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Peacemaking an Essential element of Church Mission A UCCP Perspective Victor R. Aguilan Divinity School Silliman University Dumaguete, Philippines email@example.com 24-27 May 2009
In the Philippines there are two on-going armed rebellions. One is led by the Communist Party of the Philippines; its united front-the National Democratic Front and its armed wing - the New People’s Army (CPP-NDF-NPA).1 The NDF uses violence to advance its power. During election campaigns, the NPA engages in “revolutionary” taxations, threats and violence to support its candidates and harass opponents. In 2006, the government declared "all-out war" against the communists. The consequence was a wave of extra-judicial killings of left-wing activists.2 The other one is the Muslim rebellion in Mindanao led by the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF).3 The recent clashes between government forces and the 12,000-strong MILF have displaced more than 500,000.4 Amnesty International reported an estimate of a total of 120,000 deaths and a further 2 million displaced from the conflict over a period of 40 years.5 The Church recognizes that these on-going armed conflicts between the government forces and rebels continue to pose a significant threat to life, liberty and the development of the nation. The need to end civil strife, to uphold human rights and to attain peace has become an urgent call. Peace is one of the important issues which the UEM has given emphasis. The United Church of Christ in the Philippines (UCCP), a UEMmember church, is one of the Protestant Churches in the Philippines which responded to this urgent call.6
The UCCP believes that peacemaking is an essential element of the mission of the Church in the Philippines today. This paper will attempt to analyze the peacemaking ministry of the UCCP. It will have two parts. The first part will focus on the concept of peace and the UCCP understanding of peace and peacemaking. It will also highlight human rights issues, the problem of militarization, and issue on Church-State relations. The last part will discuss the theological bases of peacemaking. Peace and Peacemaking: A Definition Defining the peace concept according to Johan Galtung and Ho-Won Jeong, is enormously tricky given the wide range of meanings it has been given by prominent diplomats, scholars, activists and educators.7 In their individual studies, they concluded that peace could be defined in two ways, namely: negative and positive peace.8 Negative peace is the absence of direct violence (physical, verbal, and psychological) between individuals, groups, and governments. The concept of negative peace addresses immediate symptoms, the conditions of war, and the use and effects of weapons. 9 The second way of understanding peace according to Galtung is as positive peace. Positive peace implies reconciliation and restoration through creative transformation of conflict. It is more than the absence of violence or war; it is the presence of social justice through equal opportunity, a fair distribution of power and resources, equal protection and impartial rule of law. The concept of positive peace involves the elimination of the root causes of war, violence, and injustice and entails the conscious effort to build a society that reflects these commitments.10 The National Council of Churches in the Philippines (NCCP) also attempted to define peace.11 The term shalom, a Hebrew word, is used in the NCCP documents to
define peace. To quote from the document entitled “The Effects of Righteousness will be Peace (A Vision of Peace)”, Shalom. . . is a state of well-being and wholeness of life that embraces harmony with one's neighbors and social relations, with nature and creation, and with one's self. It’s attainment involves a transformation of economic, social and political life so that these begin to embody justice and righteousness, of our relations with nature, and with the whole of creation so that these begin to embody care and respect for God's purposes for them, and of ourselves so that we embody in our lives righteousness, love and human compassion.12 Thus, the Biblical understanding of peace is holistic and encompassing. It contains both the negative and positive meanings of peace. UCCP Understanding of Peace In the UCCP perspective on peace and peacemaking both “positive” and “negative” meaning could be found. This notion of peace is reflected in the well-known UCCP statement, Peacemaking: Our Ministry, which says: 13 Genuine and lasting peace comes when people’s needs are served For as long as peasants remain landless For as long as laborers do not receive just wages For as long as we are politically and economically dominated by foreign nations For as long as we channel more money to the military than to basic social services, For as long as the causes of social unrest remain untouched, There will be no peace.14 However, the search for negative peace appeared to be the focus of the peacemaking ministry of the UCCP. Many of the issues or campaigns of the UCCP were conflict de-escalation activities.15 To address the armed conflict the UCCP has engaged and advocated on the following: 1. monitoring of, exposing, protesting against, and legal measures to address human rights violations resulting from insurgent and/or counter-insurgency operations; 2. calling for the resumption of peace talks and forging of ceasefires;
