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Copyright2002DukeUniversityPress.Allrightsreserved.

SocialText20.3(2002)117148
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Monster,Terrorist,Fag:
TheWaronTerrorismandtheProductionofDocilePatriots
JasbirK.PuarandAmitS.Rai
[Figures]

Howaregenderandsexualitycentraltothecurrent"waronterrorism"?Thisquestionopens
ontoothers:Howarethetechnologiesthatarebeingdevelopedtocombat"terrorism"
departuresfromortransformationsofoldertechnologiesofheteronormativity,white
supremacy,andnationalism?Inwhatwaydocontemporarycounterterrorismpracticesdeploy
thesetechnologies,andhowdothesepracticesandtechnologiesbecomethequotidian
frameworkthroughwhichweareobligedtostruggle,survive,andresist?Sexualityiscentral
tothecreationofacertainknowledgeofterrorism,specificallythatbranchofstrategicanalysis
thathasenteredtheacademicmainstreamas"terrorismstudies."Thisknowledgehasahistory
thattiestheimageofthemodernterroristtoamucholderfigure,theracialandsexual
monstersoftheeighteenthandnineteenthcenturies.Further,theconstructionofthe
pathologizedpsycheoftheterroristmonsterenablesthepracticesofnormalization,whichin
today'scontextoftenmeansanaggressiveheterosexualpatriotism.
AsopposedtoinitialpostSeptember11reactions,whichfocusednarrowlyon"the
disappearanceofwomen,"weconsiderthequestionofgenderjusticeandqueerpolitics
throughbroaderframesofreference,allwithmultiplegenealogiesindeed,aswehopeto
show,genderandsexualityproducebothhypervisibleiconsandtheghoststhathauntthe
machinesofwar.Thus,wemaketworelatedarguments:(1)thattheconstructoftheterrorist
reliesonaknowledgeofsexualperversity(failedheterosexuality,Westernnotionsofthe
psyche,andacertainqueermonstrosity)and(2)thatnormalizationinvitesanaggressive
heterosexualpatriotismthatwecansee,forexample,indominantmediarepresentations(for
example,TheWestWing),andintheorganizingeffortsofSikhAmericansinresponseto
September11(thefetishofthe"turbaned"Sikhmaniscrucialhere).1Theformsofpower
nowbeingdeployedinthewaronterrorisminfactdrawonprocessesofquarantininga
racializedandsexualizedother,evenasWesternnormsofthecivilizedsubjectprovidethe
frameworkthroughwhichtheseverysameothersbecomesubjectstobecorrected.Our
itinerarybeginswithanexaminationofMichelFoucault'sfigureofmonstrosityasamember
oftheWest's"abnormals,"followedbyaconsiderationoftheuncannyreturnofthemonsterin
thediscoursesof"terrorismstudies."Wethenmovetotherelationship[EndPage117]
betweenthesemonstrousfiguresincontemporaryformsofheteronormativepatriotism.We
concludebyofferingreadingsoftheterrorismepisodeofTheWestWingandananalysisof
SouthAsianandSikhAmericancommunitybasedorganizinginresponsetoSeptember11.
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TheMonsterandtheTerrorist
Tobegin,letusconsiderthemonster.Why,inwhatway,hasmonstrositycometoorganizethe
discourseonterrorism?First,wecouldmerelyglanceatthelanguageusedbythedominant
mediainitsinteresteddepictionsofIslamicmilitancy.So,asanarticleintheNewYorkTimes
pointsout,"OsamabinLaden,accordingtoFoxNewsChannelanchors,analystsand
correspondents,is'adirtbag,''amonster'overseeinga'webofhate.'HisfollowersinAlQaeda
are'terrorgoons.'Talibanfightersare'diabolical'and'henchmen.'"2Or,inanotherWeb
article,weread:"ItisimportanttorealizethattheTalibandoesnotsimplytoleratethe
presenceofbinLadenandhisterroristtrainingcampsinAfghanistan.Itispartandparcelof
thesameevilalliance.AlQa'idaandtheTalibanaretwodifferentheadsofthesamemonster,
andtheysharethesamefanaticalobsession:imposingastrictanddistortedbrandofIslamon
allMuslimsandbringingdeathtoallwhoopposehim."3
Intheseinvocationsofterroristmonstersanabsolutemoralityseparatesgoodfroma"shadowy
evil."4AsifcaughtupinitsownshadowdancewiththeantiWesternrhetoricofradical
Islam,5thisdiscoursemarksoffafigure,OsamabinLaden,oragovernment,theTaliban,as
theoppositeofallthatisjust,human,andgood.Theterroristmonsterispureevilandmustbe
destroyed,accordingtothisview.6Butdoesthemonsterhaveamind?Thisbegsanother
question:Dosuchfiguresandsuchrepresentationalstrategieshaveahistory?Wesuggestthis
languageofterroristmonstersshouldbereadbyconsideringhowthemonsterhasbeenused
throughouthistoryinWesterndiscoursesofnormality.Wecouldbeginbyremembering,for
instance,thatthemonsterwasoneofthreeelementsthatFoucaultlinkedtotheformationof
the"abnormals."
Thegroupofabnormalswasformedoutofthreeelementswhoseownformation
wasnotexactlysynchronic.1.Thehumanmonster.AnAncientnotionwhose
frameofreferenceislaw.Ajuridicalnotion,then,butinthebroadsense,asit
referrednotonlytosociallawsbuttonaturallawsaswellthemonster'sfieldof
appearanceisajuridicobiologicaldomain.Thefiguresofthehalfhuman,half
animalbeing...,ofdoubleindividualities...,ofhermaphrodites...inturn
representedthatdoubleviolationwhatmakesahumanmonsteramonsterisnot
justitsexceptionalityrelativetothespecies[EndPage118]formitisthe
disturbanceitbringstojuridicalregularities(whetheritisaquestionofmarriage
laws,canonsofbaptism,orrulesofinheritance).Thehumanmonstercombines
theimpossibleandtheforbidden....2.Theindividualtobecorrected.Thisisa
morerecentfigurethanthemonster.Itisthecorrelativenotsomuchofthe
imperativesofthelawasoftrainingtechniqueswiththeirownrequirements.The
emergenceofthe"incorrigibles"iscontemporaneouswiththeputtingintoplaceof
disciplinarytechniquesduringtheseventeenthandeighteenthcenturies,inthe
army,theschools,theworkshops,then,alittlelater,infamiliesthemselves.The
newproceduresfortrainingthebody,behavior,andaptitudesopenuptheproblem
ofthosewhoescapethatnormativitywhichisnolongerthesovereigntyofthe
law.7
AccordingtoFoucault,themonstercanbebothhalfananimalandahybridgender(laterin
thistextFoucaultwillgoontopositiontheonanistasthethirdoftheabnormals).Butcrucially
themonsterisalsotobedifferentiatedfromtheindividualtobecorrectedonthebasisof
whetherpoweroperatesonitorthroughit.Inotherwords,theabsolutepowerthatproduces
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andquarantinesthemonsterfindsitsdispersalintechniquesofnormalizationanddiscipline.
WhatFoucaultdoes,webelieve,isenableananalysisofmonstrositywithinabroaderhistory
ofsexuality.Thisgenealogyiscrucialtounderstandingthehistoricalandpoliticalrelays,
reinvestments,andresistancesbetweenthemonstrousterroristandthediscourseof
heteronormativity.Andthatisbecausemonstersandabnormalshavealwaysalsobeensexual
deviants.Foucaulttiedmonstrositytosexualitythroughspecificanalysesofthedeploymentof
genderedbodies,theregulationofproperdesires,themanipulationofdomesticspaces,andthe
taxonomyofsexualactssuchassodomy.Assuch,thesexualizedmonsterwasthatfigurethat
calledforthaformofjuridicalpowerbutonethatwastiedtomultiformapparatusesof
disciplineaswell.8
WeuseFoucault'sconceptofmonstrositytoelaboratewhatweconsidertobecentraltothe
presentwaronterrorism:monstrosityasaregulatoryconstructofmodernitythatimbricates
notonlysexuality,butalsoquestionsofcultureandrace.Beforewetiethesepracticesto
contemporarypolitics,letusnotetwothings:First,themonsterisnotmerelyanotheritisone
categorythroughwhichamultiformpoweroperates.Assuch,discoursesthatwouldmobilize
monstrosityasascreenforothernessarealwaysalsoinvolvedincircuitsofnormalizingpower
aswell:themonsterandthepersontobecorrectedareclosecousins.Second,ifthemonsteris
partoftheWest'sfamilyofabnormals,questionsofraceandsexualitywillhavealways
haunteditsfiguration.Thecategoryofmonstrosityisalsoanimplicitindexofcivilizational
developmentandculturaladaptability.Asthemachinesofwarbegintonarrowthechoicesand
life[EndPage119]chancespeoplehavehereinAmericaandindecidedlymorebloodyways
abroad,itseemsacertaingridofcivilizationalprogressorganizedbysuchkeywordsas
"democracy,""freedom,"and"humanity"havecometosuperintendthefigureofthemonster.
Weturnnowtothisdoubledeploymentofthediscourseofmonstrosityin"terrorismstudies."
[EndPage120]

TerrorismStudies
Today,wefindthetwofiguresofthemonsterandthepersontobecorrectedinsomeways
converginginthediscourseoftheterroristmonster.Whichistosaythattheterroristhas
becomebothamonstertobequarantinedandanindividualtobecorrected.Itisinthestrategic
analysesofterrorismthatthesetwofigurescometogether.Forthepastthirtyyears,since
1968,theWesternacademyhasbeeninvolvedintheproductionandimplementationofabody
ofknowledgethattookthepsycheoftheterroristasitsobjectandtarget:"terrorismstudies."
Thestrategicanalysisofwhatintheintelligencecommunityisknownas"violentsubstate
activism"isatthemomentahighlysoughtafterformofknowledgeproduction.Andithas
directpolicyrelevancehenceitsunevenintegrationintothebroaderfieldofwhatEdward
SaidoncenamedasthedisciplinaryhomeofOrientalism:"policystudies."9Ourownanalysis
hasbeenusefullyinformedbythepioneeringworkofscholarsandactivistssuchasSaid,
CynthiaEnloe,AnnTickner,NoamChomsky,ShirinM.Rai,EdwardHerman,Helen
Caldicott,PhilipAgee,TalalAsad,andothers.10Thesewritershaveopenedaspaceof
critiquethatbringstheepistemologicalandethicalclaimsofterrorismstudiestocrisistheir
rigorousandimpassionedinterrogationofU.S.foreignpolicyhasnotonlyenabledsubsequent
writerstomakeconnectionstoongoingdomesticwarsagainstpeopleofcolorandtheworking
poorbutcrucially,theircritiqueshaveenabledthecountermemoryofothergenealogies,
histories,andmodesofpower:forexample,sexuality,colonialism,andnormalization.So,for
instance,inthediscourseofcounterterrorismthesharedmodernityofthemonsterandthe
delinquentcomestogetherintheknowledgeofcultures,nations,andraces.Asoneeditorialin
themagazineForeignPolicyputit,"TheGlobalPositioningSystem,unmanneddrones,
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unrivaleddatabases,andhandheldcomputersmuchhasbeenmadeofthetechnological
resourcesavailabletotheU.S.militaryanddiplomaticestablishments.Butwhatdoyoudoif
you'retryingtowagewarinoragainstacountrywhereyoudon'tknowthelocals,can'tspeak
thelanguage,andcan'tfindanyreliablemaps?Welcometothefrontlinesofthewaragainst
terrorism,likelytobewagedprimarilyin'swampstates'aboutwhichtheUnitedStatesknows
little."11ThewriterendsthepiecebydrawingaparticularlessonfromSunTzu'sTheArtof
War:"'Ifyouknowyourselfbutnottheenemy,foreveryvictorygainedyouwillalsosuffera
defeat.'Ifanywaronterrorismistosucceed,theUnitedStateshassomeseriouslearningto
do."
