Tibraani that in the last Ashara :

'He. would awaken the wives and every young and old able to pray.' (MusnadAhrnad)

It is narrated from Syeduna Zaynab bint Urnm Salama: 'When ten days of Ramadhaan would be left he would call to stand everyone from his family who had the strength tostand.' (Fathul Baari)

91

The Prophet's Ramadhaan

A very blessed practice of the Prophet sal.laUaa hu alaih i tV'Q sallaw: in the last Ashara is Itikaaf UmIllul Momineen Syeda Aisha states:

'Until he passed awav he alwavs performed Itikaaf

. ~ ,

in the last Ashara of Ramadhaan. After him the

wives performed Itikaaf.' {Bukhaari)

On seeing people not performing ltikaaf Imam Ibn Shuhaab Zuhri would sav :

."

~ How strange it is that the Muslims have forsaken

Itikaaf even though the Prophet performed it ill Madeenah right up to his death.' {Ff1th ul Baari)

Itikaaf'm the First and SecondAsbar-a.

One year the Prophet saUallaahu alaihi tva sa lla m actually performed Itikaaf in the first and second Ashara of Ramadhaan, along with the last Ashara, Syeduna Abu Saeed Khudri narrat s:

'The Prophet saUaUaaht1 alaihi UJ(l sallam performed Itikaaf in the first and second Ashara in at Turkish tent that had a. mat as a veil, He sullallaahu alaihi ,tva sallam took the mat with his blessed hand and pushed it tow ards the tent and brought his head out and caned the' people near. When the people carne near he sailolluoins alaibi tva sallani said 'In search of La.U atul Qadr I performed Itikaaf in the 'first Ashara and then performed Itikaaf i n the second Ashara a nd then I was jnforrncd that it 'V,lW:;; in the last Ashara .. Whoever of you desires to continue the Itikaaf

92

The Prophet's Ramadhaan

should continue it.') (lVluslfrn)

In another pla 'e the following words are narrated from Syeduna Abu Saeed Khudri :

'Before bei ng informed of Lail atul Qadr he saUallaahu alaihi uiasollam searched for it by perf Ol"111 rung Itikaaf in the middle Ashara of Ramadhaan.' (Umda tul Oaari)

After being Informed that Lail atul Qadrwas in the last Ashara of Rarnadhaan he O]1'~y performed Itikaaf in the last Ashara, Under the abovementioned narrations Imam Ibn Hajar writes:

'The Itikaaf in the middle Ashara in search of Lail atu] Qadrwas before he 'v., as informed of it" Once he was informed that it VII·as in the last Ashara he ceased Itikaaf inthe middle Ashara. I

(Ath aafA hi u II slaam)

Making up the Itikaaf'in Shawaal:

One year the Prophet s(jU(]llaah~ti alaihi WG sallara did not perform Itikaaf in Ramadhaan, That year the Prophetsallallaahu claihiuxi sallam had erected a tent in the mosq te and Syeda Aisha sought his perm 1,88]on Ito perform Itikaaf which he granted and she put up a separate tent. [11 addition Sycda Hafsa a lso put up a tent after obtaining his permission. When Syeda Zaynab hint Hajsh saw this she also put up a tent for Itikaaf, After the morning prayer the Prophet sallalkiahu alaihi W(l sallam carne to his tent and saw the three tents alongside hils and ordered for all of them to be taken down and left the itikaaf that month and performed H instead In the month ofShawaal. (Bukhaa d)

The wisdom in Ieaving that Itikaafr

hl1a01J, Badr ud Deen Aini and the other muhaddithecn have mentioned the following reasons for the Prophet

9[3

.. _

The Prophet's Rarnadhaan

sallalioahu alaihiwa sallam leaving that Itikaaf

There was the possibility that this act of the wiveswas not based completely on sincerity, it could have been due to the desire to be dose to' the Prophet saUaUaahu a la ih i UJQ sallam andjealousy and envy of one another;

. All kinds of people passed i hrough the mosque; bedouins and hypocrites, and it may have been feared that this c-ould become a cause ofdistress for th e wi ves,

The presence of all these tents may have made the mosque tight fa r worsh i p pers :

. \-Vhen the Prophet sullalluu.hu. olaih! tva sallam Sa,\N the wives around him in the mosque he felt that this scene was just like home and thus the purpose of Itikaaf, which is to become separated from thewives and an worldly matters, had expired. (Umda tul Qaari)

