A STUDY ON INDUSTRIAL SAFETY MANAGEMENT IN ANGLO FRENCH TEXTILES PTC LTD.

, PUDUCHERRY
SUMMER PROJECT REPORT

Submitted by

R. ANBARASAN REGISTER NO: 27348303

UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF

Mr. G. BALA SENDHIL KUMAR, B.E., MBA., M. Phil.
Faculty, Department Of Management Studies in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree Of

MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES SRI MANAKULA VINAYAGAR ENGINEERING COLLEGE PONDICHERRY UNIVERSITY PUDUCHERRY
SEPTEMBER 2007

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SRI MANAKULA VINAYAGAR ENGINEERING COLLEGE MADAGADIPET DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE

This to certify that the project work entitled “ A STUDY ON INDUSTRIAL SAFETY MANAGEMENT IN ANGLO FRENCH TEXTILES PTC LTD., PUDUCHERRY” is a confide work done by R. ANBARASAN [REGISTER NO: 27348303] in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of Master of Business Administration by Pondicherry University during the academic year 2007 – 2008.

GUIDE

HEAD OF DEPARTMENT

Submitted for Viva-Voce Examination held on ___________

EXTERNAL EXAMINER

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
With the divine blessing of god, I take immense pleasure in stating the acknowledgement for this project. I express my deep gratitude to Mr. N.KESAVAN, Chairman, Mr.M.DHANASEKARAN, Managing Director and Mr.S.V.SUGUMARAN, Vice Chairman, Sri Manakula Vinayagar Engineering College. My special thanks to our college Principal, Mr.V.S.K.VENKATACHALAPATHY for extending me moral support during the course of this work. My special thanks to Mr.S.JAYAKUMAR, Head of the Department of Management studies for his motivation and providing me the permission in doing this project. I wish to thank my internal guide Mr. G.BALA SENDHIL KUMAR for being so resource full from the beginning of this project and help to bring this project successfully. I thank my external guide Mr. N.VELAYUDHAM, Safety Officer of Anglo French Textiles PTC Ltd, Puducherry for giving me this opportunity to do this project work in their organization and for guiding me throughout the project duration. I wish to thank all other faculty members of the department for their co-operation and encouragement throughout my project work. I am also thankful to all the employees of Anglo French Textiles PTC Ltd, Puducherry for providing me the details about the company for the completion of my project.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF CHARTS CHAPTER NO.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

TITLE INTRODUCTION REVIEW OF LITERATURE OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY RESEARCH METHODOLOGY DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION FINDINGS, SUGGESTIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE STUDY CONCLUSION LIMITATION AND SCOPE OF THE STUDY

PAGE NO. 1 11 19 20 23 46 49 50

ANNEXURES 1. BIBLIOGRAPHY 2. QUESTIONNAIRE

Table No. 5.1

List Of Tables Age wise classification of Respondents 4

Page No. 23

5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16 5.17 5.18 5.19 5.20 5.21

Departments in Anglo French Textiles Service of Employees in the Organization Employees opinion regarding safety measures Organization providing any personal protective equipments Frequency of training programme Conservancy in case of accidents Availability of Safety Equipments Remedial measures taken by the organization Major causes of accidents Experienced person doesn’t need training Disease affects workers in work environment Frequency of accidents happening Severity of accidents caused Causes of great disturbance in work environment Chemical content of Waste/Effluent Working conditions provided by the Organization Safety measures in Organization Chi-Square analysis of Training on safety and First aid and Met with accidents Chi-Square analysis of providing personal protective equipments and Methods to improve safety measures Analysis of various facilities provided by the organization using weighted average method

24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 43 45

Table No. 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10

List Of Charts Age wise classification of Respondents Departments in Anglo French Textiles Service of Employees in the Organization Employees opinion regarding safety measures Organization providing any personal protective equipments Frequency of training programme Conservancy in case of accidents Availability of Safety Equipments Remedial measures taken by the organization Major causes of accidents

Page No. 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32

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5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16 5.17 5.18

Experienced person doesn’t need training Disease affects workers in work environment Frequency of accidents happening Severity of accidents caused Causes of great disturbance in work environment Chemical content of Waste/Effluent Working conditions provided by the Organization Safety measures in Organization

33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40

CHAPTER – I
1.1 COMPANY PROFILE The Anglo French Textiles is a Unit of Puducherry Textiles Corporation Limited. It is a Government of Puducherry undertaking and it is one of the largest composite textile mills in Southern India. 1.1.1 History of Anglo French Textiles Anglo French Textiles was started by Mr.Rodier in the year 1898 and was incorporated in England during the same year. It proudly celebrated its centenary in 1998. In the beginning stage, Africa and Madagascar were the prominent buyers of Anglo French Textiles. The exported dyed cloths were popularly known as “Sendura” cloth. Unfortunately in the middle of July 1983 there was a persistent labour unrest, which brought down the performance of the mill. This situation gave way to sell the mill to Sri Jatia and Somania group of Mumbai. At that time the mill was facing financial crisis due

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to mismanagement and the besieged by labour problem. This culminated into stoppage of the operation in the mill and ultimately the mill ceased to the function from July 1983. The closure of the mill adversely affected the economy of Union Territory of Puducherry and caused social problems. The representation of the jobless employee, public and reports of the press made the government of puducherry to reopen the mill. It also passed an act to nationalize the mill, which came into effect from 24th December 1985. (Thereafter it vested absolutely with the government of puducherry initially and immediately, thereafter stands vested with Puducherry Textiles Corporation limited). Now Anglo French Textiles is functioning as three units. The Unit A and Unit B are within the heart of the city on the Cuddalore highway, and the Unit C is located 10Kms away from the Puducherry city. 1.1.2 The Reasons for the success of the mill are:Standard new work norms Working all 24 hours in a day and 6 days in a week Various welfare schemes for the workers. 1.1.3 Present Context of Anglo French Textiles At present AFT encompasses 3 units where 3000 employees are employed. The management has planned to modernize the company by installing new machineries in order to produce super fine quality fabric for the export purpose. It has also set up a “quality term” whose main objective is to get qualification certificate like the ISO 9000 and EN 29000 with its dedicated team with its manifold and materialistic development it is for granted that AFT will become the pride of the Union Territory of Puducherry during the 21st century. 1.1.4 OBJECTIVES OF AFT

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The main objectives of the company can be generally stated as manufacturing and selling of cotton yarn and cotton fabrics. • • • • • To manufacture and market cotton yarns. To manufacture and market cotton fabrics. To manufacture garments and uniforms for various agencies and service organizations. To protect the interest of the employees through welfare measures. To modernize the mills and its systems including computerization.