3. relief and rehabilitation for internal refugees and other victims caught in the crossfire; 4. the establishment of peace zones or sanctuaries to demilitarize the armed conflicts; 5. the campaign to observe international humanitarian law in the conduct of the war; and 6. opposition to militarization and total war approach in resolving the armed conflict. The peacemaking ministry of the UCCP could be categorized as a citizenapproach to peacemaking. Several practitioners and scholars have called this approach by various names: conflict transformation,16 third side, 17 and just peace. 18 Church and religious groups are viewed as “third side” or “third party” to the ongoing conflict between the state and the non-state armed groups. They are in a better position to engage in intermediary peace building basically on account of their established neutrality, credibility and non-antagonistic relationship with the state and non-state armed agents. A citizen approach is a strategy that places an emphasis on the role of the community members with regard to steering conflicts away from violence and towards just and lasting peace. It focuses on actions which the congregations, local churches and individual Christians can do to prevent war or deescalate deadly conflict. To give three examples from the UCCP experience: In 1990 the Executive Committee adopted the statement entitled, A Declaration Against Violence issued by the Council of Bishops.19 The Bishops became concerned about the alarming increase of violence and senseless killings in society. To address the escalating violence the Church recommended concrete actions. To the government the Bishops recommended the abolition of the para-military units. They also recommended the immediate termination of the U.S. Bases agreement. To the rebels and soldiers, - they
should stop all strafing, bombings and ambushes, respect the rights of civilians and other non-combatants; and return to the negotiating table to deal with a comprehensive settlement of insurgency. The Bishops admonished the weapons manufacturers to stop making weapons and instead, produce equipment that supports and enhances life. The Bishops also requested all Christians and people of other faiths to “be true instruments of peace.” Another example is the UCCP statement declaring the Churches as Sanctuaries and Zones of Peace.20 The total war strategy of the government had resulted in the displacement of people and communities in conflict-torn areas. The Churches saw the influx of internal refugees or internally displaced people (IDP) caught in the crossfire between the government forces and rebels. The UCCP offered its buildings and premises as sanctuaries for the internal refugees. “As sanctuaries, these places and premises are open to all people—regardless of color and creed, sex and status, and of political and religious affiliation—at all times in all circumstances of need.” The UCCP welcomed all those needing sanctuary “to use these places for protection, study, reflection, retreat, prayers and meditation, or simply for rest and quiet.” As zones of peace, the Churches “are to be used for activities that build community and contribute to a deeper understanding of and commitment to peace and justice.” In addition, arms or weapons should not be brought to the places and premises designated as zones of peace. The UCCP also asked government soldiers and armed rebels “to respect and support this decision for the sake of Jesus, the Prince of Peace.” And during the 8th Quadrennial General Assembly on May 27, 2006 the Assembly adopted a “Resolution and Statement of Great Concern Regarding the
