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Give credit where credit is due.

English Proverb
The purpose of citing is to let the readers know that a specific piece of information has a
source/author, other than our own way of thinking. Its important to cite sources we use in our
research for some reasons. These are the following:

to show our reader that weve done the proper research by listing the sources we use to
gather ideas or information;
to be a responsible writer by giving credit to other researchers and acknowledge their
to avoid plagiarism by quoting the words and ideas used by other authors;
and to allow our reader to track down the sources we used by citing them accurately in
our paper works by way of footnotes, bibliography or reference list.

Citing sources properly is essential to avoid plagiarism in writing. Plagiarism occurs when
you borrow another words (ideas) and do not acknowledge that you have done so. You may
face serious consequences if it is found that you have plagiarized. So, the best way to avoid it is
cite the sources both within the body of the paper and in the end of the paper which is the
bibliography of the sources.

Using the Harvard Referencing Style, this guide shows how to reference.

In-Text Citations

Two or more works cited at one point in the text

If two or more works by different authors or authoring bodies are cited at one point in the
text, use semi-colon to separate them.
(Adams 2000; Brown 1995) The authors should be listed in alphabetical order.
Two or three authors or authoring bodies
When citing a work by two or three authors or authoring bodies, cite the names in the
order in which they appear on the title page:
(Adams, Brown & GConley 1995)

Block Quotations

A block quote is a longer quote. It consists of more than about 30 words when using the
author-date (Harvard) system:

It was stated that:

If any similar qualitative research is to be undertaken in the future, then stringent controls should be put in place
to ensure such statistical anomalies do not occur through lack of methodological rigor, particularly through corruption
of data inadequately stored and processes (Mullane 2006, p.66).

The actual quote is in slightly smaller font and indented from the left hand margin to
distinguish it from the surrounding text.

Books and eBooks

Material Type
Book: single author
Book: single Book: 2
or 3 authors

In-text Example
(Holt 1997) or Holt (1997)
wrote that...
(McCarthy, William &
Pascale 1997)

Book: more than 3


(Bond et al. 1996)

Book: no author
Book: editor

(A history of Greece 1994)

(ed. Jones 1998)

Book: 2 or more

(eds Bullinger & Warnecke



(Aghion & Durlauf 2005)

eBook: chapter or
article in an edited

'Historical thinking is
actually a Western
perspective' (White 2002, p.

Book: different works

by same author in
same year
Dictionary or

(Bond 1991a) (Bond 1991b)

Reference List example

Holt, DH 1997, Management principles
and practices, Prentice-Hall, Sydney.
McCarthey, EJ, William, DP & Pascale,
GQ 1997, Basic marketing, Irwin,
Bond, WR, Smith, JT, Brown, KL &
George, M 1996, Management of small
firms, McGraw-Hill, Sydney.
A history of Greece 1994, Irwin, Sydney.
Jones, MD (ed.) 1998, Management in
Australia, Academic Press, London.
Bullinger, HJ & Warnecke HJ (eds) 1985,
Toward the factory of the future,
Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Aghion, P & Durlauf, S (eds) 2005,
Handbook of economic growth, Elsevier,
Amsterdam. Available from: Elsevier
books. [4 November 2004].
White, H 2002, 'The westernization of
world history' in Western historical
thinking: an intercultural debate, ed J
Rusen, Berghahn Books, New York, pp.
111-119. Available from: ACLS
Humanities E-Book. [14 May 2009].
Bond, G 1991a, Business ethics,
McGraw-Hill, Sydney. Bond, G 1991b,
Corporate governance, Irwin, London.
Do not include in reference list

The Macquarie Dictionary

(2010) (The Encyclopedia
of Australian Architecture)
Note: From Harvard Citation Style All Examples, September 2015 (TUWA 2015)

Collect the full the names of all the authors, title of the book, city of publication,
publishers name and the year of publication. Those elements must be found in the reference

list and when citing a work, their names must be cited in alphabetical order together with the
year of publication.

