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INSTRUCTION MANUAL

HB 015 BERNOULLIS THEOREM APPARATUS

ESSOM COMPANY LIMITED


508 SOI 22/1 SOMDET PHRACHAO TAKSIN RD.
BUKKALO THONBURI BANGKOK 10600, THAILAND
TEL. +66 (0) 24760034 FAX +66 (0) 24761500

E-mail: essom@essom.com
www.essom.com

010312

CONTENTS
Page
Receipt of goods
Installation instructions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

A
B

General description
Theory
Test procedures
Typical data
Sample calculations
Observations

1-1
2-1
3-1
4-1
5-1
6-1

Addendum
Addendum 1 Water manometer
Addendum 2 Venturi tube dimensions at different pressure taps and diameter

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any material form (including photocopying
or storing in any medium by electronic means and whether or not transiently or incidentally to some other use of this
publication) without the written permission from ESSOM COMPANY LIMITED.

300414

RECEIPT OF GOODS
1. On Receipt of Goods
a) On receipt of the goods at the consignees premises, the shipment should be immediately inspected for any damages
or missing package. This should be checked against the packing list or shipping documents. Any damage should be
reported immediately to the insurance agent.
b) The package should then be open to check items or parts against the delivery list. Any damaged or missing items
should be immediately claimed to the insurance agent with copy to the supplier.
c) If insurance has been arranged by the buyer then you must notify your insurer in writing of any damage or loss of
parts which was observed regarding this shipment within a specified period of time as stated in the Terms and
Conditions. This should include detailed photographs of the damaged equipment.
d) If insurance has been arranged by the seller you should notify the insurances representative along with any
correspondence including the insurance certificate supplied by the seller. These should include detailed photographs for
evaluation of damages or replacement parts pertaining to the shipment.
e) The supplier will only replace damaged items or missing on notification by the insurance company that the claim has
been accepted. The insurance company may refuse responsibility if parts are damaged or missing while under custodys
for a long time without prior claim. Immediate claim is therefore vital.
2. Manufacturers Liability
a) Before proceeding to install, commission, or operate the equipment listed in the instruction manual, we would like to
alert the user to the health and safety aspects of people who will work on or operate our equipment with regard to the
liability of the manufacturers or suppliers.
b) Manufacturers or suppliers are absolved of any responsibilities with regard to misuse of their equipment causing
harm or financial charges being incurred against them from clients or third parties for consequences of failure or
damage of the equipment in any way if the equipment is not installed, maintained and operated as outlined in the
instruction manual published by the manufacturers or suppliers.
c) In order to safeguard the students and operators of the equipment it is vital that all safety aspects as outlined in the
instruction manual are observed.

110711

INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS

1. GENERAL INSTRUCTION
Shipped oversea Equipment is usually partially assembled in order to reduce possibility of damages and
shipping volume.
Parts list or packaging list is normally shipped with shipping documents. When the shipping box reach the site,
the box should be carefully opened, and the parts must be checked / examined for damage and identified according
to the part list.
Equipment and parts are to be assembled according to the assembly instruction.
2. ASSEMBLY INSTRUCTIONS FOR MODEL HB 015 BERNOULLIS THEOREM APPARATUS
2.1 Connect the male coupling hose to water inlet of the apparatus, the other end of hose is ready to be connected
to Hydraulic Bench water outlet.
2.2 Screw the hand air pump onto the manometer top chamber.

010312

INSTRUCTION MANUAL
HB 015 BERNOULLIS THEOREM APPARATUS
1. GENERAL DESCRIPTION
Bernoullis theorem is applied on flow through a clear acrylic Venturi tube. The apparatus is to be used with
HB 100 Hydraulics Bench (separately supplied).
Static pressures at various points along the wall of a transparent Venturi tube are directly measured on a
manometer equipped with a vent valve and a hand air pump. A movable stainless steel total head probe is also
provided. Flow through the Venturi tube is controlled by a valve at the outlet. As a primary flow measuring device,
coefficient of discharge for the Venturi tube can also be determined.