Terrorismstudiesisattheforefrontofthisknowledgeproduction.InanarticleintheRand
Corporationfundedjournal,StudiesinConflictandTerrorism,RichardFalkenrathnotes:
[EndPage121]
Theliteratureonterrorismisvast.Mostofthisworkfocusesonthepractitioners
ofterrorism,thatis,ontheterroriststhemselves.Differentstrandswithinterrorism
studiesconsider,forexample,themotivationsorbeliefsystemsofindividual
terroriststheexternalstrategiesor...internaldynamicsofparticularterrorist
organizationsortheinteractionofterroristmovementswithotherentities,suchas
governments,themedia,orsocialsubgroups....Terrorismstudiesaspiresnot
justtoscholasticrespectabilitybuttopolicyrelevance....Ithashelpedorganize
andinformgovernmentalcounterterrorismpractices.12
Counterterrorismisaformofracial,civilizationalknowledge,butnowalsoanacademic
disciplinethatisquiteexplicitlytiedtotheexerciseofstatepower.Thisknowledge,moreover,
takesthepsycheasitsprivilegedsiteofinvestigation.AsanotherarticleinStudiesinConflict
andTerrorismputit,
Modelsbasedonpsychologicalconcernstypicallyholdthat'terrorist'violenceis
notsomuchapoliticalinstrumentasanendinitselfitisnotcontingenton
rationalagencybutistheresultofcompulsionorpsychopathology.Overtheyears
scholarsofthispersuasionhavesuggestedthat'terrorists'dowhattheydobecause
of(variouslyandamongotherthings)selfdestructiveurges,fantasiesof
cleanliness,disturbedemotionscombinedwithproblemswithauthorityandthe
Self,andinconsistentmothering.Articulateattemptsatpresentingwider,vaguer,
and(purportedly)generalizablepsychologicalinterpretationsofterrorismhave
beenmadeby,amongothers,JerroldM.Post,whohasproposedthat"...
politicalterroristsaredriventocommitactsofviolenceasaconsequenceof
psychologicalforces,and...theirspecialpsychologicisconstructedto
rationalizeactstheyarepsychologicallycompelledtocommit."13
Weshouldnotehowwhitemythologiessuchas"inconsistentmothering"(andhencethebad
familystructureapparentlycommonintheEast)arepresentedaspsychologicalcompulsions
thateffectivelydetermineandfixthemindoftheterrorist.
Inthisway,psychologistsworkingwithinterrorismstudieshavebeenabletodetermineand
taxonomizetheterroristmind.InarecentarticleinthejournalAnalysesofSocialIssuesand
PublicPolicy,CharlesL.Rubyhasnotedthattherearetwodominantframeworksinthe
interpretationoftheterrorist"mindset":"Thefirstcampincludestheoriesthatportray
terrorismastheresultofdefectsordisordersinone'spersonalitystructure.Thisfirstgroupof
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theoriesusesabroadlypsychodynamicmodel.Thesecondcampconsistsoftheoriesthat
approachthephenomenonofterroristbehaviorasaformofpoliticalviolenceperpetratedby
peoplewhodonothavesufficientmilitaryresourcestocarryoutconventionalforms[End
Page122]ofpoliticalviolence."14Thepersonalitydefectmodelofterrorismholdsthat
terroristshavefundamentalandpathologicaldefectsin"theirpersonalitystructure,usually
relatedtoadamagedsenseofself."Moreover,thesedefectsresultfrom"unconsciousforcesin
theterrorist'spsyche."And,ofcourse,thepsycheisthesiteofafamiliarfamilyromance:
"Terrorismisareflectionofunconsciousfeelingsofhostilitytowardparentsand...this
feelingisanoutgrowthofchildhoodabuseoradolescentrebellion.Theterrorist'shostilefocus
issogreatduringchildhoodandadolescencethatitcontinuesintoadulthoodandbecomesvery
narrowandextreme,ostensiblyexplainingtheterrorist'sabsolutistmindsetanddedication."
Asaleadinglightintheconstellationof"terrorismexperts,"JerroldPosthasproposedthat
terroristssufferfrompathologicalpersonalitiesthatemergefromnegativechildhood
experiencesandadamagedsenseofself.15Postarguesfortwoterroristpersonalitytypes,
dependingonthespecificqualityofthosechildhoodexperiences.First,Postsuggests,thereis
the"anarchicideologue."Thisistheterroristwhohasexperiencedseriousfamilydysfunction
andmaladjustment,whichleadtorebellionagainstparents,especiallyagainstthefather.
Anarchicideologuesfight"againstthesocietyoftheirparents...anactofdissentagainst
parentsloyaltotheregime."Second,thereistheterroristpersonalitytypeknownasthe
"nationalistsecessionist"apparentlythenameindicates"asenseofloyaltytoauthorityand
rebellionagainstexternalenemies."Duringchildhood,aterroristofthispersonalitytype
experiencedasenseofcompassionorloyaltytowardhisorherparents.AccordingtoPost,
nationalistsecessionistshavepathologicallyfailedtodifferentiatebetweenthemselvesandthe
other(parentalobject).Consequently,theyrebel"againstsocietyforthehurtdonetotheir
parents...anactofloyaltytoparentsdamagedbytheregime."Boththeanarchicideologue
andnationalistsecessionistfind"comfortinjoiningaterroristgroupofrebelswithsimilar
experiences."16Thepersonalitydefectmodelviewsterroristsassufferingfrompersonality
defectsthatresultfromexcessivelynegativechildhoodexperiences,givingtheindividuala
poorsenseofselfandaresentmentofauthority.AsRubynotes,"Itssupportersdifferin
whethertheyproposeone(Kaplan),two(PostandJones&Fong),orthree(Strentz)
personalitytypes."17
Whatallthesemodelsandtheoriesaimtoshowishowanotherwisenormalindividual
becomesamurderousterrorist,andthatprocesstimeandagainistiedtothefailureofthe
normal(ized)psyche.Indeed,animplicitbutfoundationalsuppositionstructuresthisentire
discourse:theverynotionofthenormalpsyche,whichisinfactpartoftheWest'sown
heterosexualfamilyromanceanarrativespacethatreliesonthenormalized,[EndPage123]
evenifperverse,domesticspaceofdesiresupposedlycommonintheWest.Terrorism,inthis
discourse,isasymptomofthedeviantpsyche,thepsychegoneawry,orthefailedpsychethe
terroristentersthisdiscourseasanabsoluteviolation.SowhenBillyCollins(the2001poet
laureate)assertedonNationalPublicRadioimmediatelyafterSeptember11:"NowtheU.S.
haslostitsvirginity,"hewasunderscoringthisfraughtrelationshipbetween(hetero)sexuality,
normality,thenation,andtheviolationsofterrorism.
Notsurprisingly,then,comingoutofthisdiscourse,wefindthatanotherverycommonwayof
tryingtopsychologizethemonsterterroristisbypositingakindoffailedheterosexuality.So
wehearoftentheideathatsexuallyfrustratedMuslimmenarepromisedtheheavenlyreward
ofsixty,sixtyseven,orsometimesevenseventyvirginsiftheyaremartyredinjihad.But
As'adAbuKhalilhasargued,"Inreality,politicalnotsexualfrustrationconstitutesthe
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mostimportantfactorinmotivatingyoungmen,orwomen,toengageinsuicidalviolence.The
tendencytodwellonthesexualmotivesofthesuicidebombersbelittlesthesesociopolitical
causes."18Nowofcourse,thatispreciselywhatterrorismstudiesintendstodo:toreduce
complexsocial,historical,andpoliticaldynamicstovariouspsychiccausesrootedin
childhoodfamilydynamics.AsifthePalestinianIntifadaorthelong,brutalwarin
Afghanistancanbesimplyboileddowntobadmotheringorsexualfrustration!Inshort,these
explanatorymodelsandframeworksfunctionto(1)reducecomplexhistoriesofstruggle,
intervention,and(non)developmenttoWesternpsychicmodelsrootedinthebourgeois
heterosexualfamilyanditsdynamics(2)systematicallyexcludequestionsofpolitical
economyandtheproblemsofculturaltranslationand(3)attempttomasterthefear,anxiety,
anduncertaintyofaformofpoliticaldissentbyresortingtothebanalityofataxonomy.19
Ourcontentionisthattodaytheknowledgeandformofpowerthatismobilizedtoanalyze,
taxonomize,psychologize,anddefeatterrorismhasagenealogicalconnectiontotheWest's
abnormals,andspecificallythosepremodernmonstersthatWesterncivilizationhadseemedto
buryandlaytorestlongago.Themonstersthathaunttheproseofcontemporary
counterterrorismemergeoutoffiguresintheeighteenthandnineteenthcenturiesthathave
alwaysbeenracialized,classed,andsexualized.Theundesirable,thevagrant,theGypsy,the
savage,theHottentotVenus,orthesexualdepravityoftheOrientaltorridzonesharesabasic
kinshipwiththeterroristmonster.Asweknow,inthetwentiethcenturythesedisparate
monstersbecamecasestudies,objectsofethnographies,andinterestingpsychologicalcasesof
degeneracy.ThesameWestern,colonialmodernitythatcreatedthepsychecreatedtheracial
andsexualmonster.[EndPage124]Inotherwords,whatlinksthemonsterterroristtothe
figureoftheindividualtobecorrectedisfirstandforemosttheracializedanddeviantpsyche.
Isn'tthatwhythereissomethingterrifyinglyuncannyintheterroristmonster?Asone
specificallyliberalarticleintheRandjournalputit,"Membersofsuchgroupsarenot
infrequentlypreparedtokillanddiefortheirstrugglesand,associologistswouldattest,that
presupposesasortofconvictionandmindsetthathasbecomeuncommoninthemodernage.
Thus,notonlytheactsof'terrorism'butalsothedrivingforcesbehindthemoftenappear
incomprehensibleandfrighteningtooutsiders.Terrorismstudiesemergedasasubcategory
withinthesocialsciencesintheearly1970sseekingtoexplaintheresurgenceoftheseemingly
inexplicable."20
Itisthefigureoftheinexplicablethatcontinuestohauntallthecivilizationalgridsthatthe
Westernwarmachinewoulddeployinitsattemptto"understandtheterroristpsyche."We
nowturntoconsidermoreexplicitlytherelationshipbetweenthiswilltoknowledgeandthe
practicesandritualsofheteronormativity.

HeteronormativityandPatriotism
Westartbysimplynotingsomeobviousfactorsthatconstitutetheheteronormativecharacter
ofAmericannationalismthathavebeenexacerbatedinthecurrentpoliticalclimate.These
include,butarenotlimitedto:heterosexualfamilynarrativesoftraumaandgrief(theimages
oftheCantorFitzgeraldwivescometomind,aswellthe"families"whoarepetitioningthe
governmentforincreasedbereavementfunds)theproblemsgaysurvivorsarehaving
accessingreliefanddisasterfunds"sexuallyactive"gaymenbeingbannedfromdonating
bloodthelaudingofnational"gayheros"suchasMarkBinghambylesbiangaybisexual
transgenderqueerconservativessuchasAndrewSullivanthereevaluationofthe"Don'tAsk,
Don'tTell"policyinthefaceofmilitaryactionandenlistmentandfinally,eventheMiss
Americabeautypageant,whichtookplacejustafewweeksafterSeptember11,emphasized
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thenationalprideofthecontestants("There'ssomuchuglinessintheworld,weneedtosee
beauty").
Yetagain,wecouldinterrogatethewayinwhichpatriotismhasactivatedandtransformedthe
historicalmemoryofamilitarist,racist,andclassspecificmasculinity.Inthedaysandweeks
followingtheSeptember11attacksontheWorldTradeCenterandthePentagon,arapid
proliferationofmockingimagescirculatedofaturbanedOsamabinLaden,nottomentionof
theturbanitself.InaphotomontagefromStileproject.com,evenGeorgeBushhasbeen
depictedsportingabinLadenesqueturban.[EndPage125]AnotherInternetfavoriteisa
pictureofbinLadensuperimposedintoa7Elevenconveniencestoresceneasacashier
(harkingbackto,amongothers,ApuofTheSimpsons).