1.1.5 DEPARTMENTS OF AFT The various departments of AFT are 1.1.5.1 Production Department:The Production Department is subdivided into five departments, which are as follows. Spinning Department – Blow room, Carding and spinning. Weaving Preparatory Department – Winding, Warping and Sizing. Processing Department – Bleaching, Printing and Dyeing. Weaving Department – Loom shed. Warehouse Department – Examining, Packing and Baling. 1.1.5.2 Service Department:The Service Department comprises six departments, namely, 8

Marketing Department Finance and Accounts Department Purchase and Stores Department Quality Assurance Department Engineering Department Personnel Department

1.1.6 GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT ANGLO FRENCH TEXTILES

Company Name

:

Anglo French Textiles (A Unit of Puducherry Textiles Corp. Ltd.)

Registered Office Location of the Mill A & B Units C Unit Date of Incorporation Commencement of Business

:

A.F.T Premises, Cuddalore Road, Puducherry – 605 004.

: : : :

Mudaliarpet, Puducherry – 605 004. Ayyankutipalayam, Puducherry – 605 009. 23rd December 1985 (Originally in 1898) 10th June 1986 (after taken over by Puducherry Government).

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Authorized Capital Issued & Paid up capital Licensed Capacity Telephone No. Fax E-mail

: : : : : :

Rs. 240 Crores Rs. 220 Crores 63,240 spindles and 1613 looms. 2358951 and 2359075 0413-2357710 Aftmd2.vsnl.net.in

1.1.7 HEALTH AND SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety increases productivity, reduces accidents, acts as moral booster for employees, enables them to work fearlessly with confidence when they are assured of work safety. Safety measures develop team spirit and the sense of belongingness among employees, as they see no hazards to their lives and health. 1.1.7.1 The Safety Policy of AFT The occupational safety and health are primarily a management function like quality and production, having total participation of all workmen with the objective of reducing deterioration and losses of resources of Men, Machines and Materials ensuring product safety. “Quality Through Safety”.

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The commitment of management towards safety has envisaged constituting safety committee headed by the chief safety officer. The safety policy is published among all employees through play cards, instructions and exhibits.

1.1.8 Methods followed to provide safety to employees in Anglo French Textiles 1. Safety Inspections. 2. Job safety analysis. 3. Safety education and training. 4. Investigation of accidents. 5. Wet drills. 1.1.8.1 Safety Inspection Periodical Inspection of work spots are carried out by the safety officers from the angle of health and safety of employees. Any unusual sound, smell or any other Also House-keeping, electrical observation are bought to the notice of the concerned department in charge. The work methods of employees are observed and recorded. appliances, high pressure operations and the use of heat and fore are studied with special attention and appropriate warning are issued. The number of fire extinguishers, their

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maintenance and refill status are observed and recorded. concerned department). 1.1.8.2 Job Safety Analysis

(Once in a month, in the

In this the critical jobs are studied in detail especially the jobs causing frequent accidents and damages. All the possible causes of accidents are analyzed and appropriate methods are advised. 1.1.8.3 Safety Education and Training Here the employees are informed about the various hazards in the works and the methods of using safety equipments and other personal protective equipments. In addition first-aid training, fire fighting methods are taught to the employees. Safety training programme are conducted at certain intervals by the experts who come from various institutions and employees were sent to attend training programme and seminars conducted by the various institutions at the expenses of the company. 1.1.8.4 Investigation of Accidents Case studies are being carried out to investigate the various causes of accidents by appropriately choosing accidents cases. In this the causes are broadly classified as 3 categories as below. 1. Unsafe act of men. 2. Unsafe conditions of machines. 3. Unsafe environment.

1.1.8.4.1 Accident Investigation Report The following is the sample of report noted during 2006 in Unit A of AFT is considered for the cause of accidents.

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Name: xxxxxx Date: 05-06-2006.

Code No.: xxxxx Place: Weaving Preparatory.

Category: Beam Carrier

Report: When working as beam carrier and while removing the empty warp from the beam stand, unfortunately the roll slipped and his right hand middle finger and ring finger were caught in between the roll shaft and beam bracket and caused cut and bleeding injury. 1.1.8.4.1.1 Nature of Injury: Cut and bleeding injury (Right hand middle and ring finger). Investigation: The empty warp weighing about 100 kgs was lifted by two operatives one at each end from the beam bracket. While carrying the empty warp, the flange of the beam at one end was struck by the M.S. rail and due to this shock the man at the other end lost control thereby got his right middle finger crashed against the bracket. 1.1.8.4.1.2 This has occurred due to the following reasons. 1. The injured person was not probably holding the beam shaft rigidly. 2. The other man did not lift the empty roll well above the M.S. rail so as to avoid obstruction to the flange. This requires considerable strength in the workmen. 1.1.8.4.1.3 Remedies 1. Every workman should be instructed about the possible dangers of the work. 2. Whenever huge weights are handles manually, persons of physical soundness should be employed there on. 3. Lifting of heavy beams must be handled with the help of pulley. 1.1.8.5 Wet Drills

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This is an exercise carried out by the coordinated activities of the personnel in Engineering, Security and Personnel Departments. This is carried out to maintain the preparedness for fire fighting. This is also called mock fire drill. Once in a Quarter the security personnel are informed suddenly, break out of fire at some department without prior intimation and the time is noted down, also the Engineering department is informed the CSO arrives at this spot mentioned. The Security personnel are expected to be present at the spot as soon as possible and arrange for extinguishing (mock fire) by making ready with the fire hoses nozzles protective equipments etc.

