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LIMPOPO COAL COMPANY

(PTY) LTD

VELE COLLIERY
Environmental Authorisation
Amendment in terms of the
National Environmental
Management Act, 1998
FINAL REPORT

LIMPOPO COAL COMPANY (PTY) LTD


VELE COLLIERY
Environmental Authorisation Amendment in terms of
the National Environmental Management Act, 1998
(Act 107 of 1998)

Compiled by:
Jacana Environmentals cc
PO Box 31675, Superbia, Polokwane, 0759
Tel: (015) 291 4015; Fax: (015) 291 5035
Email: Marietjie@jacanacc.co.za

TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS ....................................................................................................... 2
LIST OF TABLES ................................................................................................................. 3
LIST OF FIGURES ............................................................................................................... 4
1

INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................... 1
1.1

Background and purpose ........................................................................................................... 1

1.2

The project proponent ................................................................................................................ 1

1.3

The Environmental Assessment Practitioner (EAP) .................................................................. 1

PROJECT OVERVIEW .................................................................................................. 2


2.1

Location ...................................................................................................................................... 2

2.2

Project Description ..................................................................................................................... 4

2.3

Scope of Amendment to the Environmental Authorisation ........................................................ 5

DESCRIPTION OF AMENDED LISTED ACTIVITIES .................................................... 9


3.1

GNR 386 Listed Activity 15 ........................................................................................................ 9

3.2

GNR 386 Listed Activity 12 ...................................................................................................... 11

3.3

The Need and Desirability of the Activities .............................................................................. 12

3.4

Environmental Policy, Commitment and Resources ................................................................ 13

DESCRIPTION OF THE RECEIVING ENVIRONMENT ............................................... 15


4.1

Biophysical Environment .......................................................................................................... 15

4.2

Cultural and Heritage Resources ............................................................................................. 26

4.3

Ecological Sensitivity................................................................................................................ 27

4.4

Regional Socio-Economic Structure ........................................................................................ 29

PUBLIC PARTICIPATION PROCESS ......................................................................... 34


5.1

Interested and Affected Party Database .................................................................................. 34

5.2

Public Participation Notifications .............................................................................................. 35

5.3

Engagement Sessions ............................................................................................................. 35

5.4

Availability of the Draft and Final Report .................................................................................. 36

SUMMARIES OF SPECIALIST STUDIES ................................................................... 38


6.1

Biophysical Environment .......................................................................................................... 39

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT .............................................................. 49


7.1

Identified Environmental Impacts ............................................................................................. 49

7.2

Methodology of assessing the impacts .................................................................................... 50

7.3

Environmental Impact Evaluation and Rating .......................................................................... 52

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN ................................................................ 66


8.1

Detailed Environmental Management Plan ............................................................................. 67

8.2

Environmental Monitoring Programme .................................................................................... 72

8.3

Environmental Awareness Plan ............................................................................................... 75

8.4

Closure Objectives ................................................................................................................... 76

8.5

Financial Liability ...................................................................................................................... 77

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS BY EAP .............................................. 78

10

REFERENCE LIST.................................................................................................. 79

11

LIST OF ANNEXURES ........................................................................................... 80

LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Properties associated with Vele Colliery mining right .............................................................. 3
Table 2: Scope of Amendment to Environmental Authorisation ............................................................ 7
Table 3: Breakdown of vegetation clearance required for life of mine ................................................. 11
Table 4: Summary of Specialist Studies conducted in 2008 and 2009 ............................................... 38
Table 5: Identified Environmental Impacts ........................................................................................... 49
Table 6: Assessment Criteria ............................................................................................................... 51
Table 7: Construction Phase ................................................................................................................ 53
Table 8: Operational Phase ................................................................................................................. 57
Table 9: Decommissioning or Closure Phase ...................................................................................... 62
Table 10: Post Closure Phase ............................................................................................................. 64
Table 11: Cumulative Impacts.............................................................................................................. 65
Table 12: Environmental Management Plan ........................................................................................ 67
Table 13: Environmental Monitoring Programme ................................................................................ 72

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1: Locality Map ............................................................................................................................ 2
Figure 2: Vele Colliery mining right area ................................................................................................ 3
Figure 3: Vele Colliery mine plan over next 16 years ............................................................................ 4
Figure 4: Vele Colliery Plant Modification Project - Existing and Future Plant Configuration ................ 6
Figure 5: Vele Colliery access road route .............................................................................................. 9
Figure 6: Detail of haul road extension ................................................................................................ 10
Figure 7: Topography ........................................................................................................................... 16
Figure 8: Geological Map ..................................................................................................................... 17
Figure 9: Land Use at Vele Colliery (prior to mining) ........................................................................... 19
Figure 10: Conservation areas in the vicinity of Vele Colliery.............................................................. 20
Figure 11: Vele project area drainages ................................................................................................ 22
Figure 12: Surface water monitoring points ......................................................................................... 23
Figure 13: Macro chemical analysis of secondary aquifers ................................................................. 24
Figure 14: Groundwater monitoring points ........................................................................................... 24
Figure 15: Record of dust fallout at Vele Colliery ................................................................................ 25
Figure 16: Mapungubwe National Park Buffer Zone ............................................................................ 27
Figure 17: Vele Colliery in relation to the proposed TFCA .................................................................. 28
Figure 18: Musina Local Municipality Map ........................................................................................... 29

1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background and purpose
Vele Colliery was granted its New Order Mining Right (NOMR) on 19 March 2010 on the farms
Overvlakte 125 MS (Ptn 3, 4, 5, 6, 13, 14 and RE), Bergen Op Zoom 124 MS, Semple 155 MS and
Voorspoed 836 MS.
Limpopo Coal Company (Pty) Ltd (LCC) applied for rectification in terms of Section 24G of the
National Environmental Management Act (NEMA), 1998 (Act 107 of 1998) for activities that
commenced without environmental authorization on Portions 3, 4 and 5 of the farm Overvlakte 125
MS, Bergen op Zoom 124 MS and Erfrust 123 MS. LCC was granted the Environmental Authorisation
in terms of Section 24G of NEMA in July and October 2011.
The Company seeks to amend certain approved activities, and has submitted applications in this
regard to the Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA).

1.2 The project proponent


LCC is a wholly owned subsidiary of Coal of Africa Limited (CoAL). CoAL is an emerging developer of
high-quality thermal and coking coal, with its assets located primarily in the Limpopo Province of
South Africa.
The company is listed on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE), Alternative Investment Market
(AIM) in the UK and the Australian Stock Exchange.

1.3 The Environmental Assessment Practitioner (EAP)


Jacana Environmentals cc has been appointed as the independent Environmental Assessment
Practitioner (EAP) to assist LCC with the compilation of the amendment to the Environmental
Authorisation for Vele Colliery.

The Public Participation Process will be undertaken by Naledi

Development Restructured (Pty) Ltd (Naledi) under the appointed EAP.


Refer to ANNEX-A for the Curriculum Vitae of the responsible persons.

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2 PROJECT OVERVIEW
2.1 Location
The Vele Colliery is situated in the magisterial district of Musina in the Limpopo Province of South
Africa. The project area is bounded in the north by the Limpopo River, which defines the
international border with Zimbabwe. The easternmost boundary of Mapungubwe National Park is
situated approximately 5 km to the west of the westernmost boundary of the Vele project area. The
mining area for the next sixteen years is situated approximately 14 km from the Mapungubwe
National Park eastern boundary. The Mapungubwe World Heritage Site (Mapungubwe Hill) is
situated approximately 20 km to the west of the westernmost boundary of the Vele project Area.
The nearest town is Musina, situated approximately 40 km to the southeast of the Vele project area.

Figure 1: Locality Map

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The extent of the mining right area is 8 663 hectares. The properties associated with the mining
development are listed in Table 1 and presented in Figure 2.
Table 1: Properties associated with Vele Colliery mining right
FARM NAME

SURFACE OWNER

SIZE (ha)

TITLE DEED

Overvlakte 125 MS Ptn 3

Harrisia Investment Holdings (Pty) Ltd

342.6128

T44946/2009

Overvlakte 125 MS Ptn 4

Harrisia Investment Holdings (Pty) Ltd

842.2097

T44946/2009

Overvlakte 125 MS Ptn 5

Harrisia Investment Holdings (Pty) Ltd

842.2117

T22619/2009

Overvlakte 125 MS Ptn 6

Overvlakte No 6 (Pty) Ltd

219.0000

T74891/1990

Overvlakte 125 MS Ptn 13

Kelkiewyn Landgoed (Pty) Ltd

268.8496

T58674/2003

Overvlakte 125 MS Ptn 14

Limpopo Trust

416.3760

T42510/1994

Overvlakte 125 MS RE

Overvlakte Eiendom (Pty) Ltd

623.2108

T78260/1989

Semple 155 MS

Semple Eiendom (Pty) Ltd

942.9147

T89069/1996

Bergen Op Zoom 124 MS

Harrisia Investment Holdings (Pty) Ltd

2078.1327

T12375/2009

Voorspoed 836 MS

Factaprops128 (Pty) Ltd

2087.2216

T97196/1997

TOTAL

8662.7396

Figure 2: Vele Colliery mining right area

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2.2 Project Description


Vele Colliery started production of thermal coal in January 2012, producing 697 953 tonnes of Runof-Mine (ROM) coal, yielding 195 756 tonnes of export quality coal up to June 2013.
Extensive product quality testing of the coking coal commenced in August 2013, after the approval
of the Plant Modification Project (PMP) concept by the CoAL board. The product testing confirmed
the quality of the coal, and the Collierys ability to produce both Semi Soft Coking Coal (SSCC) and a
range of thermal products. The current single stage processing plant would require modification to
a two stage processing plant, enabling the production of three products: SSCC, Eskom thermal coal
and sized thermal coal. All modifications are situated within the existing plant footprint and
therefore covered by the existing specialist studies and Environmental Authorisations. The Colliery
was placed under care and maintenance in preparation for the implementation of the PMP.

2.2.1 Mining Development


Vele Colliery is currently mining its East Pit opencast. The mine planning over the next 16 years is
shown in Figure 3. Mining operations over the next 16 years will be centred around the East Pit as
approved in the Environmental Management Programme (EMP). No underground mining is planned
during this period.

Figure 3: Vele Colliery mine plan over next 16 years


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2.2.2 Project Infrastructure


The Vele Colliery currently consists of opencast mining operations, associated workshops and stores
and a coal beneficiation plant. Other facilities at the mine include the following:

Topsoil and overburden stockpiles

ROM coal storage areas

ROM coal crushing plant (primary, secondary and tertiary crusher)

Associated conveyors from the crusher to storage stockpiles and from the washing plan to
the product storage stockpiles

Product stockpile areas

Haul roads and service roads

Change-houses and offices

Clean water management infrastructure, including:

Storm water canals

Flood protection berms

Surface water dam

Abstraction boreholes and reticulation system, including clean water storage dam

Dirty water management infrastructure, including:


o

Dirty water dams

Sewage treatment facility

Temporary slimes dam

Discard stockpile

The current and proposed plant configurations are illustrated in Figure 4.

2.3 Scope of Amendment to the Environmental Authorisation


The scope of this amendment to the Environmental Authorisation (EA) is summarised in Table 2 and
described in detail in Chapter 3 of this report.
The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and associated specialist studies performed in 2008 as
part of the mining right application is still applicable as the footprint of the specialist investigations
included all existing and future (amended) listed activities. Declarations by the specialists to confirm
this is included in ANNEX-B.

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Figure 4: Vele Colliery Plant Modification Project - Existing and proposed Future Plant Configuration

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Table 2: Scope of Amendment to Environmental Authorisation


Current Environmental Authorisation

Amendment applied for

GNR 387 Listed Activity 6: The construction of a dam where the highest part of the dam wall, as measured from the outside toe of the wall to the
highest part of the wall, is 5 metres or higher or where the high-water mark of the dam covers an area of 10 hectares or more
The construction of a slurry dam covering a total area of 5.17 ha on the The amendment is sought to rectify the typographical error in the EA,
farm Bergen op Zoom 124 MS. The dam is required for slurry material (to 132 440 cm3 must be amended to 132 440 m3.
be processed). The height of the dam is 7.4 metres. The dam is lined with
1.5mm HDPE plastic liner over 50mm of compacted material. The bulk
material was compacted to a 90% density. When completed, the total
capacity of the slurry dam will be 132 440 cm3 and planned to store
120 000 m3 of slurry material.
The EA, dated 5 July 2011 and 30 October 2011 provides for the There are currently only two PCDs in use at Vele Colliery with the
constructed infrastructure to include Pollution Control Dams (PCDs).
following capacity:
One PCD for a maximum quantity of 15 500 m into the opencast dirty
water dam; and
A second PCD for a maximum quantity of 23 250 m into the process
dirty water dam.
A third PCD with a 10 000m capacity and not exceeding the 5m wall height
will be constructed within the mining area. The combined quantity of the
current two PCDs plus the additional PCD will be 48 750m3, which will fall
below the limit that triggers a new listed activity. This therefore does not
require an amendment, but is for information purposes only.
The life of mine operations indicates that a third PCD will ensure
compliance with sound environment practice in terms of dirty water
management and pollution prevention.

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Current Environmental Authorisation

Amendment applied for

GNR 386 Listed Activity 15: The construction of a road that is wider than 4 metres or that has a reserve wider than 6 metres, excluding roads that fall
within the ambit of another listed activity or which are access roads of less than 30 metres long
Haul Road: The haul road network links the open cast pit area with the This application seeks to amend this provision. This haul road is to be
modular processing plant and the workshop area. LCC intend to use the extended by an additional 3 km of which 1.3 km is a re-routing of the
road to transport ore from the open pit to the modular processing plant by approved road to accommodate future mine activities.
haul trucks and other heavy machinery, during the operational phase of
the mine. The haul road traverses the farms Bergen of Zoom 124 MS and
Overvlakte 125 MS in a north-easterly and easterly directions. The haul
road is 55 m wide (to accommodate large trucks), 2.89 km and covers an
area of 15.97 ha.
Access Road: The haul road network includes the new access road
constructed within the licensed mining area and covers an extent of 6.3ha
and is 4.8 km in length. The road runs in a north-south direction and
traverses the farm Bergen Op Zoom, the road is planned to link Vele
Colliery with the main R572.

This application seeks to provide for the intention as noted in the current
EA i.e. the plan to link the Vele Colliery with the main R572. The access
road is to be extended to 10.14 km in length, covering an area of 14.5 ha.
The EA failed to include the connection of the road within the mining area
to the main R572 despite this being highlighted in the main report and the
specialist studies submitted. Final extent will consist of an area of 14.5 ha
and will be 10.14 km in length.

GNR 386 Listed Activity 12:The transformation or removal of indigenous vegetation of 3 hectares or more or of any size where the transformation or
removal would occur within a critically endangered or an endangered ecosystem listed in terms of section 52 of the National Environmental
Management: Biodiversity Act, 2004 (Ac No. 10 of 2004)
The total area of indigenous vegetation cleared for construction and The current EA does not include the full scope of work over the life of
development is 109.12 ha. The description as detailed in the EA only mine. The amendment seeks to address the omission, and applies for a
includes the indigenous vegetation (ha) that was disturbed at the time of total area of 502.2 ha.
the Section 24G application.

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3 DESCRIPTION OF AMENDED LISTED ACTIVITIES


3.1 GNR 386 Listed Activity 15
3.1.1 Access Road

Figure 5: Vele Colliery access road route

At the time of the Section 24G application to rectify listed activities that commenced without
authorisation, only the portion of the access road situated within the mining right area was
constructed partially. In order to link the coal processing plant situated on the farm Bergen op Zoom
124 MS to the provincial road R572, the partially constructed access road must be extended over the
farm Erfrust 123 MS as shown in Figure 5. The full extent of the access road will cover an area of
14.5 ha, and 10.14 km in length.
The approved EA failed to include the connection of the road within the mining area to the main
R572 despite this being highlighted in the Section 24G application report and the specialist studies
submitted.
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A Basic Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), inclusive of a heritage impact assessment and the
evaluation of alternative route options, was conducted for the access road in 2009 by Dubel
Integrated Environmental Services and is attached as ANNEX-C.

