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PERSONAL RESILIENCY AND

ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF WORKING


STUDENTS

A Research Proposal
Presented to
The Faculty of the Graduate Studies
West Negros University
Bacolod City

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree


Master of Arts in Education
Major in Guidance and Psychology

MADIA MA. KATRINA A. DAJAO


March 2016

Chapter I
INTRODUCTION

In the words of I.V. Mallari, a Filipino poet, The Filipino is like a


bamboo tree. He knows he is not strong enough to withstand the onslaughts of
superior forces. And so he yields. He bends his head gracefully with so many
loud protestations.
He describes the strength of character of a Filipino who is able to hurdle
the strongest of the challenges that life may bring. Amidst all adversities, the
Filipino spirit is likened to a bamboo tree which is pliant and bends to the
winds direction to avoid breaking.
Resilience is the ability to bounce back after a traumatic experience. It
is being able to rise above a very stressful and compromising situation. It is
the ability to overcome stress and adapt to the challenges.

To students,

resiliency is the ability to overcome the obstacles in life. Despite the difficulties
and the negativity, resilient students may be able to carry out their goals.
Resilience enables students to succeed in their academics despite the
barriers (Bernard, 2005).

Those who are resilient are perceived to do well

despite adversity. Resilient individuals are more inclined to tolerate stresses


and adversities, thus enabling them to keep a good disposition and composure
even in the toughest times.
Taking these perspectives, the researcher would want to apply the
insights to the level of high school students. Students in the public schools
who are of different age, sex, family demography and income are confronted
with everyday stress and problems.
Adolescence is one stage in a persons life when one experiences
developmental difficulties at most. There are so much demands and the risks
are high. At the intrapersonal level, high school students are adolescents who
are at the age of transition from childhood to adulthood. This is the age of
identity crisis and peer-pressure. As they say, this age is the turbulent phase
of human development. Tabligan (2000) puts it, Day after day, we are facing
varied and different kinds of pressures either in the home or the environment.
Children experienced them too.

However, it is observed that many students, though they undergo a lot of


these challenges, have shown the ability to adapt and cope with the daily grind.
Some of them even come out with good results and able to perform well in
school. Furthermore, in a related study by Tabligan, children who are more
resilient naturally remain unaffected by stressful and anxiety-producing
situations.

The less resilient ones on the other hand may develop a negative

psychological syndrome characterized by erosion in spirit and feelings of


helplessness, hopelessness and defeat which leave them empty of interest and
purpose.
Many students in the public schools belong to the marginal sector and
below poverty level.

Majority of them are poor and earn low incomes. Some

children are also obliged to work at their young age to augment the income for
the family.

At times, school children incur absences, unable to cope with

lessons, failing to submit school requirements, or eventually drop-out of school.


In lieu of this, the researcher is in the pursuit of determining the
level of personal resiliency in working students and its relationship to school
performance.

Statement of the Problem

Generally, this study aims to determine the personal resiliency and


academic performance of working students of Domingo Lacson National High
School, Bacolod City during the School Year 2015-2016.
Specifically, this study aims to know answer of the following questions:
1. What is the profile of working students of Domingo Lacson National High
School in terms of the following variables:
a. Age
b. Sex
c. Grade level
d. Nature of Work
e. Number of days spent for work (weekly)
f. Number of hours spent for work (daily)
g. Size of the family?
2. What is the extent of personal resiliency of the working students
according to the following factors:
a. Hardiness
b. Optimism
c. Resourcefulness
d. Purpose?
3. What is the extent of personal resiliency of working students when they
are grouped according to the aforementioned variables?
4. What is the level of academic performance of the working students when
they are grouped according to the aforementioned variables?
5. Is there a significant difference between the extent of personal resiliency
of working students when they are grouped and compared according to
the aforementioned variables?

6. Is there a

significant difference

between

the level of

academic

performance of working students when they are grouped and compared


according the aforementioned variables?
7. Is there a significant relationship between the extent of personal
resiliency and the level of academic performance of working students?

Hypotheses
The following hypotheses are hereby formulated based on the objectives of
the study.
1. There is no significant difference between the extent of personal
resiliency of working students when they are grouped and compared
according to the aforementioned variables.
2. There is no significant difference between the level of academic
performance of working students when they are grouped and compared
according the aforementioned variables.
3. There is no significant relationship between the extent of personal
resiliency and the level of academic performance of working students.