1.1.9 Types of Accidents Happening in Anglo French Textiles S.N0. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Types of Accidents Slipping of limbs into the machines Shuttle fly Falling of Objects Bobbin cut Trolley hit Chemical flash Eye Affection Slipping and falling Others Percentage of Accidents 26% 19% 15% 13% 11% 7% 5% 2% 2%

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1.2 INTRODUCTION TO INDUSTRIAL SAFETY Life of Industrial workers is becoming more and more prone to danger. The

Industries are becoming more in number, size and sophistication. Every year, lakhs and lakhs of workers meet accidents in factories, mines and workshops leading to injuries, permanent disabilities and sometime deaths. Accidents may be caused by unsafe working environments, defective plant and equipments, poor supervision, careless acts etc., Industrial safety management is a vital part of the human resources management in any industry because it ensures job satisfaction, job security and motivates the employees for higher productivity. Also, it helps in loss control for the overall benefit of the organization. Hence, industrial safety is beneficial to the workers as well as management. 1.2.1 SYNOPSIS A good organization not only gives importance to the sales, profit, increase production etc., but also provide safety measures to achieve the best results. This study highlights the various safety activities carries out at the Anglo French Textiles PTC (LTD)

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for the employees and the organization as a whole. Also, it would help the management to know about the feelings of the workers about the safety measures. Industrial engineers are concentrating their attention to improve the design of workplace, layout, selection of equipment and machines. emphasis on safety measures in their plants. Moreover, rules and regulations, laid down in the labour laws, make it obligatory on the part of industrialist to provide certain minimum measures of safety to employees. This study is based on collection of data from records of the Anglo French Textiles, Puducherry and also personal interviews with the employees. Employees also should lay

CHAPTER - II
REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2.1 Introduction An organization is made up of four resources, namely men, material, money and machinery. Of these, the first one is living one and the other three are non-living i.e., nonhuman. It is the human or people that make use of non-human resources. Hence, people are the most significant resources in an organization. It is man who makes all the difference in organizations. According to Peter F. Drucker, “man, of all the resources available to man, can grow and develop”. Human resources are heterogeneous in the sense that they differ in personality, perception, emotions, values, attitudes, motives and modes of thoughts. 2.1.2 Safety Safety, in simple terms, means freedom from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. Industrial safety or Employee safety refers to the protection of workers from the danger of industrial accidents.

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2.1.3 Accidents An Accident, is an unplanned and uncontrolled event in which an action or reaction of an object, a substance, a person, or a radiation results in personal injury. 2.1.4 Causes of Accidents The industrial safety experts have classified the various causes of accidents into three broad categories: 1. Unsafe Conditions 2. Unsafe Acts 3. Other Causes

2.1.5 STATUTORY PROVISIONS FOR INDUSTRIAL SAFETY The International Labour Organization (ILO) organized a Tripartite Technical Conference in 1948 to formulate a ‘Model Code’ of Safety Regulations for Industrial Establishments for the guidance of governments and industry. The code covers various areas of unsafe conditions and unsafe acts. In India, The Factories Act, 1948 lays down safety provisions contained in Sections 21 to 41. These provisions are obligatory on the part of industrial establishments. A brief resume of these is presented as follows. 2.1.5.1. Fencing of Machinery (Section 21): It is obligatory on the part of the management to fence machinery with guards of a substantial construction. The same shall be constantly maintained and kept in its proper position when any part of the machine is in motion or movement. 2.1.5.2. Work on or Near Machinery in Motion (Section 22):

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A trained adult male worker wearing tight fitting clothing should examine and operate the machine in motion. He should not handle a belt on a moving pulley more than fifteen centimeters in width. No young children or women should handle a machine which is in motion. 2.1.5.3. Employment of Adolescents on Dangerous Machines (Section 23): Young persons should not be allowed to work on dangerous machines unless he has been fully instructed as to the dangers involved and he has received sufficient training to work on the machine under the supervision of a person having thorough knowledge and experience of working on that machine. 2.1.5.4. Striking Gear or Device for Cutting off Power (Section 24): Every factory must provide suitable striking gear to move driving belt to and from fast and loose pulleys which form part of transmission machinery. There should also be a locking device to prevent accidental starting of transmission machinery to which the device is fitted. 2.1.5.5. Self-Acting Machines (Section 25): No traversing part of a self-acting machine and no material carried thereon shall be allowed to run within a distance of 45 centimeters from any fixed structure which is not a part of the machine. 2.1.5.6. Casting of New Machinery (Section 26): All machinery driven by power and installed in any factory after April 1 1949, every set crew, bolt or key, spindle shall be sunk or securely guarded to prevent any danger. Further, all spur, worm and toothed or friction gearing while in operation shall be completely unease unless it is safely situated.

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2.1.5.7. Prohibition of Employment of Woman and Children near Cotton Openers (Section 27): Women and children shall not be employed in any part of a factory for pressing cottons when cotton opener is in operation. However, women and children may be employed in a room which is separated from opener.

2.1.5.8. Hoists and Lifts (Section 28): In every factory, hoists and lifts should be in good condition and should be examined once in every six months. 2.1.5.9. Lifting Machines, Tackles, Chains and Ropes (Section 29): Similarly, in every factory, lifting machines chains, ropes and lifting tackles must be in good construction and should be examined once in a year. 2.1.5.10 . Revolving Machinery (Section 30):

In every room where grinding work is going on, a notice indicating the maximum safe working peripherals speed of the machine shall be affixed near it. Effective measures will also be taken in every factory to ensure that the safe working peripheral speed of every revolving vessel, cage, basket, flywheel, pulley, or similar other appliances driven by power is not exceeded. 2.1.5.11. Pressure Plants (Section 31): If in any factory, any plant or its part is operated at a pressure above atmospheric pressure, the pressure should not be allowed to exceed by taking effective measures in this regard.