3.1.2 Haul Road


The existing haul road transverses the farms Bergen op Zoom 124 MS and Overvlakte 125 MS in a
north-easterly and easterly direction, and links the coal processing plant with the opencast pits. The
haul road is 55m wide to accommodate the large size trucks, 2.89 km long and covers a total area of
15.97 ha.
In order to facilitate the mining plan going forward, this haul road needs to be extended by an
additional 3 km of which 1.3 km is a re-routing of the approved road to accommodate future mine
activities. Refer to Figure 6.

Figure 6: Detail of haul road extension

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3.2 GNR 386 Listed Activity 12


3.2.1 Vegetation Clearance
A total area of 109.12 ha of indigenous vegetation, mostly indigenous Mopane (Colophosspermum
mopane) vegetation has been cleared prior to the Section 24G application as part of site preparation
to facilitate the construction and development of the required mine infrastructure. The breakdown
is provided in Table 3.
The current Environmental Authorisation only provided for the areas disturbed prior to the Section
24G and does not include the full scope of work over the life of mine. To provide for the additional
mining and infrastructure requirements for the East Pit operations over the next 16 years and
associated infrastructure requirements, an additional area of 393.08 ha will be disturbed and cleared
of vegetation. In total an area of 502.2 ha will be disturbed for this phase of the operation.
Table 3: Breakdown of vegetation clearance required for life of mine
Current
Environmental
Authorisation (ha)

Amendment to
Environmental
Authorisation (ha)

Opencast dump area

17.07

26

Haul roads

15.97

25

Modular processing plant

24.79

36

Workshop area

11.73

14

Access road (existing servitude road)

2.17

1.2

Airstrip access road

0.81

New access road within the mining area

6.43

14.5

Access road on Erfrust

15

River diversion Eastern

1.5

River diversion - Central

26.65

70

290

3.5

109.12

502.2

Infrastructure

Water control trench

Opencast pit East


Opencast pit North
Pipeline
Total

To date, prior to any vegetation clearance, the areas were surveyed and inspected by an
independent vegetation specialist to identify protected plants that require to be rescued and/or
transplanted.

In instances where protected plant species were identified, the plants were
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incorporated in the plant rescue and relocation plan. The plants were relocated prior to the
clearance under the supervision of an independent plant ecologist, after the necessary
authorizations were obtained from the regulating authorities for protected plant species. This
process will be implemented throughout the life of mine as detailed in the Vele Colliery EMP.

3.3 The Need and Desirability of the Activities


The activities may be small in number compared to the mining activities making up the Vele Colliery
project, but have a significant contribution to make to the total mining component and should not
be viewed individually, but in the context of the entire Vele Colliery mining project. Within that
context, mining in general has transformed South Africas economic and social landscapes. Currently,
mining contributes an average of 20% to South Africas Gross Domestic Product (GDP), of which
about 50% is contributed directly. Furthermore, mining employs about half a million people and
contributes over R330 billion of the countrys total annual income. In 2007, the South African
Chamber of Mines (SACM) established that nearly 58 000 people were directly employed in coal
mining alone (which is 13% of the mining sectors workforce). The SACM estimated that the numbers
could be more if those employed in coal-fired electricity generation; liquid fuel production and
distribution are included.
Vele Colliery is located in the Limpopo Coalfield that forms part of the greater Tuli Block Coalfield,
and is represented in South Africa by very narrow deposit of the Karoo Sequence rocks of the
southern bank of the Limpopo River. The mineral resource is estimated to contain 720.847 million
(in-situ) tons of coking coal.
The area Vele Colliery intends to mine has an economically viable coal reserve estimated to be at
more than 441 million tons. The mine development process has been extended for a 3-year period
with an approximate capital investment of R2.5 billion. At full production, annual costs associated
with the mining activities are estimated to be in the order of R525 million of which R103 million is
direct labour costs.
Coal is vital for economic development. It is important for electricity generation and a vital input into
steel production. Over the past 30 years, coal has been the indispensable driver for economic and
social development and around 40% of the worlds electricity is produced using coal. Coal will have a
major role in meeting the future energy needs and the demand for coal and its vital role in the
worlds energy system is set to continue, as strong competitive forces continue to drive coal market
prices.

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The estimated total Gross Domestic Product (GDP) that LCC will contribute during its operational
phase of the project is expected to contribute R 7.6 billion per annum to the GDP of the country, and
two thirds i.e. R 4.9 billion of the amount will be contributed to the GDP of Limpopo Province.
During the construction phase of the PMP, contractor labour numbers will peak at approximately
350 with a large percentage drawn from the local area. During the operational phase the project will
employ approximately 450 permanent employees with varying skills, thus impacting directly on
livelihoods of approximately 810 people. The mine closure operation will provide employment for
between 200 and 450 people, declining over the five year period.
Two options were evaluated for housing of employees, namely building of housing facilities on site
or at adjacent land, and encouraging permanent employees to reside in Musina, with a housing
allowance provided as part of the remuneration package. The latter option has been considered to
facilitate contribution to the LED programmes in Musina, and would be beneficial for the employees
in the longer term due to the investment in properties.

3.4 Environmental Policy, Commitment and Resources


LCC has committed to implement feasible biodiversity offsets and rehabilitation programmes at
Vele. In addition, the company has committed to appoint permanent environmental personnel on
site and other relevant specialists to oversee the implementation of environmental plans and
facilitate compliance with environmental statutes.
The Company has committed to comply with environmental legislation and undertake all future
developments that fall within the ambit of the EIA Regulations, 2010 in accordance with the
prescribed legal framework. The following progress has been made regarding the implementation of
the biodiversity offset and rehabilitation programmes by LCC:

Commenced with the plant moisture stress (PMS) monitoring. The monitoring data is used
to detect early changes in the riparian vegetation i.e. Croton megalabothrys along the
Limpopo River on the farm Overvlakte 125 MS. The PMS continue to be used to detect
imbalances in the plant water status to determine the degree of moisture stress under
different conditions. The information gathered will be valuable in the long-term
rehabilitation of the riverine forest.

Completed a baseline study for the restoration of the riparian floodplains, as the initial step
that forms part of LCCs commitment to rehabilitate the Limpopo riverine forest along
Limpopo River on LCC property at the farm Overvlakte 125 MS.

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Initiated negotiations with SANParks to establish a Herbarium and an indigenous plant


nursery within the Mapungubwe National Park, including appointment of a service provider
to compile a rehabilitation strategy for the Vele project.

Biodiversity offset agreement The principles of the Biodiversity offset agreement have
been agreed to by the three signatories to the Memorandum of Agreement signed in
September 2011. Signature of the agreement is expected shortly.

It is stated in LCCs management documentation that the Board is committed to administering


policies and procedures with openness and integrity, pursuing the true spirit of corporate
governance commensurate with the Company's needs. LCC states that one of the categories of risk is
the environment and that any risk that could have a material impact on its business should be
included in its risk profile and this is considered in the Companys Safety, Health and Environmental
Policy. The Company and its board have committed to has committed to:

sustainable business models for all stakeholders, including shareholders, employees,


communities and the environment;

compliance with all applicable environmental legislation and environmental best practice;

adherence to first world standards, restoration and rehabilitation of affected areas; and

establishment of appropriate and effective mitigation measures and conducting progressive


and innovative programmes to minimize environmental impacts.

The significance of an Environmental Policy is that it sets the stage for all of the other elements of
the companys Environmental Management System (EMS). It provides a unifying environmental
management vision for the company and establishes goals for environmental performance against
which the effectiveness of its management system will be judged.

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4 DESCRIPTION OF THE RECEIVING ENVIRONMENT


This section of the report provides summary baseline information on the biophysical, socioeconomic, and cultural and heritage environment at the project area, taking cognizance of the
nature, extent and significance of the impacts and the mitigation measures. Please note that this
baseline information is prior to any mining taking place and is based on the specialist work
performed during 2008 as part of the NOMR application process. No additional specialist work is
required.

4.1 Biophysical Environment


4.1.1 Climate
The climate of the project area is semi-arid with a mean annual rainfall ranging from 285 - 440 mm.
Rainfall is highly variable and usually falls during the summer months. Extended periods of below
average rainfall occur, with an average of ten rainy days per annum. Temperatures sometimes rise
to 45C in summer. The winters are mild and frost occurs very seldom. The mean annual rainfall is
approximately 348 mm per annum. The mean annual rainfall as recorded over 30 years for the
Dongolakop weather station is 278 mm with a potential minimum of 154 mm during dry years and a
potential maximum of 451 mm per annum during wet years.
Air temperatures across the Limpopo basin show a marked seasonal cycle, with highest
temperatures recorded during the early summer months and lowest temperatures during the cool,
dry winter months. Rainfall is also highly seasonal, falling predominantly as intense convective
thunderstorms during the warmer summer months. The severe droughts observed during the early
1990s and the exceptional floods during 2000 in the Limpopo valley illustrate the extreme variability
of rainfall and runoff in the basin. This variation has significant effects on aquifer recharge.
The rainy season is predominantly from November to March when about 83% of the total annual
rainfall occurs. The driest months are from May to September, when less than 7 mm of rain per
month is recorded. The minimum monthly mean temperature does not dip below 6C, while the
maximum mean temperature reaches a high of 33.4C in January, even in the winter months; the
mean daily maximum temperature is well above 20C.

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4.1.2 Topography

Figure 7: Topography

The Limpopo River valley area consists mostly of extremely irregular plains. The altitude of the
project area range from 484 mamsl at the Limpopo River to 598 mamsl on the undulating terrain in
the south-eastern areas of the farm Bergen op Zoom, an increase of 114 m over a distance of almost
7 km.
The topography of the area is fairly flat in the northern, western and central areas but undulating
hills and rocky outcrops is typical of the north-eastern, eastern and south-eastern areas. The highest
point in the area is Dongola hill in the south-western corner of the farm Petershof (to the southwest
of the mining development area), measuring 896 mamsl.

4.1.3 Geology
The stratigraphy of the study area consists of 3 major geological entities. From oldest to youngest
these are the Limpopo Mobile Belt basement (3.4 2.0 Billion years); the Karoo Sequence (240 to
160 million years) and Quaternary deposits (< 10 million years). The Limpopo Mobile Belt (LMB)
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basement is a zone of intense deformation and metamorphism caused by the collision of the
Kaapvaal Craton with the Zimbabwean Craton and is exposed in the south eastern two thirds of the
study area. Karoo Sequence strata overlies a third of the study area to the NW and is represented by
the Tshidzi, Madzaringwe, Mikambeni, Fripp Sandstone, Solitude, Bosbokpoort, Clarens and the
Letaba formations. The Quaternary Deposits comprise mature alluvium consisting of alluvial sand
pebbles and mud lenses within the flood plain attaining thicknesses in excess of 25m and immature
alluvial gravels, sheet wash on the upper slopes of the Limpopo catchment area and between the
hills.

Figure 8: Geological Map

Three coal horizons have been delineated namely the Top, Middle and Bottom Coal Horizons. All
three coal horizons are interbedded coal and clastic units with varying coal percentages. The Bottom
Coal seam is consistently of the highest grade (coking coal). It is 3-4m thick and will be mined in both
o/c and u/g workings. The Middle Coal seam will be mined only in the open cast operation. South of
the mining area are two major ENE trending faults, bisecting Erfrust and clipping the SE corner of
Bergen op Zoom. Two interconnected faults of lesser strike length, striking NE and EW in the Karoo
through to basement occur on the farm Overvlakte. The NE shear zone is water bearing as evidenced

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by a high yielding borehole drilled on Overvlakte Ptn 3 although the main strike is within the gneisses
below the Karoo.

4.1.4 Soils
Soil structure ranges from apedal (rarely single grain) to weak blocky for the majority of top soils and
sub-soils. However, the structured broad soil group displays moderate to strong blocky structure in
the pedocutanic subsoils, while the vertic and prismacutanic broad soil groups display strong blocky
structure in the top soils and sub-soils.
All of the soils have a high base status (calcareous = extremely poorly leached; or eutrophic = very
poorly leached), given the interaction of the low mean annual precipitation (approximately 348
mm), the high mean annual temperature, and the low to high base reserve of the parent materials in
the area.
The pH of the majority of the soil forms (and thus broad soil groups) which occur in the project area
is problematic since it is high (7.4-7.8: mildly alkaline; 7.9-8.4: moderately alkaline - majority; or 8.59.0: strongly alkaline). However, a limited number of broad soil groups (particularly red apedal/red
structured, and yellow-brown apedal) display a pH which is ideal (6.6-7.3: neutral) to slightly acid
(6.1-6.5: slightly acid rarely).

4.1.5 Land Use


The land uses in the area prior to mining were residential, wilderness, educational, tourism and
game farming. The majority of the sites neighbouring the mining activities are comprised of Mopani
veld. However, limited areas (majority cleared) of riverine forest occur along the Limpopo River. Dry
land farming activities are not suitable for the area due to low mean annual precipitation, a high
evaporation rate, high mean annual temperature, long dry season, occasionally moderately saline
sub-soils and marginally non-sodic sub-soils.

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Figure 9: Land Use at Vele Colliery (prior to mining)

The farmers are leasing the farms from LCC through a lease agreement. A high level of
farming/irrigation planning and management has been required in order to successfully cultivate the
soils in the area. This was done due to both the moderate to high salinity levels of the soils which
naturally occur in the area, as well as the generally moderate to poor quality water which is
available. Agricultural produce includes citrus, wheat, cotton, onions, butternut, tomatoes and
maize (occasionally). These areas are irrigated with water derived from screened sand points
(boreholes) which are located in the Limpopo River bed and stored in dams and ponds.
A number of private nature reserves were proclaimed in and adjacent to the development area i.e.
Sighetti Private Nature Reserve (in 1965) at Overvlakte 125 MS, Skuldwater Ranch at Alyth 118 MS
and Verheul Ranch at Beskow 126 MS. LCC initiated a process to deproclaim the nature reserve
Sighetti Private Nature Reserve at Overvlakte 125 MS and a Government Notice 420 of 2010 was
published in the Provincial Gazette on 24 December 2010 in terms of the National Environmental
Management: Protected Areas Act, 2003 by the MEC deproclaiming Sighetti as a Private Nature
Reserve.

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Figure 10: Conservation areas in the vicinity of Vele Colliery

4.1.6 Natural Vegetation


The vegetation of the project area belongs to the broad vegetation group of the Savannah Biome.
The Savannah Biome, being the largest biome in Southern Africa, occupies 46% of the project area,
and over one-third of South Africas land cover. It is well developed over the Lowveld and Kalahari
region of South Africa and is also the dominant vegetation in neighbouring countries of Botswana,
Namibia and Zimbabwe.
A grassy ground layer and a distinct upper layer of woody plants (trees and shrubs) are characteristic
of the Savannah Biome. Where this upper layer is near the ground (low growing) the vegetation may
be referred to as shrub veld, where it is tall and dense, as Woodland, and the intermediate stages
are locally known as Bushveld. A major factor delimiting the biome is the lack of sufficient rainfall,
which prevents the upper (tree and shrub) layer from dominating, coupled with fires and grazing,
which keep the grass layer dominant. Summer rainfall is essential for the grass dominance, which,
with its fine material, fuels near-annual fires. In fact, almost all species are adapted to survive fires,
usually with less than 10% of plants, both in the grass and tree layer, killed by fire. Even with severe
burning, most species can re-sprout from the stem bases.

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The area is dominated by tree and shrub forms of C. mopane, T. prunoides, Commiphora, Grewia
species and the grasses A. congesta, E. cenchroides and B. deflexa. A large portion of the study area,
adjacent to the Limpopo River, has totally been transformed through agricultural practices.