Study Variables, their Indicators and Categories


The variables of this study are presented below, with corresponding
indicators and categories.
Variables
Sex

Indicators
Biological

Age

No. of years living

Grade Level

Enrolment

Nature of Work Occupation

Categories
Male
Female
Younger
Older
Grade 7
Grade 8
Grade 9
Grade 10
Domestic Work
Agriculture
Commercial/Trade
Fishing
Services

No. of hours

Time

Shorter
Longer

days

More
Less

(weekly)
Size of Family

Number of living family

More
Less

Extent of

members
Connor-Davidson Resilience

spent for work


(daily)
No. of days
spent for work

Personal
Resiliency

Scale (CD-RISC) Factors


Hardiness
Optimism
Resourcefulness
Purpose

Level of

GPA for the First and Second

Academic

Grading as indicated in the

Performance

school report card (Form 138)

Very High
High
Moderate
Low
Very Low

Very High
High
Moderate
Low
Very Low

Assumptions of the Study


The basic assumptions of the study are as follows:
1. The personal resiliency of working students vary to some extent.
2. The academic performance of working students vary to some level.
3. Personal resiliency may influence academic performance.

Scope of the Study

The primary concern of this study is focused on the extent of personal


resiliency and the level of school performance of 60 working students of
Domingo Lacson National High School, Bacolod City during the School Year
2015-2016.
The variables included in this study are sex, age, grade level, nature of
work, number of hours and days spent for working, and the size of the family.
The study also includes the extent of personal resiliency as determined
by the following factors namely, hardiness, optimism, resourcefulness and
purpose.
Moreover, the study will determine the level of academic performance as
determined by the grade-point average of the students as indicated in the
school report card.
(Statistical Tools here)
Ideally, it would be beneficial for the researcher to cover more secondary
schools in Bacolod City, in the Province of Negros Occidental or even in Western
Visayas. However, the resources of for the study in terms of finances and time
are limited.

Theoretical Framework

(revise)

Resilience Theory postulates that resilience can be defined as reduced


vulnerability to environmental risk experiences. It is having the capacity to
overcome stress or difficulty despite the negative experience. It is based on the
standpoint that various factors, both internal and external come together to
determine the general course of development and specific behavioural patterns.
Furthermore, it states that people differ in responses to all manners or
environmental adversities.

Moreover, negative experience may have either a

sensitizing effect or a strengthening or steeling effect in relation to the


response to later stress or adversity (M. Rutter, 1987).
Resilience is a dynamic process that leads to positive adaptation, even
with a context of adversity. (Luthar, 2003). Psychological resilience has been
characterized by the ability to bounce back from negative emotional
experiences and by flexible adaptation to the changing demands of stressful
experiences (J. H. Block & Block, 1980; J. Block & Kremen, 1996; Lazarus,
1993).
When related researches converge, it comprises the notion that people
who are resilient are optimistic, zestful and energetic in their approach to life.
They are excited of having new experiences and are distinguished by their high
positive emotionality (J. Block & Kremen, 1996; Klohnen, 1996).

Other theories point out that resilient people have the ability to rebound
from a stressful experience swiftly and successfully. B.L. Frederickson (1998,
2001) used his theory on broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions as a
framework for understanding resiliency in people.
Russell and Russell (2009) postulates that resilient people have high
regard on the many aspects of their lives. They are oftentimes characterized
with the following: self-assurance, personal vision, flexibility and adaptability,
organization,

problem

solving,

interpersonal

competence,

socially

connectedness and pro-activity.


In prior researches such as the study of Villones in 2007 identified key
factors involving the academic success of students in the different areas of
education. Learner-centered education is given due importance and taken as
the heart of the educative process.
Akey (2003) stated that the fast-paced and technology-driven world poses
a high risk of failures especially in education. Therefore, there is a need for
students to develop necessary life skills to help them cope with the challenges.
At present, researches and studies postulate that parental involvement,
parental autonomy and teaching approaches are environmental factors that
can influence the academic achievement of the student.

The students

understanding and the level of participation can vary depending on parental


influence and the teachers approach to learning.

This sums that students

achievement is dependent also on the teachers approach and parental


involvement. Grolnick (2008) studied that when parents pay more attention to
their childs studies, chances are, the child performs better in school.
Steinberg (2010) concluded that when students feel that their parents are
involved with their school work, they become more psychologically rounded and
as a result, perform better in school.

