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Step by step for Cosmos beginners how to create a model, apply displacements and forces and then perform analysis.

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relation to time .

Given:

-E=2.1*104 [MPa]

-=0.2

-=2500 [kg/m3]

-column cross section: 0.4x0.4

-beam cross section: 0.3x0.5

Perform the study on two stages, distinguished by model and finite

element type:

A)-The structure created with curves and meshed using BEAM 2D

element;

B)-The structure created with volumes and meshed using SOLID

element.

The case A

point 1 will be (0, 0). The remains points are modeling from bottom to top

for each column.

From Geo Panel>Status1, toggle flag on for points PT, and for curves

CR, then for activation of this modifications, click Auto.

Because of the difference in cross section of the model, in the case A

the model is performed in two steps:

- Step A-1= is modeling only the columns where will be applied the

element group, material property and column meshing.

- Step A-2= modeling beams and then apply succession of commands from

step A-1. The difference between columns and beams is made through

cross section.

Step A-1 : Columns modeling.

-Defining finite element type from: Propsets > Element Group >

Element group: 1 > Element name: BEAM 2D. In the second window,

remains default attributes.

Section > Associated Element group: 1 (this refer to the first type of

finite element used in our model) > Real Constant set:1 (this is the first

group of constants added to first finite element). In the second window:

>Section number (0: user section):1, because one (1) means that we

want to use a standard shape available in Cosmosm.

boundaries have our shape that must be defined. For a rectangular shape

is necessary (2) different boundary (height & width).

The structure is statically loaded in the field of liner-elastic. This require

minimum three constants as follow: Density=DENS; Poisson

coefficient=NUXY; Modulus of longitudinal elasticity=EX; to be entered

from: > Propsets > Material Property > Material property set:1 (first

group of material properties available for finite element 1).

*We give values only for EX and NUXY because our material is considered

isotropic.

In the study of mechanical properties of materials, "isotropic" means having identical

values of a property in all directions. This definition is also used in geology and mineralogy.

Glass and metals are examples of isotropic materials.

-Now we can start to create beams. This means we create a new Element

group (the second).

-Repeat the main three steps to define: Element Group, Material Property

+ Real Constants and Meshing.

???????????1???????????

In this case EX, NUXY and DENS are well entered, but in some cases can

be wrong, correction can be made easily navigating to Propsets>Material

Prop> choosing the entity, specific attribute and giving it a new value

which is overwritten over wrong value. Then check again.

Meshing of element 2

Meshing > Automesh > Curves

??????????????????????????????

In this case was used point 4, because it is first point in X direction.

After going through steps A-1 & A-2, now the model is ready to be stopped

in his moving and loaded.

Before to continue with application, bellow is shown the explanation for

some terms from strength of materials which will be used in this

application.

& 7.

-Defining loadings as a pressure from LoadsBC >Pressure > Define by

Curves

The sign of pressure magnitude depend on (Pressure direction: 4:Normal,

which means vertical on the way of Y axis but in opposite direction).

?????

Merge means that the program will overwrite NODES with the same

coordinates.

Compress means to make a new numbering.

Compressing of nodes:

Starting with a check of this problem: Analysis>Run Check

forces, etc.

Analysis>Static>Static Analysis Options

This window will be left default because we do not take in account the

effect of own weight, gravity of another additional effect.

If the Run Check has been proper, then we can go ahead and run static

analysis: Analysis>Static>Run Static Analysis.

-Results>Plot>Displacement\Response\Reaction>Load case:1;

Component:UY;

cylindrical, 2 means spherical); Click VECTOR PLOT

-LoadsBC/Structural/Pressure/Plot

-Edit/Plot/Curves

[m]?????.

Analysis>Frequency\Buckling>Frequency Options

-Analysis>Frequency\Buckling>Run Frequency

-Result>List>Natural Frequency

- Analysis>POST_DYNAMIC>PD Curves>Define

1 defined in previous.

-Result > Plot> Displacement/Response/Reaction

Vector Plot

-Edit>Plot>Curves

Accelerogram

-Dynamic Analysis: Analysis>POST_DYNAMIC>Sel. PD Analysis Type

-Analysis>Post_Dynamic>PD_Curves>Curve Type

????? 2 or 1????

-Analysis>Post_Dynamic>PD_Curves>Define

file.

extension with right click>Properties. Then open.

-Display>XY_Plots>Activate Preproc>

SOLID.

-Analysis>Post_Dynamic>Run Post Dynamic

Erorr appeared using Curve label 2.

Solution?

-Analysis>Post_Dynamic>PD_Curves>Define

-Look in the folder where the model is created for the file with the model

name and extension *.CR1

Error which can appear if was used a wrong number for curve label

loading *.CR1

-Display>XY_Plots>Activate Preproc>

-Display>XY_Plots>Plot Curves

curve label and graph number.

A small modification: -Analysis>Post_Dynamic>PD_Base_Excitation>Base

Excitation Factor

-Display>XY_Plots>Activate Preproc>

-Display>XY_Plots>Plot Curves

This is from previous analysis using the variable force according the graph.

-Analysis>Post_Dynamic>Select PD Analysis Type

-Results>Plot>Displacement/Response/Reaction

simultaneously. Click twice on New win, then on Tile

-Results>Plot> Displacement/Response/Reaction>Load case nr. :1Vector

plot

-Results>Setup>Postproces type>Post Dynamic

-Results>Plot> Displacement/Response/Reaction>Time step number: 12

Vector plot

Do not work????

