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You are on page 1of 11

Lecture 28

Page 1 of 11

Lange Directional Couplers.

These are the final two directional couplers we will consider.

They are closely related and based on two TLs that interact with

each other, but are not physically connected.

When two TLs are brought near each other, as shown in the

figure below (Fig. 7.26), it is possible for power to be coupled

from one TL to the other.

together and carry signals changing rapidly with time. EMC

engineers face this situation in high speed digital circuits and in

multiconductor TLs.

For coupled line directional couplers, this coupling between TLs

is a useful phenomenon and is the physical principle upon which

the couplers are based.

2012 Keith W. Whites

Whites, EE 481

Lecture 28

Page 2 of 11

1

+++

2

+++

+++

+++

r

- --

- --

- --

- --

on all of the conductors. The voltages and total charges are

related to each other through capacitance coefficients Cij:

1

C12

V1

V2

C11

By definition (Q CV ):

C22

Q1 C11V1 C12V2

Q2 C21V1 C22V2

where

C11 capacitance of conductor 1 with conductor 2 present but

grounded.

C22 capacitance of conductor 2 with conductor 1 present but

grounded.

C12 mutual capacitance between conductors 1 and 2. (If the

construction materials are reciprocal, then C21 C12 .)

By computing only these capacitances and the quasi-TEM mode

wave speed, well be able to analyze these coupled line

problems. Why? Assuming TEM modes, then

Whites, EE 481

Lecture 28

Page 3 of 11

L

LC

1

C

C

v pC

(1)

C , as conjectured. This is a widely used approach in all TL

problems, not just microstrip or coupled lines.

To simplify the problem analysis, well assume the two strips

are identical and located on top of a dielectric. Because of the

symmetry, we can use an even-odd mode solution approach.

Even mode. The voltages and currents are the same on both

strips, as shown in Fig 7.28a:

Hence, the electric field has even symmetry about the plane of

symmetry (POS). This plane is called an H-wall.

Notice that no E field lines from conductor 1 (2) terminate on

conductor 2 (1). Consequently, the two halves are decoupled,

as we expect. This leads us to the equivalent circuit:

Whites, EE 481

Lecture 28

Page 4 of 11

V1

V2

C11

C22

conductor in this configuration as

Ce C11 C22

(7.68),(2)

Then using (1)

1

Z0e

(7.69),(3)

v peCe

which is the characteristic impedance of either TL when both

are operated in the even mode. This is called the even mode

characteristic impedance.

Odd mode. The voltages and currents are opposite on each

line as shown in Fig 7.28(b):

Notice here that the electric field lines are perpendicular to the

POS. Therefore, similar to image theory, we can consider the

POS as an equipotential surface (or an E wall). That is, as a

ground plane where V 0 .

Whites, EE 481

Lecture 28

Page 5 of 11

Sum = C12

1

2C12

2C12 2

V1

V2

C11

C22

configuration is then

Co 2C12 C11 C11 2C12

(7.70),(4)

so that, from (1)

Z 0o

1

v poCo

(7.71),(5)

characteristic impedance seen when a voltage wave is

launched on the structure with odd symmetry, as shown in

Fig. 7.28b.

The computation of Ce and Co required in (3) and (5) is a bit

involved. Alternatively, the text presents two examples of

graphical design data for specific geometries. Fig 7.29 contains

design data for striplines and Fig 7.30 for microstrips with

r 10 .

Whites, EE 481

Lecture 28

Page 6 of 11

microstrips do not. To use the stripline design curves, scale the

even and odd mode impedances upward by r , while the

microstrip design curves apply only for r 10 .

Directional Coupler

A coupled line directional coupler (in stripline or microstrip) is

show in Fig 7.31. It is excited at port 1 and terminated with Z 0

at all ports.

Whites, EE 481

Lecture 28

Page 7 of 11

for this coupler. Recall that in order to add these two solutions,

both problems must have the same boundary conditions. Thats

why we terminate the TLs with Z 0 rather than Z 0,e or Z 0,o .

The even and odd mode problems are shown in Fig 7.32:

Whites, EE 481

Lecture 28

Page 8 of 11

I 3e I1e , I 4e I 2e

V3e V1e , V4e V2e

(6)

I 3o I1o , I 4o I 2o

V3o V1o , V4o V2o

(7)

V1 V1e V1o

Z in e

I1 I1 I1o

By definition,

(7.72),(8)

shown in the text, by choosing

Z 0 Z 0e Z 0o

(7.77),(9)

Z in Z 0

(7.78),(10)

leads to

That is, with (9) then port 1 is matched and given the symmetry

of the structure, all ports will then be matched!

As shown in the text,

V2 V

V1 V

1 C2

1 C cos j sin

jC tan

V3 V

1 C 2 j tan

V4 0 (total isolation)

where l is the electrical length and

2

(11)

(7.84),(12)

(7.82),(13)

(7.83),(14)

Whites, EE 481

Lecture 28

Page 9 of 11

Z 0e Z 0o

(7.81),(15)

Z 0e Z 0o

is the voltage coupling coefficient. (Here, C stands for

coupling, not capacitance.)

C

Typical plots of V2 V

2

simultaneously minimize V2 V when 2, 3 2, so that

l 4, 3 4, . In these cases, (11)-(14) become

V1 V

V2 jV 1 C 2

V3 CV

(7.86),(16)

(7.85),(17)

V4 0

a valuable check of the analysis.

single section, coupled line directional coupler using stripline.

Whites, EE 481

Lecture 28

Page 10 of 11

, and a center frequency of 3 GHz.

From (17), C V3 V is the coupling coefficient, which must be

less than one for a passive device. In this case,

20 20log10 C C 0.1

(18)

Next, we need to determine Z 0 e and Z 0 o . From (9) and (15),

1 C

1.1

Z 0e Z 0

(7.87a),(19)

50

55.28

1 C

0.9

and

Z 0o Z 0

1 C

0.9

50

45.23

1 C

1.1

(7.87b),

the stripline dimensions. With r 2.56 , then

r Z 0 e 88.4 and r Z 0 o 72.4

Using these values in Fig 7.29 we find

W

S

0.72 and

0.34 .

b

b

Given that b 0.158 cm, then

W 0.114 cm and S 0.054 cm.

This value for S is rather small and may lead to fabrication

difficulties with basic milling machines.

The coupling and directivity for this coupled line directional

coupler computed by a CAD package are:

Whites, EE 481

Lecture 28

Page 11 of 11

Lange Coupler

This device is shown in Fig 7.38:

(up to approximately 2-3 dB or so) than what is possible with

regular coupled line directional couplers.

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