Current Explosive Breakout in Human Rights Violations.” It was a response to “the increasing number of militants who had been liquidated under circumstances that seemingly point to the military as responsible” and which included some church members and leaders of the UCCP. Appealing to the Church’s prophetic role, the UCCP is called “to strongly decry and denounce the ongoing unmitigated killings of militants and activists in our society, and hereby call upon the military leadership, especially the Commander-in-Chief, President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, to immediately cause the stopping of these extra-judicial executions, and to employ all means to bring to justice, without delay, all those responsible in the commission of the crimes.” The UCCP also urges all local churches “to organize and mobilize so as to address effectively this particular upsurge in human rights violations.” And finally the Church encourages and supports “lawyer-members of the Church, in all the jurisdictions” to organize for the purpose of defending those who are victims of human rights violations. Issues connected with Peacemaking ministry As I have analyzed the many documents of the UCCP there are three issues which intertwined with the peacemaking of the Church. These are human rights, militarization and Church-State relations Human Rights. The Church has consistently emphasized that the protection of human rights is integral with the Church’s peacemaking ministry. There is no lasting peace without upholding human rights. The UCCP has made human rights advocacy part of its ministry. The 1993 Constitution and By-Laws incorporated human rights as one of the UCCP’s declared principles. Section 10 says:
In accordance with the biblical understanding that all persons are created in the image of God, the Church affirms and upholds the inviolability of the rights of persons as reflected in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other agreements on human rights, the international covenants on economic, social and cultural rights and on civil and political rights, the 1984 Convention against Torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, and those that relate specifically to refugees, women, youth, children, minority groups and other persons who cannot safeguard their own rights. It is the only Church in the Philippines that incorporated human rights instrumentalities and UN declarations as part of its ecclesiology. The UCCP believes that commitment to human rights serves as a plumb line for evaluating the behavior of governments, political movements and members of society. Upholding human rights guarantees peace. However human rights advocacy is very controversial in the UCCP. There are those who say that the Bible is silent about human rights; others argue that the church should be concerned with saving souls for heaven rather than protecting and empowering humans for life on earth; a third group insists that Christians should be mediators of reconciliation, rather than conscientizing and agitating people to “fight and claim their human rights,” which runs counter to the command of Jesus to love your neighbors and even your enemies; and the fourth criticism is that human rights is a “communist propaganda”.21 The most controversial issue besetting the human rights ministry of the UCCP is the perception that it supports “communist propaganda.” There were some observations made that the UCCP statements and resolutions on the alleged human rights violations tend to be biased against the soldiers and police. This has been misconstrued by some members and the military as part of the propaganda of the rebel groups against the government.22
These views are mistaken and should be corrected. In fact the UCCP had criticized not only the military but also the rebels who violated human rights in the past. In 1989 the UCCP issued a statement holding the National Democratic Front and the New People’s Army accountable for having committed gross human rights violations against civilians who were members of the UCCP in the infamous Rano massacre where more than 40 people, including women and children, were killed by the New People’s Army. The UCCP in an open letter wrote: We condemn this heinous act, and in the name of the victims, demand justice…As a church committed to a just and lasting peace, we call on the National Democratic Front to acknowledge full responsibility for the massacre and to ensure that such a tragedy will never again occur.23 The UCCP has acknowledged that human rights ministry must always take the side of the victims. It must expose and denounce all those who violate human rights whether perpetrated by rebels or government soldiers. Militarization. Another issue is the role of the military in society and the danger of militarization or militarism. The UCCP clearly rejects militarization because it will not bring about just and lasting peace. Militarization has been described as “the process whereby military values, ideology and patterns of behavior achieve a dominating influence on the political, social and economic, and external affairs of the State and as a consequence the structural ideological and behavioral patterns of both society and government are militarized.”24 Militarization is a political process whereby the military plays a dominating role in the formulation and implementation of national policies which undermines civilian supremacy.25 The Church considers this issue as a major threat to peace and peacemaking. Militarization destroys democracy, civilian rule and violates human rights.
