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The numbers following the entries refer to the chapters of the text in which each term or concept ís discussed in detall.
absolute threshold-the weakest stímulus that produces a sensation. [51 accommodation-( 1) reflexíve contraction of lens muscles to focus eyes on nearby objects. (2) the modification of existing schemes to incorporate new knowledge that does not fit them. [5. 151 acetylcholine (ACH)-neurotransmitter used by the motor neurons of the spínal cord. [3J achievement motíve-s-the capacíty to derive satisfaction by attaining so me standard of excellence. [l21 achievement tests-tests constructed to assess the extent of an indívidual's knowledge about subjects taught in school. [201 acquisition-( 1) the process by whích an organism learns the assocíatíon ínvolved in class ícal condítíoning. (2) the process by whích. we initially perceíve, regíster. and recordinformation in our memory. [8. 9J . 1 act frequency approach-an approach to personality that claims that we tend to add up all of a persori's actíons thatfít a particular category, then assígn a traít to the person on that basts. [191 active phase-that stage in the course of schízophrenía in which psychotíc symptoms predominate. [221 ad hoc categories-spur-of-the-moment categoríes constructed to han dle particular functions. [l01 adaptatíon-i-adjustrnent in sensory capacity.[51·· adaptive behavior-any behavior that makes an animal .. functíon better in íts envíronrnent. [4 l' ". . adaptíve radíatíon-c-evolutíonary pattern in. which a" group of organisms wíth a common ancestor díverstfy so. that they can move into a' new erivironmental i ruche .. [4L additive. color miring-the combírung of colored Iíghts. [51 adjacency pairs-conversational conventíon in whích an utterance by one person tells the other which sort of response ís appropriate; common paírs include questícn/response. surnrnons/answer, etc ..[161 adverse impact-results when the proportion of mínorí.r--.. ty applicants hired after takíngan employment test is les s than four-fífths of the proportion of majoríty applicantshired. In such an instance .. the courts consíder that the test has an adverse impact on minorities. (281 affect-emotional response. [221 affectíve diSorder-disturbance of mood. [22 I afterímage-i-a sensory impression that persists. after removal of the stímuíus. [51 aggressfon-c-any act that ís intended to cause paín. damage, or suffering to another. [271 agnosia-an ínabilíty to recogníze sounds. [3J algorithm-a simple set of rules arranged in a logícal order that wíll solve all ínstances of a particular set of problems. [101 . altricial-helpless (referring to the young of a species) [141 altruism-prosocial behavíor showíng unselfish concern sprtngtng from a cornbínatton of emotional distress
at anothers plight and an understandíng of her or his needs. [l71 Alzheimer's disease-a debilitating brain disease char)lcterized by increasingly serious memory disorder and deterioration of attentíon, judgrnerit, and personalíty: most common among older adults. [31 amnesia-partial or total loss of memory. [3. 9. 221 amplitude-intensity of a sound wave, usually expressed in decibels. [51 amygdala-a structure in the limbic system. [31 anal stage-the stage in psychosexual development during whích the child's attention shífts to the anus and the pleasures of holding in and pushing out feces. [17. 181 analogy-a parallel between two systems whose parts are related in a similar way. [l01 analytic psychology-a school of psychoanalysis founded in 1913 by Carl Jung. [181 anchoring-a bias ín judgment. resultíng from the effect of the starting point frorn whích the dectsíon was , made. [l01 androgen insensitivity syndrome-the condition of a genetically male fetus whose body cells fail to respond to androgen: the baby wíll be born genetically male but wíth the external anatomy of a female. [13J androgens-male sex hormones. [131 androgynous-having gender roles that embrace char-" . actertstícs of both sexes. [171 .anterograde amnesia-a condition in whích people are unable to lay down new memories. [91 antisocial personality. [221 See sociopath. anvil-s-one of the ossicles. [51 an.xiety-in Freudian theory, a state of psychíc paín that alerts the ego to danger: it is akin tofear. [18. 221 anxiety disorder-a coridítíon in which severe and persistent anxíety ínterferes with daily functíoníng. [221 aphasia-an inability to speak or to understand spoken language. [31 . apparent movement-the perception of motíon when a rapíd successton of motionless stimuli mírníc the changes that occur in true movement. '[61 applied scíence-i-the use of baste scíence to accomplish practica! goa!s. [11 approach-avoidance conilict-a conflíct of two.motrves, so that satísfyíng one motive frustrates the. other. [191 aptitud e tests-tests destgned to find out aboutan índívidual's talent or capacity for particular lines of work. [201 archetypes-in .Jungs terms, ancíent ideas or images common to all human beíngs in all eras and all regíons of the world and that form the collective unconscíous. [l81 arousal-a series of phystologícal changes, primarily in the autonomic system. that take place when an individual has an emotion. [11 I artifical intelligence (AI)-computer programrníng that solves problems by followíng steps similar to those a human oetng would take. [lO]
assimilation-the tncorporatíon of new knowledge through the use of exístíng schemes. [151 association-a learned connectíon between two events.