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2.1.5.12. Floors, Stairs and other means of Access (Section 32): In every factory, all floors, steps, stairs, passage and gangway shall be of sound construction and be properly maintained.

2.1.5.13. Pits and Openings in Floors (Section 33): Since every fixed vessel, sumps, tank, pit, or opening in a floor may be a source of danger, therefore, shall be securely covered or fenced.

2.1.5.14. Excessive Weights (Section 34): No person shall be employed in the factory to lift or carry excess load/weight so as to cause him/her physical injury. 2.1.5.15. Protection of Eyes (Section 35): In every factory, adequate provisions of goggles or screen to protect persons working on machine which might cause damage to their eyesight, shall be made. 2.1.5.16. Precaution against Dangerous Fumes (Section 36): No employee in any factory shall be allowed to enter any chamber, tank, pit, vat, pipe, flue or such other confined place in which any gas or fume is present. 2.1.5.17. Explosive or Inflammable Gas or Dust (Section 37):

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In any factory which produces through its manufacturing process dust, gas, fume or vapour of such nature exploding on ignition, effective measures such as enclosure of the plant or machinery used in the process, removal of accumulated dust or fume and effective enclosure of all possible source of ignition, should be taken to prevent explosion likely to be caused by gas or fume. 2.1.5.18. Precaution in case of Fire (Section 38): In every factory, effective measures to be taken to prevent outbreak of fire and its spread. These may include exit door to escape in case of fire, necessary equipments and facilities for extinguishing fire and adequate arrangement to raise alarm in case of fire, preferably a siren.

2.1.5.19. Power to Require Specification of Defective Parts or Tests of Stability (Section 39): If it appears to the factory inspector that any building or part of it is in such a condition that it is dangerous to human life, he/she may ask for details about them or insist on suitable tests to determine their safety. 2.1.5.20. Safety of Building and Machinery (Section 40): Where unsafe condition of building and machinery is reported, the inspector having being satisfied may ask the occupier or manager to repair it suitably.

2.1.5.21. Power to Make Rules (Section 41):

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The State Government is empowered to make rules requiring the provision in any factory of such further devices and measures for securing safety of persons employed therein. 2.1.5.22. The other acts covering statutory provisions of safety are: • • • • • Mines Act, 1952 Plantation Labour Act, 1961 Bidi and Cigar Workers (Conditions of Employment) Act, 1966. Contract Labour (Regulation and Abolition) Act, 1970 Motor Transport Workers Act, 1961

2.2 Articles from Journals THE PUDUCHERRY FACTORY RULES 1964 (As Amended up to 31.12.1993) Government of Puducherry Labour Department Notification S.O.84 – In exercise of the powers conferred by the Sec.112 of the Factories Act, 1984 (Central Act 63 of 1948), the Lieutenant – Governor, Puducherry hereby makes the following rules, the same having been previously published as requires by Sec.115 of the said act, viz. Rule 106 of the Puducherry Factory Rules notification of accidents and dangerous occurrences. When any accident which results in the death or bodily injured to any person or any dangerous occurrence specified in the schedule takes place in a factory, the manager of the

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factory shall forthwith send a notice there of by a special messenger or by telephone, or by telegram to 1. The Inspector and Chief Inspector. 2. The District Magistrate or sub divisional officer. 3. The Officer in charge of the nearest police station. 4. The relatives of the injured or deceased person. Any notice given as required shall be confirmed by the manager of the factory to the authorities within 12 hours of the accident or the dangerous occurrence by sending them a written respond in Form 17. When any accident or dangerous occurrence specified in the schedule takes place in factory and it causes such bodily injury to any person as prevents the person injured from working for a period of 48 hours or more immediately following the accident on the dangerous occurrence, as the case may be, the manager of the factory shall send a report thereof to the inspector in form 17 within 24 hours after the expiry of 48 hours from the time of the accident on the dangerous occurrence.

2.2.1 LEGAL ASPECTS RELATING TO INDUSTRIAL SAFETY There are legal provisions too for undertaking safety measures. There are laws covering occupational health and safety and penalties for non-compliance have become quite sever. The responsibility extends to the safety and health of the surrounding community too. The civil law establishes the extend of damages or compensation. on the extend of liability. 2.2.2 The various acts involved in Industrial safety are: 1. The Factories Act, 1984. Under the

criminal law, sentences are prescribed under the pollution control laws. There is no ceiling

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2. The Employees State Insurance Act 1948. 3. The Indian Explosive Act, 1884. 4. The Explosive Substance Act, 1908. 5. The Inflammable Substance Act, 1952. 6. The Petroleum Act, 1934. 7. The Indian Electricity Act, 1910. 8. The Indian Boilers Act, 1932. 9. The Fatal Accident Act, 1885.

CHAPTER – III

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

1. To Study the Industrial safety measures followed in Anglo French Textiles. 2. To Study the different types of accidents happening inside the organization. 3. To analyze the causes of accidents. 4. To measure the effectiveness of the safety and first-aid training programme provided by the organization.

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5. To find the ways to reduce the different types of accidents and pollutions inside the organization.

CHAPTER – 4
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

4.1 RESEARCH – MEANING Research is an art of scientific investigation. According to Redmen and Mary defines research as a “systematic effort to gain knowledge”. Research methodology is way to systematically solve the research problem. It is a plan of action for a research project and explains in detail how data are collected and analyzed. This research study is a descriptive research study. 4.2 RESEARCH DESIGN

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A research design is a plan that specifies the objectives of the study, method to be adopted in the data collection, tools in data analysis and hypothesis to be framed. “A research design is an arrangement of condition for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to research purpose with economy in procedure”. 4.3 NATURE OF DATA 4.3.1 Primary data The primary data are collected from the employees of Anglo French Textiles PTC Ltd., through a direct structured questionnaire. 4.3.2 Secondary data Company profiles, Company registers, websites, magazines, articles were used widely as a support to primary data.