It siphons society’s resources which are needed for social services. It prevents genuine peace-talks with rebels and insurgent groups to settle armed conflicts. Militarization thrives on fear, thus it perpetuates wars and conflicts. Militarization has been proven in the past to have contributed to the increasing human rights violations. The militarist solution has in fact fueled the insurgency. Human rights violations, not ideology, recruit more people to support the armed rebel groups. Respect for life and human dignity cannot flourish in a climate dominated by militaristic values. Although the Church is critical of militarization it recognizes the legitimacy of the military institution. The UCCP was the first Protestant Church to assign chaplains to the military. 26 Today, the UCCP has pastors serving as chaplains in the Armed Forces of the Philippines.27 For the UCCP, the armed forces exists to protect the people from criminals and the country against aggression. What the UCCP is concerned about is human security. This is a real concern. But militarization transforms the State into a mere instrument of the military instead of the other way around. Hence militarization is a threat to both law enforcement and defense institution because it undermines the civilian supremacy which is a basic principle in a democratic society. Security and human rights are indispensable to peace. There can never be peace without upholding human rights. But to protect human rights the people need security. Church and State Relations The Church affirms the necessity and legitimacy of the government in peacemaking. The role of government is to be an instrument of justice. It is to protect the innocent, the vulnerable and the oppressed. The State is to deter evil and lawlessness in society. Peacemaking theology acknowledges the need for someone, somewhere,
sometime to use force and coercion to preserve order, maintain public safety and ensure security in a fallen world. In exercising its powers, the state could become dangerous and lethal thus it should be restrained and regulated. The power of the State is primarily to protect human rights, guarantees human security and executes justice for all people at all times.28 For this reason the UCCP asserts that Christians have a twofold duty towards the State, namely: 1) the duty to cooperate with lawful authority, and 2) the duty to be prophetic. Christians are to cooperate with political authorities. This notion of cooperation with the State entails a proper understanding of the working of the political system. Before engaging the government, church leaders and members need to be fully informed about social and political issues and how government functions at all levels, what services are available, and how individually and collectively they may best become involved. Intertwined with the Christians’ cooperation with the government is the
Church’s prophetic duty.29 The Church must expose human rights violations, lies and deception, cheating and corruption in government. The prophetic witness of Christians can provide the critical dimension which is necessary for the preservation of the State as God's instrument of earthly justice in the Philippines.30 The UCCP has recognized that it is essential to maintain a church-state distinction. The church's loyalty belongs only to God. The church must concern itself therefore with the Gospel. The church is not entrusted to wield political power. The Church should be suspicious of worldly power because powers are fallen. Thus, the church should be critical of all groups engaged in partisan power struggles, state and non-
state agents. This implies that the church should avoid any unqualified form of alignment with political authorities. And when a government habitually and wantonly violates human rights and oppresses its people, it loses its legitimacy. The Church realizes that genuine peace is not possible under an unjust and oppressive government. The Church is no longer be morally obliged to obey the government. But the UCCP rejects violent resistance against
government. It rejects “any and all forms of violence and subversion as means of seeking reforms.”31 The Church also discourages members, especially church workers “membership, participation, and involvement in armed groups” because this is contrary to the nonviolent teaching of the gospel and Jesus’ commandment that his disciples are called to be peace-makers.32 The church should neither legitimize the violence of armed opposition nor endorse State militarism. It is the duty of the Christian to work for justice and for the elimination of all forms of violence. As a peacemaker the Church is called to work for justice using nonviolent ways; to do otherwise, will only result in the Church promoting a fleeting peace. Theological Authorizations of the Peacemaking Ministry of the UCCP Furthermore the UCCP perspective on peace and peacemaking is justified by five theological themes. These are Christology, the nature of the Church, doctrine of creation, imago dei, and the Kingdom of God. The foundation for the peacemaking ministry of the UCCP is Christological. Faith in Jesus Christ, the Lord of the Church, of life and of history is the ground of peacemaking. He is the Prince of Peace who compels the Church to be a peacemaker.33 The Church is “summoned to promote and defend life and its fullness and God’s