Journal Articles

Material Type
Journal article: print

In-text Example
(Conley & Galeson 1998)

Journal article:
electronic database

(Liveris 2011)

Journal article: online

only journal (no
volume & and issue

Over a dozen writers

applied before the August
31 deadline (Bustamante
2014, Public library of
Cincinnati, para. 4).
(Segon & Booth 2011)

Journal article: online

only journal (volume
& issue number

Reference List example

Conley, TG & Galeson, DW 1998,
'Nativity and wealth in mid-nineteenth
century cities',Journal of Economic
History, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 468-493.
Liveris, A 2011, 'Ethics as a strategy',
Leadership Excellence, vol. 28, no. 2,
pp.17-18. Available from: ProQuest. [23
June 2011].
Bustamante, C 2014, Libraries welcome
writers in residence, Library Journal.
Available from: . [29 September 2014].

Segon, M & Booth, C 2011, Bribery:

what do Australian managers know and
what do they do?, Journal of Business
Systems, Governance and Ethics, vol. 6,
no. 3, pp. 15-29. Available from:. [20
October 2014].
Note: From Harvard Citation Style All Examples, September 2015 (TUWA 2015)
Collect the journal title, article title, name of the author, volume and issue number of the
journal, date of publication and page numbers of the article. If it is an online journal, also record
the page or paragraph numbers, URL and the date you assessed the site. When citing a work,
refer to the in-text example in the table above.

Internet or Websites

Material Type
Webpage: no author

Webpage: no date

In-text Example
(Improve indigenous
housing 2007) Use first few
words of the page title
(Jones n.d.)

Web document

(Department of Industry,

Reference List example

Improve indigenous housing now,
government told, 2007. Available from: .
[8 February 2009].
Jones, MD n.d., Commentary on
indigenous housing initiatives. Available
from: . [6 June 2009].
Department of Industry, Tourism and

Tourism and Resources


Resources 2006, Being prepared for an

influenza pandemic: a kit for small
businesses, Government of Australia.
Available from: . [28 February 2009].
(Australian Securities
Australian Securities Exchange 2009,
Exchange 2009)
Market Information. Available from: . [5
July 2009].
Note: From Harvard Citation Style All Examples, September 2015 (TUWA 2015)
Get the authors name (if given), title of the work, group responsible for the site (if
applicable), date site was last updated, date of access, and URL. If you have difficulties on
finding everything except the last two elements, you might want to reconsider the validity of this
source. When citing a work, refer to the in-text example in the table above.


Material Type
Newspaper: print

In-text Example
(Ionesco 2001)

electronic database

(Meryment 2006)

Newspaper: from a

(Hilts 1999)

Newspaper: no

Reference List example

Ionesco, J 2001, 'Federal election: new
Chip in politics', The Advertiser 23
October, p. 10.
Meryment, E 2006, 'Distaff winemakers
raise a glass of their own to their own',
The Australian 7 October, p. 5. Available
from: Factiva. [2 February 2007].
Hilts, PJ 1999, 'In forcasting their
emotions, most people flunk out', The
New York Times 16 February. Available
from: . [19 February 2000].
Not required.

(The Sydney Morning

Herald 7 January 2011, p.
Note: From Harvard Citation Style All Examples, September 2015 (TUWA 2015)

Gather the name of the author of the article, title of the article, name of the newspaper,
date of publication, and the section, page and column location of the article. When citing a work,
refer to the in-text example in the table above.


Material Type
Thesis: unpublished

In-text Example
(Hos 2005)

Reference List example

Hos, JP 2005, Mechanochemically
synthesized nanomaterials for
intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel

cell membranes. Ph.D thesis, University

of Western Australia.
Thesis: published
(May 2007)
May, B 2007, A survey of radial velocities
in the zodiacal dust cloud. Bristol UK,
Canopus Publishing.
Thesis: retrieved from (Cincura 2012)
Cincura, M 2012, Beyond profit-centric:
a database
transcendent business modelling. Ph.D
thesis, Swinburne University of
Technology. Available from: Trove. [12
August 2013].
Note: From Harvard Citation Style All Examples, September 2015 (TUWA 2015)
Gather the name of the researcher/s, year when the research was made, title of the
research, degree of the researcher and the school/university of the researcher. If the thesis
were retrieved from a database, include also the date you accessed the site. When citing a
work, refer to the in-text example in the table above.

Those tables above are only examples I chose from the Harvard-Citation Style. There
still have other way where to get information like lectures, company information, conference
papers and proceedings, multimedia, standards and patents, tables and figures, personal
communication and citing information someone else cited. I prefer the mostly used materials to
get information and discussed it above.

The University of Western Australia 2015, Harvard Citation Styles - All Examples, [September 24, 2015]