ataxia-a condition characterízed by severe tremors, drunken movernents, and loss of balance; due to damage to the cerebellum. [31 attachment-an emotional bond such as one which ts formed between the infant and her or his prímary care gíver. [171 . »: attitude-an attraction or averston toward an object. in whích cognitive, affectíve, motivational, and behavíoral processes are implicated. [251 attribution theories-theories that propose to explaín how people attríbute personality traíts or intentions to others to explaín theír behavíor. [261 audience inhibition-supression due to concern about others' eva1uation of our behavior. (271 auditory cortex-the area in the temporal lobe of the braín that p¡;ocesses auditory information. (31 auditory stream segregation-the auditory effect of two simultaneous línes of melody, each wíth a dístínctíve quality. [61 authenticity-living by personal values. (231 autistic fantasy-a state on the continuum that stretches from normal waking consciousness to dreamíng: it lacks any orientatíon toward reality. [71 autogeníc trainíng=-a relaxation procedure that depends on self-suggestion and imagery. [211 autokinetic movement-an illusion of movernent caused by random eye movements, whích make a stationary spot appear to .move in the dark. [61 . autonomic-ilervoussyslerii::"':'the divislonof the PNS that regulates the internal environment and is generally involuntary. [31 . " availability-a heuristic in which predíctíons are based on a comparison of the current sttuatíon wíth past examples that readily come to rnínd. (lOI . aversion therapy-s-therapy in which the clíent's- éxposure to stírnulí that elícit maladaptíve responses ís accompanied by aversíve stírnulí. [241 aversive leanting-Iearning that relies on such techniques as puníshrnent. escape- and-the avoídance of puníshment. [SI avoidance leanting-conditioning lnwhich an organísrn prevents thearrival of an unpleasant stímulus by .: its response to a warning stimulus. [81 axon-a long fiber of a neuron that leads away from the cel! body. [31 basal ganglia-a group of braín structures that seem to control movement and coordínate the motor cortex and thalamus .. [31 basic anx:iety-inHorney's terrns, anxiety arísíng out of a chíld's sense of helplessness and ísolatíon, (lSI basic hostdlíty-c-tn Horney's terms, hostility artsíng . from resentment over parental índífference, inconsistency, and interference. (1SI basic level-that leve1 in a hierarchy that seems the most economical for cogmtíve znanípulatíon: the level that provídes the most information. [10J basic needs-fundamental phystologícal needs and intermedíate psychologtcal needs (such as safety and self-esteem). [121
basic science-fundamental prínctples that explain a broad range of facts. [1 J basilar membrane-a membrane supporting the organ ofCorti. Movements ofthis membrane stimulate haír cells, which in turn trtgger electrical actívíty in the auditory nerve. [51 behavior-anyt:hing a person does or experiences, including thoughts, feelings, and dreams. (1 J behavior genetics-the study of inherited patterns of
behavior rehearsal-a procedure símílar to partiCipant modeling, but applied to social behavíor. [24J behavioral medicine. (11 See health psychology. behaviorism-the approach to psychology that limits its study to observable, measurab1e responses to speciñc
structures about objects and events,
binocular disparity-difference in the retinal image received by each eye; source of ínformatton for depth perceptíon. [6J biofeedback-the províston of a continuous flow of informatíon regarding some phystologícal function by electrcníc devíces: a person can then learn to attaín voluntary control over the monítored function. [7, 21 J biogenic theory-the víew that mental disorder has a physical, or organíc, cause. [23J bipolar disorder-s-a disorder characterized by extreme moods, begtnníng with a maníc episode of euphoria, excitement, and a<¡:tivity,followed by a depressive epísode. [22J . birth order-the chíld's rank in the sequence ofbirths.
[261 .-. . ...
blocking-a relíable phenomenon that occurs in al! specíes and .in most conditioning s ítuatíons , in which the conditioning normally caused by CS-UCS paírtngs can be blocked entirely. [SI . . brain stem-a part .of the central core of the braín. [31 branchíng-c-evoluttonary pattem in whích one evolutionary line splits off from another. [41 Broca's aphasia-severe dísturbance of speech productíon. brought about by damage to the rear of the left frontal cortex. [31 cardinal trait-a single traít that directs a rnajor portion of a persons behavior. [19J case study-a method of collecting data in which researchers conduct an mtensíve ínvestigatíon of one or a few índívíduals. usually with reference to a single psychologícal phenomenon. [2J catecholamine hypothesis-the hypothesis that depresston, results from low levels of noreptnephríne (a catecholamine)and manía results from hígh levels of norepinephrine in the braín. [23J categorícal perceptíon-c-the- inbom tendency to hear speech sourids in dístínct categoríes. (16J celibacy -co mpie te abs tinence from sexual actíví ty. [131 cell body-the part of a neuron containing the nucleus. (3J centers=-clumps of neurons in the central nervous system that function as uníts: also called nuclei. [31 centrai core-the area of the brain that carries out functíons necessary for survíval. [31 central nervous system (CNS)-the rnajor control center
of behavíor. It consists of the braín and the spinal cord. [31 central traits-charaeteristic ways of dealing wíth the world that can be captured by a traít name (honest, loving. gregartousj and that have marked effects on the way other. related traíts are perceived. (19, 26] cerebellum-the area of the braín that coordinates voluntary movernent and maíntaíns physical balance. [31 cerebral cortex-the gray matter that covers the cerebral herníspheres. [31 cerebral hemispheres-the most prominent layer of the braín: involved in information processing. [31 cerebrum-portion of the brain that allows us to plan, learn, and reason: includes the cerebral cortex and the tissue beneath it. [31 chunks-c1usters of information that form familiar sequences or patterns of elements; used to encode material in short-term memory. [91 clang association-in schizophrenia. the throwing together of concepts, ideas, and symbols merely because they rhyme. [221 classical conditioning-a process whereby a neutral stírnulus. when repeatedly presented wíth another stimulus that normal!y evokes a reflexíve response, comes to elícit that response when presented by itself. [81 client-centered therapy-a humanistic therapy in whích the client learns to reíntegrate self and organísrn. to accept al! experienees as genuíne. and to establish an unconditional positive regard. [241 clínical psychologist-a mental-health professio'nal. who has earned a doctórate '(PhD"or-PsyD) in cítnfcaf'" psychology and has completed a one-year clínícal . internship. [241 " clínícal psychology-the approach to psychology concerned with the study, diagnosis, and treatment of abnormal behavíor .. . , closed gene tic' programs-s- ínnate genetic programe for behavíor: the animal ís born wíth them and they can bechanged only slíghtly by experience.  cochIea-theportion of the inner ear contaíntng receptors for convertíng acoustie energy into sound. [51 cognition-the process of knowíng. the hígher mental proeesses that human beíngs engage in, including problem solving.· knowing,·· thinking, decision makíng, reasoning; judgíng, ímagíníng. [la 1 cognitive balance theory-s-the theory proposíng that ínformatíon about people's inconsistent relatíonships with each other leads to a conflíct that the índívídual seeks to resolve. [121 cognitive cnntrol-c-the guidanee and maintenance of behavior through self-reínforcernent ..[191 cognitive dissonance theory-the theory proposmg that contradietory thoughts cause a.state of psychologícal distress known as dissonanee; the indiVidual then attempts to reestablish internal harmony. [121 cognitive map-an ínternal representatíon of the way objects and landmarks are arranged in theír envíronments. [81 cognitive restructuring-a process that foeuses on the clíent's ways of perceívíng the world and regards self-defeating behavíor as a result of the clíent's false assumptíons. [241