PostersthatappearedinmidtownManhattanonlydaysaftertheattacksshowaturbaned
caricatureofbinLadenbeinganallypenetratedbytheEmpireStateBuilding.Thelegend
beneathreads,"TheEmpireStrikesBack"or"Soyoulikeskyscrapers,huh,bitch?"Orthinkof
theWebsitewhere,withaseriesofweaponsatyourdisposal,youcantortureOsamabin
Ladentodeath,thelasttorturebeingsodomyoranotherWebsitethatshowstwopictures,one
ofbinLadenwithabeard,andtheotherwithoutandthephotoofhimshaventurnsouttobe
O.J.Simpson.21Whattheserepresentationsshow,webelieve,isthatqueernessassexual
deviancyistiedtothemonstrousfigureoftheterroristasawaytootherizeandquarantine
subjectsclassifiedas"terrorists,"butalsotonormalizeanddisciplineapopulationthrough
theseverymonstrousfigures.
Thoughmuchgenderdependent"black"humordescribingtheappropriatepunishmentforbin
LadenfocusesontheliberationofAfghanwomen(liberateAfghanwomenandsendthemto
collegeormakebinLadenhaveasexchangeoperationandliveinAfghanistanasawoman
deeplyracist,sexist,andhomophobicsuggestions),thisportrayalsuggestssomethingfurther
still:AmericanretaliationpromisestoemasculatebinLadenandturnhimintoafag.This
promisenotonlysuggeststhatifyou'renotforthewar,you'reafag,italsoincitesviolence
againstqueersandspecificallyqueersofcolor.Andindeed,therehavebeenreportsfrom
communitybasedorganizationsthroughoutNewYorkCitythatviolentincidentsagainst
queersofcolorhaveincreased.Soontheonehand,theUnitedStatesisbeingdepictedas
feministandgaysafebythiscomparisonwithAfghanistan,andontheotherhand,theU.S.
state,havingexperiencedacastrationandpenetrationofitscapitalistmasculinity,offersup
narrativesofemasculationasappropriatepunishmentforbinLaden,brownskinnedfolks,and
meninturbans.
ItseemstousthatwhatweseehappeninginAmericaistheactivepromotionofselfrighteous
aggressionandmurderousviolence,whichhaveachievedalmostholystatusinthespeeches
andcommentsofourrecentlyenthronedpresident,GeorgeW.Bush(letusnotforgetthefive
tofourSupremeCourtdecisionthatgavehimthepresidency).Whatalltheseexamplesshow
isthatthehistoricalconnectionsbetweenheteronormativityasaprocessandthemonstrous
terroristasanobjectofknowledgehavebeenobfuscated,andinsomecasessevered:indeed,
aspectsof"homosexuality"havecomewithinthepurviewofnormativepatriotismafter
September11.Inotherwords,whatweseeinthedeploymentofheteronormativepatriotismis,
ontheonehand,thequarantiningofthe[EndPage126]terroristmonsterfagusingthebodies
andpracticesofaqueeredother,andontheother,theincorporationofaspectsofqueer
subjectivityintothebodyofthenormalizednation.
Thisdualprocessofincorporationandquarantininginvolvesaswellthearticulationofrace
withnation.M.JacquiAlexanderhaswrittenthatthe"nationdisallowsqueerness,"andV.
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SpikePetersenlocates"nationalismasheterosexism"yetitiscertainlythecasethatwithina
nationalaswellastransnationalframe,somequeersarebetterthanothers.22Thedearthof
(white)queerprogressive/Leftvoicesisperhapsduetosafetyissuesandrealfearsthatmany
haveaboutofferingupdissentingvoicesatthesametime,racismandunexaminednotionsof
citizenshipseemtobeoperativeherealso.23QueerLeftvoiceshavealsopointedoutthatthe
treatmentofwomenbytheTalibanextendstohomosexuality,whichispunishablebypublic
stoninginAfghanistan.24WhenaU.S.NavybombaboardtheU.S.S.Enterprisehadscrawled
uponit"HijackThisFags,"nationalgayandlesbianrightsorganizersobjectedtothe
homophobiaofthiskindofnationalistrhetoric,butnottothebroaderracistwaritself.25
Clearly,ahegemonicstruggleisbeingwagedthroughtheexclusionaryandnormativeidioms
ofpatriotism,humanitarianism,and,yes,evenfeminism.Inthiscontext,weseehowthe
dominantmediaareusingthefigureoftheburkhaedwomaninwhatareoftenracistand
certainlychauvinisticrepresentationsoftheMiddleEast.Theserepresentations,weshould
remember,haveaveryoldcoloniallegacy,onethatGayatriSpivakoncecharacterizedas,
"Whitemensavingbrownwomenfrombrownmen."26Furthermore,thecontinuitiesbetween
Bush'sagendaandqueerLeft,feminist,andSouthAsiandiasporicandevenSouthAsianqueer
diasporicpositionsareratherstunning,especiallyintheuseof"culture"and"culturalnorms"
toobscureeconomicandpoliticalhistories,muchinthewaythatterrorismstudiespositions
therelationshipofthepsychetotheterrorist.
NowsuddenlycondemningtheTalibanfortheirtreatmentofwomen,Bush'sadministration
hasinessenceoccupiedthespaceofdefaultglobalfeministsinanuncannycontinuitywith
Westernliberalfeminists,whoalsohavebeenusingAfghanwomenasan"easyicon"inneed
offeministrescue(asthesuccessortofemalegenitalsurgery).TheFeministMajority(headed
byEleanorSmeal),alongwithfirstladyLauraBushandtheformerduchessofYorkSarah
Ferguson,representliberalfeministhumanrightspracticesthatarecomplicitwithU.S.
nationalismaswellasolderformsofcolonialistmissionaryfeministprojects.27While
initiallyAfghanwomenwerecompletelyabsentfrommediarepresentationanddiscussion,
nowRAWA(RevolutionaryAfghanWomen'sAssociation)isbeingproppedupasthe
saved/saviorother:onaspeakingtourthroughoutthe[EndPage127][BeginPage130]
UnitedStates,fullysponsoredandpaidforbytheNationalOrganizationofWomen,ledby
ExecutiveDirectorPatriciaIreland.(ThisisnottominimizetheworkofRAWA,buttopoint
outthatthefetishizingofRAWAerasesotherwomen'sgroupsintheregion,ignoresthe
relativeprivilegeandaccessofresourcesthatRAWA'smembershaveinrelationtothe
majorityofwomeninAfghanistan,andobscuresthenetworkofregionalandinternational
politicalandeconomicintereststhatgovernsuchorganizationsasNOWorevenRAWA.)28
Anotherhistoricalmemorymustorganizeourpractice.Aswebegintounearththesehistorical
anddiscursivereticulations,wemustnotlosesightofthesharedhistoriesoftheWest's
abnormals.Alloftheseexamples,andmore,functiontodelimitandcontainthekindsof
responsesthatLGBTQ(lesbian,gay,bisexual,transgender,queer)communitiescanarticulate
inresponsetoSeptember11.Ifwearetoresistpracticallythe"wareffort"andtheUs/Them
and"you'reeitherwithusoragainstus"rhetoric,wemustdisarticulatethetiesbetween
patriotismandculturalandsexualidentity.Wemustposequestionsthatallowustoconstruct
practicalsolidaritieswithdomesticandinternationalcommunitiesandmovements.IfWestern
feminismhasbeencomplicitwithcertainformsofimperialandnationalistdomination,how
canfeministsofcolorintheUnitedStatesaswellas"ThirdWorld"feminists(suchasRAWA)
undermineanddisplacethesedominantagendas?Ifcertainformsofqueerandprogressive
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organizingremaintiedtoformsofnationalistandimperialdomination,howcanqueersof
colorbothhereandacrosstheglobedisrupttheneatfoldinginofqueernessintonarrativesof
modernity,patriotism,andnationalism?

DocilePatriotsI:TheWestWing
Herearetwoexamplesofcontemporaryculturalandcommunitypoliticsthatspeaktothe
networkofdiscoursesandpracticeswehaveanalyzed.Wehaveseenthusfarthattheterrorist
monsterhasahistory,andthroughthathistorywecaninterrogatethenormsandpracticesthat
aimtoquarantine,know,eliminate,andcorrectthemonster.Thisbringsustoournextpoint:
themonstrousterrorist,oncequarantinedinsecretmilitarycourts,inprisons,incells,incaves,
inbesiegedcitiesorfortsthisfigurealsoprovidestheoccasiontodemandandinstilla
certaindisciplineonthepopulation.Thisdisciplineaimstoproducepatriotic,docilesubjects
throughpractices,discourses,images,narratives,fears,andpleasures.Oneofthecentralsites
fortheconstructionofthesedocilepatriotsisthedominanttelevisualmedia.OnCNN,FOX
News,BBC,orABCwehear[EndPage130]terroristexperts,psychiatrists,stateofficials,
andjournalistsusethefigureoftheterroristmonsterasascreentoprojectboththeracist
fantasiesoftheWestandthediscipliningagendaofpatriotism.Infantilizingthepopulation,
theyscreamwithwhatseemstobeattimesonevoice:"Theterroristisamonster.This
monsteristheenemy.Theenemymustbehunteddowntoprotectyouandallthosewomen
andchildrenthatyoudonotknow,butweknow."
Wecanseethisdualinfantilizationofthecitizenryandproductionandquarantiningofthe
monsteronTVshowsthathaveairedoraregoingtoairinresponsetoSeptember11.These
sitcoms,serials,anddramasareinfactmoreideologicallydiversethanthemainstreamnews
media,whichhaveegregiouslyfailedtoinformthepublicoftheracistbacklashagainstArab
AmericanandSouthAsianAmericancommunities,aswellasantiwaractivism.AsoneUSA
Todayarticlenoted:
Producershavebeenrapidlychurningoutscriptsforfutureepisodesbasedonthe
aftermathoflastmonth'sattacks,followinganOctober3episodeofNBC'sThe
WestWingthatattractedtheWhiteHousedrama'sbiggestaudienceyet.Ally
McBealwilltakeanallegoricalapproachinaChristmasepisodewrittenbyDavid
E.KelleyinwhichaMassachusettstownofficialtriestoblockaholidayparade
afteratragedyinwhichfirefightersarelost,andtheresidentsarguewhetheritis
acceptabletobefestive.ThePractice'slawfirmrepresentsanArabAmerican
whoarguesthatheisbeingunfairlyheldasamaterialwitnessinafictional
terroristactinanepisodeoftheABCdramaduelaterthisfall.PopularnewCBS
seriesTheGuardianplansaDecemberstorylineaboutaMiddleEasternfamilyin
Pittsburghwhoserestaurantisvandalizedbyawhiteyouth."There'salotofknee
jerkrage,"saysseriescreatorDavidHollander."Iwanttotouchontherealitythat
there'sanincredibleirrationalfear."CIAblesseddramaTheAgencyoriginally
plannedtoairafictionalanthraxattacklastwinter,butpulledtheepisodetwo
daysbeforeitwasscheduledtoairduetoantiterroristsentiments.AndCBShas
beenpitchedanewromanticcomedyaboutacouplewholosttheirspousesinthe
WorldTradeCenterattacks,saysnetworkpresidentLesMoonves,whohasn't
ruledouttheidea.Theinterestmarksastarkdeparturefromthedaysimmediately
afterSeptember11,whenanxiouscensorsrushedtoexciseanysignsoftheTrade
CenterorreferencestoplanesorterroristsfromTVshows.MilitarydramaJAG
plansreferencestoAfghanistan,andanepisodeaboutcovertoperationsthere,but
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producerDonBellisarioistreadingcarefully.29
Consider,asthefirstofsuchtakesonSeptember11tobeaired,theOctober3episodeofThe
WestWing."Theepisode,entitled'IsaacandIshmael,'waswrittenbytheshow'screatorAaron
Sorkin,andwascompletedinlessthanthreeweeks.Thescriptmadenoreferencetotheevents
[EndPage131]whichinspireditscreation."30Thestorylineplacestheshow'sfictitious
WhiteHousestaffinalockoutcrisismodefollowinga"crash"(which"meanstherehasbeen
somekindofsecuritybreak:nooneinoroutoftheWhiteHouse"theSecretServicefeareda
suspectedterroristmightactuallybeonthepremises).WecuttoanArabAmericanman,a
WhiteHousestaffmember,smokingacigaretteoutofawindowintheOldExecutive
BuildingagroupofarmedwhiteSecretServiceagentsbreakdownthedoorand,withguns
drawn,arresthimonsuspicionofplottingsomekindofterroristactivity(heislaterfoundto
beinnocent).Meanwhile,JoshLyman,thedeputychiefofstaff,findshimselflockedina
cafeteriawithagroupofvisitinghighschoolchildrenwhohadwonatriptotheWhiteHouse.
