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# Linear Analysis: Dynamic Analysis of a concrete strucure

## Behavior study of a concrete structure, subjected to variable force in

relation to time .
Given:
-E=2.1*104 [MPa]
-=0.2
-=2500 [kg/m3]
-column cross section: 0.4x0.4
-beam cross section: 0.3x0.5
Perform the study on two stages, distinguished by model and finite
element type:
A)-The structure created with curves and meshed using BEAM 2D
element;
B)-The structure created with volumes and meshed using SOLID
element.

The case A

## Origin of the model is in origin of coordinate system, therefore key

point 1 will be (0, 0). The remains points are modeling from bottom to top
for each column.
From Geo Panel>Status1, toggle flag on for points PT, and for curves
CR, then for activation of this modifications, click Auto.
Because of the difference in cross section of the model, in the case A
the model is performed in two steps:
- Step A-1= is modeling only the columns where will be applied the
element group, material property and column meshing.
- Step A-2= modeling beams and then apply succession of commands from
step A-1. The difference between columns and beams is made through
cross section.
Step A-1 : Columns modeling.

-Defining finite element type from: Propsets > Element Group >
Element group: 1 > Element name: BEAM 2D. In the second window,
remains default attributes.

## -Defining the cross section dimensions from: Propsets > Beam

Section > Associated Element group: 1 (this refer to the first type of
finite element used in our model) > Real Constant set:1 (this is the first
group of constants added to first finite element). In the second window:
>Section number (0: user section):1, because one (1) means that we
want to use a standard shape available in Cosmosm.

## -No. of beam section constants to be entered: Specify how many

boundaries have our shape that must be defined. For a rectangular shape
is necessary (2) different boundary (height & width).

## -Defining material properties.

The structure is statically loaded in the field of liner-elastic. This require
minimum three constants as follow: Density=DENS; Poisson
coefficient=NUXY; Modulus of longitudinal elasticity=EX; to be entered
from: > Propsets > Material Property > Material property set:1 (first
group of material properties available for finite element 1).

*We give values only for EX and NUXY because our material is considered
isotropic.
In the study of mechanical properties of materials, "isotropic" means having identical
values of a property in all directions. This definition is also used in geology and mineralogy.
Glass and metals are examples of isotropic materials.

## Define a point which represent X axis, in our case key point 4.

-Now we can start to create beams. This means we create a new Element
group (the second).

-Repeat the main three steps to define: Element Group, Material Property
+ Real Constants and Meshing.

## Real constant element 2

???????????1???????????

## In image underneath, the values of material properties has been checked.

In this case EX, NUXY and DENS are well entered, but in some cases can
be wrong, correction can be made easily navigating to Propsets>Material
Prop> choosing the entity, specific attribute and giving it a new value
which is overwritten over wrong value. Then check again.

Meshing of element 2
Meshing > Automesh > Curves

??????????????????????????????
In this case was used point 4, because it is first point in X direction.

After going through steps A-1 & A-2, now the model is ready to be stopped
in his moving and loaded.
Before to continue with application, bellow is shown the explanation for
some terms from strength of materials which will be used in this
application.

## Similar for key point 4

& 7.
-Defining loadings as a pressure from LoadsBC >Pressure > Define by
Curves

## Similar for the next curves: 8, 9, 10, 11 & 12.

The sign of pressure magnitude depend on (Pressure direction: 4:Normal,
which means vertical on the way of Y axis but in opposite direction).
?????

## Fusion of nodes: Meshing>Nodes>Merge.

Merge means that the program will overwrite NODES with the same
coordinates.
Compress means to make a new numbering.

Compressing of nodes:

## Performing static analysis:

Starting with a check of this problem: Analysis>Run Check

## Then we can apply some additional default loads: gravity, centrifugal

forces, etc.
Analysis>Static>Static Analysis Options
This window will be left default because we do not take in account the
effect of own weight, gravity of another additional effect.

If the Run Check has been proper, then we can go ahead and run static
analysis: Analysis>Static>Run Static Analysis.

-Results>Plot>Displacement\Response\Reaction>Load case:1;
Component:UY;

## Coordinate system 0 (This zero 0 means Cartesian, 1 means

cylindrical, 2 means spherical); Click VECTOR PLOT

-LoadsBC/Structural/Pressure/Plot
-Edit/Plot/Curves

[m]?????.

## -Analysis of the frequencies:

Analysis>Frequency\Buckling>Frequency Options

-Analysis>Frequency\Buckling>Run Frequency
-Result>List>Natural Frequency

## - Analysis>POST_DYNAMIC>PD Curves>Curve Type

- Analysis>POST_DYNAMIC>PD Curves>Define

## -LoadsBC>Structural>Force>Define by curves. Value 1 means the curve

1 defined in previous.