cognitive therapy-a method of cognitive restructuring that aírns to show clients that what they think determines how they fee!. [241 cohort-a group of people of the same age. [151 collective unconscious-in .Jung's terms, a level of the unconscious; a storehouse of memories and behavior patterns inherited frorn humaníty's remote ancestral pasto  color cancellation-the phenomenon occurring when .eornplementary colors are cornbined and perceived as colorless.  common ground-the shared knowledge of speaker and listener.  common trait-a baste mode of adjustment that ts approximately the same for all índívíduals. [191 community psychology-a branch of clinieal psyehology wíth the primary aim of preventing mental dísorders. [11 complementary colors-pairs of eolors Iying opposite each other on the color wheel. complexive thinking-ih cognítíve devélopment, a chíld's tendency to jump from one idea to another wíthout coordinating them. [151. compulsion-an actíon that a person uncontrollably performs again and again, although she or he has no conscious desire to do so. [221 computerized tomography (CT) scan-technique that uses multiple X-ray pictures to reconstruct single cross-section píctures of the braín. [31 concrete-operational period-the period of cognitive development eharaeterized by logícal thought=-out only in regard to concrete objects,  concurrentvalídíty-c-the correlatíon of a test's scores wíth other existing measures and standards.  conditional positive regard-the withholdingof love and praíse when a child does not conform to paren tal or social standards.  conditioned reinforcer-a stimulus that sígnaís that a primary reínforcer wíll soon appear. [81 ccndítícned' response (CR)-a response to a CS. [81 conditioned stimulus (CS)-a' new stimulus that elícíts behavior after repeated association with the
conditions oí worth-extraneous standards whose attaínrnenr ensures posítíve regard. [191 cones-receptor cel!s in the eye operatíng in brtght light. Cenes are responsible for detaíled vision and color perception.  conformity-the tendency to shíft one's víews or behavíor closer to the norms that are expressed by other people. [271 congruence-genuineness; the therapíst's ability to share her or his own feelings wíth the client in. an open and spontaneous manner.  conjunction-c1assification rule in whích two attributes. determine membership in a group. [la] conjunctíon fallacy-the fallacy of believing that an example wíth both a common and a dístínctíve feature ís more representative than an example with only the dístínctíve feature. [101 consciousness-an awareness of the thoughts, ímages. sensatícns. and emotions that flowthrough the mind at any gíven moment.  conservation-the prtncíple that irrelevant changes in
the external appearance of objects have no effect on the objects' quantity.  constituent-a major subdivision of a sentence. such as a noun phrase or a prepositional phrase.  construct validity-a test's measurement of the traít or theoretícal construct it c1aims to measure. [201 consumer psychology-a branch of industrial psychology concerned with preferences, buyíng habits, and responses to advertising of consumers.  content validity-a test's coverage of a representatíve-' sample of the measured attribute. [201 context-the setting in which stimuli appear; a retrieval cue for memory.  continuity-a principie of grouping.  continuous reinforcement schedule-a schedule of reinforcement in which the subject ís rewarded for every response.  control condition-in an experimento the condition that remains unchanged, the condition to which .the experimental condition is compared. [21 conventional level-i-Kohlberg's stage of moral development in whích the child or adulL decides moral íssues in terms of maíntamíng the social order and meeting the expectations of others. [171 conversion disorder-disorder in whích an individual develops sorne physical dysfunction-such as blindness, deafness, paralys ís, or íoss of sensatíon in so me part of the body-that has no organíc basís and apparently express es sorne. psychological conflict.
result íf an ínfiníte number of cases were represent_ ed. [21 decay-erosion of mernory traces with the passage of time. [91 decibel (dB)-a unít of measurement used to express perceíved sound intensity. [51 deductive scale. [201 See rational scale. defense mechanism-an intrapsychic techruque to conceal the source of anxíety frorn the self and from the world. [181 deferred imitation-the ab ílity to rnímíc on one cecasion actions observed at an earlier time. [151 deficiency needs. [ 191 See basic needs. delusions-irrational beliefs that are maíntarned despíte overwhelming evidence that they have no basts in reality. [221 demand characteristics-a methodologícal problem in whích a subjects response ís strongly determined by the research setting. [21 . dendrites-short ñbers that branch out from the cel! body. [31 . denial-defense rnechanísrn in whích a person refuses to recognize a threatening source of anxíety. [181 dependent variable-the event that ís being studied and that ís expected to change when the independent variable ts altered. [21 depressant-a drug that retards the action of the central nervous system so that neurons fire more slowly. [71 developmental psychology-the approach to psychology that ís concerned wíth al! aspects of behavíoral development over the entire life span. [11 díathesis-stress model-the view thatgenes establish a díathests, orpredisposition, to schízophrenía, out that the disorder will not develop unless the predisposition ís combined wíth certaín stressful envíronmental factors. [231 dicho tic listening-a process in which a person wearing aset of earphones hears two different messages played simultaneously, one in each ear. [71 dichromats-people who have difficulty díscrtrnínatíng wavelengths in certain regíons of the spectrum. (51 dífference threshold-the smal!est change in astímulus that produces a change in sensatíon. [51 diffusion of responsibility-spreading the responsibility for intervening over al! the bystanders. [271 discreteness-a major characteristic of human language: the distinctness of the units that compose it. [161 discretionary stímulí-c-stgnals that groups send to an individual member to either change or reínforcethat members behavior. [281 discrimination-(l) differentíauon among similar stímulí. wíth response to one and no response to others. (2) the behavioral express ion of prejudice. [8, 261 disjunction-classification rule in which eitiier of two features determines category membership. [l01 dísplacement=-I 1) process in whích new items entering short-term memory seem to crowd out earlier iterns. (2) a major characteristic of Ianguage: transrnísston of informatíonabout distant objects or events. (3) in Freud's terms, transference of psychíc energy from the original object to a varíety of substitute objects.