4.4 SAMPLING SIZE AND TECHNIQUE 4.4.1 Size of the sample It refers to the number of items to be selected from the universe to constitute as a sample. In this study 100 employees of Anglo French Textiles PTC Ltd., was selected as size of sample. 4.4.2 Sample design The sampling technique used in this study is simple random sampling method. This method is also called as the method of chance selection. Each and every item of population has equal chance to be included in the sample. 4.4.3 Questionnaire The questions are arranged logical sequence. The questionnaire consists of a variety of questions presented to the employees for the response. Dichotomous questions, multiple choice questions, rating scale questions were used in constructing questionnaire.

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4.5 STATISTICAL TOOLS USED To analyze and interpret collected data the following statistical tools were used. 1) Percentage method 2) Weighted average method 3) Chi-square analysis 4.5.1 Percentage method: The percentage is used for making comparison between two or more series of data. It can be generally calculated as

No. of respondents favorable x 100 Percentage of respondent = Total no of respondents

4.5.2 Weighted average method The weighted average method can be calculated by the following formula XW = ∑ WX / ∑ X

Here XW represents the weighted average X represents the value of variable W represents the weight given to the variable. 4.5.3 Chi-square analysis: Chi-square analysis in statistics is to test the goodness of fit to verify the distribution of observed data with assumed theoretical distribution.

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Therefore it is a measure to study the divergence of actual and expected frequencies. The formula for computing chi-square is as follows. Chi-square = ∑ {(O-E)2 / E}

The calculated value of chi-square is compared with the table of chi-square for the given degrees of freedom at the specified level of significance. If the calculated value is greater than the tabulated value then the difference between the observed frequency and the expected frequency are significant. the degrees of freedom is (n-2) where ‘n’ is number of observed frequencies and in case of contingency table the degrees of freedom is (C-1) (R-1) where C is number of columns and R is number of rows.

CHAPTER – V
DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION Age wise classification of Respondents Table 5.1 S.No. 1 2 3 Age in Years 30 – 40 41 – 50 51 – 60 Total No. of Respondents 11 39 50 100 Percentage 11.0 39.0 50.0 100.0

Age wise classification of Respondents Chart 5.1

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60 50 percentage 40 30 20 11 10 0 30-40 yrs 41-50 yrs Age in years 51-60 yrs 39 50

Inference: The above table indicates 11 percentages of the respondents belong to 30-40 years old category, 39 percentages of the respondents belongs to 41-50 years category, 50 percentages of the respondents belongs to 51-60 years category. Departments in Anglo French Textiles Table 5.2 S.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Department Spinning Weaving Preparatory Weaving Processing Engineering Warehouse Total Frequency 22 13 29 14 16 6 100 Percentage 22.0 13.0 29.0 14.0 16.0 6.0 100.0

Departments in Anglo French Textiles Chart 5.2

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35 30 25 percentage 20 15 10 5 0 Departments 13 14 22 16 29 Spinning Weaving Preparatory Weaving Processing Engineering 6 Warehouse

Inference: The above table indicates 22 percentage of the respondents belong to spinning department, 13 percentage of the respondents belong to Weaving Preparatory department, 29 percentage of the respondents belong to Weaving department, 14 percentage of the respondents belong to Processing department, 16 percentage of the respondents belong to Engineering department, 6 percentage of the respondents belong to Warehouse department. Service of respondents in the organization Table 5.3 S.No. 1 2 3 4 Service in the organization Below 10 yrs 10 - 20 yrs 20 - 30 yrs above 30 yrs Total Frequency 1 29 35 35 100 Percentage 1.0 29.0 35.0 35.0 100.0

Service of respondents in the organization Chart 5.3

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1 35 29 Below 10 Yrs 10 - 20 Yrs 20-30 Yrs Above 30 Yrs 35

Inference: The above table indicates 1 percentage of respondent belong to below 10 years, 29 percentage of respondents belong to 10-20 years, 35 percentage of respondents belong to 21-30 years, 35 percentage of respondents belong to above 30 years of service in the organization. Opinion of respondents regarding safety measures Table 5.4 S.No. Opinion regarding safety measures Frequency Percentage

1 2 3 4

Very much satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied Very much dissatisfied Total

10 30 34 26 100

10.0 30.0 34.0 26.0 100.0

Opinion of respondents regarding safety measures Chart 5.4

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10 26 Very much satisfied 30 Satisfied Dissatisfied Very much dissatisfied 34

Inference: The above table indicates 10 percentages of the respondents are very much satisfied, 30 percentages of the respondents are satisfied, 34 percentages of the respondents are dissatisfied, 26 percentages of the respondents are very much dissatisfied.

Providing any personal protective equipment Table 5.5 S.No. 1 2 Organization providing personal protective equipments Yes No Total 70 30 100 70.0 30.0 100.0 Frequency Percentage

Providing any personal protective equipment Chart 5.5

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30 Yes No 70

Inference: The above table indicates 70 percentages of the respondents says that the organization is providing personal protective equipments and 30 percentages of the respondents says that the organization does not provide any personal protective equipment.

Frequency of the training programme Table 5.6 Training programme Monthly Quarterly Half yearly Annually Total Missing System Total S.No. 1 2 3 4 Frequency 8 17 20 19 64 36 100 Percentage 8.0 17.0 20.0 19.0 64.0 36.0 100.0

Frequency of the training programme Chart 5.6 33

8 17 Monthly Quarterly Half yearly Annually 20 19 None

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Inference: The above table indicates 8 percentages of the respondents says that every month the training on safety and first-aid programme is conducted, 17 percentages of the respondents says that every quarter the training on safety and first-aid programme is conducted, 20 percentages of the respondents says that half yearly once the training on safety and first-aid programme is conducted, 19 percentages of the respondents says that annually once the training on safety and first-aid programme is conducted. Also 36 percentages of the respondents says that the training on safety and first-aid programme is not at all conducted.