4.1.6.1 Protected plant species


A high diversity of protected species (22), occur in and adjacent to the study area. Twelve (12) of
these species are known and have been confirmed to occur in the study area. Species in study area
include; Aloe littoralis (Sa), Apple-leaf (Sa), Baobab (Sa), Devils Claw (Sa), Hoodia corrorii subsp.
Lugardii (Sa), Impala lily (Sa), Leadwood (Sa), Marula (Sa), Peristrophe cliffordii (Sa), Peristrophe
gillilandiorum (Sa), Shepherd's tree (Sa), and Stapelia spp (all species) (Sa). Species in
region/adjacent farms include Barleria holubii (R), Hibiscus waterbergensis (R), Huernia (R)
adjacent farms, Orbea (R) adjacent farms, Orbea maculate ssp. maculate (R), Otholobium
polyphyllum (R), Plinthus rehmanni (R), Psoralea repens (R), Tavaresia spp (all species) (R), and
Torchwood (R).

4.1.7 Animal life


The diversity of faunal species associated with Mopane veld areas is lower in the project area in
comparison with many other areas within the veld type due to low rainfall and shallow rocky sandy
soils that result in poorer nutritional status of the veld. Habitat degradation, mainly due to
agricultural practices and long-term overgrazing, also had an influence on the natural distribution
patterns of many faunal species in these areas. The development of the game farm industry (hunting
industry) over the past 30-40 years also influenced the occurrence and distribution of many faunal
species in these areas, especially antelope species and predators. In the past, many antelope species
were introduced or reintroduced; some outside of their natural distribution range and predators
have been earmarked as problem animals and subsequently removed on many farms.
Typical management actions associated with game or livestock farming, such as the provision and
increase in the distribution of permanent water, resulted in an increase in the availability of water in
these arid areas. A critical limiting factor that determined the occurrence and distribution of many
faunal species has been eliminated as a result and habitat suitability for many species increased. This
alteration of the functioning of the ecosystem did not only influence the occurrence of large
mammal species, but also small mammals, reptiles, birds etc.

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4.1.7.1 Protected Fauna species


A high diversity of protected species (46), occur in and adjacent to the study area. Twenty (20) of
these species are known and have been confirmed to occur in the study area. Only one (1) bullfrog
species (Pyxice phalusedulis) has been confirmed to occur in the study area. Studies have confirmed
the absence of Pyxice phalusadspersu.

4.1.8 Surface water


The mine is situated along the southern bank of the Limpopo River within quaternary sub-catchment
A71L. The catchment area considered for the hydro-geological evaluation is A71L, sub-catchments a,
b and c. The mining development site encompasses 4.9% of the total quaternary catchment area of
1,765 km. The naturalized Mean Annual Runoff is 3.2 mm. Figure 11 shows the drainage lines in and
around the Vele project area.

Figure 11: Vele project area drainages

There is no afforestation or other substantial direct uses of the runoff that occurs, except for the offchannel storage irrigation dams. The quaternary catchment area has the lowest rainfall and highest

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Mean Annual Evaporation of all of the catchments in the tertiary catchment area. Figure 12 shows
the positions of the existing surface water monitoring points.

Figure 12: Surface water monitoring points

4.1.9 Groundwater
A borehole census was conducted on the farms Katina, Alyth, Semple, Overvlakte, Beskow,
Newmark, and Voorspoed, Bergen op Zoom, Amersham, Chatsworth, Erfrus and Petershof. The
project area is represented by two aquifers, the primary and secondary aquifers.
The primary aquifer of the Limpopo River consists of unconsolidated alluvial pebbles within the
channel and along the banks in excess of 25 m depth and over 2 km wide in places. Historically,
many borehole and/or abstraction points have been developed along the river banks and within the
channel. The alluvium consists of coarse sands with intermittent pebble horizons and clay lenses.
The water held in alluvial sands is mostly saline, resulting in abstraction limited to the river bank
fringes and in the river channel were river flow is abstracted via the sand. Figure 13 shows a
representation of the macro chemical analysis of the secondary aquifer prior commencement of
activities.

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Figure 13: Macro chemical analysis of secondary aquifers

Figure 14: Groundwater monitoring points

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The secondary aquifers are associated with water located in faults zones, dykes or a combination
within the consolidated rocks. The stratified rocks of the Karoo can be regarded as being of low
groundwater potential. The water levels for the primary aquifer can vary between 0-10 mbgl and
reflect the level of the river relative to the surface, whilst the secondary aquifer can vary
considerably for a number of reasons ranging between 5-30 mbgl. Figure 14 shows the positions of
the groundwater monitoring points.

4.1.10

Air Quality

A detailed emissions inventory for the project area has not been undertaken. Based on site visits,
aerial photos and site descriptions, the following sources of air pollution have been identified, being:
vehicle entrainment and exhaust gas emissions; veld fires; agricultural activities; and mining
activities on the northern side of the Limpopo River (in Zimbabwean).
Figure 15 shows a record of the dust fallout levels for the ambient air quality monitoring that
commenced on site on September 2009. A combination single and four buckets system is used for
monthly dust sampling. Samples are analysed by an independent SANAS accredited laboratory. The
dust fallout levels recorded between September 2009 and August 2010 for certain dust monitoring
stations exceeded the residential limit of 600 mg/m/day, prior to the commencement of mining
activities as a result of agricultural practices in the area. The dust fallout levels shows a decline in
May 2009, and this can be attributed to the commenced dust suppression measures on site.

Figure 15: Record of dust fallout at Vele Colliery

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4.1.11

Noise

Prior to mining the noise climate in the project area was typical of a rural/residential environment as
defined in SANS 10103, 2008: The Measurement and Rating of Environmental Noise with respect to
Annoyance and Speech Communication i.e. areas where the ambient noise levels generally do not
exceed 45 dBA during the day and 35 dBA during the night. The noise climate alongside Road R572 is
degraded and residences or farmsteads in some areas are negatively impacted from traffic noise,
particularly at night, for distances up to 1 000 m from the road.

4.2 Cultural and Heritage Resources


The project area falls within the Mapungubwe Cultural Landscape. The core area of the
Mapungubwe Landscape to the west has been intensively studied for a few decades with emphasis
at the core area on the farm Greefswald and to a certain extent the neighbouring farms of Samaria
and Schroda. The areas to the west and south of Mapungubwe have also been systematically
surveyed. The first Early Iron Age farmers in this part of the Limpopo Valley were the Kalundu
Tradition (the western stream migration into South Africa), known as Happy Rest dating back to 5 th7th centuries AD. From about AD 700 to 900 the climate became colder and drier and no Early Iron
Age sites from this period have been recorded in the Shashe-Limpopo basin.
Khami sites dated to after AD 1450 are also found in the basin. Prior to this and shortly after the
demicive Mapungubwe, the first Sotho/Tswana people moved into this part of the interior from East
Africa. This early fancies of pottery tradition is called icon after the farm south west of
Mapungubwe. Icon pottery occurs on Khaki sites north of the Zoutpansberg and similarly Khami
pottery occurs on Icon sites. The project area seems to fall within a region where evidence suggest
that Early Stone Age, Middle Stone Age and Late Stone Age occupations occurred in the area, with
Middle Stone Age being most visible. There were no specific concentrations recorded to date, but
isolated and scatters Middle Stone Age material was found over most of the project area.
A number of Iron Age sites were also recorded in the area. Many sites were identified by a small
number of pottery fragments and the particular open nature of the terrain, which was probably
induced by human occupation. Others sites contain clear deposits and or grain bin stands. There are
no fossil ferrous material found in situ in the outcrop or weathered out in the alluvium below the
outcrop, mainly because most of the layers are presently covered by alluvium and no-fossil ferrous
geological strata. However, previous studies confirmed the presence of vertebrate fossils in the Tuli
Block. Thus when the soil cover is stripped in the area, these formations and vertebrate fossils may
be exposed.
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4.3 Ecological Sensitivity


The ecological sensitivity analysis, based on the landscape-vegetation communities revealed that,
the floodplains, Limpopo Riverine forest, rivers, rocky outcrops, pans and springs are considered to
be of high conservation value. The sandstone ridges and plateaus are considered as unique habitats
in this Mopane Veld because it provides diversity and have higher species diversity than other areas
in the study area.
The riparian wetlands in the area are regarded as the most sensitive areas and have a unique species
composition and ecosystem functioning. These systems provide habitat for several amphibious,
invertebrate, flora and other fauna species. The two (2) permanent springs on Bergen Op Zoom also
provide a critical source of drinking water for all fauna species during the dry winter months.
Together with the depressions (pans), these water bodies fulfil a critical role in thermoregulation of
fauna species during the hot summer months.
Although degraded, alluvial areas in agricultural areas can be classified and are regarded as part of
the riparian wetland system. These areas are also specifically delineated in the capability soil class
classification as riparian areas. These areas are important for rehabilitation in terms of functioning of
the sensitive river and riparian ecosystem.

Figure 16: Mapungubwe National Park Buffer Zone


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The sensitive landscapes in the project area include Mapungubwe National Park and World Heritage
site, which was declared by UNESCO in 2003. This was due to the containment interchangeable
human, cultural and social values, considered at the time. It was the largest kingdom in the African
subcontinent, regarded as a powerful state trading through the East African ports and Arabia.
Mapungubwe landscape is therefore highly significant and could have stretched as far as east of
Musina town, although little is known about the landscape east of the core area. Figure 16 shows
the Mapungubwe National Park Buffer Zone.
The Limpopo-Shashe Transfrontier Conservation Area (TFCA) has been drawn up with the objective
of establishing a conservation area of 5040km, between Botswana, South Africa and Zimbabwe. The
TFCA would also serve as a buffer zone for the Mapungubwe Cultural Landscape. However, it should
be noted that the proposed Vele Colliery falls outside the proposed TFCA (Figure 17).

Figure 17: Vele Colliery in relation to the proposed TFCA

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4.4 Regional Socio-Economic Structure


The project area is situated within the Musina Local Municipality, of Vhembe District in the Northern
part of Limpopo Province, sharing borders with Zimbabwe in the north. The Vhembe District is
composed of four local municipalities, namely Makhado, Musina, Thulamela and Mutale and covers
a total area of 21,407 km with a population estimated at over 1.1 million living in approximately
274,480 households.
The Musina Local Municipality is located in the very north of the Vhembe District, covering an area
of approximately 757 829 ha. The Municipality is made up of five municipal wards, of which three
falls within the urban centre of Musina. Ward one stretches from the western boundary of Musina.
The area is characterized by a relatively equal urban-rural population split with nearly half of the
population in Musina Municipality residing in the urban areas centred on Musina town. Commercial
activities are also almost exclusively concentrated in town.

Figure 18: Musina Local Municipality Map

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The Municipality also boasts a number of unique tourism attractions, based mainly on natural
beauty, wildlife conservation and hunting and the cultural heritage of the region related to the
people of Mapungubwe. The Mapungubwe site, declared a world heritage site, forms the anchor
attraction to the Municipality, with a number of rock art sites and private game farms and lodges
complementing this attraction. These attractions, if marketed effectively, create opportunities for
increased tourism flows to the Municipality. The strong tourism sector in the Municipality also
creates opportunities for the development of locally produced arts and crafts.

4.4.1 Population and Gender distribution


Musina Municipality had a population of over 42,000 people in 2004 with a comparatively higher
average per annum growth rate (3%) than that of the District (1.5%), the Province (1.3%) and South
Africa as a whole. The higher population growth could most probably be linked directly to the large
influx of people being experienced from neighbouring countries such as Zimbabwe. This might
create a problem as it will put pressure on all services as well as have an influence on
unemployment. The influx of these people might increase in future but to predict to what extend
numbers will decrease or increase is difficult to determine, making future planning problematic.
Population growth is, however, affected by the HIV/AIDS prevalence in the area and it is thus
important to take the HIV/AIDS prevalence into consideration when population projections are
made.
Approximately 12% of the total population in the Musina Municipality is HIV positive or has AIDS.
The highest HIV/AIDS prevalence is found in the ages between 15 and 64, which also make up the
potentially economically active group of the population. The HIV/AIDS prevalence rate in the 15-64
(17%) age category is also shown to be higher than the Municipalitys (12%) overall total. This is
problematic in that the high HIV/Aids prevalence in the potentially economically active age group
could negatively affect the Municipalities economic performance in the future. It will also put strain
on existing healthcare facilities.
The prevalence rate is lowest among the elderly members of the population, that is those who are
65 years and older. HIV/AIDS prevalence has been significantly increasing from 1995 to 2004. The
implication of the high prevalence rate in the 15-64 year age group is a decrease in the labour force
and an increase in child-headed homes. In 1995, the HIV/AIDS prevalence rate was below 5% for
both the overall total in Musina Municipality and the 15-64 year age category. The HIV/AIDS
prevalence started to rise speedily from 1997 to 2004.

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There are slightly more women (52%) than men (48%) in South Africa, and the male and female
proportions have remained relatively equal for the years 2001 and 2004. The Provincial, District and
Municipal gender distributions are relatively in line with National trends. In the Musina Municipality
there were slightly more women than men in 2001 (52% female and 48% male), while in 2004 the
male female distribution was equal.

4.4.2 Age and Gender distribution


The Musina Municipality has the highest percentage of people who are potentially economically
active (70%), higher than the District (57%) and the National (58%) percentages. This might indicate
an influx of people into the area in search of employment, suggesting a lack of employment
opportunities elsewhere. This could also mean that the area is perceived to have employment
opportunities. If these people can be successfully employed it will have a positive effect on economic
growth. It does however put pressure on the municipality to provide sufficient employment
opportunities. This demand for work might increase as there are a lot of people in the age group 1519, leaving school and joining the workforce in the near future. The employment situation might be
aggravated even more by an influx of people from Zimbabwe.
The high proportion of potentially economically active persons within the Musina Municipality
implies that there is a larger human resource base for development projects to involve the local
population and potentially a lower dependency rate due to the lower numbers of youth. Normally a
high percentage of people in this age group results in a higher childbirth figure, as is evident from
the higher amount of people in the group under the age of 5. This will result in a higher demand for
educational facilities in future. The higher than usual amount of people in the age group above 65
will increase the demand for appropriate facilities (especially healthcare) to take care of these
people.

4.4.3 Households
On average, there are 3.4 people per household in the Musina Municipality. Doppie has the highest
household size, with approximately 7 people per household in 2001.Doppie is a farm that is owned
by the Department of Agriculture, where the beneficiaries/farmers also reside on the land. Dzanani
rural area and Folorodwe have the lowest household sizes, with an average of 2 people per
household in both these areas.

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4.4.4 Education levels


The proportion of people with primary education has improved in the Musina Municipality from 23%
in 1996 to 34% in 2001. Musina rural surroundings had the highest improvement (from 23% in 1996
to 36% in 2001) in terms of the proportion of people with primary education, with Soutpansberg
Rural areas showing a 12% improvement from 23% in 1996 to 35% in 2001. Of concern however is
the increase in unschooled people in Dzanani Rural areas. This might suggest an influx of unschooled
people not being able to find employment elsewhere. This will have a negative effect on
employment and social conditions in that area. Other places that experienced improved figures in
respect of the percentage of people with primary education include Musina urban area (from 17% in
1996 to 27% in 2001), Feskraal (from 42% in 1996 to 48% in 2001) and Nancefield (from 27% in 1996
to 32% in 2001). Musina town, Dzanani Rural area and Soutpansberg rural area showed a decrease
in the level of people with secondary education, while Musina peri-urban area, Feskraal and
Nancefield showed improvements from 1996 to 2001. Overall, the levels of secondary education
remained similar to that of the Municipal average, which increased from 23% in 1996 to 34% in
2001.The proportion of people with tertiary education improved slightly from 2% to 3% in the
Musina Municipality over the aforementioned time periods. Musina SP, however, showed a large
improvement in tertiary education from 4% in 1996 to 10% in 2001. Doppie also has a far larger than
municipal average tertiary educated population, measuring at 13% in 2001. Although there is an
improvement in education levels, it is obvious that a large number of people in the district are
illiterate.