[9, 16, 181
cooperative principle-the fundamental assumptíon that speakers and listeners will cooperate in using language. -"-coping-the process of managíng external and internal . pressures that rníght otherwíse lead to stress .. cornea-the transparent ccveríng in front of the eye.  corpus callosum-a thick band of neural fibers that carríes rnessages between the left and rtght sídes of the brain. [31 correlational coefficient-the descrtptíve statístíc indicatíng the degree of linear relatedness. A perfect positive correlatíon ís indicated by the coeffícíent + 1; a perfect negative correlatíon is índícated by - 1. [21 correlational research-s tudies that ínvestígate the systematic relatíonshíps between two (or more) characteristics of individuals. [21 counterbalancing-c-a, procedure for makíng sure that variables that are of no theoretical interest to the expertmenter are evenly distributed across the varíables of interest. [21 covert sensítízatíon-c-a technique in which clientsare asked to vísuahze the behavíor they are tryíng to eliminate and then to conjure up the- image of ano extremely paínful or revoltíng stírnulus. [241 creativity-the combination of prevíously unconnected elements in a new and useful way. [101 cued recall-retrieval process in which an assocíated piece of information guides the memory search, [91 culture-fair test-a test whose items or methods of administration do not depend on familiarity with the cultural backaround. [201 curve of normal distribution-a smooth, symmetrical bell-shaped curve: the theoretícal curve that would
dispositional cause-cause of behavíorthat is attributed to a specífíc person and to that persori's disposition. [261 dissociative disorder-the dissociation, or splíttíng off, of certain aspects of mernory and identity. [221 DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)-twisted strings of cherní·cal building blocks that transmit the gene tic codeo [41 doctrine of specific nerve energies-sensory quality depends on the neural pathways actívated by stímuli. not on the physical propertíes of the stímulí. [51 dominant responses-the responses most likely to be made by an organísrn in a given sítuatíon. (271 dopa:mine-a neurotransmitter thought .to regulate ernotíonal response and complex movements. (31 dopamine hypothesis-the víew that schízophrenía ís asscciated wíth excesstve actívíty in those parts of the brain that use dopamine to transmít neural impulses. (231 double-bind hypothesis-the theory that rnutually contradictory messages from parent to child are a strong causatíve agent in schizophrenia. (231 double-blind procedure-a method of avoídíng experimenter bias in whích neither researcher nor subjects know which group is the experimental group and which the control group. [21 drive-an internal motivational factor. [121 drug-any ínorgaruc substance that can interact wíth a bíological systern. [71 duplication hypothesis-a theory proposíng that people are happiest when they re-create their bírth-order position in their marítaí relatíonshíp. (26] . .. . dyslexía-e-dtsorder in whlch.childrenwtth.riormal íntel-; lígence and adequate environmental cpportunítíes have extreme difficulty learning to read. (16] . eardrum-membrane in the ear that vtbrates in response to sound ..[51 educatíonal psychotogy-c-the iapproach topsychology that ínvestígates al] the psychological aspects of the leamíng process.  efficacy expectatíons-i-peopte's belíefs that they can successfully execute whatever behavíor ís requíred to produce a desired outcome. (24]'" . ego-according to Freud, a psychic component servíng as mediator between the id and reality. (18] . ego identity-in Eríksons terms, an mtegrated, autonomous, uníque "self." (18] ego psychologist-a psychoanalytic ínvestígator who considers herself or himself a Freudian but who. elaborates on Freud's theory, emphasizing ego func-: tions. [181 egocentrism-in cognitive development, a child's belief that others literally see thíngs as the child does. (15] ejaculatii:m-the discharge of fluid duríng orgasmo (13] elaborative rehearsaí-s-a forro of rehearsal that transfers information into .long-term mernoryso that it may later be retrieved. (91 electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)-"shock treatment": administering a series of br ief electrical shocks of approximately 70 to 130 volts, spaced over a period of several weeks. The shock induces a convulsíon similar to an epíleptíc seízure. (24] ,
electroencephalography (EEG)-technique used to record the braíns electrical activíty as measured by electrodes placed on a person's scalp. (3] electromyographic recording (EMG)-measurements of electrical activity from muscles. (111 embryo-the developing organísm in the womb from the fourth to the eíghth week. (141 empathic understanding-the therapíst's ability to see ~e world through the eyes of the clíent. (24] empirical approach-an approach to scíentífic ínvestígatíon that employs expertmentatíon and dírect observatíon.  encoding. (91See acquisítion. encoding specificity-phenomenon in whích retrieval wilJ be poor if the retrieval situation differs greatly from the sítuatíon at the time of encodíng. [91 endocrine glands:""glands that produce hormones. [31 endocrine system-a set of glands whích secretes hormones carried in the bloodstream. They ínfluence neural and muscular tissue in other parts of the body. [31 endorphins-a varíety of neurotransrnítter 'similar in structuré to opíates: implicated in paín and pleasure, [31 environmental niche-the particular environmental sítuatíon, including food supply, shelter. climate, and pressure from predators, to whích a species ís suíted,
environmental psychology-the approach. to psychology that studies the relationship between people and theír physical settíngs. [11 epidemiology-the study of- the range of occurrenee.· distribution, and control of illness in a populatíon. [221· epinephrine-neurotransmitter that plays a vital role in arousal of the sympathetic nervous system and the reticular actívatíng systems of the braín. [31 equílíbratíon-e-tn .cognttwe development, a continua! search for a balance between asstmilatíon and accornmodatíon. [151 equity theory-c-cognttíve theory of work motívatíon stat. ing that employees are rnotívated to remove any . perceived ínequttíes. [281 . erectíle failure-a mari's inability to achíeve ormaíntaín an erectíon. (131 ERG theory-e-thecry of work motívatíon based on the workers existente needs, relatedness needs, and growth needs. [281 erogenous .zone-an area of the body that is partícularly sensitive to touch; a focus of pleasure. [13, 171 escape Iearning-s-the learning of a specífic response that termínates some unpleasant stimulus, enabling the organism to escape from an unpleasantsituation. [8L ethologists-scientists who try to explaín animal behavíor in evolutíonary terms. [41 event-related potential (ERP)-changes in the braín's electrical actívíty in response to stimulation presented by a researcher. [31 evolution-the theory that each specíes developed from earlier forms of lífe. [41 excitatory connection-a message that causes a receíving neuron to ñre. [31 . excitement phase-the first phase of sexual response.
exhibitionism-sexual gratification obtaíned through exhibiting the genitals to an ínvoluntary bystander.