Air relief valve

Pressurizing valve
for hand air pump

Water manometer
Total head probe
Venturi tube

Flow control valve

Inlet

Outlet

Figure 1-1 HB 015 Bernoullis theorem apparatus


1.1 Main Components Are

1.1.1 The Venturi tube consists a 28 mm inside diameter pipe and a 14 mm inside diameter throat of 21 inlet
o
angle and a 10 outlet angle. Seven pressure tapping points along the wall of the tube for connecting to
the manometer.
1.1.2 The water manometer consists of 8 tubes or more 450 mm long along with a white acrylic back plate
for easy viewing, a top air chamber and a bleed valve to vary the chamber pressure by means of a hand
air pump.
1.1.3 A total head probe of stainless steel tube (1.9 mm inside diameter) which can be moved axially along
the Venturi tube. The total head tube is connected to manometer tube No. 7 or next to the last by a hose
pipe.
1.1.4 A rotameter (optional) with a flow rate up to 35 lpm. The outlet control valve of the Venturi tube is used
for controlling the flow of water as well as to raise or lower the pressure in the system.
1.1.5 All the equipment is mounted on a steel frame with adjusting screws to maintain a level condition.
1.2 Technical Data
1.2.1 Diameter
1.2.2 Taper angles
1.2.3 Water manometer
1.2.4 Total head probe

:
:
:
:

28 mm inlet with 14 mm throat


o
o
Inlet 21 , outlet 10
8 tubes x 450 mm x 1 mm graduation
3 mm tube

1-1

301013

2. THEORY
Bernoullis Theorem states that The total head of the liquid flowing between two points remains constant
provided there is no loss due to friction and no gain due to an application of outside work between these two points
The total head (H) of a flowing liquid is made up of an elevation head or static Head (Z), pressure head (p/) and
2
velocity head (V /2g), mutually convertible into each others form.
H
Where :

H=
V=
p=
Z=
g=
=

V2
Z
2g

total head , m
velocity , m/s
2
pressure , N/m
elevation , m
2
acceleration due to gravity = 9.81 m/s
3
specific weight of fluid , N/m

Thus for point 1 and 2


p1 V12

Z1
2g

p2

V2
2 Z 2 h f,1 2
2g

Where: hf, 1-2 = Friction loss between 1 and 2.


Pressure tap
(1)
(2)
(3)

(4) (5) (6) (7)

(2-1)

(8)

Total head probe to


Manometer tube No.7
or next to the last

Flow

D1 = 28 mm D2 = 21 mm D3 = 14 mm D4 = 16.8 mm
D5 = 19.6 mm D6 = 22.4 mm D7 = 25.2 mm D8 = 28 mm

Note: For pressure tap more than 8 taps and other diameters of pipe and throat see Addendum 2
Figure 2-1 Bernoullis tube with differences in diameters
If the Bernoullis tube is in a horizontal position then Z1 = Z2 and if the friction loss between point 1 and 2 is
very small, Then:
2

or

p1 V1

2g

p1 p 2

V2
2
2g

(2-2)

V22 V12

2g 2g

(2-3)

p2

Since section (1) and section (2) of the Bernoullis tube are different in diameter then velocity V1 is different
from V2. This can be demonstrated by the water levels at point 1 and 2 of the manometer. From the Bernoullis theorem
we can see that the lowest pressure will be at the throat of the tube.
We can further calculate the difference of pressure head between two points and can compare it with a
measured value. The difference between the theoretical and measured value is mainly due to frictional losses.
3
If:
Vol
= Volume of flow measured from the measuring tank, m
t
= Measuring time, s
2
A
= Cross-section area, m
D
= Diameter of Bernoullis tube section, m

2-1

210414

From equation (2-3) we have

p1 p 2

V22 V12
2g

V22 V12
2g

1 Vol/t Vol/t

2g A 2 A1

2
2

Vol 2 4 4

=
2g t 2 D 22 D12

= 8
p
2

m.

Vol 2
2 g t 2

1
1
4 4
D 2 D1

p
Vol 2
= 1 8
2 gt 2

1
1
4 4
D 2 D1

m.

...(2-4)

m.

(2-5)

The dimension of equation (2-4) and (2-5) are in m.