righteousness in our world.”34 The Christological basis of the UCCP peacemaking is rooted in the Gospel that God loves all humanity, including humanity’s world, and is concerned about human life in society. The Christological foundation permeates all other theological themes. This is what Bishop Erme Camba was referring to in a speech delivered during the 16th General Synod of the United Church of Christ in the United States in 1987. He asserted that “commitment to the persistent struggle for justice and relentless quest for peace is rooted in this character of the Gospel.”35 Reiterated by Bishop Hilario Gomez, “the Christian mission, being the mission of God in Jesus Christ, is to concretize the euangelion, the Gospel, of God in the world that God loves so much.”36 Another theological theme that the UCCP uses to authorize its peacemaking ministry is its understanding of the nature of the Church. Ecclesiology is closely intertwined with Christology. Jürgen Moltmann describes this relationship between the church and Christ: "Every statement about the church will be a statement about Christ. Every statement about Christ also implies a statement about the church."37 It is appropriate for the UCCP to make peacemaking part of the UCCP ecclesial identity. This is well articulated in the Statement of Faith of the UCCP, “We believe in the Church, the one Body of Christ, the community of those reconciled to God through Jesus and entrusted with Jesus own ministry.”38 The UCCP affirms the biblical image of the Church as the body of Christ and acknowledges Jesus Christ as the Head of the Church.39 The image of the Church as one Body of Christ signifies unity and faithfulness to Christ. As Head, Christ governs, commands, and directs His Body. Thus, the Church as Christ’s body is commissioned to
continue Christ’s ministry until his return. This is emphasized by the UCCP. The Church believes that it is “entrusted with Jesus’ own ministry.”40 The ministry of the Church is Christ’s own ministry. It is not limited to the institution, but includes the members as the people of God and disciples of Jesus Christ. Ultimately the ministry of the Church will always point back to the source—which is Christ, the Head of the Body of Christ. Hence when the UCCP Bishops declare that peacemaking is a ministry of the Church, the Bishops are announcing that it is Christ’s own ministry; and this ministry is entrusted to the Church. “As a Church, we should actively work for understanding, reconciliation, and unity. We should join hands with peoples of the world in the common quest for peace based on justice. Above all, we should follow Jesus Christ, the Prince of Peace.”41 As Bishop Gomez puts it, "If the Church is the Church, then the Church should follow faithfully the demands of God in Jesus Christ."42 The UCCP perspective on Church’s peacemaking also finds authorization in the doctrine of creation. God is the Creator and creation is good. This doctrine is based on the biblical creation story found in Gen 1. In Article II Section 11 of the Church Constitution, the UCCP declares that “As steward of God’s creation, the United Church of Christ in the Philippines shall protect, promote and enhance the ecological balance and the integrity of creation.”43 The Church as steward of God's creation is called "upon to be vigilant to defend God's creation," against mining and logging activities.44 The UCCP understands that the mandate placed upon humans to assume responsibility for helping to preserve God’s creation is a fundamental Christian theme. Since creation which is created good is threatened by violence and abuses, the Church is mandated to preserve creation. Peacemaking is a concrete expression of this divine mandate. Thus, it is not surprising for
the UCCP to question the policy of allowing the presence of nuclear weapons and foreign (US) military bases or troops in the country because this policy is endangering creation.45 Another theme that authorizes the UCCP peacemaking which is connected with the doctrine of creation is the doctrine of imago dei. The Statement of Faith of the UCCP declares that “persons are created in the image of God, sinful but destined to live in community with God. Entrusted, with God’s creation and called to participate in the establishment of a meaningful and just social order.” The UCCP affirms its faith in this biblical teaching found in Genesis chapter 1 verse 27 which states “So God created humankind in his image, in the image of God he created them; male and female he created them.” It has made this biblical understanding of the human being as one of the bases for its peacemaking ministry. The UCCP grounds its human rights ministry on this doctrine. The Church declares that the root of human rights must be sought in the creation of human beings in the image of God. Article II Section 10 states in part, “In accordance with the biblical understanding that all persons are created in the image of God, the Church affirms and upholds the inviolability of the rights of persons.”46 Human rights are gifts from God.47 Hence any violation of human rights is a denial of human dignity and is a form of violence. This is emphasized in another document A Declaration against Violence, in which the Church “affirms that persons are created in the image of God. There is no distinction. All persons have equal worth in the sight of God.”48 The image of God creates value in the human person. The worth or value of a human being is God-given. And each human being has the same or equal worth. This image of God makes humanity fully human. The Church further declares that human life is "a divine gift." Human life is
to be regarded not only with dignity but also with sanctity. The concept of human dignity and of the sacredness of human life can be best described as the value of human beings above the market, the state, and ideologies. Hence no human being can rightly take another human life, for human life belongs solely to God. The image of God in human beings also leads to a creation of a community. The Statement of Faith says "destined to live in community with God." This implies that human beings are created in the image of God for community and not simply as isolated individuals; they are to enjoy and fulfill their human rights in community with other people. Community makes humanity responsible for the welfare of others. In addition this community is an inclusive community. An inclusive community includes Christians and people of other faiths. The UCCP acknowledges that human rights are for
everybody. And as God’s creatures, Christians are called to live and to serve God in the world, in community. The final theological theme used by the UCCP in authorizing its peacemaking ministry is the Kingdom of God. This signifies the presence of God’s rule in the lives of people. This theme is connected with the goal of peacemaking, which is not merely to end deadly conflict but to transform society. The coming of God’s Kingdom ushers the transformation of humanity personal and social, individual and societal. “God is at work to make each person a new being in Christ.”