AccordingtotheBBCWebreview,"Theylooktohimforanswerstoquestionssimilarto
thoseaskedbymanyAmericansoverthepastfewweeks."
Mostoftheepisodetakesplaceinoneoftworooms.IntheWhiteHousemess,"gifted"high
schoolstudentsaskquestionsofvariousstaffmembers.Simultaneously,theinterrogationof
the"terrorist"goesoninadarkenedroomsomewhereintheOldExecutiveBuilding.The
showconsistsofintercuttingbetweentheinterrogationofthemanwhosename,RaqimAli,
matchesoneofthealiasesusedbyaterroristwhohasjustenteredtheUnitedStatesand"the
heavydutychatsessioninthemess."31Studentsasksuchquestionsas"What'sthedealwith
everybodytryingtokillyou?"Joshturnstheconversationintoaninterrogation,orbetter,
translation,ofthe"nature"oftheTaliban.Heasksthestudents,"Islamicextremistsareto
Islamas____istoChristianity."Afterhearingfromthestudents,Joshwritesdownhis
answer:"KKK."Hesays,"It'stheKlangonemedievalandglobal.Itcouldn'thavelesstodo
withIslamicmenandwomenoffaithofwhomtherearemillionsandmillions.Muslims
defendthiscountryintheArmy,Navy,AirForce,MarineCorps,NationalGuard,Policeand
FireDepartment."Whenitseemsheisrunningoutofthingstosay,otherWhiteHousestaff
membersjointhequestionandanswersession.TobyZeigler(RichardSchiff),thepresident's
speechwriter,championsfreedomofreligionandequatesthepeopleofAfghanistanwith
EuropeanJewsunderHitler."There'snothingwrongwithareligionwhoselawssayaman's
gottowearabeardorcoverhisheadorwearacollar.It'swhenviolationoftheselawsbecome
acrimeagainstthestateandnotyourparentsthatwe'retalkingaboutlackofchoice....The
Talibanisn'ttherecognizedgovernmentofAfghanistan.TheTalibantookovertherecognized
governmentofAfghanistan....WhenyouthinkofAfghanistan,thinkofPoland.Whenyou
thinkoftheTaliban,thinkoftheNazis.WhenyouthinkofthepeopleofAfghanistan,thinkof
Jewsinconcentrationcamps."Tobythentellstheseveryattentive[EndPage132]studentsa
storyheonceheardfromafriendwhohadbeeninaNaziconcentrationcamp."Hesaidhe
oncesawaguyatthecampkneelingandpraying.Hesaid,'Whatareyoudoing?'Theguysaid
hewasthankingGod.'WhatcouldyoupossiblybethankingGodfor?''I'mthankingGodfor
notmakingmelikethem.'"Inexplicably,Tobyconcludes,"Badpeoplecan'tberecognizedon
sight.There'snopointintrying."
AtleastonerevieweroftheepisodebristledatwhathearguedwereunAmericanmessages
hiddeninthedialogueoftheepisode.Forthisreviewer,theshow'screatorAaronSorkinwas
entirelytoblame.WritingintheWashingtonPost,TomShaleslambastedtheshowforits
"toneofmoralsuperiority."
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Terrorismisdefinitelybad.Thatwasestablishedbythetalkwiththestudents.It
waspointedoutthat...IslamicextremistsaretoIslamwhattheKuKluxKlanis
toChristianity.Butthemainthrustoftheepisodewassummarizedinanotherline:
"Badpeoplecan'tberecognizedonsight.There'snopointintrying."Whatif
they'recarryinggunsandhavebombsstrappedtoeachlimb?Thatwasn'taskedor
answered.WhatwasreallyonSorkin'smindwasthemistreatmentofthe
apparentlyguiltlessAmericanbornMuslimwho,asplayedbyAjayNaidu,
maintainedatoneofsufferingmoralsuperioritythroughout.Ali,itwasrevealed,
hadoncebeenarrestedfortakingpartindemonstrationsagainstthepresenceof
U.S.troopsinSaudiArabia,buthewasindignantandSorkinwasindignant
thatinvestigatingsuchathingmightbeconsideredappropriateforaperson
workinginthesamebuildingasthepresidentoftheUnitedStates.Howdare
they?
ForShales,"discriminationagainstArabAmericansandagainstpeoplewhoevenjustlook
Arabichasbeenaseriousprobleminthewakeoftheterroristattacks.Andistobedeplored
and,onehopes,stopped.ButtheattentiongiventhatproblembytheWestWingepisode,as
wellasbysometalkshowsandnewscasts,seemstosuggestthatit'sthemajorissuearisingout
oftheattacks.ViewersofMTV,forinstance,haveheardmorecondemnationofdiscrimination
('Fightforyourrights')thanofterrorismitself."Thispassingnodtothemassivesuspensionof
constitutionalrightsforimmigrantsandnoncitizensisovershadowedbyShales'sinsistence
thatnotonlydidSorkinmissthecentralmoraltobelearnedfromSeptember11(terrorism
demandsanewsecuritystate,andtruepatriotsevenwhentheyarethetargetsofthatstate,
willstandbyit,comewhatmay),butthathisisnotalegitimatevoiceofmoralityinthefirst
place.Shalesconcludes:"ItisfairtonotethatinApril,SorkinwasarrestedatBurbankAirport
andchargedwithtwofelonycountsofdrugpossessionwhencocaine,hallucinogenic
mushroomsandpotwerefoundinhiscarryonbag.Thiswouldseemtohavesomebearingon
hisstatusas[EndPage133]moralarbiterforthenation....theimplicationsareunsettling
thateveninthismomentofpain,trauma,heartbreak,destruction,assaultandvictimization,
HollywoodliberalscanstillfindsomeexcusetomakeAmericalookguilty.Forwhatit's
worth,that'scrap."
Suchresponsesobligeustorecognizethatinamomentofwhatistermed"nationalcrisis,"
evenplatitudinousdissentisbeyondthepaleoftheproper.Howdoesadrugchargedisallowa
subjectfromspeakingfromaspacethatismorallylegitimatehowdoesanykindof
improprietydisqualifyasubjectwhowoulddissentfromthenorm?Butwhatthisreviewer's
diatribepointstoisthesubtleandnotsosubtleformsofnormalizationthatthenewpatriotism
demandsofusall.Consider,then,theshow'sdoubleframeitselfasakindoftechnologythatis
supposedtomanagedissent,atechnologythatdemandsallegianceevenasitproduces
pluralism.Forweseeadoubleframedreality.Ontheoneside,brightlylitandclosetothe
hearth(invokingthehomeandthefamily),istheclassroom,araciallyandgenderpluralspace.
Aspacewherenormal,docile,butheterogeneouspsychesareproduced,inoppositiontothe
terroristmonsterfag.AspacewherethepresidentasFatherentersandsaysthatwhatweneed
rightnowareheroeswherethefirstladyasMothertellstheprecociousandsometimes
troublesomeyoungstersakindofbedtimestoryoftwoonceandfuturebrothers,Isaac(the
Jews)andIshmael(theArabs)wheremaleexpertsregalethemwithfantasticfactsconcerning
thefirstactsofterrorismcommittedbackinthetenthcenturybydrugfrenziedMuslims
whereonewomanstaffmember(C.J.Cregg,playedbyAllisonJanney)declares,"Weneed
spies.Humanspies....It'stimetogivetheintelligenceagenciesthemoneyandthemanpower
theyneed"andfinally,whereJosh'spartingadvicetothestudentsonhowtorelatetothe
terroristsis:"Rememberpluralism.Youwanttogetthesepeople?Imean,youreallywantto
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reachinandkillthemwheretheylive?Keepacceptingmorethanoneidea.Itmakesthem
absolutelycrazy."
Ontheothersideoftheframe,adimlylitroom,anenclosed,monitoredspace,managed
entirelybywhitemen,atthecenterofwhichisaraciallyandsexuallyambiguousfigure,a
subjectwhoatoneandthesametimeisapossiblemonsterandapersontobecorrected.A
tiny,darkenedstagewheretheritualoftheexamination,oftheinterrogation,isenactedonand
throughasubjectwhomustperformbothhisracialandculturaldifferenceandhisnormality.
Asubjectquarantined,andsosecluded,butwhosetestimonybecomesaspectaclethrough
whichpowerwillwork.Asubjectwhosegreatestmoment,itseems,comeswhen,afterbeing
terrorizedatgunpoint,raciallyprofiled,andinsulted,hegoesbacktowork.Hisinterrogator,
afterstumblingthroughakindofapologyforhisearlier[EndPage134]racistremarks,looks
backoverhisshoulderandsays,"Heykid,waytobebackatyourdesk."
Thisdoubleframestagesthetwoformsofpowerthatwehavebeenmarkinghere:to
quarantineandtodiscipline.Itiswewhoaretheschoolchildrenwhomustbetaughtwhy'War
meansPeace'inAfghanistan,andcertainlysomeofusmatchtheprofileofthemonstertobe
quarantined,corrected,andneutralized.LetusrememberthataHinduSouthAsian(Ajay
Naidu)playstheArabMusliminTheWestWing.Wecanseethewaysinwhichsexuality,
gender,deviancy,normality,andpowerareknottedtogetherinthisTVdrama:sometimesin
explicitways,asintheexchangebetweentheinterrogatorandtheArabAmericanman,orin
Shales'sdiatribeagainsttheimmoralityofSorkin.Butwhatweareinfactsuggestingisthat
theentiredoubleframecomesoutofracialandsexualgenealogiesthatimbricatethe
productionoftheradicalother,asmonster,tothepracticeofproducingnormalizedanddocile
patriots.Thesepractices,justifiedinthenameofaHolyCrusadeagainstEvilandlegitimized
throughaknowledgeofthepsyche,followasimplerule:"KnowThineEnemy."32Itrecalls
whatSigmundFreudoncewroteinhisfamousessay"ThoughtsonWarandDeath."We
shouldrecallthesewordswritteninthemidstofwar,1915:

Theindividualinanygivennationhas...aterribleopportunitytoconvince
himselfofwhatwouldoccasionallystrikehiminpeacetimethatthestatehas
forbiddentotheindividualthepracticeofwrongdoing,notbecauseitdesiredto
abolishit,butbecauseitdesirestomonopolizeitlikesaltandtobacco.The
warringstatepermitsitselfeverysuchmisdeed,everysuchactofviolence,as
woulddisgracetheindividualman.Itpracticesnotonlytheacceptedstratagems,
butalsodeliberatelyinganddeceptionagainsttheenemyandthis,too,ina
measurewhichappearstosurpasstheusageofformerwars.Thestateexactsthe
utmostdegreeofobedienceandsacrificefromitscitizens,butatthesametime
treatsthemaschildrenbymaintaininganexcessofsecrecy,andcensorshipof
newsandexpressionsofopinionthatrendersthespiritsofthosethusintellectually
oppresseddefencelessagainsteveryunfavourableturnofeventsandeverysinister
rumour.Itabsolvesitselffromtheguaranteesandcontractsithadformedwith
otherstates,andmakesunabashedconfessionofitsrapacityandlustforpower,
whichtheprivateindividualisthencalledupontosanctioninthenameof
patriotism.33

Inthenameofpatriotism,adoubleframedrealityandadoublemovementofpowertie
togethertheproductionofdocilepatriots:thosemonsterswhomustbequarantined,whose
psychesoffendthenormsofdomesticity,oftheproperlymasculineorfeminine.Such
monsters,[EndPage135]throughtheirveryexample,providepatriotismwithitsown
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pedagogiesofnormalization.Andthenwehavethespaceofthenationalfamily,inhabitedby
apluralityofsubjectswhofindtheirproperbeingintheheterosexualhomeofthenation:these
subjectsarecalledforth,givenbeingeven,bytheveryfigureofthemonster,andtheyare
calledupontoenacttheirownnormalizationinthenameofpatriotism.Thesedocilepatriots,
committedtotheframeworkofAmericanpluralism,arethemselvespartofahistoryof
racializationthatissimplyassumed.Inourlastsection,wecontextualizeboththishistoryand
thesubjectivitiesitengenders.