4.4.5 Employment
In general, Musina municipality has a lower unemployment rate than the province as well as the rest
of the district.
Approximately 75% of the economically active members of the municipal population are employed.
In Folorodwe, the 156 members in this area are all employed, meaning that every person of working
age has been able to secure a job and earn an income. Employment proportions are also higher than
the municipal average for Dzanani rural area (94%), Soutpansberg rural area (94%), Musina periurban area (90%), Bergview East (77%) and Musina town (76%). Madimbo has the lowest
employment rate (12%), or the highest unemployment rate, with 88% of the economically active
population not being employed.

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It should be noted that 37% of the population of Madimbo has no schooling. This area also has the
second biggest household size (5 persons per household). It is thus clear that there are currently
limited employment avenues in the area. Areas that are performing below the Municipalitys
average employment proportions are Kempo Mine Compound (39%), Harper Mine Compound
(42%), Nancefield (54%) and Feskraal, with a 55% employment rate. It must also be noted that
Kempo Mine Compound, Harper Mine Compound and Nancefield are amongst the sub places with
the highest population density. The might indicate that these areas will experience a lot of social
problems.
The areas with higher unemployment rates are also noted as having higher female proportions.
These areas can thus clearly be noted as having limited existing employment avenues, so much so
that a large proportion of the male population have left the areas in search of employment
elsewhere. This will have as result many single parent households, further complicating the social
problems of these areas.

4.4.6 Sectoral economic structure


The sectoral structure of an economy is a good indicator of its diversification and dependency upon
a particular sector. The Gauteng economy is highly services-oriented. Approximately 73%of the
Gauteng economy comprises of services industries, such as trade, transportation, financial and
business services. Nevertheless, the Gauteng Province has a well-developed manufacturing industry
that contributes 18.4% to its economy.
On the other hand, the tertiary sector in the Limpopo Province is as big as its primary and secondary
sector put together. This shows a relative dependence of the Limpopo economy on the primary and
secondary industries, in particular on mining. The largest sector in the Limpopo economy is the
community and government services sector (20%), followed by the mining sector contributing 20%
to its GDP. The Local Municipalities that is part of the project area mirror the situation observed in
the Limpopo Province. The Musina is highly dependent on the mining sector, as it contributes 26.9%
to its economy. Unlike Musina, the Makhado economy is tertiary sector-oriented with the largest
service sector the Community, social and personal services sector that contributes 38.9% to its
economy. The mining industry contributes 3.4% and manufacturing 7.6% to the local economy.

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5 PUBLIC PARTICIPATION PROCESS


Naledi was appointed by LCC as an independent consultant to manage and facilitate the Public
Participation Process for the proposed Environmental Authorisation Amendment for the Vele
Colliery.
The Public Participation Process has been designed in terms of the NEMA Public Participation
Guideline and the extent of the Environmental Authorisation Amendment required.
Public participation is a process and vehicle to provide sufficient and accessible information to
registered Interested and Affected Parties (IAPs) in an objective manner to assist them to identify
issues of concern, to identify alternatives, to suggest opportunities to reduce potentially negative or
enhance potentially positive impacts, and to verify that issues and/or inputs have been captured and
addressed during the assessment process.
This chapter of the report provides an overview of the tasks undertaken for the public participation
process prior and post the release of the Draft Amendment Report. The process being implemented
is subject to the approval of the Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA) at National Level.

5.1 Interested and Affected Party Database


An IAP database was developed throughout the Public Participation for the New Order Mining Right
Application, Integrated Water Use License Process as well as the Environmental Authorisation
process. This database was utilised to establish the IAP database for this process. IAPs were
contacted to confirm their wish to remain a registered IAP and additional stakeholders were added
throughout the process if and when they requested to be registered.
A total of 297 parties are registered on the IAP database, they include parties from the following
categories:

National, Provincial and Local Government

Business and Commerce

Environmental NGOs and Consultancy companies

Research Organisations

Education Institutions

Community Based Organisation and Structures

Regional and Neighbouring Landowners

Tourism Organisations and Operators

Media
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The final IAP database is attached as ANNEX-D1.

5.2 Public Participation Notifications


As part of the Environmental Amendment Authorisation Process, notifications were sent to all
registered IAPs. A Background Information Document (BID) was utilised to provide information
regarding the amendment application, and IAPs were also made aware of the availability of the Draft
Amendment Report as well as the methods to access copies of the report. A copy of the Notification
BID is attached as ANNEX-D2.
A record of notifications via email, post and sms was kept and is attached as ANNEX-D3.

5.3 Engagement Sessions


In December 2013, CoAL embarked on a stakeholder roadshow with regulatory authorities at a
national and provincial level seeking to:

Present the PMP and its related impact on the project, authorisations, and commitments;

Determine what would be required to ensure full compliance with all authorisations; and

Ensure the alignment of the PMP and its associated activities with the prescriptions of the
authorisation.

The following Departments have been engaged:

Department of Environmental Affairs

Limpopo Department of Economic Development, Environment and Tourism

Department of Mineral Resources

Department of Water Affairs (National and Regional)

Minutes of the Authority meetings are attached as ANNEX-D4.


The original EIA Process followed a rigorous Public Participation Process and established an
Environmental Monitoring Committee (EMC) with local stakeholders. The EMC has been engaged
regarding the amendment.
The EMC was established in terms of the Environmental Authorisation granted to LCC as an oversight
committee to monitor oversight of LCCs compliance in respect of the EA and IWUL. The EMCs
mandate is to monitor oversight, and to manage potential impacts, promoting pro-active
compliance, and contribute to improved decision making and environmental practices.

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The membership of the EMC and its sub committees consist of all regulatory authorities, relevant
organs of state, municipal representatives, civil society represented by the coalition and other key
stakeholders identified during the stakeholder engagement processes.

The membership is as

follows:

Department of Environmental Affairs

Limpopo Department of Economic Development, Environment and Tourism (LEDET)

Department of Water Affairs (National and Regional)

Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries

Department of Mineral Resources

Musina Local Municipality

Vhembe District Municipality

Capricorn District Municipality

Blouberg Local Municipality

South African National Parks (SANParks)

South African Heritage Resources Agency (SAHRA)

Mapungubwe National Park and World Heritage Site

Weipi Farmers Association

Save Mapungubwe Coalition

Coal of Africa Limited (CoAL) and Limpopo Coal Company

The company presented the proposed PMP to the EMC to obtain comments, listen to concerns and
understand key issue relating to the PMP. Minutes of the EMC meetings are attached as ANNEX-D5.
The company will continue to engage through these structures during the life of mine.

5.4 Availability of the Draft and Final Report


The draft Amendment to the Environmental Authorisation was made available for comments from 4
June 2014 for a period of 30 calendar days ending on 4 July 2014 at the following places:

Musina Library

Mapungubwe National Park Reception

Blouberg Municipal Satellite Office in Alldays

Jacana Environmentals cc (7 Landdros Mare Street, Polokwane)

Naledi Development (143 Sefako Makgatho Drive, Sinoville, Pretoria)

Downloaded from Coal of Africa Limited Website (www.coalofafrica.com)

A download link was also provided

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Notification of the availability of the report was also communicated to all registered Interested and
Affected Parties via email, post and sms as indicated in ANNEX-D3.
Comments have only been received from the South African Heritage Resource Agency providing
direction if graves older than 60 years are found. It should be noted that no graves are affected by
the Amendment. A copy of the comments is attached as ANNEX-D6. The lack of comments can be
assigned to the fact that the amendment to the existing Environmental Authorisation is not
extensive.
Once the final Amendment Report has been submitted to Authorities, registered IAPs will be notified
of its availability in the same manner as described above.

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6 SUMMARIES OF SPECIALIST STUDIES


Table 4 provides a list of specialist studies and supplementary reports which were commissioned in
2009 by LCC during the initial NOMR application process. The scopes of these environmental studies
covered the same receiving environment and are considered relevant to the current amendment
application refer to ANNEX-B for specialist declarations in this regard.
Table 4: Summary of Specialist Studies conducted in 2008 and 2009
NAME

DISCIPLINE

ORGANISATIONS

QUALIFICATIONS

B. McLeroth

Soil & Land Use

Red Earth cc

BSc Agriculture

G. Nel

Biodiversity

Dubel Environmental

BSc (Hons) Wildlife


Management

C. Haupt

Groundwater

WSM Leshika

BSc (Hons)
Engineering Geology

K. Sami

Groundwater
Modelling

WSM Leshika

MSc Groundwater
Hydrology

A. Vuuren

Surface water

WSM Leshika

M Eng (Civil), PR Eng

D. Cosijn

Noise

Jongens Keet Associates

BSc (Civil) Engineering

S. Thompson

Air quality

SSI-Bohlweki

BSc (Hons)
Environmental
Science

D. van Vuuren

Visual

MetroGIS

M (Town & Regional


Planning)

T. Rorke

Blasting

BME Blasting Technology

MSc Seismology

F. Roodt

Heritage

R&R Cultural Resources

MSc (Archaeology)

F. Durand

Palaeontology

Skarab cc

PhD (Palaeontology)

W. Mullins

Macro-economic

Conningarth Economist

PhD

L. Grobbelaar

Socio-economic

Naledi Development
Restructured (Pty) Ltd

BA (Hons) in
Environment and
Society

A brief summary of specialist studies relevant to the activities, which were reviewed and considered
in assessing the nature, extent, duration and significance of the consequences of the commenced
activities on the receiving environment, including cumulative impacts is provided below. It provides
an explanation of the assessment methodology, assessment of the impacts, and key findings and
conclusions.

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It should be noted that although the specialist studies were undertaken prior to the actual
implementation of activities, the actual impacts were expected to closely mirror the findings of the
specialists. Where necessary a worst case scenario was modelled and assessed to ensure
appropriate risk adverse mitigation. Mitigation actions were implemented parallel to the actual
activities to limit as far as is feasibly possible the extent of the impacts and to actively manage
cumulative effects.

6.1 Biophysical Environment


6.1.1 Air Quality (SSI-Bohlweki Environmental, 2009)
The investigation focused on key aspects of air quality assessment, including identifying and
assessing potential sources of air pollution. A dispersion modelling approach was undertaken within
the project area and surroundings, using the US-EPA approved Industrial Source Model, to assess
pollution concentrations and depositions from a wide variety of sources associated with an industrial
source complex. The input data included in the ISC-ST3 model predictions entailed pollution sources,
sensitive receptors, wind velocity and direction, ambient temperature, mixing height and
atmospheric stability class and the terrain data; adopting a worst case scenario, using South African
ambient air quality standards as a base for comparison; including the emissions of particulate matter
of less than 10 micrometers (PM10) and nuisance dust associated with all potential sources. The
potential sources of dust emission and activities which will likely have an impact on air quality are
the movement of vehicles and machinery on the unpaved access and haul roads, all activities
associated with construction on site, especially the handling of soil and overburden, transportation
of ore and coal products and emission of carbon monoxide gases from machinery.
A comparison analysis of the collected data with the SANS 1929: 2005 Daily and Annual Limits
conclude that inhalable particulates matters (PM10) for the areas adjacent to the development site
were not exceeded. However, the dust fallout limit set for the residential areas (600 mg/m/day)
were found to be relatively high and exceeded prior to the commencement of the development. The
following mitigation measures were proposed:

Ambient air quality monitoring must be undertaken to establish baseline condition and
establish a level at which the operations impact on the ambient air quality.

Dust fallout monitoring must be utilized to assess the level of nuisance dust associated with
the development and all processes.

Sampling of dust fallout should be conducted on site and the surroundings.

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Regular watering (e.g. haul roads) and application of dust suppressant (e.g. Dustex) is
recommended.

Additional monitoring should be carried on site to determine occupational exposure limits.

Vehicle speed on unpaved roads should be limited to 40 km/h.

Mitigation measures should be in place to reduce vehicle exhaust emissions.

6.1.2 Groundwater (WSM Leshika Consulting (Pty) Ltd, 2009)


The groundwater studies encompassed surface and groundwater interactions, sustainability of the
primary and secondary aquifers, the current and future water uses, potential for generation of acid
mine drainage and water pollution and potential impacts associated with abstraction, dewatering,
inflows and water supply.
The groundwater studies information was acquired in two phases a desktop study and hydrocensus. The groundwater occurrence, use and water quality was assessed. The ground proofing
phase comprised of drilling, water pumping tests, water quality sampling and drill core sampling for
acid base accounting. The results of these two phases and the geological data were considered for
the development of a numerical groundwater model. The packer drilling and testing was used to
determine the in situ permeability of different hydro-geological models. Water levels information
was then collected to determine the present status of the piezometric surface and macro-chemical
analysis for baseline water chemistry. The representative samples of diamond drilling core were
further analysed for sulphide content for use in the AMD impact determination.
The water quality of the primary aquifer is mostly saline. Abstraction is limited to the river bank
fringes and in the river channel. The water quality deteriorates rapidly after the river stops flowing
which prevents major exploitation of the water stored in the alluvium. On the other hand, the
secondary aquifer is associated with poor water quality not utilised for irrigation.
The primary aquifer water levels in the alluvial system is generally low between 0-10 mbgl, while the
secondary aquifer water levels vary considerably due to topography, layered strata and the presence
of dykes and faults. Due to low rainfall and high carbonate contents, the potential for Acid Mine
Drainage (AMD) generation is insignificant. The groundwater flow is orientated northwards towards
Limpopo River with low flow volumes due to the low recharge and low permeability. The
development will not affect the Weipe and Overvlakte aquifers. The water balance of the aquifer will
not be affected if the net river loss of 84.5 Ml/day prior to the development is not exceeded, and
abstraction is reduced by 7 Ml/day. The impact on river losses will vary over the life of the mine.

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The following mitigation measures were advanced:

The residue material must be deposited in the open pit.

Potential acid generating horizons will be placed at bottom of pit, submerged below water
table, preventing oxidation.

Rehabilitation will be concurrent with mining, minimising potential to oxidise sulphide


bearing rocks and controlling migration of high sulphate leachate.

Stockpiling and exposed residue material will be minimised by direct placement of


overburden and topsoil, thereby reducing the footprint.

Grass cover will be re-established, as soon as possible after top soiling to minimise
infiltration of water through residue material.

6.1.3 Surface Water (WSM Leshika Consulting (Pty) Ltd, 2009)


When conducting surface water studies, WSM Leshika Consulting (Pty) Ltd incorporated all
legislative requirements and best practices guidelines. The study also involved an identification and
assessment of the drainage lines, estimation of the flood peaks along the affected drainage lines and
determination of the associated flood widths.
A topographical survey was conducted to obtain data at 1 meter contour intervals. The river flow
was modelled using specialised software to determine the flood widths. In order to determine the
layout and conceptual design of adequate storm water management, the development site was
superimposed on the site map. In addition, the potential impact of project activities (including the
pipeline, the above ground storage and associated infrastructure) on surface water resources were
assessed.
The study recommended that since the site is situated within a sensitive area and in very close
proximity to the Limpopo River which is an international river, the best environmental option should
be used to mitigate potential negative impacts. The following mitigation measures were proposed:

The dirty water dams or slurry dams should be operated to remain at low levels, especially
during the rainy season.

The recycling of dirty water has been optimised within the planned system and a fully closed
dirty water system should be implemented, i.e. no discharges of dirty water to the
environment.

A filter process should be implemented within 3 years of operation, thereby eliminating the
need for dirty water dam and increasing the volume of recycled water.

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Plastic liners will be placed in all the dirty water dams, as well as the slurry (dam) facilities
and stockpile areas, thereby eliminating the potential for groundwater pollution from these
facilities.

Flood protection berm should be in place to prevent flooding during high peak flows in the
Limpopo River.

The diversion of clean storm water around the dirty water areas.

Construction of silt traps to minimise the potential sedimentation.