Transformation is the work of God.
Although it is God who brings the Kingdom the UCCP believes that human beings are invited to participate in the process. Christians are called to participate in the establishment of a meaningful and just social order. This transformative character of the Kingdom of God is expressed in the Statement of Faith which affirms:
…that God is at work to make each person a new being in Christ and the whole world God's Kingdom in which love, justice and peace prevail. That the Kingdom of God is present where faith in Jesus Christ is shared, where healing is given to the sick, where food is given to the hungry, where light is given to the blind, and where liberty is given to the captive and oppressed.50 The UCCP believes that the Kingdom of God is both a future event and a present reality. But the main emphasis of the UCCP is the characteristics of the Kingdom. The Kingdom of God is a present reality in the world when God exercises divine rule or sovereignty characterized by love, justice and peace. Conclusion In conclusion, this paper has shown that the peacemaking ministry of the UCCP is an essential element of the Church mission in the Philippines as well as the rest of the world. It is a response to God’s call to proclaim the gospel in a violent and sinful world. It is a faithful response to the command of Jesus to be peacemakers. From the experience of the UCCP, peacemaking is integral with human rights ministry. This has led the UCCP to reject militarization to resolve the armed conflict. It has been proven in the past that militarization has contributed to worsening human rights violations. But the UCCP recognizes the legitimacy of having soldiers and police in society. This is an important concern which the UCCP has to address. There is an imperative to articulate its theology of peace and security. It requires more than simplistic assertions or sloganeering about human rights. The churches will need to encourage, train and maintain members who have the technical and analytical capability to ensure informed and critical engagement with State and non-state agents. In addition the UCCP has recognized that peacemaking requires a democratic government. The role of government is to be an instrument of justice. It is to protect the
innocent, the vulnerable and the oppressed from lawlessness and criminality in society. Thus security is necessary to protects and upholds human rights of all people. Hence Christians have a twofold duty namely 1) to cooperate with political authorities; 2) and the exercise prophetic witness. This twofold duty can provide the critical dimension which is necessary for the preservation of the State as God's instrument of earthly justice. But when a government habitually and wantonly violates human rights and oppresses its people it loses its legitimacy. The Church is no longer morally obliged to obey the government. Hence, it is imperative for the Church to develop programs and strategies that use nonviolent tactics. Peace education should be integrated in all subjects at all levels of Church education. The church will also need to build partnerships with other peace advocates, human rights groups, and civil society actors. The UCCP can no longer act in isolation to be effective in promoting peace and upholding human rights. And finally the UCCP peacemaking ministry has solid theological authorizations. These theological themes are Christology, doctrine of creation, imago dei, the Kingdom of God, and the nature of the Church. It is faith in Jesus Christ, the Lord of the Church, of life and of history. He is the Prince of Peace who compels the Church to be a peacemaker. The peacemaking ministry of the UCCP is a response to a violent and sinful world specifically in Philippine context. These theological warrants continue to challenge UCCP local churches as well as to other Christian communities.