Since the diameter of the tube at each particular section along the tubes length is fixed. Then we can calculate
the pressure drop along the tube if the flow rate is known. The difference between the theoretical pressure drop and
the actual pressure drop (measured value) is due to the friction in the tube between these two points.
At the same time we can compare the total head at any point along the Venturi tube using a total head probe
(Pitot tubes probe) whose total head is shown on tube No.7 or next to the last.
ps

V2
s Zs
2g

V2
Z
2g

m.

(2-6)

m.

(2-7)

At the stagnation point in front of the Pitot tube tip Vs = 0 and Zs = Z:


ps

Or

V2
2g

V2
2g

ps

Velocity head

ps

m.

m.

(2-8)

Therefore the velocity head can be demonstrated by the difference of total head or stagnation pressure head
(ps/) measured from Pitot tube and static pressure head (p/) at that point.

2-2

210414

3. TEST PROCEDURES

Air relief valve

Pressurizing valve
for hand air pump

Water manometer
Total head probe
Venturi tube

Flow control valve

Inlet

Outlet

Figure 3-1 Bernoullis theorem apparatus


3.1 Apparatus Operation
3.1.1 If the apparatus outlet control valve is slightly closed, the system pressure will increase. Hench water
level in the manometer will be higher and vise versa.
3.1.2 A hand air pump is used to increase air pressure in the manometer via the pressurizing valve.
If air is pumped into the manometer top chamber, air pressure in the manometer will increase and the
water level will be lower and vise versa.
3.2 Bernoullis Theorem Test
3.2.1 Place the apparatus on top of the bench and connect the Hydraulic Benchs water outlet to the test
apparatus with the apparatus outlet control valve open and the apparatus discharges to the bench
measuring tank.
3.2.2 Start the pump and slowly open the bench flow control valve to obtain a small flow such as 5 lpm.
Adjust the apparatus outlet control valve and / or top air chamber (by means of a hand air pump) such
that the water levels in all tubes of the manometer can be observed. (See 3-1)
3.2.3 Adjust the flow rate to about 5 lpm and record:
3.2.3.1 Flow volume by the bench measuring tank.
3.2.3.2 Time for the flow by stop watch.
3.2.4 Move the total head probe to be in line (vertical plane) with the manometer tapping point no. 1.
3.2.5 Record:
- Manometer readings for tube no.1 and no. 7 (total head) or next to the last.
3.2.6 Repeat step 3.2.4 and 3.2.5 for tapping point no 2, 3 to the last tapping point.
3.2.7 Repeat step 3.2.3 to 3.2.6 for other flow rate such as 10, 15 20 lpm.

3-1

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DATA SHEET
HB 015 BERNOULLIS THEOREM APPARATUS
Tested by: . Date: ...
Dia. throat x dia. pipe: ...................mm
Volume: l, time ...s, flow rate ... lps = ...lpm
Theoretical
Measured
Theoretical
Difference
Actual total head (Tube No.7
diff.
vel. head
static
head
static head
Point

p/
or next to the last) Hact
2
2
100 %
Vn V1
no.
(p/)act
(p/)th
, cm
p/ th
cm
cm
cm
2g
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Volume: l, time ...s, flow rate ... lps = ...lpm
Theoretical
Measured
Theoretical
Difference
Actual total head (Tube No.7
diff. vel. head
static
head
static head
Point

p/
or next to the last) Hact
2
2
100 %
Vn V1
no.
(p/)act
(p/)th
, cm
p/ th
cm
cm
cm
2g
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Volume: l, time ..s, flow rate ... lps = .....lpm
Theoretical
Measured
Theoretical
Difference
diff.
vel. head static head
Point static head

p/
100 %
Vn2 V12
no.
(p/)act
(p/

)
th
, cm
p/ th
cm
cm
2g
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Note:

1. p/ = p/th p/act

2. Hact = H1act - Hnact

3-2

Actual total head (Tube No.7


or next to the last) Hact
cm

Head loss
Hact
cm

Head loss
Hact
cm

Head loss
Hact
cm

3. Point no.7 or next to the last point will be blinded.

010312

4. TYPICAL DATA
DATA SHEET
HB 015 BERNOULLIS THEOREM APPARATUS
Tested by: K. Pornsit Date: ..09/11/02...
Dia. throat x dia. pipe: 14 x 28...mm
Volume: 10l, time 30.83.s, flow rate 0.3243. lps = 19.46..lpm
Theoretical diff. Theoretical
Measured
Difference
Actual total head (Tube No.7
vel. head
static head
Point static head

p/
or next to the last) Hact
2
2
100 %
Vn V1
no.
(p/)act
(p/)th
, cm
p/ th
cm
cm
cm
2g
1
42.40
0.00
42.40
0.00
42.40
2
38.40
3.06
39.34
2.39
42.10
3
19.20
21.23
21.17
9.31
42.00
4
29.00
9.51
32.89
11.84
41.90
5
33.50
4.48
37.92
11.66
41.50
6
36.50
2.04
40.36
9.56
41.40
7
8
38.00
0.00
42.40
10.38
41.20
9
10
11
Volume: 10l, time 96.93.s, flow rate 0.1031. lps = 6.19...lpm
Theoretical diff. Theoretical
Measured
Difference
Actual total head (Tube No.7
vel. head
static head
Point static head

p/
or next to the last) Hact
2
2
100 %
Vn V1
no.
(p/)act
(p/)th
, cm
p/ th
cm
cm
cm
2g
1
14.10
0.00
14.10
0.00
14.10
2
13.70
0.31
13.79
0.66
13.60
3
11.50
2.15
11.95
3.78
13.50
4
12.00
0.96
13.14
8.66
13.40
5
12.40
0.45
13.65
9.14
13.40
6
13.00
0.21
13.89
6.43
13.30
7
8
13.20
0.00
14.10
6.38
13.20
9
10
11
Volume: 10l, time 141.84.s, flow rate 0.0705. lps = 4.23...lpm
Theoretical diff. Theoretical
Measured
Difference
Actual total head (Tube No.7
vel. head
static head
Point static head

p/
or next to the last) Hact
2
2
100 %
Vn V1
no.
(p/)act
(p/)th
, cm
p/ th
cm
cm
cm
2g
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Note:

10.00
9.80
8.60
8.90
9.40
9.60
9.70

0.00
0.14
1.00
0.45
0.21
0.10
0.00

1. p/ = p/th p/act

10.00
9.86
9.00
9.55
9.79
9.90
10.00

0.00
0.56
4.41
6.81
3.97
3.07
3.00

2. Hact = H1act - Hnact

4-1

11.00
10.80
10.60
10.60
10.50
10.40
10.30

Head loss
Hact
cm
0
0.30
0.40
0.50
0.90
1.00
1.20

Head loss
Hact
cm
0
0.50
0.60
0.70
0.70
0.80
0.90

Head loss
Hact
cm
0
0.20
0.40
0.40
0.50
0.60
0.70

3. Point no.7 or next to the last point will be blinded.

020210

5. SAMPLE CALCULATIONS
Test runs were conducted by a team of engineers and technicians at ESSOM factory prior to shipment to
customer. Typical test data were shown below.
Flow rate, Q
=
0.3243 lps
Diameters of pipe, D1 =
28
mm
Diameters of pipe, D2 =
21
mm
From Vol., t and (p1/) for each flow rate we can calculate (p2/), (p3/), (p4/), (p5/), (p6/), (p7/), and (p8/)
by using equation (2-4). Comparison of (p2/), (p3/), (p4/), (p5/), (p6/), (p7/), and (p8/) with the measured
values can then be made.
Flow of volume from measuring tank is 10 l
Measuring time, t = 30.83 s

From equation (2-4) ,

3
Vol
10 l
l m3
-4 m

=
= 3.24 10
time 30.83 s 1,000 l
s

V22 V12
2g

= 8
= 8

Vol 2
2 g t 2

1
1
4 4
D 2 D1

Q2

1
1

2 g D 42 D14

3.24 10

4 2

m6

s 2 1 1
4
4
m
2 9.81 2 D 2 D1
s
1
1

= 8.6993 10 9 m 5

4
4
D 2 D1
= 8

1
1

= 8.6993 10 9 m 5

4
(0.028 m) 4
(0.021 m)