existential frustration-a -major source of abnormal behavior arising frorn an inability to find meaníng in 'r' life. [231 expectancy theory-cognitive theory of work rnotívatíon stating that we are rnotívated not only by our goals but by how attainable we think they are. [2SI experience (of an emotion)-the subjective feeling that "" accompanies an emotion.  experiment-a method of collecting data in which re'searchers actively control the presence, absence, or intensity of factors that may affect the behavíor under study. [21 experimental condition-in an experiment, the condítion in which the factor under study is manipulated to test its effect. [21 experimental psychology-the approach to psychology that ínvestigates baste behavíoral processes that are shared by severa! specíes. [11 experimenter effects-biases that the experi.menter unwttttngly introduces ínto the study.  exposure effect-positive attitude produced by repeated neutral encounters with an object.  expression (of <in emotion)-behavioral acts that are uniquely elicited by an emotion.  extinction-the slow decline and eventual dísappearance of a conditioned response. [S] extrasensory perception [ESP)-the reception of knowl- . edge about the environment that does not arrive through a known sensory channel.  . '~--- eitri1Ísic'nio'fivationthe 'i:iÍ'océss hywlilCli- external'· rewards lead anIndívidual to undertake el behavíor. D2] extroversion-in Jung's terms, a rnajor personalíty oríentation in whích theperson ís overly interested in the external world and thus i~i outgoing, sociable, and excítement-seekíng.  _ face validity-a test'sappearance of validity to the peopie taking ít. [201, ... facial-feedback hypothesís=s the hypothesís that our subjective experíence 'of emotíon comes from an awareness of.our fac íalexpresstons.  factor analysts-c-astatístícal method that analyzes responses to a host of possible scale ítems and reduces them to a few underlyi.ng factors.  . false alarms-c-errors in which asubject detects a stgnal when none has been gíven,  family resemblance-the more closely an instance (for example, apple) resembles many other category members (other fruíts). themore typical it ísjudged to be.
fetishism-sexual gratification that is dependent on inanimate object or some part of the body other than the genítals.  an fetus-the developing organísm in the wornb frorn the eíghth week to bírth.  field experiments-studies in which researchers Can introduce the independent variable but cannot control other variables and often cannot assign Subjects to the expenmental group. [21 , figure-in a scene, the regíon that represents an object.
figure-ground reversal-type of visual ambiguity that aríses when figure and ground altemate so that perceptíon of the image shifts from one interpreta_ tion to another. [61 fixation-( 1) an automatic apphcatíon of an inappropri_ ate strategy and a rigid clinging to the obViously meffectíve approach. (2) a halt in psychosexual development caused by failure to resolve the conflict between impulse and control. [101 . fixed interval schedule-s-a partíal reinforcement schedule in which reínforcerrient comes for the first response after a specífied periodo (SI fixed ratio schedule-a partíal reinforcernent schedule in whích the subject ís rewarded each time it makes a speciñc number of responses. [81 fíxed-action patterns-genetic programa of behavíor that take the form of relatively sterotyped and oftenrepeated patterns of movement. [41 flooding-an intensive extinction therapy. (241 forensic psychology-the approach to psychology that , applíes psychologícal prtncíples to the problerns oL-' '--lawenforéement' and thecourts.  -, . forrnal-operatíonal period-the culmination of cognttíve development, characterized by abstract reasoning and the ability to assume artificial prerníses that , are known. to be false. (151 fovea-the retinal area that líes almost directly opposite. the pupil of the eye.. It contains only cone receptors ' and isthe area of the híghest visual acuity. (51 frame-the way a problern ís phrased. (101 fraternal twins-twins who have developed from two eggs, each fertilized by a dífferent sperm. [41 free association-an indirect therapeutic techníque ernployed to study unconscíous processes. The patient wíll say anything that comes to mind, makíng no. . attempt to produce logícal statements, and the psychoanalyst will attempt to ínterpret the associati0TI?'
(1, 1S] .
fear of success-the motive to avoid success.  feature analysis-the process by which sensory ínformation ís identified according to its distinctive characteristics or features.  feedback-reinforcement in the form of ínformatíon about past performance that is used to alter future behavior.  fetal alcohol syndrome-birth defect characterized by mental retardation and retarded growth in babíes born to alcoholic mothers. 
free (unaided) recall-retrieval process in which a rnemory search ís undertaken with only a weak cue or an entíre set of ítems. (9] free-floating aruriety-an ínabtlíty to specífy the source of the fear. (221 frequency-the number of waves passing a given poínt in a gíven periodo  frequency distribution-a representatíon that shows the relationship between responses and the observed '. . frequency of those responses.  frequency theory-pitch ts deterrníned by the frequency per second of neural impulses sent to the braín.  frontal lobe-the area of the brain generally involved m be havíor. (31 frustration-interference wíth any form of goal-directed
frustration-aggression hypothesis-the idea that "aggressíon is always a consequence of frustratíon" and, conversely, "frustratíon always leads to some form of aggressíon" (Dollard, 1939). (271 fugue-a dissociative disorder in whích indívíduals flee from the home as well as from theself. (221 fully functionirig-psychologically adjusted, open to experience, undefensive, accurately aware, uncondítionally posttíve in self-regard. harmonious in relations wíth other people. [191 functional fixedness-the inability to use a familiar object in an unfamiliar way. (101 fundamental attribution error-the tendency of observers to attribute other peoples behavior to dispositional factors. (261 galvaníc skin response (GSR)-a decrease in the resístance of the skin to electrical conduction. (111 ganglia-collections of neuron cell bodies found príncipally along thesptnal column.  gender identity-the chíld's understandíng that she or he is female or male and will always rernaín so. [l71 gender roles-attitudes and patterns of behavíor that soctety consíders acceptable for each gender. [171 gender schema-conceptual pattern for organizing new ínformatíon on the basis 01'gender roles.  generalization gradient-rate of decrease in an organísm's tendency to respond as the resemblance between a new stimulus and a conditioned stimulus becomes faínter. [81 generalized anxiety disorder-anxiety disorder charac-tertzed-by díffuse and -generalized anxíety that ísimpossible to manage by avoiding specíñc situations. [221 genes-basic units óf ínformatton on the DNA string that pass along spectfíc heredítary traits.  . genital stage-the final stage of psychosexual development, In which the focus is on the pleasures of sexual Intercourse. [17, 181 . gestalt-a meaníngful pattern or figure Into which human beings group perceptual ínformatíon. [61 gestalt therapy-a blend of Freudian concepts with humanistic phílosophy and. radícally dífferent therapeutic techniques.  given-new strategy-a decoding techníque, essential to . cornprehendíng speech, In which the lístener takes the new Information In the utterance and íntegrates it wíth old information. [161 glands-organs that secrete hormones. [31 glia-structural units of the nervous system: they provide nutríents and structural support to neurons and bar certaín substances from the bIoodstream.  goal-setting theory-cognitive theory of work motivation that víews workers as motívated. by' conscíous intentions to attaín a specífíc goaL [281 grammar-the structure of language.  ground-In a scene, the regíon that represents spaces between objects. [61 grouping-the organizing of sensory data. [61 growth needs. [191See metaneeds. habituation-decrease in the strength of a response; occurs after a novel stimulus has been presented over a long time. (81