DocilePatriotsII:SikhsandRacialFormation
Ifinthenameofpatriotismacertaindocilityisbeingdemandedofus,wewouldliketoend
thisessaywithaconsiderationofhowcommunitiesofcolorcanbegintoreframethese
discourses,andsoarticulatethecomplexpragmaticsofsolidaritypolitics.Recentimmigration
policyandthediscoursesurroundingithavehadanimpactontheproductionof"docile
patriotism."Howdidthestateanditsideologicalapparatusesprepare"us"fortheaftermathof
theeventsofSeptember11?
Inresponsetoincreasingmobilityofcapitalacrossnationalborders,theantiimmigrant
agendaservestopsychicallyaswellasmateriallypreventthefurthercontaminationofthe
nation.TheabsenceofaconcretizedexternalotheronceembodiedbytheSovietUnionand
otherCommuniststatesmarkstheprimesettingfortargetinginternalothersforexpulsionor
normalization.Inadvocatingthesanctityofthenationalbodythroughpolicingofindividual
bodies,1990'santiimmigrantsentimenthasbeenprimarilyandperniciouslyfueledby
conservativeAmerican"familyvalues"rhetoric,aidedbythefigureofthecoloredwelfare
motherasembodyingfailedheterosexualityaswellascompromisedproductioncapacity.In
fact,manyfeministscholarshavepointedtothepatriarchalfamilyasfoundationaltothe
appearanceofnationalbelongingas"natural,"muchasfamilialattachmentsare
conceptualized.IntheexampleofpostSeptember11organizingbySikhAmericans,once
againweseethattheunderpinningsofnationalismandpatriotismarecomposednotonlyof
demandstoproduce"goodcitizenship"statusvisvisoutlawedundocumentedimmigrants
butalsoofheteronormativity.
IntheracistbacklashoftheimmediateaftermathofSeptember11,turbancladSikhswere
"mistaken"forthekinandnationalcompatriotsofOsamabinLaden.Infearofbeingthe
targetsofracistbacklashagainstMuslimsandArabAmericans,Sikhswhowearturbans
(albeit,ashasbeenrepeatedlypointedoutbyspokespersonsforSikhadvocacygroups,[End
Page136]notthetypewornbybinLaden)havediscoveredvariouscounternarrativesof
respectableturbanhood.ManySikhs,hearingearlyreportsofturbangrabbingandthefatal
shootingofturbanedSikhgasstationownerBalbirSinghSodhiinMesa,Arizona,havesimply
abandonedtheirturbans,forthesamereasonsthatmanySikhsabandonedthemwhentheyfirst
migratedtotheUnitedStates.WhileturbanedindividualsinmulticulturalAmericahaveoften
beenreferredtoas"towelheads,"therepertoireofsophisticatedreferenceshasexpanded
furtherstill:OnSeptember17,U.S.RepresentativeJohnCookseyexplainedtoanetworkof
Louisianaradiostationsthatanyone"wearingadiaperonhishead"shouldexpecttobe
interrogatedasapossiblesuspectintheinvestigationsoftheterroristattacks.34
OthershavecontributedtothecurrentfervorofAmericanpatriotic/multicultural
exceptionalismbydonningred,white,andblueturbans.OrganizationssuchasSMART(Sikh
MediawatchandResourceTaskForce,aSikhAmericancivilrightsadvocacygroup)have
releasedstatements,"TalkingPoints,"andphotosexplainingthedifferencesbetween"those"
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turbansandSikhturbans.35Sikhsarebeingstoppedatairportsecurityandaskedtotakeoff
theirturbanssotheycanbecheckedforknives.ForthisSikhsaredirectedbySMARTto
patientlyeducate:"Theturbanisnotahat.ItisamandatorysymboloftheSikhreligion.I
cannotsimplyremoveititmustbeunwrapped."36
TotheaverageuninterestedAmericaneye,however,aturbanisjustaturban.Andit
symbolizestherevived,erect,andviolentpatriarchyoftheEast,ofIslam,andoftheTaliban
theoppressionofAfghanwomenthecastrationandthepenetrationofwhiteWesternphallic
powerbybadbrowndickanditsturban.(Lestonethinkthatthebacklashis"over"andthat
AmericansarenoweducatedaboutSikhs,agurudwara(temple)inupstateNewYorkthatwas
burnedtothegroundafewdaysbeforeThanksgivingwasdeclaredtobearson.)37
Theturbanisacomplicatedandambivalentsignifierofbothracialandreligiouscommunityas
wellasofthepowerofmasculineheteronormativity(theshavingoftheheadsandbeardsof
thesuspectedTalibanandAlQaedanonlegalcombatantsbeforebeingbroughttoCampX
RayatGuantanamoBay,Cuba,isoneindicationofjusthowpowerful).Assuch,weareas
troubledbytheincreasingformsofturbanprofilinganditsconsequencesasweareaboutthe
reemergenceofculturalnationalisminSikhandSouthAsiancommunities,whichoften
obscuresissuesofgenderandsexuality(forexample,theongoingviolenceagainstwomenin
thedomesticspheresandtheracistbacklashagainstwomenwearingthehijab).Theturban
becomesacontestedsymbolforremasculinizationandnationalizationinthestrategiesof
numerousmiddleclassSikhcommunities.[EndPage137]Suchstrategies,weshouldnote,
respondtoandareinconversationwiththeinitialemasculationofthewhitemalestate
(signaledbythecastrationofthetradetowersonSeptember11)andtheongoing
remasculinizationthroughthewaronterrorism.
Whatthesestrategiesofresistancecolludewith,however,ispreciselythe"goodpsyche"(as
opposedtotheterroristpsyche)thatvaluesandlegitimatesmiddleclassdomesticity,
heteronormativity,andthebanalpluralismofdocilepatriotism.MuchmainstreamSikh
responsehasfocusedongettingtheattentionofwhiteAmerica,intentonrenarrating
themselvesthroughAmericannationalismasrespectable,exemplary,modelminoritycitizens
whohaveheldvigils,donatedbloodandfundstotheRedCross,andwerequicktocovertheir
gurudwarasinAmericanflags.ManynationalSikhmediaoutlets,attemptingtocounterthe
"mistakenidentity"phenomenon,haveputoutmessagestotheeffectof"wearenotthem"
(Muslims),encouragingSikhstousethisopportunitytoeducatepeopleaboutthepeaceful
Sikhreligion.TheyarealsosendinganendlessstreamoflawyerstoWashington,D.C.,to
meetwithsenatorsandotherpublicofficialstoexpounduponSikhcommitmentstoAmerican
civiclife.38Sikhgurudwarasacrossthecountryarehiringpublicrelationsfirmsto"dealwith
thismisunderstandingamongtheAmericanpublic."Whilemuchofthis"damagecontrol"
colludeswithHindunationalistagendastodiscreditMuslimsandPakistan,Indianprime
ministerVajpayeewasactuallyreprimandedbySikhgroupsforbothsuggestingthatwomen
wearbindisinordertopassasHindusandalsoforaskingtheU.S.governmenttoprotect
SikhsagainsthatecrimeswhilenotmentioningtheneedtoprotectMuslimAmericans.39
ThereisacomplexhistorythattiesSikhcommunitiestothediscourseofterrorism.Asiswell
known,theIndianstatethroughoutmuchofthe1980swasinvolvedinamassiveideological
laboraswellasbloodypolicerepressionthatsoughttomarkoffSikhgroupsinPunjabandin
thediasporaasterrorist,andtocontainthemovementforKhalistan(aseparatistPunjab).This
historypositionsSikhidentityinanambivalentrelationshiptothecurrentwaronterrorism:on
theonehand,SikhsinIndiaandinthediaspora,especiallygurudwaracommunities,face
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severerepercussionsfromtheantiterroristact(knownasthePatriotAct)40ontheotherhand,
theirselfpositioningasvictimsofbothstatesponsoredterrorism(forexample,ofthe1984
riotsinNewDelhi)and,asAmericanpatriots,victimsofthe"Islamic"terrorismofSeptember
11simultaneouslyinvokesadoublenationalismSikhandAmerican.Forexample,Sikhsare
holdingvigilstomournSeptember11inconjunctionwiththepogromsof1984inother
words,tounitewithAmericansundertherubricof"victimsofterroristattacks."41Inthisway,
wecanseehowSikh[EndPage138]Americansfacethethreatofbeingquarantinedasthe
terroristmonsterbyrefashioningthemselvesasdocilepatriots.
WhiletherevivalofSikhmiddleclass"goodcitizenship"nationalistpridethreatenstohinder
possiblecoalitionsacrossclass,race,andsexuality,SouthAsianqueerorganizationshave
beenrelativelyquietabouttheracistbacklash.Turbanshaveneverbeenviewedasveryqueer
friendly,atleastnotinthediaspora.Communitybasedantibacklash/warorganizingefforts
forexample,arecentvigilinJacksonHeights,NewYork,organizedbyInternationalSouth
AsiaForumhavebeenconspicuously"straight."Religiousdifferenceshaveremainedlargely
unaddressedinSouthAsianqueerdiasporicorganizingcontexts,whichhistoricallyhavebeen
predominantlyHindu(andIndian).Unresolvedissuesof"difference"(class,immigration
status,religion,caste)arenowcomingbacktohauntthediaspora,whileatthesametime,
clearlyfeararoundthebacklash,outing,andforsome,immigrationstatusmaypreventmany
SouthAsianqueersfromorganizing.