## -Analysis>Post Dynamic>Run Post Dynamic

-Result > Plot> Displacement/Response/Reaction

Vector Plot

-Edit>Plot>Curves

Accelerogram
-Dynamic Analysis: Analysis>POST_DYNAMIC>Sel. PD Analysis Type

## -Control>Activate>Set Entity>TC:Time Curve

-Analysis>Post_Dynamic>PD_Curves>Curve Type

????? 2 or 1????

-Analysis>Post_Dynamic>PD_Curves>Define

file.

## Look in: C\Cosmosm\Vprobs\AdvDynamics >All(*.*)>D15.DAT > Check

extension with right click>Properties. Then open.

-Display>XY_Plots>Activate Preproc>

## Base_cur multiplier Z comp. for

SOLID.
-Analysis>Post_Dynamic>Run Post Dynamic
Erorr appeared using Curve label 2.
Solution?

## -Analysis>Post_Dynamic>PD_Curves>Delete. Which curve is deleted?

-Analysis>Post_Dynamic>PD_Curves>Define

-Look in the folder where the model is created for the file with the model
name and extension *.CR1

Error which can appear if was used a wrong number for curve label

## Good message after

loading *.CR1
-Display>XY_Plots>Activate Preproc>

## Clear the window using button

-Display>XY_Plots>Plot Curves

## Nonexistent information: is an error appeared using a wrong number for

curve label and graph number.

## Good message after plot curves

A small modification: -Analysis>Post_Dynamic>PD_Base_Excitation>Base
Excitation Factor

-Display>XY_Plots>Activate Preproc>

-Display>XY_Plots>Plot Curves

## -Analysis>Post_Dynamic>List PD Analysis Options

This is from previous analysis using the variable force according the graph.
-Analysis>Post_Dynamic>Select PD Analysis Type

## -Analysis> Post_Dynamic>Run Post Dynamic

-Results>Plot>Displacement/Response/Reaction

## If necessary, is possible to create more windows to show different results

simultaneously. Click twice on New win, then on Tile

## -Results>Setup>Postproces type>Linear Structural

-Results>Plot> Displacement/Response/Reaction>Load case nr. :1Vector
plot
-Results>Setup>Postproces type>Post Dynamic
-Results>Plot> Displacement/Response/Reaction>Time step number: 12
Vector plot
Do not work????

The Case B-The structure created with volumes and meshed using
SOLID element.
-Create key points for the base of columns. Coordinates in XY plane: KP1(0,
0); KP2(0, 0.4); KP3(0.4, 0.4); KP4(0.4, 0); KP5(5, 0); KP6(5, 0.4); KP7(5.4,
0.4); KP8(5.4, 0); KP9(10, 0); KP10(10, 0.4); KP11(10.4, 0.4); KP12(10.4, 0);

## -Creation of the columns: Before start, switch to isometric view:

Geometry>Volumes>Generation>Extrusion.

## for volume nr. 2: Similar for volume nr.3.

-Beams creation: It is starting with key points on the face of the column nr.
1.

## Coordinates of key points created: KP25(0.4, 0.05, 2.5); KP26(0.4, 0.35,

2.5); KP27(0.4, 0.35, 3); KP28(0.4, 0.05, 3); KP29(0.4, 0.35, 5.5); KP30(0.4,
0.05, 5.5); KP31(0.4, 0.35, 6); KP32(0.4, 0.05, 6);
The next step is to create key points on the face of columns nr.2 and nr. 3
to create beams. This step can be solved in two ways. First we can create
point by point after a coordinates calculation or the second way is to copy.
In this example we will copy.
-Create a new coordinate system at the base of column nr.2:
Geometry>Coordinate_Systems>3 Points.

## Before points generation is necessary to go back in initial coordinate

system: Control>Activate>Set Entity>CS: Coordinate system>0.
-Now we want to copy points: Geometry>Points>Generation>Copy

-As we can see, in the next image has appeared new points from 33 to 40.
These points will be used to create surfaces on the face of column nr.2 and
then create volumes for beams between column nr.2 and nr.3.

-Now is created a new coordinate system at the base of column nr.3 and
then will copy point from the face of column nr. 2
Geometry>Coordinate_Systems>3 Points.

## As above, before generation of points is necessary to go back in previous

coordinate system: Control>Activate>Set Entity>CS: Coordinate
system>3.