Joel Rocamora, Breaking Through: The Struggle within the Communist Party of the Philippines (Pasig City: Anvil Publishing, Inc., 1994), Alfredo Saulo, Communism in the Philippines : Introduction (Manila: Ateneo de Manila Univ. Press, 1990), Kathleen Weekley, The Communist Party of the Philippines 1968-1993: A Story of Its Theory and Practice (Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 2001). 2 Asian Human Rights Commission , The state of human rights in the Philippines – 2008, Date: 17 Dec 2008 http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/RWFiles2008.nsf/FilesByRWDocUnidFilename/SHIG7MEGM2-full_report.pdf/$File/full_report.pdf (last accessed 10 February 2009) 3 Hilario. Gomez Jr., The Moro Rebellion and the Search for Peace: A Study on ChristianMuslim Relations in the Philippines (Zambonga: Silsila, 2001). Salah Jubair, A Nation under Endless Tyranny, 2nd ed. (Lahore: Islamic Research Academy., 1997). 4 Asian Human Rights Commission 5 Amnesty International, Shattered Peace in Mindanao: The Human Cost of Armed Conflict in the Philippines in http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/news/the-human-cost-of-armedconflict-in-the-philippines-20081029 (last accessed 10 Feb 2009) 6 The mainline Protestant denominations in the country are the United Church of Christ (UCCP), the United Methodist Church (UMC), the Iglesia Evangelica Unide de Cristo (UNIDA), the Iglesia Evangelica Metodista en las Islas Filipinas (IEMELIF), Lutheran Church, Salvation Army, and Convention of Philippine Baptist Churches with a total population of more or less 2 million. Research and Documentation Office (RDO), Church Profiles, (National Council of Churches in the Philippine: Quezon City, 1989) 7 Johan Galtung, "Violence, Peace, and Peace Research," Journal of Peace Research 6, no. 3 (1969): 167-191., and Ho-Won Jeong, Peace and Conflict Studies: An Introduction (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2000). 8 Jeong, 23-30. 9 Ibid. 10 Galtung: 167-193. 11 Feliciano Carino and Liberato C. Bautista, eds., A Vision of Peace, an Agenda for Justice, Tugon: An Ecumenical Journal of Discussion and Opinion, vol. XI (Quezon City: NCCP, 1991). 12 Ibid., 9-10. 13 Council of Bishops, "Peacemaking: Our Ministry, 21 August 1986," in UCCP Statements and Resolutions (1948-1990), ed. Lydia N. Niguidula (Quezon City: Education and Nurture Desk, United Church of Christ in the Philippines, 1990), 147. 14 Ibid., 148. 15 Lydia Niguidula, ed., UCCP Statements and Resolutions (1948-1990) (Quezon City: United Church of Christ in the Philippines, 1990), Edna J. Orteza, "The Quest for Lasting Peace: The UCCP Experience," (photocopy, 12 December 2005). 16 John Paul Lederach, Building Peace: Sustainable Reconciliation in Divided Societies. (Washington DC: United States Institute of Peace Press, 1997), 24. 17 William Ury, Getting to Peace: Transforming Conflict at Home, at Work, and in the World, (New York: Viking, 1999). 18 Glen H. Stassen, Just Peacemaking: Transforming Initiatives for Justice and Peace, 1st ed. (Louisville Kentucky: Westminster John Knox Press, 1992). 19 Executive Committee, "A Declaration against Violence, 23 February 1990," in UCCP Statements and Resolutions (1948-1990), ed. Lydia Niguidula (Quezon City: United Church of Christ in the Philippines, 1990), 194-198. 20 Executive Committee, "A Declaration of UCCP Churches as Sanctuaries and Zones of Peace, 23 February 1990," in UCCP Statements and Resolutions (1948-1990), ed. Lydia Niguidula (Quezon City: United Church of Christ in the Philippines, 1990), 199-200.