Haafiz Ibn Hajar Asqalaani also explains this same reason in the followingway:

'Because of the presence of the 'women it had become as if the Prophet sallallaahu alaihi LVCl sallam was at home and this "vas contradictory to secluded worship and the purpose' of Itikaaf bad expired" I (Fath. ul Baa1'"O

'94

Important Note:

The abov e incidentshould be kept in mind 1 y those who create such a worldly environment around them in the Itikaaf that the Itikaaf appears to bring no noticeable change to their normal routine. 1 f such people do. not want any change to their routine then forwhat purpose is their itn~aaf?! Have they not seen that the Prophet sallallaahu atuif1i lva sallarn left the itikaaf when he

The Prophet's Ramadhaan

feared a horne like en" ironment forming around him! Even despite the fact that no environment could ever affecthim ~

As the Prophet salla llaahu ala Uti U)C~ sallam never ga ve up a practice of ibaadah he had. started he made up tha t Itikaafin the last Ashara of'Shawaal, (Bukhaari)

'Twenty day ltikaaf in the year of his death:

The Prophet sallallaahu alaihi wa sallam mostly performed I tikaaf in the last Ashara but in the year of his passing he performed it tor 20 days, i.e, from the n'' of Ramadhaan.to theend of the month.

Abu Hurayra narrates:

'The Prophet sallallaahu alaihi tOCi sallam performed Itikaaf for 10 days each yeaI' but in the year of his passing he performed Itikaaf for .20 days. n (Bukhaari)

In explaining the reasons and wisdoms behind this 20 day Itikaafthe commentators of'hadith have explained:

He sallallaahu alaih! Iva sallam extended the Itikaaf that year because he knew of his passing away and 'wanted to increase his good deeds and teach the Ummah to also increase their deeds towards the end of their lives to ensure the) meet their Lord in the best state.

During Rarnadhaan the Prophet sallaltaahu alaih! wa sallam used to recite the Quran once with Jibraee] butin his last Ramadhaan he recited it twi CO.·C\ and this required two Itikaafs.

Imam Ibn Arabi gives the reason that he saliallaahu alaihi WQ SQUa.ll1 had given up an Jtikaaf in a

95

The' Prophet's Rarnadhaan

previous Rarnadhaan because of the wives and although he made it up in Shawaa] he alsowanted to make it up in Ramadhaan.

Some Ulama have stated that these extra days were not to make up the Itikaaf vmissed in that Rarnadhaan for that had taken place in Shawaal. This was in fact for making up the Itikaaf of the pr vious Rarnadhaan which was missed d, ie to travel.

'In the previous. ear the Prophet saUallaohu alaihi usa sallam was travelling and did not perform Itikaaf so in the following year he saUallaah u alaihi ioa sallarn performed Itikaaf for 210 days." (Umda tul Q:aa'l'O

Haafiz Ibn Hajar states that this is the strongest opinion because it is also mentioned in the hadith narrated by Abu Ibn Kaab:

'The Prophet sallallaahu alaihi uia sallam would perform Itikaaf ill the last Ashara of Ramadhaan but one year be sal'lall'f.:u_lhu alaibi wa sallam was on ajourney and did nut perform Itikaaf so in the following year be sallallaahu alaihi wa sallam performed Itikaaf for 200 days.' (Fa til ul Baari)

The perfect desire to meets

Shaykh Abdul Haque Muhaddith Dehlvi explains that this blessed practice signifies his desire:

TI-Ie sallallaahu alaihi wa sallum did this because ofhis desire to. meet his Lord and to prepare for it properly. Howwonderfully it hasbeen said:

'As the hour of union gets closer the fire of desi re burns more fiercer', (Isha tulIumaat)

96

Performed llikaafin

the Mosque and not. in his room:

Even. though the Prophet's room (house) adjoined the mosque- some Tabi'een even said thatit was-inside the mosque > the Prophet sallallaatvu alaihi wa sallam never performed Itikaaf in his room. When Shaykh Ataa bin. Abi Rubaah was asked if seclusion and Itikaaf were one and the same or two different things he expbdned:

'They are different because the Mosque is not conditional fOT seclusion whilst it is for itikaaf and he quoted this practice of the Prophet ,saUaUaohu a.laihi tva sa llam as proof.'