Is not very simple and takes time as well as coordinates calculation for
each point.
-Beams creation: ***We are in the Coordinate system 4. No problem!
Geometry>Surfaces>Define by 4 Pt.

Geometry>Volumes>Generation>Extrusion.

## -Create surfaces 31 and 32 on the face of column nr.2

Geometry>Volumes>Generation>Extrusion.

## -Create surfaces 43 and 44 on the face of column nr.3

Geometry>Volumes>Generation>Extrusion.

## The model is ready!

-Define finite element: Propesets>Element group

[m].

## -Meshing>ParamtetricMesh>Volumes: Because columns cross section is

deferent from beams, the mesh must be performed separately. To begin
with columns.

Column mesh
***When we are with the arrow of the mouse in the cells of the window,
particularly in cells Number of elements on first, second and third curve
left click from second by second to find the line of the first volume which
become from white to magenta color.
-Beams meshing: Meshing>ParamtetricMesh>Volumes>:
Clear the screen, then: Edit>Plot>Volumes.

## Zoom in on volumes 4 and 5 to refresh window and the edges to become

white.

***Look closely because first and second curve changes its color almost
imperceptible, is observable just a change in texture, instead the color for
third curve is well visible.
***Mesh step by step each volume from 4 to 9 to identify properly those
three curves. The aim is to get a correlation between mesh of the column
and beam in two planes XY and XZ.

Clear again the screen and then plot volumes to continue with volume nr.
5.

## Above we have correlation in XY plane.

Cross section of column on Y axis was divided in 8 elements and on X axis
in 4 elements. On the length of the column on Z axis it was divided in 60
elements.
The width of beam on Y axis was divided in 6 elements and height on Z
axis in 5 elements to get correlation with columns. On the length of the
beam on X axis it was divided in 23 elements.

## Above we have correlation in XZ plane.

Unfortunately some changes are necessary because volumes 8 and 9 was
divided in 23 elements on length, but they have not a length of 4.6 as
beams between columns, their length is just 2. Now we will delete the
mesh for these two volumes and mesh again. In image underneath is
visible a difference in density at the right of column 3 where is beam 8 and
at the left where is a beam between columns.

## Meshing>Parametric_Mesh>Delete Elements on Volume

Meshing>Parametric_Mesh>Volumes
Because after meshing in a lot of elements the program run slowly when it
plot them on screen is recommended to clear the screen and edit only
volumes.

## Now the elements length of beams outside

column 3 is ok, 2/10=0.2 is the same with the elements length of the
beams between columns 4/23=0.2.
The model is upside down in XY plane, and we need it in upright position.
Clear the screen/Plot volumes/rotate around X axis until we get XZ
plane/Plot elements.

-In this moment our model is in space and it is not supported, so we must
to apply supports and to cancel all 6 degree of freedom at the base of the
columns (fixed supports). Meaning to fix surface 1, 2 & 3.
LoadBC>Structural>Displacement>Define by Surfaces

Surfaces

## Here was applied the pressure

just for one surface.
But, knowing value between surface 36 and 48 (12) we have applied the
pressure simultaneously. Surfaces [24, 36 & 48] are upper surfaces for
inferior beam.

Surfaces [30, 42 & 54] are upper surfaces for superior beam and they
were loaded simultaneously according image bellow.

## And finally our structure is supported and loaded.

Prepare the model for analysis: Analysis>Static>Static Analysis Options.
Activate stress calculation: Analysis>Static>Activate stress Calc

## Now run analysis: Analysis>Static>Run Static Analysis

If all steps was followed the analysis had to run properly and allow us to
see results.

## Results>Plot>Displacement/Response/Reaction. ***Type zero in the cell

corresponding to Direction: XComp and YComp.

Edit>Plot>Volumes.

Results>Extremes>Displacements/Response/Reaction>UZ:
Displacements.
Results>List>Displacements/Response/Reaction>Set number-2:Reaction
Forces

Analysis>Frequency\Buckling>Frequency Options

-Analysis>Frequency\Buckling>Run Frequency:
Frequency

-Result>List>Natural

For comparison with frequency of the same structure modeled with beams.

## Dynamic Analysis/Curve defined by user:

Follow steps shown starting from page 22 until page 27.

Graph is
ok.
In the next images is shown result of the analysis which can be compared
with results from the case A, the same structure modeled with beam
element.

## Dynamic Analysis/Curve created automatically/Accelerogram:

Follow steps shown starting from page 28 until page 38.
The FREQ graph is ok

## The TIME graph is ok

After a correct running of analysis according page 37, results are available
to be ploted.
-Results>Plot>Displacement/Response/Reaction

Then: Edit>Plot>Volumes