Withinthespectrumoftowelheads,diapers,andfaggotry,theturbanisapowerfulreminderof
theconstructionsofracialandsexualdifferencethatinformbothU.S.discoursesofpluralism
andSouthAsian,MiddleEastern,andArabAmericancommunityformations.Thecurrent
climateisanopportunityforSikhstorethinkthehistoricalfissuresamongHindusand
MuslimswhilebuildingstrongercoalitionswithothercommunitiesofcolorandforSouth
AsianqueerstoaddressthepervasiveHinducentricnatureofdiasporicorganizinginthe
UnitedStates.Itisunfortunate,ofcourse,thattheclassspecificityandspecificsofviolence
againstbrownpeoplearerarelydiscussed,noristheperpetuationofthisviolencebyother
peopleofcoloravailableformuchcomment.InlightofthefactthatArabAmericans
historicallyhavenothadaracialcategorizationandassucharecodedaswhitebydefault,are
therenewracialformationsemerginginresponsetoSeptember11?Whatkindsofhistorically
specificracialformationsemergingoutofmodelminority/postcolonialprivilegeandAmerican
pluralismandcitizenshipareSouthAsiansstrugglingtoholdontoorcontest?42

Conclusion:MonsterTerroristFag
Inthecontemporarydiscourseandpracticeofthewaronterrorism,freedom,democracy,and
humanityhavecometoframethepossibilityofthinkingandactingwithinandbeyondthe
nationstate.Wehavesoughttoshowhowtheuncannymonsterterroristfagisbothaproduct
oftheanxietiesofheteronormativecivilizationandamarkerofthenoncivilizedin[End
Page139]fact,theanxietyandthemonsterarebornofthesamemodernity.Wehaveargued
thatthemonsterterroristfagisreticulatedwithdiscoursesandpracticesofheteronormative
patriotismbutalsointheresistantstrategiesoffeministgroups,queercommunities,and
communitiesofcolor.Wesuggestthatallsuchstrategiesmustconfrontthenetworkof
complicitiesthatstructurethepossibilitiesofresistance:wehaveseenhowdocilepatriots,
evenastheyrefuseacertainracistpositioning,contributetotheirownnormalizationandthe
quarantiningofthosetheynarratethemselvesagainst.Thisgenealogytakesonaparticular
urgencygiventhepresentdisarrayoftheantiwarLeft,aswellasthelackofcommunication,
debate,andconnectionsbetweenwhiteprogressivesandcommunitiesofcolor,especially
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thoseimplicatedbychangingimmigrationlaws,new"border"hysteria,thePatriotAct,andthe
widespreaddetentionofnoncitizens.43
Moreover,thesequestionsofdisciplineandnormalizationservetoforeclosethepossibilities
ofsolidaritiesamongandwithincommunitiesofcolorforinstance,betweenSikhsand
MuslimsoramongSikhswhoinhabitdifferentclasslocations.Sothatevenifthelongtime
surveillanceofAfricanAmericanandCaribbeanAmericancommunitiesmighthaveletupa
bitafterSeptember11,whatweseeisthelegitimationandexpansionoftechniquesofracial
profilingthatwereinfactperfectedonblackbodies.Ifcontemporarycounterterrorism
discoursesdeploytropesandtechnologieswithveryoldhistoriesrootedintheWest'sown
anxietiesofothernessandnormality,whattransformationsarewewitnessinginthe
constructionoftheterroristmonster?Whatinnovationsandreelaborationsopennewvistasto
dominantandemergentforcesinthehegemonicpoliticsofthewaron/ofterrorism?Thereturn
ofthemonstertodayhasenabledamultiformpowertoreinvestandreinventthefag,the
citizen,theturban,andeventhenationitselfintheinterestsofanother,moredocilemodernity.

JasbirK.Puarisanassistantprofessorofwomen'sstudiesandgeographyatRutgers
University.Herrecentpublicationsinclude"GlobalCircuits:TransnationalSexualitiesand
Trinidad,"Signs26(summer2001)and"TransnationalConfigurationsofDesire:TheNation
andItsWhiteClosets"(inTheMakingandUnmakingofWhiteness,ed.MattWrayetal.
[DukeUniversityPress]).ShealsoguesteditedaspecialissueofGLQtitled"QueerTourism:
GeographiesofGlobalization"(8:12,2002).Herwritingonlesbiantourismisforthcomingin
Antipode:ARadicalJournalofGeography.
AmitS.RaiteachesculturalandliterarystudiesattheNewSchoolUniversityinNewYork
City.HehaspublishedarticlesonHindifilms,Gandhi,postcolonialcriticism,anddiasporic
identityincyberspace.Hisstudyofsympathyandcolonialdiscourse,RuleofSympathy:
Sentiment,Race,andPower,17601860,willbepublishedbySt.Martin'sPressinMay2002.
HeiscurrentlyworkingonaprojectonglobalizationandHindifilms,tentativelytitled"New
EmpireCinema:TranslatingHindiFilmsfortheGlobalMarketplace."

Notes
1.Whilewearecriticalofthecirculationofimagerythatproducestheturbanasthefetishized
signifieroftheterrorist,effacingthesubjectivitiesofwomenandthemultipleactsofveiling
andunveilingthathavepredominatedmediarepresentationofthewarinAfghanistan,we
acknowledgethatinsomepartwereinscribethiserasureinourattemptstodeconstructthe
heteronormativemasculinitiesofpatriotism.WethankNegarMottahedehforherastute
observationsregardingthispoint.InfutureanalysesweintendtodrawonFrantzFanon's
"UnveilingAlgeria"tofurtherelaborateuponthesecomplexrelationsofgender.
2.JimRutenberg,"FoxPortraysaWarofGoodandEvil,andManyApplaud,"NewYork
Times,December3,2001.
3.RandGreen,"TalibanRuleinAfghanistanIsaHorribleReignofTerror,"September24,
2001,www.perspicacityonline.com/109/Talibanrule10924.htm.Inareviewofarecentart
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exhibitiononthemonstrousattheDeCordovaMuseum,MilesUngerglosseswhyameditation
onmonstrosityistimely:"Havingbeenthrustintoacontextneverimaginedbyitsorganizers
mayperhapsworktotheshow'sadvantage,throwingintoboldreliefmanyaspectsofthe
monstrousthatmightotherwisehaveremainedhardertodetect.Now,morethanever,itseems
importantnottoneglectourfearsandtoinspectbydaylightthedemonsthatalwayshideinthe
recessesofthemind.Psychologistshaveoftensuggestedatherapeuticrolefortalesofhorror,
whichallowustoacknowledgerealfearsinaformmademanageablethroughnarrative
conventions"(MilesUnger,"WhenHorrorCanBeHealthy,"NewYorkTimes,October28,
2001).
4.InhisChristmasaddresstothearmedforces,DefenseSecretaryDonaldRumsfeld"drewa
comparisonbetweenthemembersoftoday'sarmedforcesandthosewhoservedduringearlier
wars,suchasWorldWarII.'Likethoseheroesofthatearlierera,youtoostandagainstevil
theshadowyevilofterrorism,'Rumsfeldsaid.'Andlikethem,youalsowillbevictorious.Of
that,thereisnodoubt.'HesaidtheheartsandprayersofAmericansarewiththem,according
tohisstatementonthePentagon'sWebsite.Inhisholidaymessagetothetroops,General
RichardMyers,chairmanoftheJointChiefsofStaff,saidAmericanscountthemembersof
thearmedforcesamongtheblessingstheyhave'rediscovered'sinceSeptember11"(CNNon
theWeb,Washington,D.C.Bureau,December25,2001,www.cnn.com).
5.AsNegriputitinarecentinterview,"Indeedthisconfrontationisbeingplayedoutbetween
thosewhoareinchargeofEmpireandthosewhowouldliketobe.Fromthispointofviewit
canbeassertedthatterrorismisthedoubleofEmpire.TheenemyofbothBushandBinLaden
isthemultitude"("AnInterviewwithToniNegribyGiuseppeCoccoandMaurizio
Lazzarato,"trans.ThomasSeayandHydrarchist,Multitudes7[December2001],
www.samizdat.net/multitudes).
6.MichaelHardtandAntonioNegrihaveremarkedonhowthedeploymentofthe"human"
andthedemarcationofthe"terroristenemy"alwaysseemtobethepreludetoAmericanpolice
intervention:"Moralinterventionservesasthefirstactthatpreparesthestageformilitary
intervention.Insuchcases,militarydeploymentispresentedasaninternationallysanctioned
policeaction.Todaymilitaryinterventionisprogressivelylessaproductofdecisionsthatarise
outoftheoldinternationalorderorevenU.N.structures.Moreoftenitisdictatedunilaterally
bytheUnitedStates,whichchargesitselfwiththeprimarytaskandthensubsequentlyasksits
alliestosetinmotionaprocessofarmedcontainmentand/orrepressionofthecurrentenemy
ofEmpire.Theseenemiesaremostoftencalledterrorist,acrudeconceptualand
terminologicalreductionthatisrootedinapolicementality"(Empire[Durham,N.C.:Duke
UniversityPress,2000],37).Inmanyways,wefindHardtandNegri'sargumentprescient.Yet
wealsotakeissuewiththeirownattimesprofoundlyreductiveandgrosslyovergeneralizing
framework:wearguethat,farfroma"crudeconceptualandterminologicalreduction,"the
termterroristtodayreferencesaheterogenous,meticulous,andmultiformtacticofpower.
7.MichelFoucault,"TheAbnormals,"trans.RobertHurley,inEthics:SubjectivityandTruth,
ed.PaulRabinow(NewYork:NewPress,1997),5152.
8.Wewouldaddthatouranalysisofmultiformapparatusesisalsoindebtedtonetwork
metaphorsforexample,GillesDeleuzeandFlixGuattari's"rhizome"tosituatevaried
bodiessuchastheAlQaedanetworkofterroristcellsoreventheritualsofthebodyassociated
withanthraxsporesthatsuggestcontamination,penetration,andcontact.ThankstoPatricia
Cloughforforegroundingtheseconnectionsforus.
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9.AsSaidputitinOrientalism,"ModernOrientalistsorareaexperts,togivethemtheirnew
namehavenotpassivelysequesteredthemselvesinlanguagedepartments....Mostofthem
todayareindistinguishablefromother'experts'and'advisers'inwhatHaroldLasswellhas
calledthepolicysciences"(EdwardSaid,Orientalism[NewYork:Pantheon,1979],107).See
HaroldLasswell,ThePoliticalWritingsofHaroldD.Lasswell(Glencoe,Ill.:FreePress,
1951)HaroldLasswell,APreViewofPolicySciences(NewYork:AmericanElsevier,1971)
andDanielLerner,ed.,ThePolicySciences:RecentDevelopmentsinScopeandMethod
(Stanford,Calif.:StanfordUniversityPress,1951).LaterinhiscritiqueofOrientalism,Said
remarksonhowmonstrositywasusedbysuch"biologicalspeculators"asIsidoreand(his
father)EtienneSt.HilaireinthefirsthalfofthenineteenthcenturyinFrance."Notonlywere
EtienneandIsidorelegateesofthetraditionof'Romantic'biology,whichincludedGoetheand
Cuvier...buttheywerealsospecialistsinthephilosophyandanatomyofmonstrosity
teratology,asIsidorecalleditinwhichthemosthorrendousphysicalaberrationswere
consideredaresultofinternaldegradationwithinthespecieslife."Suchanomalies(whether
physicalorlinguistic,letuskeepinmind)"confirmtheregularstructurebindingtogetherall
membersofthesameclass"(14445).Onecan,therefore,linkmonstrositytonineteenth
centuryprojectsofphysicalanthropologyandcomparativelinguisticsthatintegratedconcerns
for"regular"structurewithinanoverallframeworkoftheintrinsiccoherenceofnature.
10.SeeSaid,OrientalismEdwardSaid,CoveringIslam:HowtheMediaandtheExperts
DetermineHowWeSeetheRestoftheWorld(NewYork:Pantheon,1981)PhilipAgee,
InsidetheCompany:CIADiary(NewYork:Stonehill,1975)EdwardS.Herman,The
TerrorismIndustry:TheExpertsandInstitutionsThatShapeOurViewofTerror(NewYork:
PantheonBooks,1989)EdwardS.Herman,TheRealTerrorNetwork:TerrorisminFactand
Propaganda(Boston:SouthEnd,1982)NoamChomsky,PiratesandEmperors:
InternationalTerrorismintheRealWorld(NewYork:ClaremontResearch,1986)Talal
Asad,ed.,AnthropologyandtheColonialEncounter(London:Ithaca,1971)CynthiaEnloe,
Maneuvers:TheInternationalPoliticsofMilitarizingWomen'sLives(Berkeley:Universityof
CaliforniaPress,2000)ShirinM.Rai,ed.,InternationalPerspectivesonGenderand
Democratization(NewYork:St.Martin's,2000)HelenCaldicott,TheNewNuclearDanger:
GeorgeW.Bush'sMilitaryIndustrialPsychosis(NewYork:NewPress,2002).SeealsoAnn
Tickner,"FeministPerspectivesonSecurityinaGlobalEconomy,"inGlobalization,Human
Security,andtheAfricanExperience,ed.CarolineThomasandPeterWilkin(Boulder,Colo.:
LynneRienner,1999),42.ThehumansecurityframeworkemergentinU.N.forumsand
humanrightsdiscoursesseeksanewdiscoursethatshiftsemphasisfromthesecurityofstates
tothesecurityofpersonsandthatprovidesaframeworkforanalysisoftheobligationsof
statestoensure"human"securityinacontextthatincludesthe"globalization"ofproblems
acrossbordersandboundaries.Feministscholarsarebeginningtoarticulateamultifaceted
genderedanalysisofhumansecurity.