hair cells-the receptors in the organ of Cortí, [51 hallucinations-spontaneous sensory perceptionsusually of sounds-that are unrelated to external stírnulí. [221 hallucinogen-a drug wíth the ability to produce hallucinations. [71 hammer-s-one of the ossicles in the middIe ear. [51 health belief model-a model that se es attítudes, values, and knowledge as paramount in maintaining /health. [211 health psychology-area of psychology that aírns at understanding the relationship between the mind and the individual's physical condition. [l. 211 heritability-the extent to which the observed vartatíon of a trait can be attributed to gene tic dífferences among a specífic group of índívtduals in a specíñc environment.  heuristic-a rule of thumb that provides a general directíon for solving probIems. [l01 hindsight-a bias in judgrnent resulting from looking back on events after they have already occurred. lIOI hippocampus-a structure In the limbic systern. [31 homeostasis-a process of self-regulatíon to maíntaín a balanced internal environment; a state of equilibrium. [31 homosexual-a person whose prírnary source of sexual gratification is members of the same sexo [131 hormones-chemical substances used by the endocrine system to transmit messages. [31 hostile aggression-aggression that aims at hurting another persono  human-factors ps~c~l0!ll:-=~_lJranch()fi~d~st!'~<l.J psy:, chology that considers the purpose of a particular machine or envíronment, the capabílttíes ofthe probable user, and the most effícíent desígn that matches the two. (1] humanistic-existential perspective-a psychogenic ap- . proach to psychological disorder that Includes both humanístíc and existential theoríes, [231 hypnagogíc state.-the state lying between waking and sleep.  hypochondriasis-the preoccupation with bodily sympLOIl1S as possible sígns of seríous illness. [221 hypotha1amus-a small structure in the braín that monitors changes in ínternal environment and sends stgnals to maíntain equilibrium.  hypothesis-proposition or belíef to be tested. (21 id-according to Freud, the bíologtcal dríves with which the infant is born. [181 identícal twlns-twins who are the product of a single fertilized egg that dívíded early In the course of prenatal development. (41 identity-an índívídual's sense of personal sameness and continuity. [171 identity crisis-an internal conflíct that requires the adolescent to develop a new seIf-concept. [17, 18] ill-defined problem-e-a problem that has no agreedupon steps or rules that will produce a product gene rally accepted as a soIution.  illusion-a perception that does not correspond to a real object or event; it ts produced by phystcal or psychoIogícal distortion. [61 illusory aftereffects oí motion-an Illusion of reverse
movement that occurs after gazing at some movement for a long time, then shíftíng the gaze to a stationary object.  impression management-displaying behavíor that will lead others to make favorable attributions of our intentions, abihtíes, and feelings. [261 impression management theory-the theory that maíntains that a persori's attitudes remain írnpervíous to the eEfects of dissonance and that the insufficient reward affects only the express ion of attitudes to others. [l2] imprinting-the process by whích some species of birds and mammals form early social attachments. [41 incentive-an external motívatíonal stimulus.  incest-sexual activíty between closely related persons.
.Interneurous-c-neurcns that connect only sensory and motor neurons, [31 interposition-a rnonocular depth cue in whích one object partíally blocks the víew of another object.  intrinsic motivation-the process by which long-term . goals or preferences lead an individual to undertake a behavíor.  introversion-in .Jung's terms, a rnajor personality oríentation in whích the person w íthdraws interest frorn the external world and consequently is quíet, reserved, and cautíous. [181 iris-the pígmented portion of the eye that surrounds the pupil of the eye.  James-Lange theory oí emotion-the víew that emotion results from the perception of bodily changes. [111 just noticeable difíerence (JND).  See difference threshold. key-word system-mnemonic system used in foreignlanguage learníng: an English word similar to the foreígn word to be learned ís used to cue the foreígn word.  kinesthesis-the sense ofbody movement and position.
inclusive fitness-the concept that the fitness of an individual to survíve is a combinatíon of his or her own personal fitness .and the fitness of hís or her relatives based on theír shared genes. [41 independent variable-any factor whose change is expected to affect the event beíng studíed,  individual psychology-the school of psychology founded by Alfred Adler in 1911. [181 individual trait-a untque way of organtzing the world that cannot be applied to all people. [191 individuation-in .Jung's terms, a process of developing all parts of the personality. [181 induced movement-an ílluston in whích a stationary object appears to move because íts relatíonshíp toa surrounding background changes.  industrial/organizational (IIO) psychology-c-field of psy. - - .chology conceri:ú!cf wíthhúrnari beIlavíor-in the place. [1, 28] . iníeriority complex-in Adlers terms. the feelíngs and actíons that characteríze a person with an inability to overcome a childhood senseof incompleteness.
inhibited eJaculation-a condition in which men are unable to ejaculate during sexual actívíty.  inhibitory connection-a message that prevents a receiving neuron from ñríng.  inoculation-process ofprovídíng a person wíth defenses agaínst the effects of persuasion.  insight-the sudden perception of a new relationship that leads to an innovative solutíon. [lO] instrumental aggression-aggression that aims at aequírtng or retrieving objects, terrítory, or prtvíleges.  instrumental conditioning.  See operant conditioning. intelligence quotient (IQ)-the ratío of mental age to chronologícal age. [201 intensity-the strength of a stimulus such as the amplítude of the air-pressure wave·.  interference-process in whích other material in memory blocks out material that is being sought.  interjudge reliability-the extent to whích the scoring or interpretation of a test by dífferent judges will produce the same results.  internal consistency reliability-the extent to which different parts of a test produce the same results.  internalization-the child's tncorporatíon of socíety's values to such an extent that víolatíon of these standards produces a sense of guilt. 