The Case B-The structure created with volumes and meshed using

SOLID element.

-Create key points for the base of columns. Coordinates in XY plane: KP1(0,

0); KP2(0, 0.4); KP3(0.4, 0.4); KP4(0.4, 0); KP5(5, 0); KP6(5, 0.4); KP7(5.4,

0.4); KP8(5.4, 0); KP9(10, 0); KP10(10, 0.4); KP11(10.4, 0.4); KP12(10.4, 0);

Geometry>Volumes>Generation>Extrusion.

-Beams creation: It is starting with key points on the face of the column nr.

1.

2.5); KP27(0.4, 0.35, 3); KP28(0.4, 0.05, 3); KP29(0.4, 0.35, 5.5); KP30(0.4,

0.05, 5.5); KP31(0.4, 0.35, 6); KP32(0.4, 0.05, 6);

The next step is to create key points on the face of columns nr.2 and nr. 3

to create beams. This step can be solved in two ways. First we can create

point by point after a coordinates calculation or the second way is to copy.

In this example we will copy.

-Create a new coordinate system at the base of column nr.2:

Geometry>Coordinate_Systems>3 Points.

system: Control>Activate>Set Entity>CS: Coordinate system>0.

-Now we want to copy points: Geometry>Points>Generation>Copy

-As we can see, in the next image has appeared new points from 33 to 40.

These points will be used to create surfaces on the face of column nr.2 and

then create volumes for beams between column nr.2 and nr.3.

-Now is created a new coordinate system at the base of column nr.3 and

then will copy point from the face of column nr. 2

Geometry>Coordinate_Systems>3 Points.

coordinate system: Control>Activate>Set Entity>CS: Coordinate

system>3.

Is not very simple and takes time as well as coordinates calculation for

each point.

-Beams creation: ***We are in the Coordinate system 4. No problem!

Geometry>Surfaces>Define by 4 Pt.

Geometry>Volumes>Generation>Extrusion.

Geometry>Volumes>Generation>Extrusion.

Geometry>Volumes>Generation>Extrusion.

-Define finite element: Propesets>Element group

[m].

deferent from beams, the mesh must be performed separately. To begin

with columns.

Column mesh

***When we are with the arrow of the mouse in the cells of the window,

particularly in cells Number of elements on first, second and third curve

left click from second by second to find the line of the first volume which

become from white to magenta color.

-Beams meshing: Meshing>ParamtetricMesh>Volumes>:

Clear the screen, then: Edit>Plot>Volumes.

white.

***Look closely because first and second curve changes its color almost

imperceptible, is observable just a change in texture, instead the color for

third curve is well visible.

***Mesh step by step each volume from 4 to 9 to identify properly those

three curves. The aim is to get a correlation between mesh of the column

and beam in two planes XY and XZ.

Clear again the screen and then plot volumes to continue with volume nr.

5.

Cross section of column on Y axis was divided in 8 elements and on X axis

in 4 elements. On the length of the column on Z axis it was divided in 60

elements.

The width of beam on Y axis was divided in 6 elements and height on Z

axis in 5 elements to get correlation with columns. On the length of the

beam on X axis it was divided in 23 elements.

Unfortunately some changes are necessary because volumes 8 and 9 was

divided in 23 elements on length, but they have not a length of 4.6 as

beams between columns, their length is just 2. Now we will delete the

mesh for these two volumes and mesh again. In image underneath is

visible a difference in density at the right of column 3 where is beam 8 and

at the left where is a beam between columns.

Meshing>Parametric_Mesh>Volumes

Because after meshing in a lot of elements the program run slowly when it

plot them on screen is recommended to clear the screen and edit only

volumes.

column 3 is ok, 2/10=0.2 is the same with the elements length of the

beams between columns 4/23=0.2.

The model is upside down in XY plane, and we need it in upright position.

Clear the screen/Plot volumes/rotate around X axis until we get XZ

plane/Plot elements.

-In this moment our model is in space and it is not supported, so we must

to apply supports and to cancel all 6 degree of freedom at the base of the

columns (fixed supports). Meaning to fix surface 1, 2 & 3.

LoadBC>Structural>Displacement>Define by Surfaces

Surfaces

just for one surface.

But, knowing value between surface 36 and 48 (12) we have applied the

pressure simultaneously. Surfaces [24, 36 & 48] are upper surfaces for

inferior beam.

Surfaces [30, 42 & 54] are upper surfaces for superior beam and they

were loaded simultaneously according image bellow.

Prepare the model for analysis: Analysis>Static>Static Analysis Options.

Activate stress calculation: Analysis>Static>Activate stress Calc

If all steps was followed the analysis had to run properly and allow us to

see results.

corresponding to Direction: XComp and YComp.

Edit>Plot>Volumes.

Results>Extremes>Displacements/Response/Reaction>UZ:

Displacements.

Results>List>Displacements/Response/Reaction>Set number-2:Reaction

Forces

Analysis>Frequency\Buckling>Frequency Options

-Analysis>Frequency\Buckling>Run Frequency:

Frequency

-Result>List>Natural

For comparison with frequency of the same structure modeled with beams.

Follow steps shown starting from page 22 until page 27.

Graph is

ok.

In the next images is shown result of the analysis which can be compared

with results from the case A, the same structure modeled with beam

element.

Follow steps shown starting from page 28 until page 38.

The FREQ graph is ok

After a correct running of analysis according page 37, results are available

to be ploted.

-Results>Plot>Displacement/Response/Reaction

Then: Edit>Plot>Volumes

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