Regular maintenance and inspection of cut off diversion berms to ensure serviceability.

6.1.4 Noise (Jongens Keet Associates, 2009)


The investigation entailed the assessment of the noise impact descriptors, determination of the
existing noise situation and consideration for the construction and operational phase of the
development. All the assessments were conducted on a worse case or conservative basis, for
unmitigated conditions and without consideration for factors that could assist in the attenuation of
noise. It was noted that, in reality, there will be greater attenuation with distance than assessed
when there are houses, other buildings, vegetation and terrain restraints in the intervening ground
between the source and receiver point.
In assessing the noise impacts of the development, a worst case scenario was modelled, which
included, no shielding sources by buildings berms, topographical features, hard surface (no
attenuation by vegetation) and worst case scenario meteorological situation i.e. winds > 6 ms/s.
Baseline measurements and auditory observations were taken at eight main sites in order to
establish the existing ambient noise conditions of the study area. Conditions for the daytime and
evening periods at these points were ascertained. In order to complement the short-term noise
measurements in the study area, the existing 24-hour residual noise levels related to the average
daily traffic (ADT) flows on Route R572 were also calculated.
The main sources of noise in the project area are traffic on the R572 Musina-Pontdrift Road, the
servitude road, an existing mine in Zimbabwe, a pump station, agricultural (farming) activities and
hunting practices. It should be noted that pump stations and farming activities were identified as a
major sources of noise. The residual noise climate was typical of an agricultural environment and the
ambient noise levels generally did not exceed 45 dBA during the day and 35 dBA during night times.
The noise climate along site R572 degraded with regard to residential living.

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The following mitigation measures were proposed:

Noise baffles to be placed on fans.

Use of low noise fans at ventilation shafts.

Tree screening around plant area to reduce noise levels.

Noise suppression devices on heavy-duty vehicles.

Cladding of generator sets / low noise generator sets will be used.

Rubber vulcanised belt less noisy / vibration.

Noise attenuation berms around opencast pits (also serve as storm water / high wall drains).

High noise activities, such as blasting, at regular times, restricted to 08h00 to 16h00.

All plant, equipment and vehicles to be kept in good repair.

On-going improvement as new technology becomes available.

6.1.5 Biodiversity (Dubel, 2009)


A desktop baseline study and a literature survey were conducted. Broad geological and soil
occurrences (land types) and characteristics were identified and mapping and evaluation of
vegetation and habitats on aerial photographs was undertaken. The steps which were followed
entailed issues that may arise as a result of the development, through planning, construction,
operation and decommissioning phases; compilation of a database of the Limpopo River Herb
Project and mapping and evaluation of vegetation or habitats on aerial photographs.
The project area is located within the Mopane veld that is not regarded as endangered or
threatened veld type. However, it is partly located within a sensitive and highly threatened aquatic
ecosystem, the Limpopo River and associated riparian wetlands and vegetation, in close proximity of
Mapungubwe National Park and World Heritage Site, the Limpopo Game Reserve Conservancy
situated to the south, and Sentinel Ranch and Nottingham Estate situated in Zimbabwe to the north
of the site. Some areas are also earmarked for incorporation into the Limpopo-Shashe TFCA.
There are three major impacts on biodiversity i.e. impact on habitats resulting in loss, habitat
degradation or fragmentation and direct impact on fauna and flora species, such as plants and
animals that are endemic or threatened/special to a particular habitat which will not be able to
survive if the habitat is destroyed or altered by development.
The following mitigation measures were recommended:

Develop detail species rescue, relocation & re-introduction plan.

Facilitate corridors of natural vegetation to allow movement of smaller faunal species.

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Monitor plant moisture stress at water abstraction and control site/s along the Limpopo
River.

Continue rehabilitation and monitoring actions after project closure.

Develop specific programmes& actions for impacts that manifest after mine closure.

Allocate funds to implement the biodiversity mitigation measures.

6.1.6 Soils (Red Earth, 2009)


The study included soils surveys, describing the soils (distribution, types, depth, surface features,
wetness hazard and cultivation factors per horizon, suitability for agriculture and topsoil, physical
and chemical characteristics, fertility, erodibility, dry land production potential and irrigation
potential), including the pre-mining land capability, land use, location of sensitive landscapes, to
classify and delineate the wetlands into the permanent/semi-permanent, seasonal and temporary
classes, as well as to identify riparian areas.
The soil structure in the project area ranges from apedal to weak blocky topsoils and sub-soils.
However, the structured broad soil group display moderate to strong blocky structured in the
pedunatic sub-soils, while the vertic and prismacutanic broad soil groups display strong blocky
structure in the topsoils and sub soils respectively. All of the soils have a high base status (calcareous
= extremely poorly leached; or eutrophic = very poorly leached), given the interaction of the low
mean annual precipitation (approximately 348 mm), the high mean annual temperature, and the low
to high base reserve of the parent materials in the area.
The pH of the majority of the soil forms (and thus broad soil groups) which occur in the survey area
is problematic due to being too high (7.4-7.8: mildly alkaline; 7.9-8.4: moderately alkaline majority;
or 8.5-9.0: strongly alkaline). However, a limited number of broad soil groups (particularly red
apedal/red structured, and yellow-brown apedal) display a pH which is ideal (6.6-7.3: neutral) to
slightly acid (6.1-6.5: slightly acid rarely). The following mitigation measures were advanced:

Soil stripping should only occur where soils are to be disturbed.

Where disturbed areas cannot be re-vegetated during the construction, appropriate


measures should be taken to control soil erosion (e.g. machinery and vehicles should be
restricted to designated access areas, selection of the topsoil stockpiling area should
consider the site elevation).

Heavy machinery, construction vehicles and equipment should be limited to designated


areas, access roads and routes should be utilised to prevent unnecessary damage to soils
that will remain after construction.

Avoidance of soil of contamination. Spillages should be contained.


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Action plans for dealing with spillages should be in place to ensure the minimal impacts on
soils.

Measures should be put in place to contain leaks in the bunded areas will be detected
construction e.g. drip trays to be placed under construction machinery to contain any
possible leakages.

The design in terms of the volume of the dam should not be exceeded to avoid overflows.

All necessary mitigation pertaining to reducing soil contamination should be adhered to.

Any storage area of petrochemicals should have containment to avoid soil pollution.

The condition of the containment structure should be monitored regularly.

Regular monitoring of the integrity of the slurry dam should be undertaken.

Regular soil samples should be taken at the mine particularly from the area surrounding the
lined area to determine any impact on the soil chemistry.

6.1.7 Visual/Aesthetic Aspects (Metro GIS (Pty) Ltd, 2009)


The visual impact assessment was based on the design information relating to the mine
components. The analysis entailed spatial quantification and interpretation, visual exposure, viewer
incidence, observer proximity, visual absorption capacity, visual impact index, severity of the impact
and other photographic simulation.
The landscape character of the area is formed by vegetation and topography transformed by human
activity. The Vele Colliery project is located in a low lying area. The sense of place is quite vulnerable
to the introduction of mining and industrial activities. Mapungubwe National Park has a delineated
view shed protection area around the park which is overlapping with the project area by
approximately 50%.
The assessment of the impacts involved the sense of place (Mopane veld with isolated occurrence of
Baobab and Granite koppies distinct character, low population density) and vulnerability to the
introduction of mining and industrial activities (the impact on tourism in the area, disturbing natural
tranquillity and possible peace), visual exposure, viewer incident, observer proximity and visual
absorption capacity. Mitigation measures include:

Introduce landscaping measures e.g. vegetating berms.

Avoid unnecessary removal of vegetation during construction.

Avoid use of highly reflective material in construction.

Metal surfaces painted in natural soft colours that blend into environment.

Use shielded or directional luminaries that focus beam downward.

Introduce tree screening around plant area to reduce visibility.

Rehabilitation concurrent to mining to minimise open, un-rehabilitated areas.


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Introduce dust suppression to reduce visual impact.

Offset biodiversity projects and research on ecological restoration.

6.1.8 Heritage and Cultural Resources (R&R Cultural Resources,


2009; Siyathembana, 2012)
According to the findings of this study, the project area has never been subjected to a heritage
survey. Baseline information on the Mapungubwe Cultural Landscape is derived from the
Mapungubwe Original Project conducted on the west of the project site. The methodology entailed
literature review, aerial photographs, field survey and a consultative process.
The cultural and heritage study was conducted in two phases which included: Phase (I); heritage
survey for the demarcated archaeological sites and Phase (II) which assessed the Mapungubwe
Cultural Landscape following the requirements provided in Section 38 of the National Heritage
Resources Act (Act No. 25 of 1999). The study entailed literature review, aerial photographs, field
surveys and a consultative process as the project area has never been subjected to a heritage survey.
A comparison of the cultural and heritage resources on site with that of Mapungubwe Cultural
Landscape was conducted; and the Vele properties was found not to be a duplicate. There is no rock
art in the area due to the geology of the area characterised by absence of sandstone ridges and flat
top hills that facilitates special landscape features.
The majority of the Iron Age sites have been disturbed either by natural forces or human activity.
Only two undisturbed Iron Age sites were recorded. Stone Age material is fairly scattered and exists
mostly in the western area where mining activities will be undertaken. The historic inhabitants of the
area recall no specific significance place in the area in terms of intangible heritage. The intangible
heritage is mostly generic and relates to Mapungubwe. Early Stone Age and Middle Stone Age
material were noted at various places, with obscure Stone Age deposits occurring in the mine
development area. The sites recorded a potential for degradation, with no rock art due to the
natural topography and the archaeological population density is much lower than to the west in
Mapungubwe core area.
Iron Age sites are fairly common and similar sites are protected elsewhere and their significance is
important to explain population densities and distribution patterns during Iron Age and no
significant concentrations of exposed Stone Age material have been found. The study found that
commercial farming has negatively affected archaeological sites on the floodplain. Measures to
minimise the destruction of the recorded archaeological are:

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Extensive recording to add on the new knowledge and value to the research conducted in
the Mapungubwe core area.

Heritage educational and awareness programmes to be conducted.

Comprehensive heritage monitoring programme during the operation phase of the activities.

All identified heritage sites to be fenced off, including the protection of site that may be in
the long term be threatened by the entire mining development.

Heritage assessments to be conducted in consultation with South Africa Heritage Resources


Agency (SAHRA).

6.1.9 Socio-Economic Conditions (Naledi Development, 2009)


The study specifically assessed the social impacts of the development and developed strategies for
the on-going monitoring and management of future potential social impacts. The methodology used
in conducting the study entailed conducting baseline studies, interviewing of stakeholders,
participants observations and literature review. Using these approaches, the specialist investigated
the following: demographic; economic; geographic; institutional and legal; emancipatory and
empowerment; socio-cultural and biophysical processes.
The study concluded that some impacts from the project would be direct and others indirect thus
becoming second order impacts. The study further acknowledged that because people depend on
the biophysical environment, changes in the biophysical environment could create social impacts
and processes. Some of the potential impacts to the social environment include increased constraint
to infrastructure (electricity, water, sewerage, road maintenance, social services and community
facilities); an influx of job seekers thus raising the demand for housing; quality of the physical
environment relating to exposure to dust, changes in daily movement patterns (traffic); safety and
risk exposure (increased crime); and changes in the economic and social wellbeing. The study
proposed the following mitigation measures:

Participation in regional structures.

Maximisation of the local employment.

Provision of infrastructure and housing for workers on site to alleviate the short term impact
at Musina.

Support in the maintenance of the R 572 Musina-Pontdrift road.

Implementation of the programmes identified and included in the Social and Labour Plan.

Facilitate the existing housing developments for external workforce.

Establish a future forum to discuss downscaling and retrenchment.

Skill programmes to equip workforce.

HIV/AIDS and health related awareness programmes.


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Make available bursary opportunities to build skill capital in the region.

Design and implement economic development programmes.

Communication channel with direct adjacent land owners and key stakeholders to address
impacts and grievances.

A transparent recruitment drive aimed at locals, including existing SMMEs and notably
HDSAs.

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7 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT


7.1 Identified Environmental Impacts
This section of the report identifies the current and potential impacts that emanated from both the
existing and future (amended) listed activities. The identification of the impacts considered the
nature, extent, duration and significance of the consequences of the activities and processes on
various components and aspects of the natural and human environments. The environmental
impacts identification is thus a holistic approach taking cognisance of the existing impacts, potential
impacts and cumulative impacts on the receiving environment, for the planning and design,
construction, operational and closure phases and recommended mitigation measures for the
activities and processes. The identified impacts are listed in Table 5 below.
Table 5: Identified Environmental Impacts
IMPACTS

DESCRIPTION

Air pollution

Dust emissions generated from different sources of dust during the


development, operation and closure phases of the project, including the
movement of vehicles and machinery on exposed bare soils and unpaved
road surfaces at the construction sites and access and haul roads, soil and
subsoil handling and further stockpiling, digging of trenches and
foundations, wind action blowing dispersed soil particles (transportation of
soil and or construction material. The emission of carbon monoxide from
the vehicles and machinery and generators on site will impact on ambient
air quality and emission of particulate matter in the form of PM10 to the
receiving atmosphere.

Ground water and surface


water pollution

Deterioration of the groundwater quality and results of leakages, seepages


of chemical and pollutant substances, impacting on the groundwater
quality. The overflow of the slurry dam will impact negatively on the
receiving environment, particularly the ground water resources.

Noise pollution

The construction noise impact on the degraded noise levels. The noise
caused by movement of vehicles, machinery and generators to facilitate
the pumping processes associated with the operation of the processing
plant and slurry dam will continue to impact negatively on the noise
environment, especially for the people residing in the project area. The
influx of workers in the area and introduction of industrial activities will
impact on the noise environment.

Destruction of natural/
indigenous vegetation and the
loss of biodiversity

The construction of commenced infrastructure entailed removal of flora,


including protected species and impacted negatively on the habitats,
ecosystem functioning, plant communities and most likely, the fauna
breeding and movement patterns.

Soil contamination, change in


land use and capability,
resulting in infertility, change
in soil composition and
structure, soil erosion and
compaction

Vegetation clearance for the establishment of the roads and associated


culverts and the slurry dam, soil stripping activities caused increased
potential for soil erosion due to changed slope shapes, alteration of soil
layers through digging of trenches, which on a larger scale impacts on
permeability. Soil compaction and contamination will occur as a result of
vehicle and heavy machinery during the operational phase.

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IMPACTS

DESCRIPTION

Visual impact

Transformation of land and introduction of the industrial activities, lighting


and removal of vegetation which contribute to the sense of place in the
area impacts on visibility, especially from surrounding high lying areas.

Socio-economic impacts

The development will have positive and negative impacts on the socioeconomic environment. The negative impacts include continuous influx of
job seekers in the area, increased crime incidents, prostitutions, illegal
trafficking and health risks. The positive impacts are creation of job
opportunities, alleviation of poverty and local economic development. The
transportation of the coal product will result in increased traffic and
impact on tourism.