Conceptual Framework (revise)


The main concern of this study is to determine whether there is a
significant

relationship

between

the

personal

resiliency

and

academic

performance of working students of Domingo Lacson National High School


during the School Year 2015-2016.
In this study, the level of personal resiliency of the working students will
be determined and grouped according to sex, age, grade level, nature of work,
number of hours and days spent for working, and the size of the family.

The

level of resiliency will be categorized according to the scale: very high, high,

moderate, low and very low as determined by the four factors namely,
hardiness, optimism, resourcefulness and purpose.
Academic performance will be determined by the grade point average
(GPA) from the students first and second grading grades which will be obtained
in their school report card and/or school permanent record.

Schematic Diagram

Figure 1
The Framework of the Study Illustrating the Relationship Between Variables

Definition of Terms (alphabetical)


Personal resiliency.

Theoretically, it is defined as the capacity to

bounce back. It is being able to perform well despite the odds, being able to
cope and recover. (Rutter, 1985; Stein, 2005). Masten et, al.( 1990) defines it as
the the process of, capacity for, or outcome of successful adaptation despite
challenging or threatening circumstances. Personal resiliency in this study,
this term is conceptually defined as the individual persons capacity to
overcome difficulties and adapt to the changes as determined by four factors
namely, hardiness, optimism, resourcefulness and purpose.
Hardiness. Merriam Dictionary defines the term as the trait of being
willing to undertake things that involve risk or danger.

Also referred to as

being bold, daring, fearlessness, being adventurous, brazenness and audacity.


The same definition is used in the operations of this study.
Resourcefulness. It is theoretically defined by the Merriam Dictionary as
the quality of being able to cope with a difficult situations. Also defined as
cleverness, ingenuity and inventiveness.
operationally.

The same definition is used

Optimism. Merriam Dictionary defines the term as the general


disposition to expect the best in all things.

The same definition is used

operationally.
Purpose. It is theoretically defined in the Merriam Dictionary as the
quality of being determined to do or achieve something. Also defined as being
firm, indefatigability, persistence and tirelessness.
Working Students.

Theoretically, it is defined as students who are

engaged in any form of labor. Conceptually, the same definition is used in this
study.

In addition, this term refers to those students enrolled in Domingo

Lacson National High School during the school year 2015 2016 who work in
their spare time before and after school.
Academic.

In the Webster Comprehensive Dictionary, academic is

defined as pertaining to an academy, college or university. Operationally, the


same definition is used in this study.
Performance. It is defined in the Merriam-Webster Dictionary as
something that has been done or achieved through effort: a result of hard
work. It is also the art of achieving something. Operationally defined in this
study as the result of the students performance in the subjects in their
curriculum. It is derived from computing the mean scores of the final grades

from the first and second grading as reflected in the students school report
card.
Level. According to the Merriam-Webster Dictionary, this term refers to
a position in a scale or rank (as of achievement, significance or value).
Conceptually, the term is defined the same way.
Extent. Merriam Dictionary theoretically defines the term as the point or
degree to which something extends. Operationally, the same definition is used.
Significance of the Study
A study becomes very important to a group of people or individuals when
its results answer very critical questions that affect them and their endeavors.
The researcher hopes that this study will be beneficial to the students,
teachers, school administrators, parents and other stakeholders and to future
researchers who wish to conduct related studies.
Working Students. Result of this study will aid students to understand
themselves better. This understanding will consequently help them strive and
become more resilient despite their hardships in achieving their goals.
Teachers. This study will enhance the teachers efforts in improving their
commitment to work for the betterment of the education process. They will be
able to understand their student better and they will be able to facilitate
resiliency-building skills in their classrooms.

School Administrators. Result of this study will serve as inputs and


guides to school administrators to focus on factors that could enhance
academic achievement of the students.
Present and Researcher. The researcher who is at present is the
designated guidance counselor of the school which is the subject of the study
will surely gain advantages. Aside from the basic techniques of research, she
will be guided in identifying areas for further improvement. In the future, when
she

becomes

Registered

Guidance

Counselor

after

completing

all

requirements, she will be able to utilize all the insights taken from this study to
her profession.
Future Researcher.

Related future studies will be provided with

insights that may guide researchers in the conduct of their study. Data based
on the results of this study will give them the basis for their own research.
DepEd Officials. The findings of this study may provide the officials of
the department of insights of the actual situations in the field. This will aid
them in the planning and implementing programs and service to improve the
quality of education in public schools.
School Governing Councils.
Parent-Teachers Associations.
Government Agencies.
Non-Government Organizations and Peoples Organizations