'The Prophet's house was in the Mosquebutwhen he solialtaahu a. laihi wa sollan« performed Itikaaf in the month of Ramadhaan be would OOlU€! out of TIlt and perform Itikaaf ~n the Mosque,' [Umda tul Quari)

Itikaafmust be i.n

t1111£1o M··· o sq "ne an d': '0'-0"'1 -Is- ew :·h·e:r~'·

, _; .. "', '.' ' ' I _' ;., .' I, I • " ~ _" '"_:,, ,'IL".r' .. ~' '," " ........

One must clearly remember that Itikaaf can only be .".:' i form ed i the M· ', .. r "~-Ie 'h:-,II '., , ... ,dI rth "I" .:, ',r'ty.,._ .. ,d'; ;l"er- orme . ~n le .osque, a ., velan a or . Ie cou .. ' ar

because only they are in reality the mosque. Those parts that are used to support the mosque, such as the Ablution area, Imam's room and store [noms are not part of the Mosque and thus Itikaaf cannot be performed there, Any Mu'takif who goes into these parts 'without reason invalidates his Itikaaf,

In addition those who always stay in a side room are also not performing Itikaaf, Some people due to their selfperceived status and importance perform Itikaaf in a room and not in the Mosque. Such people should remember-that the Mosque is the most prestigious and

11

· TheP'rophet"s Ramadhaan

highest place and should fear being, deprived of the mercies and bounties of Allah's house. If the Prophet sallalkushu alailti wa. sallam himself left his r()OID and sat in the mosque then who are we to havea problenl?!

Erected a tent for ltikaaf:,

Itikaaf is about forsaking the creation and sitting at Allah's doorstep, Even though the Prophet saUall'Q,Qhu aluihi tva sallam was constantly at this station he performed Itikaaf in a tent to teach the U mmah the way to attain solitude and focus such that their heart would stay 'With their Lord the whole year and so even when they were involved in other matters in reality their heart would he with Allah,

Umm ul Momineen Syeda Aisha narrates:

'In the last Ashara of Ramadhaan the Prophet sallallaahu alaihi W,Q sallam\~lould perform itikaaf and I would erect a tent for him, I (Bukhaari)

In. another place she said:

'After praying (Fajar) the Prophet eallollaahu

r ·h · Jl ~Id ] . . ..

alal,1: WIQ SQ{arn. woum return to .1IS tent.

(Bukhaari)

Abu Saeed Khudri narrates:

'The Prophet sallallaahu alaihi tva sallam performed Itikaaf in the first and second Ashara and this Itikaaf took place in a Turkish tent which had a mat as a veil. The Prophet sallalluahu aiaih! wa saUam pushed the mat to one side and put his bead outside and spoke to the people.' (Muwatta Imam Maulik)

Imam Ibn Majah has a \,\lbolechapter entided rChapter 98

The Prophet's Ramadhaan

ofltikaaJ in a tent in the mo.sque I

Ibn Q,ayyim describes this blessed practice of the Prophet sailalloohu. alaiid 'U)(~ sallam in the following 'way:

'He saiiallaahu alaihi wa sollam would order for the tent to be put up in the Mosque and in it he sallallaahu aiaihi UJa. saliam would attain solitude with his Lard. f (Saw~l un Nobi)

Dr Muhammad Abdu Yamaami writes :,

'He sallallaahu alaiai l1JU saUflmwuuld perform Itikaaf, in.the mosqu.e, in a. tenterected dose to his house. I [Haa Kazaa ASQ,am Rasoohlial»)

Shaykh Atia Muhammad Saalim writes under the above hadith narrated by Syeduna Abu Saeed Khudri :

!Tbis hadith clarifies that the Prophet sallaUaanu alaihi' 'wo sallam performed itikaafin a Turkish tent. In Borne narrations it was a palm tree tent,' (Mara RasooliUahfi Ramadhaan)

Shaykh Muhamnmadbin Abdullah Alawl fun the commentary of lbnMajab describes 8. 'Turkish tent as

~A smallleather tent, , (Mafaatih ulHaajah)

For God's Sake reflect!

You have read that in order to achieve solitude with his Lord the Prophet sa.l.lalloalul aiaini wa sallam would erect a tent. Even though he sallalla.,ahu aloih! wa sallam did not need a tent to achieve this he sallailaahu alaihi wa sollam did 810 to teach us that if we wanted focus with our lord we should spend these few days in seclusion so that it is just us and our Lord. Those people who turn the Ifikaaf into a communal act should reflect carefully onwhether they aloe turning people 'towards their Lord orin fact away from their Lordt A person

99

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