Conservancy in case of accidents Table 5.7 S.No Conservancy 1 Loss of production 2 Disability of labour 3 Analysis of the causes of accidents Total Frequency 13 70 17 100 Percentage 13.0 70.0 17.0 100.0

Conservancy in case of accidents Chart 5.7

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80 70 60 Percentage 50 40 30 20 10 0 Loss of production 13

70

17

Disability of labours conservancy

Analysis of the causes of accidents

Inference: The above table indicates that 13 percentages of the respondents says loss of production, 70 percentages of the respondents says disability of labour and 17 percentages of the respondents says analysis of the causes of accidents will be the considerations of the management in the case of accidents.

Availability of Safety equipments Table 5.8 S.No. 1 2 3 4 Safety Equipments Abundant Sufficient good/ok Lacking Total Frequency 5 30 35 30 100 Percentage 5.0 30.0 35.0 30.0 100.0

Availability of Safety equipments Chart 5.8

35

5 30 30

Abundant Sufficient Good/Ok Lacking

35

Inference: The above table says that 5 percentages of the respondents says abundant, 30 percentages of the respondents says sufficient, 35 percentages of the respondents says good/ok, 30 percentages of the respondents says lacking.

Remedial measures taken by organization Table 5.9 S.No. 1 2 3 4 Remedial Measures Highly Satisfactory Satisfactory Good Poor Total Frequency 13 37 41 9 100 Percentage 13.0 37.0 41.0 9.0 100.0

Remedial measures taken by organization Chart 5.9

36

45 40 35 percentage 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Highly Satisfactory Satisfactory 13 37

41

9

Good

Poor

remedial measures

Inference: The above table indicates 13 percentages of the respondents are highly satisfied, 37 percentages of the respondents are satisfied, 41 percentages of the respondents says good and 9 percentages of the respondents says poor regarding the remedial measures taken by the organization in case of accidents.

Major causes of accidents Table 5.10 S.No. Major causes of accidents Frequency 1 unsafe act of men 32 2 unsafe condition of machines 19 3 unsafe environment 34 4 Improper implementation of safety measures 15 Total 100 Major causes of accidents Chart 5.10 Percentage 32.0 19.0 34.0 15.0 100.0

37

40 35 30 Percentage 25 20 15 10 5 0

36 31 24

9

Major

Minor

Fatal

Disability

causes of accident

Inference: The above table indicates 32 percentages of the respondents says unsafe act of men, 19 percentages of the respondents says unsafe condition of machines, 34 percentages of the respondents says unsafe environment, 15 percentages of the respondents says improper implementation of safety measures were the major causes of accidents.

Experienced person doesn't need training Table 5.11 S.No. Training for experienced persons 1 Yes 2 No Total Frequency 39 61 100 Percentage 39.0 61.0 100.0

Experienced person doesn't need training Chart 5.11

38

39

No Yes 61

Inference: The above table indicates 39 percentages of the respondents agrees that the experienced person doesn’t need training on safety and 61 percentages of the respondents appose it.

Diseases affect you in work environment Table 5.12 S.No. 1 2 3 4 Diseases affects in work environment Byssionosis Skin disease eye affection others Total Frequency 46 21 29 4 100 Percentage 46.0 21.0 29.0 4.0 100.0

Diseases affect you in work environment

Chart 5.12

39

50 45 40 35 Percentage 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

46

29 21

Byssionosis Skin disease Eye affection Others 4

1 Diseases affects the respondents

Inference: The above table indicates 46 percentages of the respondents affected by Byssionosis, 21 percentages of the respondents affected by skin diseases, 29 percentages of the respondents gets eye affection and 4 percentages of the respondents gets affected with other types of diseases such as ear problems. Frequency of Accidents happening Table 5.13 S.No . 1 2 3 4 Frequency of accidents Monthly Quarterly Half yearly Annually Total Frequency 18 23 25 34 100 Percentage 18.0 23.0 25.0 34.0 100.0

Frequency of Accidents happening Chart 5.13

40

40 35 30 Percentage 25 20 15 10 5 0 Monthly Quarterly Half yearly Annually Frequency of accidents 18 23 25 34

Inference: The above table indicates 18 percentages of the respondents says every month, 23 percentages of the respondents says every quarter, 25 percentages of the respondents says half yearly once and 34 percentages of the respondents says annually once the accidents are happening in their department. Severity of Accidents caused Table 5.14 S.No. Severity of accidents 1 Major 2 Minor 3 Fatal 4 Disability Total Frequency 36 31 9 24 100 Percentage 36.0 31.0 9.0 24.0 100.0

Severity of Accidents caused

Chart 5.14

41

24

36

Major Minor Fatal Disability

9

31

Inference: The above table indicates 36 percentages of the respondents says major, 31 percentages of the respondents says minor, 9 percentages of the respondents says fatal, 24 percentages of the respondents says disability regarding the severity of the accidents.

Causes of great disturbance in work environment Table 5.14 S.No. 1 2 3 4 Causes of great disturbance Noise pollution air pollution water pollution all the above Total Frequency 18 45 25 12 100 Percentage 18.0 45.0 25.0 12.0 100.0

Causes of great disturbance in work environment Chart 5.15

42

12

18 Noise Pollution

25 45

Air Pollution Water Pollution All the above

Inference: The above table indicates 18 percentages of the respondents says Noise pollution, 45 percentages of the respondents says Air pollution, 25 percentages of the respondents says water pollution and 12 percentages of the respondents says all the above as the great disturbance in their work environment. Chemical content of Waste/Effluent Table 5.16 S.No. 1 2 3 4 Chemical content of waste/Effluent Highly harmful harmful Permissible limit harmless Total Frequency 6 35 44 15 100 Percentage 6.0 35.0 44.0 15.0 100.0

Chemical content of Waste/Effluent Chart 5.16

43

6 15 Highly Harmful Harmful 35 44 Permissible limit Harmless

Inference: The above table indicates 6 percentages of the respondents says as highly harmful, 35 percentages of the respondents says as harmful, 44 percentages of the respondents says as permissible limit and 15 percentages of the respondents says as harmless regarding the chemical content of the waste/Effluent.