latency period or stage-the period in psychosexual developrnent in which libidinal dynamics are more or less stabilized; chtldren busy themselves explonng the world and learning new thíngs. [17, 181 latent content oí dreams-according to Freud, the unconscíous wtshes, primarily derived from unresolved early emotíorial conflicts, velfé-a by symboÜclm,i,gesin dreams. [7, 181 .Jateral geniculate nucleus (LGN)-a grouping of cell bodies in the thalamus.  lateralization-the establishment of functions in one hemisphere or the other. ' learned helplessness-the acquired beliefthat one cannot exert any control over the envíronment.  learníng-c-a change in behavíoral disposition that ís caused by experience and not explained on the basis ofreflexes. maturatíon, OI ternporarystates.  lens-a transparent structtíre béhind the pupíl of the eye.  límbíc system- the layer of the braín ínvolved in.motivational and emotíonal processes.  linear- functícn. [21 See linear relationship. linear perspective- the apparent convergence of parallel lines in the distance.  linear relationship-a relattonshíp between variables that can be represented graphically as a straíght líne.
linguistics-the study of languages structure.  Iocalization of functíon-i-the idea that different parts of the braín appear to be involved in different types of behavior. [31 locus oí control-degree to which persons believe that they are personally responsible for what happens to them. [201 long-term memory-the type of memory storage capable of storing a limitless amount of ínformatíon indefínrtely. [91 lucid dreams-dreams in which a person is aware that he or she ís dreaming. 
. - .~..: . .. ..
maintenance rehearsal-a form of rehearsal to maínmild retardation-mental retardation in which the tain tnforrnatícn in short-term memory. [91 (Stanford-Bínet) IQ is between 52 and 67; mild retarmajor depression-one or more major depresstve epídates can hold undemanding jobs. rnarry, and have sodes wíth no mtervernng episodes of euphoria. [221 children. (201 manifest content oí dreams-according to Freud, that Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) level of content in dreams that ís a weaving of daily -an empirically constructed peraonaltty-inventory, events, sensations during sleep, and memories; the valuable for diagnosing certain mental illnesses. (201 surface meaning. [7, 181 . mnemonic systems-systems that organíze material so marital schism-a baste farníly pattern, thought to pro-""hat it can be remembered. [91 duce. schizophrenía. in whích the parents of the mode-a measure of central tendency: the score that schtzophreníc are bítterly dívíded.Tz Sl most frequently appears in a distribution. (2) marital skew-a basic family pattern.vthought to promodeling-the process by which a person learns some duce schizophrenia,' in whích one parent of the new behavíor by watching another person perform it. schizophrenic totally dominates the other. [231 (24'1 masochism-sexual gratification obtained through havmodels-persons from whom a pattern of behavíor is ing paín ínflícted on oneself. [221 learned by observation. (81 match=-to asstgn subjects to groups on the basís of a moderate retardation-mental retardation in which the (Stanford-Binet) IQ ís between 36 and 51; although characteristic, so that the subjects in each condition have the same amount of the charactertstíc, -f21 moderate retardates can take care of thernselves. they mean-the arithmetic average of a dístributíon of must líve in sheltered workshops. (201 scores. [2) monochromats-people who are totally color-blínd. meaningfulness-a characteristic of human cornmuníMonochromats see the world in shades of gray. (51 cation in which the relatíonshíp between a word and monocular cues-information that does not requíre the an object ís arbítrary, depending solely on agreernent cooperation ofboth eyes. (61 moral anxiety-( 1) in Freud's terms, anxiety over danger among a group of people as to meaníng, [161 means-end analysis-a problem-solvtng strategy in that comes frorn the superego. (2) gene rally, anxíety caused by the superegos demands for moral behavwhich the person trtes to reduce the distance between the current posítíon and the goal, [101 ior. (18, 231 measure of central tendency-a descríptíve statístíc morphemes-the smallest uníts of meaning wtthín a that represents .the middle of a dístríbutíon of word. (161 motherese-the specíal ways in which adults speak to responses-the mode, mean. or median: [21 .medían-c-the score .that falls-ín -the-exact-rníddle of a ..- -- .. small-children. [161 dístríbutíon, when all scores are arranged from hígh·motion parallax-dift'erences that occur in the relatíve est to lowest. [21 movement of retínal images when the observer moves medícal model-a model of abnormal behavíor that or changes posítion. (61 víews psychologícal problems in the same way as it . ·motivation- the process corresponding to the property of behavíor called "rnotíve.." (121 views physícal problema-e-as díseases. [221 . ·motíve-i-the dynamíc property of behavíor that grves ít medítation-i-a retrammg of attention that induces ID . organízatíon over time and that defines íts end states . .altered state of consciousness.  [121 medUlla-the part ofthe braín stem involved in breathing, círculatíon, chewíng, salívatíon, andfactai move-. motor cortex-the area of the frontal lobes ínvolved in ..._ regulation of voluntary movement. [31 ments, [31 . . .. .. .... ¡ -.motor neurons-neurons that carry messages from the memory trace-a physíologicalchange theoretícally '.' spínal cord to muscles or glands. [31 formed in the braín torecord inforrnatíon: as time multíple orgasms-a series of orgasms that women may passes. the trace decays.  . _ '. . · experíence wíthout going through the resolutíon mental retardation-"significantly subaverage 'general phase after each orgasmo (131 intellectual functioning existing concurrently wíth multiple personality-a dívistcn into two or more comdeficíts in adaptíve behavíor, and manifested during plete behavíor organízatíons. each well-defíned and the developmental períod" (American. Association on híghíy distinct from the others: a rare díssocíatíve Mental Deficiency. 1977). [2Ól díscrder. (221 mental set-a tendency to keep repeatíng solutions that myelin sheath-e-a fatty, whítísh substance that wraps worked in other situations. [10 1 around some axons and that serves as ínsulatíon. (31 metacognition-an understanding of the cognitive processes. [15) . natural category-a category made up of some class of metamemory-knowledge about how one's own memory objects in the world. (10 1 system works. [91 natural selection-the tndívídual's reproductíve sucmetaneeds-the híghest motives. havíng to do wíth cess. whích is made possible by íts genetic dífferencreatívíty and self-actualization. (12. 19) ces from other members of its populatíon. (41 metapathologies-crises (such as alienation and apanaturalistic observations-a rnethod of collecting data thy) that result when metaneeds are not fulfilled. (19) in whích researchers carefully observe and record method oí loci-mnemonic system that uses a series of behavíor in natural settings. (21 places along a familiar route to organíze and cue negative correlation-a relationship between two variaretrieval of ínformatíon to be remembered. (9) bles in whích a rugh rank on one measure ts accornmidbrain-the part of the braín stem that contaíns panted by a low rank on the other. (21 centers for visual and auditory reflexes. (31