= 8.6993 10 9 m5 3,514,964.187
m 4

= 0.0306 m = 3.06 cm
From equation (2-5) , the theoretical static head of measuring point number 2 is:
p
p2
Vol 2 1 1
= 1 8

2 gt 2 D 42 D14

= 0.4240 m 0.0306 m = 0.3934 m


= 39.34 cm
Because the measured (actual) pressure head is equal to 38.40 cm and the calculated (theoretical)
pressure head is 39.34 cm then the percentage of pressure head difference will be:
p2
p

2
p
th act
%
=
100%
p2


th
39.34 cm 38.4 cm
100%
=
39.34 cm
= 2.39 %
Head loss between point (1) and point (2)
= H1 H 2
h L,12
= 42.40 cm - 42.10 cm
= 0.30 cm

5-1

010312

6. OBSERVATIONS
When carrying out the actual tests there is a small frictional loss and the following observation can be made.
6.1 At any flow rate the manometer recording at tube no. 8 (the last tube) is lower than tube no. 1 despite Venturi
tubes diameter being the same. This difference represents friction loss between Point 1 and 8 (the last).
6.2 As the Pitot tube probe is slowly moved from point no. 1 to point no. 8 (the last), the Pitot probe reading at tube
no. 7 (or next to the last) slowly decreases, this show that the frictional loss increases as the Pitot tube probe
moves along the length of the Venturi tube.

6-1

010312

ADDENDUM 1
WATER MANOMETER

010312

WATER MANOMETER
Description
Two-Tube Manometer

Pressurizing valve for


hand air pump
Air bleeding valve

Multi-Tube Manometer

This manometer employs clear acrylic tubes


with a top common chamber. This chamber has
an air relief valve and can be pressurized by a
hand air pump or may be reduced by opening a
vent valve. Pressure ports are at the bottom.
Range
: 0-450 or 950 mm
Graduation : 1 mm
Application : Comparison of water pressures

Top chamber
This manometer uses 2 clear acrylic tubes.
For multiple reading, the number of tubes may
be 4, 6, 8, 10 or more are available as an option.
Instruction for Use
1. Close the vent valve at the top chamber.
2. Connect pressure lines from the pressure
source to the inlet pressure ports of the
manometer. Water levels will show on the
manometer scale.
3. If the levels are too low, release pressure from
the top chamber by opening the vent valve or
increase static pressure of the system to be
measured by closing the system outlet valve. If
the levels are too high, open the outlet valve of
the system slightly more or increase the top
chamber pressure by hand air pump via air
pressuring valve.
4. If differential pressure exceeds the water
manometer range. Close the water manometer
inlet valves and use the mercury manometer
only.
Pressure inlet valve
Pressure line

Note: More than one pair of tubes may be used simultaneously if average pressure from one pair is not much different
from the other pairs. In this case, down stream average pressure is always lower than up stream average pressure. Thus,
if anyone pair of water levels are out of the manometer range, that pair can not be used, simply close the inlet valves of
that pair by or close the pressure tapping ports at the pressure source.

010312

ADDENDUM 2
VENTURI TUBE DIMENSIONS AT DIFFERENT PRESSURE TAPS AND
DIAMETERS

010312

VENTURI TUBE DIMENSIONS AT DIFFERENT PRESSURE TAPS AND DIAMETERS

Pressure tap
(1)

(2)

(3) (4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9) (10)

Total head probe to


(11) Manometer tube No.10

Flow

For 14 mm throat x 28 mm pipe diameter


D1 = 28 mm
D2 = 28 mm D3 = 24.29 mm D4 = 18.73 mm D5 = 14 mm D6 = 15.76 mm
D7 = 18.38 mm D8 = 21 mm D9 = 23.63 mm D10 = 26.26 mm D11 = 28 mm
For 16 mm throat x 26 mm pipe diameter
D1 = 26 mm
D2 = 26 mm D3 = 24.15 mm D4 = 18.59 mm D5 = 16 mm D6 = 16.66 mm
D7 = 18.85 mm D8 = 21.04 mm D9 = 23.22 mm D10 = 25.41 mm D11 = 26 mm

Figure A2-1 Venturi tube with 11 pressure taps

010312