Working conditions provided by organization are good Table 5.17 S.No. 1 2 3 4 Working conditions in organization Strongly agree agree strongly disagree disagree Total Frequency 5 35 26 34 100 Percentage 5.0 35.0 26.0 34.0 100.0

Working conditions provided by organization are good Chart 5.17

44

40 35 30 Percentage 25 20 15 10 5 0 Strongly Agree 5

35 26

34

Series1

Agree

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Working Condition is good

Inference: The above table indicates 5 percentages of the respondents strongly agree, 35 percentages of the respondents agree, 26 percentages of the respondents strongly disagree and 34 percentages of the respondents disagree.

Safety measures in organization . Table 5.18

S.No. Safety measures in Organization Frequency 1 Very much satisfied 7 2 satisfied 34 3 dissatisfied 33 4 Very much dissatisfied 26 Total 100 Safety measures in organization Chart 5.18

Percentage 7.0 34.0 33.0 26.0 100.0

45

7 26 34 Very much satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied Very much dissatisfied 33

Inference: The above table indicates 7 percentages of the respondents are very much satisfied, 34 percentages of the respondents are satisfied, 33 percentages of the respondents are dissatisfied and 26 percentages of the respondents are very much dissatisfied.

Chi-Square Analysis of Training on Safety & First-aid and Met with accidents Null Hypothesis: HO – There is no significant difference between the Training on safety And first aid and employees meet with accidents. Observed Frequency Table 5.19 Training on safety and first aid Yes Met with any accidents Yes No 45 19 Total 64

46

No Total

30 75

6 25

36 100

Expected Frequency Table 5.19.1 Training on safety and first aid Yes No Total Met with any accidents Yes No 48 16 27 75 9 25 Total 64 36 100

Chi-square analysis Table 5.19.2 S.No. 1 2 3 4 Total Observed Frequency (O) 45 19 30 6 100 Expected Frequency (E) 48 16 27 9 100 (O-E) -3 3 3 -3 0 (O-E)^2 9 9 9 9 36 (O-E)^2/E 0.1875 0.5625 0.3333 1.0000 2.0833

Degrees of Freedom: (m-1) * (n-1) (4-1) * (2-1) 47

=3 Tabulated value of degrees of freedom (3) @ 5% level of significance = 3.841 The Calculated value < The Tabulated value. Therefore H0 is accepted. Inference: There is no significant difference between the training on safety and first aid and Employees meet with accidents.

Chi-Square Analysis of Providing personal protective equipments and Methods to improve safety measures Null Hypothesis: HO – There is no significant difference between Providing any personal protective equipment and methods to improve safety measures Observed Frequency Table 5.20 Providing personal protective equipments Yes No Total Methods to improve safety Posters 21 3 24 Slogans 19 4 23 Wearing Safety Equipments 11 16 27 Above all 19 7 26 Total

70 30 100

48

Expected Frequency Table 5.20.1 Providing personal protective equipments Yes No Total Methods to improve safety Posters 16.8 7.2 24 Slogans 16.1 6.9 23 Wearing Safety Equipments 18.9 8.1 27 Above all 18.2 7.8 26 Total

70 30 100

Chi-square analysis Table 5.20.2 S.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Total Observed Frequency (O) 21 19 11 19 3 4 16 7 100 Expected Frequency (E) 16.8 16.1 18.9 18.2 7.2 6.9 8.1 7.8 100 (O-E) 4.2 2.9 -7.9 0.8 -4.2 -2.9 7.9 -0.8 (O-E)^2 17.64 8.41 62.41 0.64 17.64 8.41 62.41 0.64 (O-E)^2/E 1.05 0.5224 3.3021 0.0352 2.45 1.2188 7.7049 0.0821 16.3655

Degrees of Freedom:

(m-1) * (n-1)

49

(4-1) * (2-1) =3 Tabulated value of degrees of freedom (3) @ 5% level of significance = 7.815 The Calculated value > The Tabulated value. Therefore H0 is Rejected. Inference: There is significant difference between providing personal protective equipment and methods to improve safety measures.

An analysis of various facilities provided by the organization using Weighted Average Method Table 5.21 S.No Factors . 1 2 3 4 First-aid facilities Safety training facilities Machines/tools availability Work environment 80 0 5 0 Excellent Very good 168 28 64 24 102 129 81 105 14 42 82 88 1 29 15 15 365 228 247 232 Good Fair Poor Total Total/N o.of sample 3.65 2.28 2.47 2.32 1 4 2 3 Rank

Inference:

50

The above table indicates the various facilities provided by the organization to the workers. According to the opinion, given by the workers First-aid facilities provided by the organization ranks first.

CHAPTER – VI
6.1 FINDINGS OF THE STUDY The most significant findings of the study are the high level of awareness about the various available safety measures among all the classes of the respondents. 50 percentages of the employees lies above the age of 50 and their experience in this organization is found to be above 20 years. The training on safety and first aid are given to 70 percentages of the respondents. The management’s conservancy in the case of accidents lies on the disability of the labors and also the respondents are satisfied with the remedial measures taken by the organization. The Working conditions provided by the organization are not up to the mark, and the severities of the accidents caused are major. The major cause of the accidents is due to the unsafe environment and the unsafe act of the labour.