Erme Camba, "Interview by Author, Dumaguete City," 5 December 2006. See also "Military Names 25 Red Front Groups," Pahayagang Malaya, November 25, 1987.; Christian V. Esguerra, "Government Links Electoral Watchdog to Reds," Philippine Daily Inquirer, May 21 2004. 22 Camba. See also "Military Names 25 Red Front Groups."; Esguerra. 23 Erme Camba and others, "Justice Not Vengeance: An Open Letter to the National Democratic Front and the Government of the Republic of the Philippines, 3 July 1989," in UCCP Statements and Resolutions (1948-1990), ed. Lydia N. Niguidula (Quezon City: United Church of Christ in the Philippines, 1990). 24 Ecumenical Movement for Justice and Peace, Iron Hand, Velvet Glove: Studies on Militarization in Five Critical Areas in the Philippines (Geneva: Commission of the Churches on International Affairs World Council of Churches, 1980). 1. 25 See the following Mathews George Chunakara, The Militarisation of Politics and Society: Southeast Asian Experiences (Hong Kong SAR: DAGA Press Documentation for Action Groups in Asia (DAGA),, 1994).; Carolina Hernandez, "The Role of the Military in Contemporary Philippine Society," Diliman Review 32, no. 1 (1984).1-24; Viberto Selochan, Could the Military Govern the Philippines. (Quezon City:: New Day Publishers., 1989). 26 General Assembly, "Resolution Recommending the Assignment of a Protestant Chaplain to Every Major Service of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, Ga 21-27 May 1962," in UCCP Statements and Resolutions (1948-1990), ed. Lydia Niguidula (Quezon City: United Church of Christ in the Philippines, 1990). 27 Ibid. 28 Victor Aguilan, "Political Authority and the Church: The Challenge of the Reformed Political Tradition," SILLIMAN JOURNAL Vol 41., no. 1 January-June (2000). 29 See Hilario Gomez Jr "Appredix 5:Open Letter to the President, 16 December 1994," in State of the Mission of the United Church of Christ in the Philippines, ed. Council of Bishops (UCCP Ellinwood Malate, Manila: United Church of Christ in the Philippines, 1998), 88-89. 30 Aguilan. 31 General Assembly, "A Statement of Social Concern, 1970," in UCCP Statements and Resolutions (1948-1990), ed. Lydia N. Niguidula (Quezon City: United Church of Christ in the Philippines, 1990). 32 Executive Committee, Minutes of the Meeting September 19-21,1989 Action 89-178 33 Council of Bishops. 34 Council of Bishops, "Neither Shall They Learn War No More, 22 September 2002," The United Church Letter, September 2002. 35 Erme R. Camba, "Struggle for Justice: Quest for Peace," in Religion and Society: Towards a Theology of Struggle, ed. Alice G. Guillermo (Philippines: Forum for Interdisciplinary Endeavors and Studies, 1988), 147-156. 36 Hilario Gomez Jr. , "Christian Mission: Church's Timeless Task for God's World," The United Church Letter, January-March 1995, 3. 37 Jurgen Moltmann, The Church in the Power of the Spirit (London: SCM Press, Ltd., 1977), 6. 38 "Statement of Faith of the United Church of Christ in the Philippines," in UCCP Constitution and by-Laws (Quezon City: United Church of Christ in the Philippines, 1996). 39 Romans 12:1-21; I Corinthian 12:1-31; 2 Corinthian 5:16-21; Ephesians 4:1-16 40 "Statement of Faith of the United Church of Christ in the Philippines," in In Like a Mustard Seed: Commentaries on the UCCP Statement of Faith, ed. Feliciano Carino (Quezon City: United Church of Christ in the Philippines, 1987). 41 Council of Bishops, "Peacemaking: Our Ministry, 21 August 1986." 42 Faith, Human Rights and the Shalom of God, May 11, 1997, UCCP-UEM Fact-Finding Workshop and Consultation, Baguio City, published in The United Church Letter, Vol XL No. 1 January-June 1997, p. 25
UCCP, "Constitution and by Laws," (Quezon City: 1996 revised). General Assembly, "Resolution on Environmental Concerns, 21-26 May 1990," in UCCP Statements and Resolutions (1948-1990), ed. Lydia Niguidula (Quezon City: United Church of Christ in the Philippines, 1990). 45 General Assembly, "Resolution Urging the Implementation of the Constitutional Declaration of a Nuclear-Free Philippines and the Withdrawal of All Military Bases and Facilities in the Country, 21-26 May 1990," in UCCP Statements and Resolutions (1948-1990), ed. Lydia Niguidula (Quezon City: United Church of Christ in the Philippines, 1990). 46 UCCP. 47 General Assembly, "Resolution for the Creation of the Human Rights Desk, 21-26 May 1978," in UCCP Statements and Resolutions (1948-1990), ed. Lydia Niguidula (Quezon City: United Church of Christ in the Philippines, 1990). 48 UCCP Executive Committee, "A Declaration against Violence, 23 February 1990," in UCCP Statements and Resolutions (1948-1990), ed. Lydia Niguidula (Quezon City: United Church of Christ in the Philippines, 1990). 49 "Statement of Faith of the United Church of Christ in the Philippines." 50 Ibid.