7.2 Methodology of assessing the impacts


This section describes the assessment methodology used in determining the impacts of the activities
on the receiving environment. The significance (quantification) of potential environmental impacts
identified during scoping and identified during the specialist investigations was determined using a
ranking scale.
Occurrence entails the probability of occurrence i.e. how likely the impact may occur, duration refers
to how long the impact may last. Severity is the magnitude of the impact, whether it will be high,
moderate or low. The extent/scale of the impact refers to the extent at which the impact will affect
the national, regional or local environment, or only that of the site. Each of these factors has been
assessed each for the current and potential impacts using the following ranking scale values.
The risk rating of the environmental effects is done as follows: High (>60 SP), Moderate (30 - 60 SP)
or Low (<30 SP) significance. This is done with and without mitigation measures and for both
occurrence and severity, on the following basis:

SP >62

Indicates High environmental


significance

SP 33 - 62

Indicates Moderate
environmental significance

SP <33

Indicates Low environmental


significance

Where it would influence the decision regardless of any


possible mitigation. An impact which could influence the
decision about whether or not to proceed with the project.
Where it could have an influence on the decision unless it
is mitigated. An impact or benefit which is sufficiently
important to require management. Of moderate
significance - could influence the decisions about the
project if left unmanaged.
Where it will not have an influence on the decision.
Impacts with little real effect and which should not have an
influence on or require modification of the project design
or alternative mitigation

Note: Significance Points (SP) = (Magnitude + Duration + Extent) x Probability

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Table 6: Assessment Criteria


Duration
Short term

6 months

Construction

36 months

Life of Project

29 years

Post rehabilitation

Time for re-establishment of natural systems

Residual

Beyond project life

Site specific

Site of the proposed development

Local

Farm and surrounding farms

District

Musina Municipal District

Regional

Vhembe Region

Provincial

Limpopo Province

National

Republic of RSA

International

Beyond RSA borders

Almost Certain

100% probability of occurrence

Likely

99 60% chance of occurrence

Possible

59 16% chance of occurrence

Unlikely

15 6% chance of occurrence

Rare

<5% chance of occurrence

Catastrophic (critical)

Total change in area of direct impact, relocation not an option, death,


toxic release off-site with detrimental effects, huge financial loss

Major (High)

> 50% change in area of direct impact, relocation required and


possible, extensive injuries, long term loss in capabilities, off-site
release with no detrimental effects, major financial implications

Moderate (Medium)

20 49% change, medium term loss in capabilities, rehabilitation /


restoration / treatment required, on-site release with outside
assistance, high financial impact

Minor

10 19% change, short term impact that can be absorbed, on-site


release, immediate contained, medium financial implications

Insignificant (low)

< 10 % change in the area of impact, low financial implications,


localized impact, a small percentage of population

Extent

Probability

Severity

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7.3 Environmental Impact Evaluation and Rating


The impacts that may be caused as result of the amended listed activities include destruction of
indigenous vegetation, destruction of habitats and protected plant species, alteration of topography,
soil compaction and destruction of soil layers as a result of digging, levelling and sloping activities,
increased potential for soil erosion due to disturbance of the soil layers and alteration of slopes, the
impact on the ambient air quality and potential pollution of the surface drainage streams as a result
of sedimentation. The risk rating tables for the different phases of the activities are provided in
Table 7 to Table 10. The cumulative risks are provided in Table 11.

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Table 7: Construction Phase


IMPACT/ENVIRONMENTAL
ASPECT
Air Quality
The surface grading, sloping,
levelling, handling of soil and
movement of vehicles and
machinery impact on air quality
during construction and
vegetation clearance activities.

RATING
S

SP

32

SIGNIFICANCE
WITHOUT
MITIGATION MEASURES
MITIGATIONS
BIOPHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT
Low

Soils
Soil stripping, handling (sloping,
levelling and grading) movement
of heavy machinery impact on soil
layers and could cause soil erosion
due to vegetation clearance. The
construction of the roads entails
importation and compaction of
road surface material.

55

Moderate

Noise
The noise created by trucks and
heavy machinery will impact on
the ambient noise climate.

32

Low

SIGNIFICANCE WITH
MITIGATIONS

Dust suppression measures (watering of the roads) will be applied to


reduce dust emission during the construction roads.
Travelling speeds of trucks and machinery will be kept to a maximum
speed of 40 km/hr to eliminate the generation of excessive dust and
reduce the pressure duration and compaction.
The material fall heights of trucks will be kept low when loading and
unloading construction material and soil.
The ambient air quality monitoring i.e. dust fallout monitoring, was
implemented on site with effect from August 2009 prior to mining and will
continue.

Low

Storm water diversion berms will be constructed on both sides (parallel)


of the roads. The constructed roads will be free draining.
Heavy machinery and trucks will be restricted to designated areas during
the construction phase to limit damage to undisturbed surfaces.
Moving machinery and vehicles should be restricted to demarcated
routes.
Spillages of hydrocarbons and lubricants should be minimized and any
polluted soils should be rehabilitated and handled in terms of the spill
management procedure.
Polluted soil should be managed, stored and disposed at an approved
hazardous waste disposal site.
All construction vehicles should be parked at designated parking areas and
be equipped with drip trays to contain any possible leakages.
Machinery and trucks should be subjected to regular service and routine
monitoring.
Environmental penalties should form part of all contractors contracts.

Moderate-Low

Construction trucks and heavy machinery will be fitted with silencers.


Vehicles and truck will be maintained and serviced off site.
Construction and vegetation clearance activities to be conducted only
during daytime hours.

Low

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IMPACT/ENVIRONMENTAL
ASPECT
Fauna and Flora
The construction of the roads and
the associated culverts and
vegetation clearance activities will
impact negatively on biodiversity
resulting in: destroyed and lost
natural habitat; impact on wild
animal migration; disturbance and
removal of vegetation cover,
including certain protected plants;
and animals relocation due to the
construction noise and influx of
people in the area.
Surface water
Surface water courses will be
negatively impacted during the
construction of the culverts due to
the disturbance of soil material
leading to increased erosion and
sedimentation. The impact will be
severe during the rainy season.

RATING
S
5

SP

60

SIGNIFICANCE
WITHOUT
MITIGATIONS
Moderate

MITIGATION MEASURES

42

Moderate

Visual/Aesthetic
Generation of dust resulting in the
visual impact/poor visibility.

24

Low

SIGNIFICANCE WITH
MITIGATIONS

The road will be re-aligned to avoid protected species as far as possible.


Protected plant species will be rescued as part of the Rescue and
Relocation Plan, and the necessary permits or licenses obtained from the
regulating authorities.
A temporary nursery has been established for relocation and maintenance
of indigenous woody plants required for future rehabilitation.
The contractor/s and crew should be sensitised about the threatened
plant species as well as sensitive areas along the planned road and a
suitable qualified person should point them out to them before
construction commence.

Moderate

Civil engineers must design the road and drainage line crossings to allow
for sufficient stream flow and limit erosion potential, to satisfy
requirements of DWA.
An application must be lodged with the Department of Water Affairs
(DWA) for the drainage line crossings.
Clean storm water must be diverted from the roads with berms and
trenches to ensure the road is free draining and the potential for water
pollution is minimized.
The slopes of the road at the culverts will be compacted to stabilize the
soil and reduce soil erosion and contamination of surface water.
Surface water quality monitoring is conducted at identified monitoring
points and the sample analysis results recorded (ongoing).

Low

Dust suppression measures (watering of the roads) will be applied to


reduce dust emission during the construction roads.
Travelling speeds of trucks and machinery will be kept to a maximum
speed of 40 km/hr to eliminate the generation of excessive dust and
reduce the pressure duration and compaction.
The material fall heights of trucks will be kept low when loading and
unloading construction material and soil.
The ambient air quality monitoring i.e. dust fallout monitoring, was
implemented on site with effect from August 2009 prior to mining and will

Low

54 | P a g e

IMPACT/ENVIRONMENTAL
ASPECT

RATING
S

SP

Heritage sites may be negatively


impacted during the vegetation
clearance activities and road
construction.

40

The construction phase will have


negative and positive impacts on
the socio-economic environment.
The construction phase of the
project: will create additional

60

SIGNIFICANCE
WITHOUT
MITIGATIONS

MITIGATION MEASURES

continue.
CULTURAL AND HERITAGE RESOURCES
Moderate
All identified heritage sites along the access road and areas to be cleared
shall be marked and fenced off or secured until the necessary SAHRA
permits have been obtained.
The defacing, damage or marking of any natural features such as rock
formations situated in or around site shall be strictly prohibited.
Any discovery of artefacts, fossils or articles of any value, graves or other
remains of archaeological interest discovered during the excavations
should be reported to the Environmental Manager, EMC representative
and SAHRA.
Construction activities shall cease immediately upon any discovery of
cultural and heritage resources and a qualified archaeologist informed to
do further assessment and reporting.
The site where cultural and heritage have been discovered shall be
cordoned until such time that an instruction to resume work is provided
to the contractor in writing, following consultation with the regulating
authorities.
All identified cultural and heritage sites on the entire property shall be
fenced off and not tampered with. Access to the sites shall be restricted
to the responsible person(s).
The digging of trenches and foundations shall be monitored by a qualified
archaeologist until completion thereof.
The existing Heritage Management Plan and recommendation as outlined
in the specialist study for Vele Colliery shall be implemented.
An archaeologist will be doing regular inspections during construction and
vegetation clearance in order to identify any sub-surface sites.
A Heritage educational and awareness programme is recommended for all
employees working on site, and where feasible, this initiative should be
extended to the affected communities in the area.
SOCIO-ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT
Moderate
Employees and communities environmental awareness programmes
should be implemented, this should also include, but not limited to health
and cultural related programmes.
To maintain and encourage positive impacts of the development,
employment, business and procurement opportunities for affected

SIGNIFICANCE WITH
MITIGATIONS

Low

Moderate

55 | P a g e

IMPACT/ENVIRONMENTAL
ASPECT
permanent and temporary job
opportunities; contribute to
poverty alleviation and LED
support; create procurement
opportunities at the local level;
and contribute positively to the
local economy.

RATING
S

SP

SIGNIFICANCE
WITHOUT
MITIGATIONS

MITIGATION MEASURES

The negative impacts associated


with the construction phase are:
possible population increase due
to the influx of workers and
people seeking employment in the
project area; possible increased
crime rate; possible incidences of
prostitution; and health risks,
including incidences of
transmissible diseases such as HIV
and AIDS.

SIGNIFICANCE WITH
MITIGATIONS

communities should be ongoing, with local small businesses and labour


given first preference.
The potential workforce skills and SMME should be identified from the
existing database, capacitated and supported.
Establishment of new Environmental/Community Forums or LCC
participation in existing forums in the area, to create an opportunity for
knowledge and information sharing with stakeholders and IAPs.
Implementation of the identified programmes in the Social and Labour
Plan, including the HIV/AIDS and health related awareness programmes.
Establish a Bursary scheme to build skills and capacities within the project
area and the entire region, especially amongst the youth.
Implementation and support of the economic development
programmes/initiatives in the project area.
Develop a communication procedure to be communicated to all role
players intended to facilitate open communication with affected
communities, adjacent landowners and other key stakeholders to address
issues regarding the issues related to the activities and processes of the
project.

56 | P a g e

Table 8: Operational Phase


IMPACT/ENVIRONMENTAL
ASPECT
BIOPHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT
Air Quality
The road infrastructure will be
used to access the mine site,
service the open pit, the
processing plant, workshops and
other associated infrastructure on
site and to transport product offsite.

RATING
S

SP

55

SIGNIFICANCE
WITHOUT
MITIGATIONS

Moderate

MITIGATION MEASURES

The impacts associated with this


activity during the operational
phase are impacts on air quality,
noise, increased mine traffic.

Soils
Soil erosion, compaction,
contamination, caused by
maintenance activities, water
accumulating at the culverts

40

Moderate

SIGNIFICANCE WITH
MITIGATIONS

Trucks and machinery transporting ore and coal product from the open pit
and from the Vele site shall be covered, with tarpaulin to minimise the
generation of coal dust the impact on ambient air quality.
The ore and coal product to be transported should be damped to reduce
the potential for wind action and emission of dust which will impact on air
quality.
The weather conditions shall be considered for the transportation plans
and schedules. The climatic data to be obtained from the onsite weather
station should be utilized.
The existing dust fallout monitoring shall continue throughout the
operational phase of the project to ensure statutory compliance.
The dust fallout levels shall be used and a management tool and early
warning system to prevent, control and manage the impacts of this source
of dust on air quality.
A PM10 monitoring site shall be established on site prior to transportation
of coal on the haul and access roads.
All trucks and vehicles on site shall be restricted to travel at a maximum
speed of 40 km/h.
The existing road signs that show maximum speed limits to be travelled at
the roads shall be kept and maintained.
Machinery and trucks shall be serviced at regular intervals and service
records kept. All trucks and machinery emitting excessive gases shall be
removed from site.
The fall height of trucks shall be kept low when loading and unloading of
haul trucks.
Dust suppression measures (watering) shall be applied at the roads and
coal stockpiles.

Moderate-Low

The moisture content of the soils shall be considered (surface shall be dry
with moisture content >8%) when maintenance machinery and vehicles
are operated on sites.
Culverts side walls shall be vegetated or compacted to ensure the safety

Low

57 | P a g e

IMPACT/ENVIRONMENTAL
ASPECT

RATING
S

SP

SIGNIFICANCE
WITHOUT
MITIGATIONS

eroding the slopes and


surrounding landscapes.

MITIGATION MEASURES

Noise
The sources of noise during the
operational phase will be
increased traffic due to continuous
use of the roads and ongoing
vegetation clearance.

50

Moderate

Fauna and Flora


Loss of biodiversity i.e. the killing
and injury of wild animals and
birds on the road, especially at
night due to light attraction.

65

High

SIGNIFICANCE WITH
MITIGATIONS

and stability of the structure, and further avoid loss of soils.


Storm water shall be diverted from the road surface to facilitate free
draining whilst minimizing potential for soil erosion.
Berms shall be vegetated (seeded) with indigenous grass species to
control erosion.
Vehicles and machinery shall be monitored regularly to detect (and fix)
any possible lubricants and hydrocarbons leakages as part of the routine
pre-inspections.
All vehicles and machinery should be parked at bunded designated
parking areas and be equipped with drip trays to contain any possible
leakages.
Moving machinery and vehicles should be restricted to demarcated
routes.
Spillages of hydrocarbons and lubricants should be minimized and any
polluted soils should be rehabilitated and handled in terms of the spill
management procedure.
Contaminated soils shall be remediated and replaced, while saturated
polluted soils that cannot be rehabilitated shall be disposed at a
hazardous waste disposal site.
Environmental penalties should form part of all contractors contracts and
employee KPIs.
To mitigate the noise impact associated with the use of the roads,
machinery and trucks shall be fitted with silencers or any acceptable
device that can reduce the noise levels.
Vehicles shall be operated and restricted to normal and reasonable hours
during the day and early evenings.
The ambient noise levels shall be for sensitive receptors.
Hearing protection shall be implemented with employees exposed to
ambient noise levels that exceed 75dBA eight hours per day provided with
hearing conservation devises and enforced by the Safety officers.

Moderate

All trucks and vehicles on site should be restricted to travel at a maximum


speed of 40 km/h and appropriate signage should be erected along the
road warning employees, contractors and visitors to adhere to speed
limits and be careful of wild animals.

Moderate

58 | P a g e

IMPACT/ENVIRONMENTAL
ASPECT

RATING
S

SP

SIGNIFICANCE
WITHOUT
MITIGATIONS

MITIGATION MEASURES

Migration of animals due to


increase noise levels and
continuous disturbance along the
roads.

Impact of coal dust on vegetation


communities along the roads.

Surface water
Surface water pollution and
erosion.

40

Moderate

SIGNIFICANCE WITH
MITIGATIONS

Disturbed areas shall be vegetated with indigenous grass species in order


to create habitats that will animal and bird life return to the rehabilitated
areas.
Undisturbed vegetation at the vicinity of the roads should be fenced off
and access to this area limited and restricted.
Soil erosion preventative measures such as diversion of water from the
roads shall be implemented.
Access to the riparian area must be controlled and restricted to
authorized employees mechanized flow meter reading system to be
used to avoid frequent visiting of the area.
Biodiversity and Plant Moisture Stress monitoring should continue
throughout the operational phase.
Rehabilitation of the riverine forest should commence.
Alien/exotic plants identified on site to be eradicated and controlled.
An Environmental educational and awareness programme is
recommended for all employees / contractors working on site, and where
feasible, this initiative should be extended to the affected communities in
the area.
In case of any spillage occurring at the roads, polluted soils shall be
removed (scraped) and rehabilitated, applying appropriate remedial
action, or alternatively treated as waste.
The road edges shall be monitored monthly as part of the routine
environmental inspection for signs or soil erosion and gullies.
The existing surface water quality monitoring shall be implemented for
the duration of the operational phase.