11."KnowThineEnemy,"ForeignPolicy(NovemberDecember,2001):2.
12.RichardFalkenrath,"AnalyticModelsandPolicyPrescription:UnderstandingRecent
InnovationinU.S.Counterterrorism,"StudiesinConflictandTerrorism24(2001):162.Rand
CorporationsWebpageexplains:"Ourjobistohelpimprovepolicyanddecisionmaking
throughresearchandanalysis.Wedothatinmanyways.Sometimes,wedevelopnew
knowledgetoinformdecisionmakerswithoutsuggestinganyspecificcourseofaction.Often,
wegofurtherbyspellingouttherangeofavailableoptionsandbyanalyzingtheirrelative
advantagesanddisadvantages.Onmanyotheroccasions,wefindtheanalysissocompelling
thatweadvancespecificpolicyrecommendations.Inallcases,weservethepublicinterestby
widelydisseminatingourresearchfindings.RAND(acontractionofthetermresearchand
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development)isthefirstorganizationtobecalleda'thinktank.'Weearnedthisdistinction
soonafterwewerecreatedin1946byouroriginalclient,theU.S.AirForce(thentheArmy
AirForces).Someofourearlyworkinvolvedaircraft,rockets,andsatellites.Inthe1960swe
evenhelpeddevelopthetechnologyyou'reusingtoviewthiswebsite"(www.rand.org/about/).
13.DavidBrannan,PhilipEsler,andN.T.AndersStrindberg,"Talkingto'Terrorists':
TowardsanIndependentAnalyticalFrameworkfortheStudyofViolentSubstateActivism,"
StudiesinConflictandTerrorism24(2001):6.
14.CharlesL.Ruby,"AreTerroristsMentallyDeranged?"AnalysesofSocialIssuesand
PublicPolicy(2002):16.
15.JerroldPost,"NotesonaPsychodynamicTheoryofTerroristBehaviour,"Terrorism:An
InternationalJournal7(1984):243.AccountsofOsamabinLaden'schildhoodandhis
psychologicalmakeupreiteratesuchframeworksevenastheydefythem.See,forexample,
MaryAnnWeaver,"TheRealbinLaden:ByMythologizingHim,theGovernmentHasMade
HimEvenMoreDangerous,"NewYorker,January24,2000.
16.Post,"NotesonaPsychodynamicTheory."LikePost,Strentzalsohasoffereda
personalitygridforterroristpsychopathology.Strentz'sfirsttypeofterrorististheleader.Such
apersonhastheoverallvisionandintellectualpurposeoftheterroristgroup.Heorshe
understandsthetheoreticalunderpinningsofthegroup'sideology.Strentzproposesthatsucha
personprojectsasenseofpersonalinadequacyontosociety(thusthebeliefthatsocietyis
inadequateandinneedofchange).Theleaderissuspicious,"irrationallydedicated,"anduses
"pervertedlogic"(T.Strentz,"TheTerroristOrganizationProfile:APsychologicalRole
Model,"inBehavioralandQuantitativePerspectivesonTerrorism[NewYork:Pergamon,
1981],88).Thenarcissistandparanoidpersonalityisattractedtothisterroristposition.The
secondofStrentz'srolesisthatoftheopportunist.Suchapersonhastechnicalknowhowand
isthegroup's"muscle."Strentzsuggestssuchapersonhasacriminalhistorythatpredates
involvementintheterroristgroup.AccordingtoStrentz,theantisocialpersonalityisdrawnto
theopportunistrole.Lastly,thereistheidealist.Thisistheyoungpersonwhoisnever
satisfiedwiththestatusquoandwhohasanaiveviewofsocialproblemsandsocialchange.
Strentzclaimsthataninadequatepersonalitybestdescribesthepersonwhoisattractedtothis
role.
17.Ruby,"AreTerroristsMentallyDeranged?"
18.As'adAbuKhalil,"SexandtheSuicideBomber,"November13,2001,
professors_for_peace@yahoogroups.com(originallypublishedinSalon.com).
19.Thequestionsthatareposedinthisliteratureare:"Whydoesterrorismoccur?What
motivatesterrorists?Whatstrategiesandtacticsdoterroristsemploytoachievetheirgoals?
Howdoterroristsperceivetheirexternalenvironment?Underwhatconditionswillterrorists
abandontheirviolentstruggle?Thesuccessoftheterrorismstudiesliteratureinanswering
thesequestionsisuneven....themostpowerfulanalysesoftheoriginsofterrorismtendtobe
highlyspecific,applyingonlytoasingleterroristmovementofanindividualterrorist,and
rootedinparticularsocialandpsychologicalcircumstances"(RichardFalkenrath,"Analytic
ModelsandPolicyPrescription:UnderstandingRecentInnovationinU.S.Counterterrorism,"
StudiesinConflictandTerrorism24[2001]:164).Wewouldalsoaddthatrecentarticlesin
thisjournaldonotindicateamonovocaldiatribeagainstthe"terrorfromtheEast."For
instance,PeterChalk,inhis"SeparatismandSoutheastAsia:TheIslamicFactorinSouthern
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Thailand,Mindanao,andAceh,"arguesrightly,wethink:"Theforceofmodernization
pursuedsovigorouslybySoutheastAsianstateshas,inmanyrespects,aggravatedthe
situationbyundermining[olderformsofhorizontalcommunitysolidarityandhierarchical
patriarchalsociality]traditionalauthorityandsocioeconomicstructures.Thisisespecially
trueinremote,outlyingareasthathavesufferedfromadministrativeneglectand,insome
casesoutrightexploitation,asaresultofdevelopmentprogramswhoseprimepurposehasbeen
tofurthertheinterestsandpreferencesofthedominantcommunity.Fortheseregions,the
unifyingethosofsecularmodernizationhasnotonlyactedasamajorstimulantforthebasisof
anewsenseofcommunalidentity(ethnic,religious,orboth)ithasalsoworkedtoreinforce
theseparatist'credentials'oflocalrebelgroupings.ThetendencyofSoutheastAsian
governmentstoperiodicallycrackdownonoutburstsofcommunalidentitywithdraconian
countermeasures...hasmerelyservedtofurtherheightenthissenseofregionalalienation"
(StudiesinConflictandTerrorism24[2001]:242).
20.Brannan,Esler,andStrindberg,"Talkingto'Terrorists,'"4.
21.Seewww.gzero.net/osamatron/osamatron.htmland
www.funblaze.com/media/osama/osama.shtml.
22.SeeM.JacquiAlexander,"NotJust(Any)BodyCanBeaCitizen:ThePoliticsofLaw,
Sexuality,andPostcolonialityinTrinidadandTobagoandtheBahamas,"FeministReview48
(autumn1994):523andV.SpikePetersen,"SexingPoliticalIdentities:Nationalismas
Heterosexism,"InternationalFeministJournalofPolitics1(June1999):3465.Fora
discussionofhowqueernessisproducedforandthroughthenationstate,seeJasbirPuar,
"TransnationalConfigurationsofDesire:TheNationandItsWhiteClosets,"inTheMaking
andUnmakingofWhiteness,ed.BirgitBranderRasmussenetal.(Durham,N.C.:Duke
UniversityPress,2001),16783.
23.Seewww.andrewsullivan.com,DailyDish,forresponsestoMarkBingham'sheroismas
wellasthe"Don'tAsk,Don'tTell"policyofthemilitary.Forexample,onegaymanwrote:
"Yousee,whetherIadmitteditconsciouslyornot,oneofmyproblemswithgaysinthe
militarywasnotonlytheunitcohesionissue,butalsothesensethatgaysjustcouldn'tcutit.
Well,aswefoundoutlastweek,MarkBinghamcouldcutit.He'sahero,plainandsimple.I
simplycan'tsaytomyselfanymorethatgayshavenoplaceinthemilitary"(September22,
2001).OnSeptember14,2001,Bushauthorizedbutdidnotcompelthesecretaryofdefenseto
considera"stoploss"orderthatcouldpotentiallysuspendgaydischarges.The"Don'tAsk,
Don'tTell,Don'tPursue,Don'tHarass"orderwasneverrepealednorsuspended.
24.See,forexample,MichelangeloSignorile,"LiketheTaliban,America'sMiddleEastAllies
TyrannizeGaysandWomenHateCrimes,"villagevoice.com/issues/0140/signorile.php.
25.Forexample,GLAADprotestedthehomophobiccaption,butneglectedtovoiceany
concernfortheracistimplicationsoftheimage.Seewww.GLAAD.org.
26.GayatriChakravortySpivak,"CantheSubalternSpeak?"MarxismandtheInterpretation
ofCulture,ed.CaryNelsonandLawrenceGrossberg(Urbana:UniversityofIllinoisPress,
1988),271313.Theirony,ifnothypocrisy,ofGeorgeW.Bushcomingoutagainstthe
misogynyoftheTalibanhasbeenpointedoutbyBarbaraEhrenreichinherarticle,"Veiled
Threat":"FeministscantakesomedimcomfortfromthefactthattheTaliban'segregious
misogynyhasfinallybeennoticed.Foryears,theoppressionofAfghanwomenwasatopicfor
exoticlistservsandtheoccasionalforlornInternetpetition.AsrecentlyasMay2001,for
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example,PresidentBushcongratulatedtherulingTalibanforbanningopiumproductionand
handedthemacheckfor$43millionnevermindthattheirregimeaccordswomenastatus
somewhatbelowthatoflivestock"(www.latimes.com/news/opinion/la
110401ehrenreich.story).Inthisarticle,Ehrenreichputsforwardanumberofexplanatory
modelstoaccountforthemisogynyof"Islamicfundamentalism."Shenotesthattheincrease
ofwomeninunskilled,lowwagedlaborunderglobalizationandtheconsequentmass
"lumpenization"ofmenindevelopingcountrieshaveledtoaglobalcrisisinmasculinity.She
argues,rightly,thatitwouldbeamistaketotakeIslamicfundamentalismoutofthecontextof
otherfundamentalisms,suchasHindu,Christian,orJewish,wherewecanseeareactiontoa
global,Westernmodernitythatalwaysinspecificwaystargetswomen.
27.SeeElisabethBumiller,"FirstLadytoSpeakaboutAfghanWomen,"NewYorkTimes,
November16,2001.Inasimilarvein,GlobalExchangeisnowoffering,incelebrationof
InternationalWomen'sWeek,aspecialtourbyandforwomentoAfghanistancalled"Courage
andTenacity:AWomen'sDelegationtoAfghanistan."OnecanmeetwithAfghanwomenin
refugeecamps,visittheundergroundschoolsforgirlsandthenewlyreopenedwomen's
bathhouses,andmeetwithfemaleprofessionalssuchasdoctorsandgovernmentofficials.See
www.globalexchange.org.
28.Foranastuteanalysisofthecomplexitiesoffeministorganizing,seeSharonLerner,"What
WomenWant:FeministsAgonizeoverWarinAfghanistan,"VillageVoice,November6,
2001.SeealsoSoneraThobani,"WarFrenzy"andPaolaBacchettaetal.,"Transnational
FeministPracticesagainstWar,"bothin"CreatinganArchive:September11:AFeminist
Archive,"Meridians:Feminism,Race,Transnationalism2(March2002):250315.
29.GaryLevin,"MoreTVShowsWorkAttacksintoPlots,"USAToday,October17,2001,
www.usatoday.com/life/enter/tv/20011016plotlines.htm.