51

45 percentages of the respondents says that the air pollution is the major disturbance in their work atmosphere and the chemical content of the waste/Effluent are of permissible limits. The Byssionosis is the major disease which affects the most of the workers working inside the organization. Building and machinery not built safety. All the building and machinery are old and there is lot of danger of human life or safety. Above 60 percentages of the respondents feels that all the employees must be given proper training on safety and first aid. From the chi-square analysis it is found that there is no significant difference between the training on safety and first aid provided by the organization and employees met with any accidents. From the chi-square analysis it is found that providing personal protective equipments is one the methods to improve the safety inside the organization. From the weighted average method it is found that the First-aid facility ranks first among the various facilities provided by the organization.

52

6.2 SUGGESTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 1. The statutory provisions on safety are adequate for the time being. Effective enforcement is the current need. 2. The organization should provide sufficient personal protective equipments to employees working in all the departments. 3. Every fatal accident should thoroughly be enquired into and given wide publicity among workers. 4. The Organization should arrange for the medical check- ups at regular period of time. 5. If the Organization follows material handling principles and the machines are guarded properly there is a chance to reduce majority accidents happening inside their organization. 6. The factory inspectorate should advise and assist employers in drawing up induction and training programme in safety. 7. Workers reluctance to use safety equipment either because it is inconvenient or because it has been used by others should be removed through education.

53

8. Analyzing each accident and including what safety practice was violated. Management must come forward to reward the department which considerably reduced the number of accidents in addition to some financial incentive etc. 9. To reduce dust from the cotton good quality cottons may be used. 10. The using of exhaust fans will reduce the steam inside the weaving preparatory department.

CHAPTER – VII
CONCLUSION The Study on Industrial Safety Management in Anglo French Textiles PTC Ltd., tells that most of the employees are dissatisfied with the safety management practiced inside the organization. The organization has to concentrate more on safety measures and can provide safety equipments like goggles, gloves, shoes, masks, etc., to improve the safety inside the organization. The safety training must be given properly and compulsorily to avoid accidents inside the organization. organization. The first aid training must be given to both the labour and supervisors who are working in various departments. This will improve the safety of the

54

CHAPTER - VIII
8.1 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

• •

The time period of the study is short, so detailed study was not made. Only certain factors are considered in this study to measure the Safety Measures provided inside the Anglo French Textiles.

Some false information might be given by the employees due to fear of their superiors.

55

8.2 SCOPE FOR FURTHER STUDY

The sample size taken for this study is only 100; it can be extended to a larger sample.

The study can be done by considering some other factors to measure the Industrial Safety Measures inside the Anglo French Textiles.

This study can be extended to measure the satisfaction level of employees on Health and hygiene also.

56

ANNEXURE – I

Bibliography Khanka, S.S., Human Resource Management (Text & Cases), New Delhi, S. Chand & Company Ltd., 2003. Kharbanda, V.K., Commentaries on The Factories Act, 1948, Allahabad, Law Publishing House, 1996. Kothari C.R., Research methodology, Tata Mc Graw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd., 1982. Websites www.safety.com

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www.anglofrenchtextiles.com

ANNEXURE- II
QUESTIONNAIRE A STUDY ON INDUSTRIAL SAFETY MANAGEMENT IN A.F.T P.T.C LTD

1) Name: _______________________________ 2) Designation: __________________________ 3) Age a) 30 – 40 yrs 4) Service in this Organization a) Below 10 yrs. b) 10 – 20 yrs. b) 41 – 50 yrs.

Code No.: _____________ Dept.:_________________ c) 51 – 60 yrs

c) 20 – 30 yrs.

d) Above 30yrs

1) What is your opinion regarding safety measures in your work spot? a) Very much satisfied b) satisfied c) Dissatisfied d) Very much dissatisfied

2) Whether the organization is providing any personal protective equipment? If yes specify, a) Yes b) No Specify _____________

58

3) Whether the organization provides you training on safety & first-aid measures? a) Yes b) No

4) How frequent the safety & first-aid training programme is conducted? a) Monthly b) Quarterly c) Half yearly d) Annually

5) Which of the following is the major consideration in case of accidents by the conservancy? a) Loss of Production c) Disability of labour b) Loss of materials d) Analysis of the Causes of Accident

6) Rank the following safety training, based on their effectiveness? a) Class room b) On the job c) P.P.T d) Audio-visual

7) The availability of safety equipments in your organization is a) Abundant b) Sufficient c) Good/ Ok d) Lacking

8) The remedial measures taken by the organization in case of accidents are a) Highly satisfactory b) Satisfactory c) Good d) Poor

9) What is the major cause of an accident? a) Unsafe act of men c) Unsafe environment b) Unsafe condition of machines

d) Improper implementation of safety measures 10) Whether you met with any accident? If yes specify the location? a) Yes b) No Location _________

11) Best place for giving first-aid in case of accidents? Please rank them accordingly to your opinion? a) On the spot b) Dispensary c) Rest Room d) Hospital

12) Which of the following methods will improve the safety measures inside the organization?

59

a) Posters

b) Slogans

c) Wearing safety equipments

d) above all

13) Do you think that the experienced person doesn’t need training on safety measures? a) Yes b) No

14) Which of the following disease affects you in your work environment? a) Byssionosis b) Skin disease c) Eye affection d) Others

15) How frequent the accidents are happening in your department? a) Monthly b) Quarterly c) Half yearly d) Annually

16) The severity of the accidents caused in your department is a) Major b) Minor c) Fatal d) Disability

17) Which of the following causes great disturbance in your work environment? a) Noise Pollution b) Air Pollution c) Water Pollution d)All the above

18) The Chemical content of the Waste/Effluent are a) Highly Harmful b) Harmful c) Permissible limit d) Harmless

19) The working conditions provided by your organization are good a) Strongly agree b) agree c) Strongly disagree d) disagree

20) Rate the following facilities in your organization? Factors First-aid facilities Safety training facilities Machines/Tools Availability Work Environment Excellent Very good Good Fair Poor

21) Considering the above answers the safety measures in your organization are a) Very much satisfied 60 b) satisfied

c) Dissatisfied

d) Very much dissatisfied

Thank You!

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