Low

Groundwater
Groundwater pollution.

12

Low

The existing groundwater quality monitoring shall be implemented for the


duration of the operational phase.

Low

Visual/Aesthetic
Visual impacts.

32

Low

Low

Indigenous vegetation along the road shall not be damaged for screening
purposes.
Dust suppression measures (watering) shall be implemented on the roads
during the operational phase of the project.

All identified heritage sites in or close to areas to be cleared shall be

Low

CULTURAL AND HERITAGE RESOURCES


Heritage sites may be negatively
4

40

Moderate

59 | P a g e

IMPACT/ENVIRONMENTAL
ASPECT

RATING
S

SP

SIGNIFICANCE
WITHOUT
MITIGATIONS

MITIGATION MEASURES

impacted during the ongoing


vegetation clearance activities.

SOCIO-ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT
The operation of the road will
have positive impacts on the
socio-economic environment in
terms of: creation of job
opportunities; contributing to
poverty alleviation and local
economic development; create
business and procurement
opportunities for the affected

60

Moderate

SIGNIFICANCE WITH
MITIGATIONS

marked and fenced off or secured until the necessary SAHRA permits have
been obtained.
The defacing, damage or marking of any natural features such as rock
formations situated in or around site shall be strictly prohibited.
Any discovery of artefacts, fossils or articles of any value, graves or other
remains of archaeological interest discovered during the clearance
activities should be reported to the Environmental Manager, EMC
representative and SAHRA.
All activities shall cease immediately upon any discovery of cultural and
heritage resources and a qualified archaeologist informed to do further
assessment and reporting.
The site where cultural and heritage have been discovered shall be
cordoned until such time that an instruction to resume work is provided
to the contractor in writing, following consultation with the regulating
authorities.
All identified cultural and heritage sites on the entire property shall be
fenced off and not tampered with. Access to the sites shall be restricted
to the responsible person(s).
The digging of trenches and foundations shall be monitored by a qualified
archaeologist until completion thereof.
The existing Heritage Management Plan and recommendation as outlined
in the specialist study for Vele Colliery shall be implemented.
An archaeologist will be doing regular inspections during construction and
vegetation clearance in order to identify any sub-surface sites.
A Heritage educational and awareness programme is recommended for all
employees working on site, and where feasible, this initiative should be
extended to the affected communities in the area.
Employees and communities environmental awareness programmes
should be implemented, this should also include, but not limited to health
and cultural related programmes.
To maintain positive impacts of the development, employment, business
and procurement opportunities for affected communities should be
ongoing, with local small businesses and labour given a preference. The
potential workforce skills and SMMEs should be identified from the
existing database.
Implementation of the identified programmes in the Social and Labour

Moderate

60 | P a g e

IMPACT/ENVIRONMENTAL
ASPECT
communities; contribute to the
local economy and the GDP;
upliftment and contribution to the
development of the affected
communities; and provision of
transportation infrastructure to
support service providers to
render services.

RATING
S

SP

SIGNIFICANCE
WITHOUT
MITIGATIONS

MITIGATION MEASURES

SIGNIFICANCE WITH
MITIGATIONS

Plan, including the HIV/AIDS and health related awareness programmes.

61 | P a g e

Table 9: Decommissioning or Closure Phase


IMPACT/ENVIRONMENTAL
ASPECT
Air Quality
The impact on air quality as a
result of the rehabilitation of the
roads and cleared areas within the
mining area.

RATING
S

SP

32

SIGNIFICANCE
WITHOUT
MITIGATION MEASURES
MITIGATIONS
BIOPHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT
Low

Soils
Soil erosion and compaction.

20

Low

Noise
The sources of noise pollution shall
be vehicles and trucks used for
rehabilitation of the roads and
cleared areas.
Surface water
Sedimentation of the adjacent
non-perennial stream and
deterioration of the surface water
quality when surface runoff is in
contact spillages/eroded areas.

24

Low

32

Low

SIGNIFICANCE WITH
MITIGATIONS

The existing ambient air quality monitoring shall continue throughout the
decommissioning phase.
All trucks and vehicles on site shall be restricted to travel at a maximum
speed of 40 km/h.
Dust suppression measures (watering) shall be applied on the roads
during the entire decommissioning and closure phase.
Cleared areas will be levelled and rehabilitated in line with the approved
Rehabilitation and Closure Plan for Vele Colliery.
The areas should be revegetated with indigenous hardy species.
Alien/exotic plants identified on site to be eradicated and controlled.

Low

Areas shall be sloped in to resemble the topography and pre-construction


aspects and contours.
The compacted soil shall be rigged, loosened and fertilized before reestablishment of indigenous vegetation.
Surface water shall be diverted from the rehabilitated areas to minimise
soil erosion.

Low

To mitigate the noise impact associated with the use of the roads,
machinery and trucks should be fitted with silencers or any acceptable
device that can reduce the noise levels.
The ambient noise levels should be monitored and maintained within the
levels specified by statutes and best practices standards.

Low

Machinery and equipment shall be monitored and maintained and oil or


fuel leaks on vehicles or machinery repaired.
Final slopes will be designed to minimise erosion and increase in
sedimentation.
Levelled areas will be vegetated as soon as possible to prevent erosion.
The existing surface water quality monitoring shall continue for the
duration of the closure phase.

Low

62 | P a g e

IMPACT/ENVIRONMENTAL
ASPECT

RATING
S

SIGNIFICANCE
WITHOUT
MITIGATIONS

SP

MITIGATION MEASURES

12

Low

The existing groundwater quality monitoring programme currently


implemented shall continue for the duration of the closure phase.

32

Low

To improve the visual impact, the cleared areas shall be rehabilitated to


its original pre-development state as soon as practically possible.

SIGNIFICANCE WITH
MITIGATIONS

Groundwater
Groundwater Pollution.
Visual/Aesthetic
The rehabilitation of the area will
have a long term positive visual
impact.

Low

High
(Positive)

CULTURAL AND HERITAGE RESOURCES


There will be no negative impacts
on the cultural and heritage
resources associated with the
decommissioning phase.
The closure of the mine will have
negative impact on the socioeconomic environment. It will lead
to job losses, poverty, loss of
income and increase
unemployment, negative impact
on the local economic
development, loss of business and
procurement opportunities,
negative impact to the local
economy and the GDP, possible
increased crime rate.

80

SOCIO-ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT
High
To sustain the positive impacts of the development, business and
procurement the Company should continue supporting the business
initiatives in the area including SMMEs.
The Company shall continue implementing the identified programmes in
the Social and Labour Plan, including the HIV/AIDS and health related
awareness programmes
The proponent shall implement skills transfer programmes and manage
retrenchments in accordance with the Social and Labour Plan.

Moderate-High

63 | P a g e

Table 10: Post Closure Phase


IMPACT/ENVIRONMENTAL
ASPECT

Soils contamination
Vegetation
Fencing
Groundwater and surface
water pollution
Biodiversity

RATING
S

SP

52

SIGNIFICANCE
WITHOUT
MITIGATION MEASURES
MITIGATIONS
BIOPHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT
Moderate
The surface and groundwater quality monitoring should continue after
decommission for at least two years or until a closure certificate is issued
by the DMR in consultation with the DWA and other state Departments.
Any conditions as set by authorities should be adhered to.
Fencing should only be dismantled or removed after successful
rehabilitation.
The static ground water levels should be monitored for a period of two
years after closure.
Vegetation re-growth should be monitored and all alien species growing
on rehabilitated sites controlled and eradicated.
All signs of soil erosion i.e. gullies should be repaired or fixed.
Rehabilitated sites to be monitored, especially after heavy rains for signs
of erosion.
The post closure after care maintenance and monitoring should be
conducted by a qualified specialist with the rehabilitation report compiled
and submitted to the relevant authorities for consideration prior to the
issuing of a closure certificate.

SIGNIFICANCE WITH
MITIGATIONS
Positive

64 | P a g e

Table 11: Cumulative Impacts


IMPACT/ENVIRONMENTAL
ASPECT
Land use and capability
Surface alteration and disturbance
of the soil layers and structure will
impact on pre-mining land use and
capability, i.e. the capability of the
land to support pre-development
land use (conservation) which is
associated with loss of biodiversity
and sense of place.
Noise
The development from holistic
point of view will cause increased
noise levels and affect residents
and communities in the
surroundings.
Dust
The impact of dust will have a
significant cumulative impact on
the receiving environment and
surroundings. The activities will
contribute to the other existing
sources of dust i.e. agricultural
activities. Dust and coal dust in
particular, will impact negatively
on soils and vegetation.
Water Use
The abstraction of water for the
development will have direct
cumulative impacts on other water
users, including agriculture and
farming which could result in
potential water conflicts.

RATING

SIGNIFICANCE
WITHOUT
MITIGATION MEASURES
MITIGATIONS
BIOPHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT

SIGNIFICANCE WITH
MITIGATIONS

SP

75

High

Land to be rehabilitated to resemble the pre-development land use.


A rehabilitation strategy taking cognisance of the closure objective shall
be developed and implemented.

45

Moderate

To mitigate the noise impact associated with the use of the roads,
machinery and trucks should be fitted with silencers or any acceptable
device that can reduce the noise levels.
The ambient noise levels should be monitored and maintained within the
levels specified by statutes and best practices standards.

Moderate-Low

The existing dust fallout monitoring shall continue throughout the


operational phase of the project to ensure statutory compliance.
The dust fallout levels shall be used and a management tool and early
warning system to prevent, control and manage the impacts of this source
of dust on air quality.

Moderate-Low

The existing groundwater and surface water quality monitoring


programme currently implemented shall continue for the duration of the
lifespan of the mine.
A water management strategy shall be developed and implemented.
Water use, management and reporting on sue shall be conducted in
accordance with the existing Water Use License.

Moderate

50

Moderate

70

High

Moderate

65 | P a g e

8 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN


This part of the report provide details of the environmental plan, methods and procedures for
monitoring the identified significant impacts of the commenced activities in order to reduce or
eliminate negative impacts throughout the project life cycle. It should be noted that the
environmental impacts or objectives in respect of the planning and design and pre-construction
phases of the project are not addressed as these have already been addressed in the approved EMP.
The EMP framework provides mechanisms for monitoring compliance with and performance
assessment against the identified environmental impacts. The monitoring programme will detect
trends and changes to enable intervention or remedial measures to be taken in order to achieve
good environmental performance. The monitoring programme entails the appropriate technique for
collection, analysis and interpretation of data for each environmental component.
The environmental awareness and training programme describing the manner in which LCC intends
to inform employees of any environmental risks which may result and how the impacts should be
dealt with is described. The environmental and awareness training programme aims to enable the
employees to understand their roles and responsibilities in achieving the environmental
management objectives specified in this Chapter.
In summary, the EMP framework describes the manner in which to modify, remedy, control or stop
any action, activity or process which causes pollution or environmental degradation ensuring
compliance with the prescribed environmental management standards or practices.
In order to avoid duplication or repetition, management measures and costs are outlined in Table 12
for all phases of the project i.e. construction, operation, decommissioning and post closure phases of
the activities. The time periods extend to the post closure phases of the activities while the costs
reflected are either presented as per annum or the total cost over the implementation period.
The environmental monitoring and action plan, to measure performance of the entire environmental
management programme, is outlined in Table 13. The following environmental aspects are already
monitored on site i.e. noise, ambient air quality, plant moisture stress, surface and groundwater
quality (including static levels). The monitoring data is collated and analysed on a continuous basis to
enhance conformance with the set environmental management objective and compliance with
statutory requirements.

66 | P a g e

8.1 Detailed Environmental Management Plan


Table 12: Environmental Management Plan
MANAGEMENT OBJECTIVES

CONTROL, MITIGATIONS OR REMEDIAL ACTIONS

BUDGET

RESPONSIBILITY

TIME FRAME

To control and reduce the


generation of dust and emission of
gaseous substances into the
atmosphere, including the
associated exposure and health
risks.

Dust suppression and use of Dustex on roads, dampening of


material and spraying of topsoil and coal stockpiles to
minimise the impact of dust and coal dust.

R600,000

Site Manager, Environmental


Control Officer (ECO) and
Environmental Manager
(EM)

2 weeks after
commencement

Construction of speed humps on the access road to enforce


adherence to speed limit of 40 km/h and maximum speed
limit road signs.

R250, 000

Site Engineer

6 months

Maintenance and implementation of the dust fallout


monitoring and analysis in accordance with SANS 1929: 2005.

R 200, 000

Environmental Manager,
EMC, ECO

Immediate

Develop, implement, evaluate and monitor a method


statement and management programme for air quality
management on site.

R 70, 000

Environmental Manager,
ECO

4 months

Maintenance and management of all exposed surface.

R400, 000

Site Manager

Immediate

Management and maintenance and reporting on the climatic


/ meteorological data using the onsite weather station (e.g.
wind and precipitation), including recording and
interpretation of data for work schedules.

R50, 000

EM

Immediate

Application of water on the construction material, soils and


overburden during pre-loading and transportation.

R600, 000

Site Engineer

Immediate

Establish a single PM10 monitoring site.

R60,000

Environmental Manager

8 months

Develop the erosion control strategy and implementation soil


erosion control measures such as. stockpiles cladding,
vegetation of berms, irrigation etc.

R1.2 m

Site Engineer

2 years

To conserve the soil resource and


maintain the viability of soils
disturbed by the development,

67 | P a g e

MANAGEMENT OBJECTIVES

CONTROL, MITIGATIONS OR REMEDIAL ACTIONS

BUDGET

RESPONSIBILITY

TIME FRAME

through the implementation of soil


erosion control measures and
avoidance of soil contamination
and compaction.

Restriction of access to undisturbed areas and restriction of


vehicles and machinery to demarcated routes and sites.

R300, 000

Security Manager

Immediate

Development and implementation a spillage procedure,


including the handling, remediation and management and
disposal of contaminated soils.

R300, 000

Environmental Manager

Immediate

Implement the developed storm water diversion plan.

To prevent the public, adjacent


landowners and employees
exposure to excessive noise
pollution or excessive noise levels.

Site Manager / Site Engineer


R1.2 m

Site Engineer and Site


Manager, Environment
Manager

12 months

Service and maintenance of mobile machinery and vehicles


operating on site, including parking at designated bunded
areas.

Best Practice

Foreman, Mechanical
Engineer

immediate

Fitment of all trucks, equipment and machinery silencers and


regular testing of devices.

Best Practice

Foreman, Engineer

2 months

Development and implementation of work schedules.

Best Practice

Human Resource Manager,


Site Manager

Immediate

R800, 000

Environmental Manager and


Site Engineer

Immediate

Implementation of the hearing protection programme for


employees exposed to ambient noise levels exceeding 75dBA
eight hours per day.

Best Practice

Chief Safety Officer, Site


Managers and Safety
Officers.

1 month

Erection of visible hearing protection signage to warn


employees of exposure to high noise levels at strategic sites.

R 50 000

Chief Safety Officer, Site


Engineer

1 month

Induction of employees and contractors in hearing protection


and noise reduction techniques.

R 200 000

Environmental Manager or
Training Officer

Immediate

Monitoring and implementation of ambient noise level


system in line with the statutory requirements and best
practices i.e. SANS 10328, 2008.

68 | P a g e

MANAGEMENT OBJECTIVES

To prevent, conserve, control fauna


and flora, including minimising the
impact of the development on the
ecological functioning of the area.

To prevent surface water pollution


(immediate non-perennial streams)
and facilitate compliance with
statutory requirements.

CONTROL, MITIGATIONS OR REMEDIAL ACTIONS

BUDGET

RESPONSIBILITY

TIME FRAME

Recording and maintenance of the complaints register,


including investigations of complaints.

R 150 000

Environmental Manager

Immediate

Fencing of the undisturbed vegetated areas, the slurry dam


and associated processing plant area and implementation of
access restriction measures on site.