30."WestWingAirsAttacksShow,"
news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/entertainment/tv_and_radio/newsid_1579000/1579439.stmseealso
TomShales,"TheWestWingAssumestheRoleofMoralCompass,"WashingtonPost,
October5,2001.
31.Shales,"WestWing."
32.Asinthetitleofthearticlecitedabove.
33.SigmundFreud,"ThoughtsonWarandDeath,"trans.E.ColburnMayne,inCollected
Papers,ed.JoanRiviere(NewYork:Basic,1959),4:29394.
34.SeeJoanMcKinney,"Cooksey:ExpectRacialProfiling,"Advocate,September19,2001,
www.theadvocate.com/news/story.asp?storyID=24608.McKinneywrites:"U.S.Rep.John
Cooksey,RMonroe,toldanetworkofLouisianaradiostationsMondaythatsomeone'wearing
adiaperonhishead'shouldexpecttobeinterrogatedintheinvestigationofterroristattackson
thePentagonandNewYorkCity."ApparentlyCookseydidnotretracthisremarks,stating:"If
Iseesomeone[who]comesinthat'sgotadiaperonhisheadandafanbeltwrappedaroundthe
diaperonhishead,thatguyneedstobepulledover."Seealso"SMARTCallsforAction
againstCooksey,"www.sikhmediawatch.org,reportinganationalletterwritingandtelephone
campaignprotestingCooksey'sremarks.SMART(theSikhMediawatchandResourceTask
Force),foundedin1996topromotethefairandaccurateportrayalofSikhAmericansandthe
SikhreligioninAmericanmediaandsociety,isanonprofit,nonpartisan,membershipbased
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organization.Itsmissionistocombatbigotryandprejudice,protecttherightsandreligious
freedomsofSikhAmericans,andprovideresourcesthatempowertheSikhAmerican
community.
35.See"UnderstandingTurbans,"seattletimes.nwsource.com/news/lifestyles/
links/turbans_27.html.
36.See"SMARTInitiatesAirportEducationalCampaign,RequestsCommunity
Involvement"and"SMARTEncouragesCommunityMemberstoEducateLocalAirport
SecurityPersonnelaboutSikhs,"November16,2001,www.Sikhnet.com/s/AttackonAmerica.
Statingthatmanycasesof"turbanremovalhaveoccurredatsmallormidsizeairports"like
RaleighDurham,Albany,andPhoenix,butalsoatlargerairportssuchasJFK,SMARTurges
Sikhstoinitiateeducationalforumsforsecuritypersonnelandairlineemployeesaboutturbans
andSikhismandhasdevelopedpresentationsandotherresourcesforthispurpose.Seealso
"FederalAviationAdministrationtoEnsureNewSecurityProceduresThatPreserveand
RespecttheCivilRightsofAllAmericans,"November19,2001,www.Sikhnet.com.TheFAA
(FederalAviationAdministration)issuedasetofdirectivesdetailingmethodsforconducting
airportsecuritybasedoninformationpresentedbytheSikhCoalitionandotherSikh
organizations(SCORE,SikhCommunications,SMART,andUSSA)"abouttheracial
profilingthathascausedturbanwearingSikhAmericanstobedeniedairtransportationwhile
beingpubliclyhumiliatedandembarrassed.""ThiskindoftreatmenttoloyalAmericansmakes
manyfeelhumiliated,nakedinpublic,victimizedandmostimportant,unwelcomeinthe
countrythatmanyofuswerebornin,"saidHarpreetSingh,directorofcommunityrelationsof
theSikhCoalition."Itisespeciallyupsettingsinceterroriststakegreatpainstoweartypical
Americanclothinginordertonotstandout.WearegratefulthattheFAAhastakensucha
firmstandagainstthistypeofracialprofilingasitisagainsteverythingAmericaand
Americansstandfor."Seealsowww.sikhcoalition.org/FAAGuidelines.pdf
www.sikhcoalition.org/airports.pptand"YourRightsandAvenuesofActionasaVictimof
AirportProfiling,"www.sikhcoalition.org/AirportProfiling.pdf[PDF].
37.Forexample,theSikhsofRichmondHillheldaparade(NagarKirtan)onDecember1,
2001,stating:"AfterSeptember11,2001,manypeoplehavemistakenSikhsforMuslimsand
ArabAmericanswiththeattacksonNewYorkandWashington.ThisisonewayforSikh
AmericanstoeducatetheircommunitiesaboutthemselvesandSikhism."See"NationalSikh
GroupAddstoReward,"AssociatedPressstateandlocalwire,November29,2001:"A
nationalSikhorganizationhasadded$5,000toarewardfundinthecaseofaSikhtemple
destroyedbyarson.ThemoneyfromtheWashington,D.C.basedSikhcouncilbringsto
$15,000arewardfundforinformationleadingtoanarrestandconvictioninthecase.The
mainbuildingofthereligiouscenter,a100yearoldconvertedfarmhouse,wasdestroyedby
fireearlyNovember18.Officialslastweekdeterminedthefirewasdeliberatelysetandare
consideringthefireapossiblehatecrime,afederaloffense."SinceSeptember11,theJustice
Department'sCivilRightsDivision,theFBI,andU.S.attorneys'officeshaveinvestigatedover
250"backlash"incidentsinvolvingviolenceorthreatsagainstArabAmericans,Muslim
Americans,SikhAmericans,SouthAsianAmericans,andindividualsperceivedtobe
membersofthesecommunities.AsofDecember3,therewere217pendingFBIinvestigations
121(56percent)wereincidentsthathadoccurredwithinthefirstsevendaysafter
September11,and179(82percent)withinthefirsteighteendaysafterSeptember11.Inthe
monthofNovember,therewereonlyfourreportedincidentsthatresultedinFBI
investigations.Seewww.usdoj.gov/crt/nordwg.htmlforotherinformationonthedivision's
InitiativetoCombatBacklashDiscriminationandwww.eeoc.govforstatementsfromthe
participantsattheEqualEmploymentOpportunityCommission'spublichearingon
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employmentdiscriminationsinceSeptember11.SeealsoOrithGoldberg,"ValleySikh's
BeatingBrandedAsHateCrime,"LADailyNews,December8,2001.
38.See"SikhRepresentativesMeetU.S.CongressionalLeaders,"
www.sikhnet.com/s/SikhMemorialDC.OnDecember11,threemonthstothedayafterthe
tragedy,SikhleadershipfromtheacrosstheUnitedStatesandCanadagatheredunderthe
domeoftheU.S.CapitolBuildingforthefirstannual"OneNationUnitedMemorialProgram"
sponsoredbytheWashingtonbasedSikhCouncilonReligionandEducation.Theprogram
includedsenators,membersofCongress,governmentofficials,andtopleadershipfrom
commerce,labor,andtheinterfaithcommunities.Thiswasthefirsteventofitskindhostedby
theSikhcommunityinWashington.NewYorksenatorHillaryRodhamClintonstated:"We
willalwaysrememberthesacrificesthatweremadebytheSikhCommunityinthewakeofthe
terribleterroristattacksofSeptember11.Nocommunitysufferedgreaterlossasareactionto
theterriblelosses"ofSeptember11.
39.ForexamplesofHindunationalistlobbyingagainstfinancialaidtoPakistan,seeOnline
ResourceforIndianAmericans,www.indiatogether.org/us/lobby.htm.Seealso
www.usindialobby.net."SikhsRespondtoRepresentativeSaxbyChamblissonBigoted
Comments,"December22,2001,www.sikhnet.com/s/Chambliss.Sikhnet,SikhAmerican
Association,SikhCoalition,SikhCouncilonReligionandEducation(SCORE),SMART,and
theSikhCommunicationsCouncilstate:"AsSikhsandasAmericans,wearedeeplydistressed
aboutthecommentsthatRepresentativeSaxbyChamblissmadeNovember19toagroupof
lawenforcementofficersinValdosta,Georgia.Healludedto'turningtheSheriffloosetoarrest
everyMuslimthatcrossesthestateline.'WeinAmericalooktoourelectedofficialsfor
responsibleleadershipandguidance."AboutSCORE:Foundedin1998,theSikhCouncilon
ReligionandEducation,athinktankbasedinWashington,representsSikhsinvariousforums
andvenues.Fromthegroup'sinception,itsleadershiphasbeeninvitedrepeatedlybytheWhite
House,Congress,andvariousnongovernmentalorganizationstopresenttheSikhperspective.
TheSikhCouncilfostersunderstandingthrougheducationandinterfaithrelations,promoting
theconceptofcommunityandworkingtosecureajustsocietyforall.
40."AntiTerrorismBillCouldImpactNonprofits,"November14,2001,
www.ombwatch.org/article/articleview/288/1/18.TheUSAPatriotAct(PL10756)could
posebigproblemsfornonprofits,especiallythosethatadvocatechangesinU.S.foreignpolicy
orprovidesocialservicestoindividualswhobecometargetsofgovernmentinvestigations.
Thecentralproblemisavague,overbroaddefinitionofanewcrime,"domesticterrorism."In
addition,greatlyexpandedsearchandsurveillancepowerscanbeinvokedunderalowered
threshold,requiringonlythatinvestigatorsassertthattheinformationsoughtisrelevanttoa
foreignintelligenceinvestigation.ForpraiseofthePatriotActbySikhorganizations,see
www.Sikhnet.com(October31,2001)and"MeasureSupportingSikhAmericansBecomes
Law,"www.sikhcoalition.org.Thislawstates:"TheCivilRightsAndCivilLibertiesOfAll
Americans,IncludingSikhAmericans,ShouldBeProtected."S.Con.Res.74andH.Res.255
condemncrimesagainstSikhAmericansinthewakeoftheSeptember11terroristattacksand
mandatethatactsofviolenceagainstSikhAmericansaretobepreventedandprosecuted.
"ThislawrepresentsasignificantmilestoneforSikhAmericansasitaddressestheunique
natureoftheissuesfacedbySikhsintheaftermathofSeptember11,andcallsforprotectionof
ourcivilliberties,alongwiththoseofallAmericans,"saidGurpreetSinghDhillon,memberof
theadvisoryboardoftheSikhAmericanAssociation.(AbouttheSikhCoalition:"TheSikh
CoalitionwasstartedasanefforttoeducatethegreaterNorthAmericancommunityonSikhs
andSikhism,thecoalitionseekstosafeguardtherightsofallcitizensaswellastopromotethe
SikhidentityandcommunicatesthecollectiveinterestsofSikhstothecommunityatlarge.
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Thecoalitionservesasaresourceforallorganizationsandindividualsaswellasapointof
contacttoSikhpeople.")
41.USSAheldacandlelightvigilinmemoryofthe1984pogromsandSeptember11on
December8,2001,atMadisonSquarePark,NewYorkCity.Seewww.sikh.org/vigil"Are
KashmiriSikhsNextonIndia'sHitListAgain?"August7,2001,KhalistanCalling,
www.khalistanaffairs.org/main/k_calling/kc08072001.htmand"ThirtyfiveSikhsMurdered
inChitthisinghpura,Kashmir,bytheIndianArmy,"March21,2000,www.khalistan
affairs.org/main/k_calling/kc03212000.htm.
42.OnSouthAsianracialformation,seeVijayPrashad,TheKarmaofBrownFolk
(Minneapolis:UniversityofMinnesotaPress,2000).Formorenuancedanalysesofgender,
sexuality,andtransnationalism,seeInderpalGrewal,SouthAsianTransnationalities:Gender,
Class,Ethnicity,andDiaspora(Durham,N.C.:DukeUniversityPress,2002).
43.Onthedetaineesandtheconnectionsbetweenthe1996DetentionActandtheUSAPatriot
Act,seeMarkDow,"TheNewSecretWaragainstImmigrants,"January30,2002,
www.gothamgazette.com/citizen/feb02/haitiprogres.shtml,aswellasaspecialeditionof
ColorLines,"WaronTerrorism:ProfiledandPunished"(December2001).

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