R 800,000

Security Manager

6 months

Site patrols and establishment of the anti-poaching reaction


unit.

R800, 000

Security Manager

Immediate

Control and management of alien plant species in accordance


with Regulation 15 and 16 of CARA, 1983.

R950 000

Environmental Manager

12 months

Maintenance of rescued plant species and monitoring of


transplanted plants.

R900,000

Nursery Manager,
Environmental Manager

Immediate

Establishment of equipped indigenous nursery with to grow


and maintain indigenous woody plants for future
rehabilitation.

R1.5 m

Nursery Manager,
Environmental Manager

14 months

Implementation of the existing storm water management


plan.

R1.2 m

Site Engineer, Environmental


Manager

6 months

Implementation of soil erosion mitigation and control


measures including vegetation of berms and side walls.

R1.25m

Rehabilitation Officer

6 months

Rehabilitation Officer

Environmental Manager
Engineer

Monitoring of equipment and machinery for oil or fuel leaks


including the fixing or repair of leaks.

R100 000

Safety Officer

Immediate

Provision and placement of spill kits or absorbent materials at


strategic sites.

R100,000

Site Manager

Immediate

R1.5m

Waste Contractor

Immediate

Collection of refuse and solid waste.

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MANAGEMENT OBJECTIVES

CONTROL, MITIGATIONS OR REMEDIAL ACTIONS

BUDGET

RESPONSIBILITY

TIME FRAME

Monitoring of surface water quality at identified monitoring


points.

R600,000

Environmental Manager

Immediate

To prevent onsite and offsite


potential sources of groundwater
contamination by reducing the risk
and further facilitate compliance
with all applicable statutory
requirements.

Lining of the slurry dam with 1.5 mm HDPE plastic liner.

R800,000

Engineer, Appointed
contractor.

2 months

Implementation of the groundwater quality monitoring


programme.

R300, 000

Environmental Manager

Immediate

To minimise the visual impact of


the infrastructure to the public and
adjacent landowners.

Dust suppression measures implementation.

R350,000

Engineer, Contractor

Immediate

Environmental Manager
Site Manager
Vegetation of berms and side slopes.

To enhance the positive socioeconomic benefits of the project.

R1.2 m

Rehabilitation Officer

6 months

Control and monitoring of vegetation at the vicinity of the


infrastructure.

Best Practice

Rehabilitation Officer

Immediate

Selection and utilization of non-reflective material for the


construction phase of the project.

Best Practice

Implementation of the employees and communities


environmental awareness programmes.

Environmental Manager
Site Engineer,

Immediate

Site Manager
R250, 000

Environmental Manager

6 months

Chief Safety Officer


Human Resource Manager

Facilitation of procurement opportunities for affected


communities and local businesses.

Best Practice

General Manager, SLP


Officer

Immediate

Support for the SMME and potential workforce on the


existing database.

R2.5 m

General Manager, SLP


Officer

3 months

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MANAGEMENT OBJECTIVES

CONTROL, MITIGATIONS OR REMEDIAL ACTIONS

BUDGET

RESPONSIBILITY

TIME FRAME

Best Practice

Environmental Manager

6 months

R3.5 m

SLP Officer

8 months

Implementation and support of the economic development


programmes/initiatives.

Best Practice

General Manager, SLP


Officer

Ongoing

Development and implementation of the environmental


communication procedure.

Best Practice

Environmental Manager

4 months

R200,000

Site Manager

3 months

Best Practice

Environmental Manager

Ongoing

R100,000

Archaeologist

Immediate

Best Practice

Environmental Manager

2 months

Implementation, maintenance and recording of the ambient


air quality monitoring on and off site in line with SANS 1929:
2005.

R200, 000

Environment Manager

3 months

Oversee statutory compliance and performance and


compliance to environmental authorization and EMP.

R 80 000

EMC

6 months

Establishment of the Environmental Forum and participation


of LCC in existing Forums in the project area.
Implementation of the Social and Labour Plan, including a
Bursary Scheme.

Fencing and marking of all identified heritage.


Communication and reporting on Cultural and Heritage
Resources to SAHRA.
Preservation of any artefacts found on site.
Implementation of the Cultural and Heritage awareness
programme for employees.

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8.2 Environmental Monitoring Programme


Table 13: Environmental Monitoring Programme

ENVIRONMENTAL COMPONENT

MONITORING
METHOD/PARAMETERS

Dust fallout monitoring

To determine the levels of dust


outfall as a result of the mining
activities with directional single
and four dust fallout bucket
system. Settleable dust particles
2
measured in mg/m /day.

Monitoring for signs of leakages and


corrosion

Signs of seepages, leakages on


joints.

Soil analysis

To determine any deficiencies in


soil fertility prior to seeding,
through the soil samples taken at
the soil stockpiles.

Environmental noise levels

To determine the noise levels


within the communities and
sensitive areas - Infrastructure
areas.
Sensitive receptors within 35dBA
noise isopleths.

Invertebrates monitoring and survival


patterns

Monitoring of the biodiversity and


impact on distribution on the
entire property.

Ecological and habitat integrity

Habitat assessment, water and


physical chemical state.

MONITORING FREQUENCY
PERIOD/SCHEDULE
D

X
X

MANAGEMENT OBJECTIVE

Continuous. Dust monitoring


programme is already undertaken
on site. The monitoring
programme will continue with the
dust samples analysed on a
monthly basis.

To manage the levels of dust


fallout and impact of dust on
the receiving atmosphere.

Monthly, three months after


commencement of activities.

Reduce the potential for soil


contamination.

Quarterly, three months after


commencement of the activities.

To maintain the soil fertility and


reduce the potential for soil
erosion.

Monthly, 1 month after


commencement of activities.

To control and reduce the


potential noise associated with
the operation of the
infrastructure.

Quarterly, 1 month after


commencement of activities.

Ensure compliance with


biodiversity legislation and
protection.

Protect aquatic life,


systems and integrity.
Compliance with statutes
and best standards.

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ENVIRONMENTAL COMPONENT

MONITORING
METHOD/PARAMETERS

MONITORING FREQUENCY
D

PERIOD/SCHEDULE

MANAGEMENT OBJECTIVE
Determine effectiveness of land
use management and the
rehabilitation initiatives.

Vegetation audit

To determine effectiveness of land


use management plan and longterm sustainability of vegetated
areas, through field surveys.

Annually, 12 months after the


commencement of the activities.

Riverine forest

To determine the impact on the


riverine forest as a result of the
activities i.e. water abstraction.

Bi-annually. 2 years after


commencement of activities.

Alien vegetation

To monitor conformance with


alien vegetation programme
field surveys.

Monthly

Surface water chemistry monitoring and


management

Monitoring of surface water as


recommended in specialist studies
through grab samples.
The variables include: EC, pH, TDS,
SS, Cl, SO4, NO3,Na, F, Fe, Al, Mn,
Zn, Total Alkalinity, Ca, Mg, K,
Total Hardness, hydrocarbons.

Monthly and 3 months after


commencement of the activities.

Improve, manage, reduce


(maintain) and avoid impacts on
surface water quality.
Compliance with the water
management standards.

Clean water canals downstream and the


clean water canals/storm water systems

Determine the sediment levels or


any other contamination prior to
discharge into the Limpopo River.

Roads or river crossings

To identify and mitigate any


spillages into the clean water
system.

Weekly. 1 month after


commencement.

Improve, manage, reduce


(maintain) and avoid impacts on
surface water quality.

Groundwater static levels

Monitoring of static water levels


and management through the
groundwater monitoring
programme.

Monthly and 1 month after


commencement of the activities.

Reduce and control the impact


of the activities on groundwater
natural systems flow patterns
i.e. dewatering.

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ENVIRONMENTAL COMPONENT

MONITORING
METHOD/PARAMETERS

Groundwater quality

Monitoring and management of


water quality in line with the
applicable standards through the
high integrity grab samples. The
following parameters will be
monitored: EC, pH, TDS, SS, Cl,
SO4, NO3, Na, F, Fe, Al, Mn, Zn,
Total Alkalinity, Ca, Mg, K, and
Total Hardness.

Management of water volumes


abstracted at refurbished boreholes at
Limpopo River

Meter reading records and


calculation of the daily, weekly,
monthly and annual water (use) or
water balance for mine processing
and other activities.

Heritage/cultural resources

Capture all heritage or cultural


resources exposed by the
development, through field site
assessments.

MONITORING FREQUENCY
PERIOD/SCHEDULE
D

MANAGEMENT OBJECTIVE

P
Improve groundwater
management, control and
minimise the potential
groundwater pollution.

Continuous, 1 month after


commencement of the activities.

Maintain the determined


volumes and minimise impacts
on base flow and the reserve
and avoid stressing the water
resource.

Continuous through the operation


of the activities 3 months after
commencement of the activities.

To maintain and avoid the


impact of activities on heritage
resources.

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8.3 Environmental Awareness Plan


This section of the EMP Framework provides details on the manner in which LCC intends to inform
employees and contractors on all environmental risks that may result and the manner in which the
risks would be dealt with in order to avoid pollution or degradation of the environment. The
Environmental Awareness Plan has adopted both reactive and proactive approaches for high and
low risk activities.
The awareness plan will be implemented at all employees levels i.e. junior, senior and middle
management levels (for unskilled, semiskilled and skilled workforce). In general, the objectives of the
environmental awareness plan will be to:

ensure that all employees understand the Environmental Policies and Objectives;

ensure that information regarding the environment is communicated effectively and is


readily accessible to all relevant parties;

improve feedback of operational and environmental performance to management; and

ensure that environmental communication and interactions are documented and recorded
and accessible.

The formal training, awareness campaigns, sharing of environmental information in meetings and
issuing of management instructions will be used to inform employees of potential environmental
degradation, compliance levels and feedback on implementation of the required standards.

8.3.1 Induction Programme


All new employees and contractors carrying out work on the entire mine property will undergo the
environmental induction programme. Included in the programme will be all relevant environmental
aspects and conditions of the environmental authorization. The advanced environmental
programme will be conducted and employees performing specific tasks (e.g. workshop workers) that
have a high risk potential to impact negatively on the receiving environment will undergo specific
training. All employees will as a condition of employment, be subject to undergo the annual
environmental refresher programme.

8.3.2 Advanced Training Programme


An advanced awareness programme will be conducted for all employees in line with the job
descriptions or work specific tasks, after the initial environmental induction training has been
conducted. The training will be applicable and specific to certain employees working in specialized

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areas of the operation. The training will include, but not limited to: waste management, spill kit
training, conservation of water, soil, energy and oil, and fire-fighting.

8.3.3 Working Groups


LCC will identify appropriate employees to be included as members of the Environmental
Management Working Group, including the management team, to form the EMS working group
established to discuss environmental issues on a monthly basis. Environmental Action Plans will be
compiled at each meeting and followed up by the Chairperson of the EMS Group at each meeting.

8.3.4 Environmental Awareness


Awareness raising initiatives to capacitate both employees and communities and equip them with
environmental knowledge will be implemented. Environmental news flashes with relevant messages
will be distributed and placed at strategic sites on a monthly basis. The environmental news flashes
will be discussed in employees environmental forums and form part of the toolbox talks. Awareness
raising intervention will further be conducted for specific employees in areas where constant
environmental non-compliance activities are experienced. The most effective communication
methods will be utilized to communicate environmental topics.
The environmental information sharing sessions on environmental risks and performance will be
conducted. All employees will be afforded an opportunity to interrogate environmental issues.
Monitoring and environmental performance reports will be made available to employees and
managers of specific business units.

8.4 Closure Objectives


The closure objectives for the activities i.e. the slurry dam and the haul roads will be to restore the
land as close as possible to the pre development land use. A closure strategy which aims to achieve
the closure objective shall be developed and circulated amongst stakeholders. The main objective
would be to promote the rapid re-establishment of natural vegetation and restoration of the
disturbed ecology. The boreholes and associated pipelines, airstrip access road and the main access
roads will remain and maintained for future use by conservation and farming communities in the
project area.

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8.5 Financial Liability


The Company made financial provision of R69 million (March 2014) as part of the mining
development. The financial liability is reviewed annually to satisfy the requirements of the MPRDA,
2002. LCC commits to the annual environmental budget of R9.5m for environmental management
on site, which includes monitoring and implementation of the EMP. The Company has the financial
capacity / resources to implement the mitigation measures outlined in this report.

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9 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS BY EAP


This (and previous) EIA reveals that the activities will have both negative and positive impacts during
the project developmental and operational phases; however, the proposed amendments to the
approved Environmental Authorisation will have a negligible cumulative impact and with the
implementation of the recommended mitigation measures, the negative impacts can be avoided,
and where not possible, reduced to acceptable levels.
It is the view of the EAP that the EMC plays a critical role to ensure efficient implementation of the
mitigation and monitoring programmes contained in this report. The precautionary approach needs
to be applied and guide all relevant actions in this regard. In light of the assessment and evaluation
of the activities and the positive and negative impacts, it is recommended that a positive
Environmental Authorisation be issued for the amendments to the listed activities, with the
following conditions:

An independent external Environmental Control Officer (ECO) is appointed by LCC to oversee


the implementation of the EMP and Environmental Authorization. The credentials of the
ECO have been forwarded to the DEA prior to finalisation of the appointment. In the event
of a new ECO being appointed, prior to appointment, the credentials shall be forwarded to
the DEA.

Quarterly environmental performance audit must be conducted, and the compliance report
submitted to the DEA and LEDET. It is further recommended that the compliance report be
submitted to DWA and DAFF.

The EMC should monitor the implementation and compliance of the Environmental
Authorization and EMP.

A comprehensive closure strategy for the commenced activities should be compiled and
submitted to the Department within a period of 12 months after the issuance of the
environmental authorisation.

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10 REFERENCE LIST
Bohlweki SSI Environmental, May 2009. Air Quality Impact Assessment Report for the Proposed
Limpopo Coal Mining Operation.
Conningarth Economics, April 2009. Macroeconomic Impact Assessment of the proposed Vele
Colliery near Musina, Limpopo Final Report.
Dubel Integrated Environmental Services, April 2009. Description of the Natural Environment and
Biodiversity Impact Assessment of the planned Vele Colliery.
Dubel Integrated Environmental Services, January 2010. Basic Assessment Report for Mine Access
Road.
Durandt, J.F., March 2009. Vele Colliery Project Desktop Study Palaeontology.
Dyambwinin Projects Solutions, July 2011. Vele Colliery Section 24G application. Environmental
Impact Report and Environmental Management Programme.
Frans Roodt, April 2009. Heritage Impact Assessment Report Proposed Vele Colliery, Weipe,
Vhembe District Municipality: Limpopo Province.
Jongens Keet Associates, May 2009. Noise Impact Assessment of the Planned Vele Colliery
Final Report.
MetroGIS (Pty) Ltd, April 2009. Visual Impact Assessment for the Proposed Vele Colliery.
Naledi Development (Pty) Ltd, May 2009. Limpopo Coal Company (Pty) Ltd Vele Colliery SocioEconomic Impact Assessment.
Siyathembana Trading 923 (Pty) Ltd, April 2012. Heritage Impact Assessment Report and
Management Plan relating to the establishment of the Vele Colliery near Mapungubwe World
Heritage Site, Musina, Limpopo Province: South Africa.
WSM Leshika Consulting (Pty) Ltd, April 2009. Vele Colliery project: Environmental Impact
Assessment on the Groundwater.
WSM Leshika Consulting (Pty) Ltd, April 2009. Vele Colliery project: Environmental Impact
Assessment on the Surface Water.

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11 LIST OF ANNEXURES
ANNEX-A:

CURRICULUM VITAE OF EAP AND PP SPECIALIST

ANNEX-B:

SPECIALIST DECLARATIONS

ANNEX-C:

BASIC ASSESSMENT REPORT FOR MINE ACCESS ROAD, DUBEL INTEGRATED


ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES (JANUARY 2010)

ANNEX-D:

PUBLIC PARTICIPATION RECORDS

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