negative reinforcement-the strengthening of a response by the removal or termination of a stimulus. [81See also escape Iearníng. neodissociation theory-a theory of hypnosís based on the notion that conscíousness depends on multiple systems that are coordinated through híerarchíes of control, and that during hypnosis the controls shíft. [71 nerves-bundles of neuron fibers. [31 »: nervous networks-a system of communication channels that spreads into every part ofthe body. [31 neurons-the specíahzed cells in the central nervous system that transmit tnformatíon by means of electrochernícal impulses. [31 neuropsychology. [11See physiological psychology. neuroscience-area of psychology that investigates the workings of the sensory systems; the effects of varíous brain chernícals on psychologícal phenomena such as memory, paín. and motívatíon: and the effects of braín damage on behavíor.  neurosis-any· ccndítíon in which a person develops some maladaptive behavior as a protectíon against unconscíous anxíety. [221 neurotic anxiety-in Freud's terrns. anxiety over danger that comes from the id. [18, 231 neurotransmitter-a chernícal stored in sacs at the tip of the axon, that transmits rnessages across the synapse. [31 nondirective counseling. [241See client-centered therapy. non-REM (NREM) sleep-the stages of sleep other than REM-sle'ep:t71--'-'· ... - - __ o'-- __ ... _. _ norepinephrine-neurotransmitter that may be involved in arousal, pleasure, dreamíng, and mood. [31 . norm-a normative distribution that shows the frequency wíth, whích particular scores on a test are made. [141 . normal.curve of distribution-a: bell-shaped, symmetrícal dístríbutíon, in whích. mean, median, and mode .are the same. [21 nox;ms-( 1) averages derived frorn observtng many indíviduals',-(2} a socíety's rules that prescribe "ríght" and "wrong" behavíor. [20, 22,. 271 .nuclear.-magnetic resonance: (NMR)-technique that - uses radiowaves on a body enclosed in a magnetic field to produce images oftíssue, bíochemícalactívíty,. and metabolismo [31
obedience-any behavíor that complies wíth the explicit cornmands of a person in authority.  object concept-an understanding that objects have an existence of theír own .. object permanence-the awareness that objects continue to exíst when out of síght. [151 obsession-an involuntary, irrational thought that occurs repeatedly. [221 obsessive-compulsive disorders-disorders characterized by rituals of orderliness or cleanliness, such as continual hand washing.  occipital lobe-the area in the braín for reception and analysís of visual information.  Oedipal conflict-the most important conflíct in the
chíld's psycnologícal development, in whích children perceive themselves as rívals of theír same-sex parents for the affectíon of the parent of the opposite sexo [171 olfaction-the sense of smell. [51 olfactory epithelium-the sense organ for olfaction. [51 open gene tic program-a gene tic program that can be modified by experience. thus permitting an animal to store more information than can be transmitted in a closed gene tic programo  operant conditioning-conditioning in whích learnincr is explained by the way the consequences ofbehavio~ affect the organísmss behavíor in the future,  oppouent-process theory-( 1) the theory of color víston proposing the exístence of three antagonisticalIy organized systerns. wíth two of the systems composed of paírs of opposíte colors. (2) the theory explaining acquired motívatíons as the result of two opposing processes. [5, 121 optic chiasm-the junctíon where the nerves meet and are rerouted. [51 optic disc-the "blínd spot" in the eye; the area on the retina through whích the optíc nerve passes.  optic nerve-the nerve that relays visual information to the braín. [51 optimal-level theories-theories proposing that áctívt. ties seerníngly unrelated to specífic primary needs are based on a built-in tendency to maíntaín a certaín level of st ímulatíon. [121 oral stage-that stage in psychosexual development that occupíes the first year of !ife and durmg whích the baby's mouth ts the.prtrnary source of sensual.pleas; _ ure, [17, 181 organic brain syndromes-disorders directly traceable to the destruction of braín tíssue or to biochemical imbalance in the braín. [221 organísm-i-the total range of a persori's possíble experíences. [191 organizational psychology. [11 see industrial/organizational (I10) psychology.orgasrn-c-the clímactíc phase of sexual response. [131 orienting reñex-c-phystologícal reactíori to a novel stímulus. [81 ossicles-a series of bones in the middle ear.  oval window-the flexible membrane that divides the middle ear from the tnner ear.  overextension-a chíld's tendency to extend the meaníngs of words to cover objects or actíons for which they have no words. [161 overinclusion-a Iooseníng of assocíatíons. so that each sentence is generated from some mental stimulus in the preceding sentence. [221 overregulation.-extension of a grammatical rule to cases where ít does not apply. [161 ovulation-retease of a mature egg from the ovary. (131
pain thresholds-points at which pains are first perce íved. [51 pair recognition-test of memory retrieval in which the subject is asked to confirm whether a paired test item matches a prevtously leamed paír. [91 Pandemonium model-model of feature analysis proposíng that the brain identifies unknown letter stírn-
uli by weíghíng the various stimuli features that maladaptive personality traíts that írnpaír functíonmatch the letter stored in memory, then summing ing. (22] those weíghted matches over all features available in personality psychology-the approach to psychology in the pattem. (61 which individual differences in behavíor are studied. panic attacks-episodes in which an already heíghtened (11 state of tension mounts to an acute and overwhelmpersonnel psychology-a branch of industrial psycholoing leve!. (22] gy. Personnel psychologísts screen job applicants, panic disorder-panic attacks preceded by no specific evaluate job performance, and recommend employees stimulus. (221 for prornotton. (11 paradoxical cold-the phenomenon of feeling a cold pef'suasive communication-a direct, overt attempt to sensatíon when a cold spot on the skín is stimulated change attitudes. (25] with a hot stimulus. (5] phallic stage-s-the third stage of psychosexual developparapsychology-the study of ESP; the psychology of rnent, during which the chíld's attentíon ís focused events that go beyond what is probable. (11 on the genitals and the pleasures of fondling them. parasympathetic nervous system-the dívíston of the [17, 18] autonomic nervous system that demínates in relaxed phenomenological approach-an approach in the situations. (3] humantstic-extstentíal perspective that stresses the parietal lobe-the area of the braín behind the central índtvidual's own perception of events as opposed to a físsure. [31 . .. therapists interpretation of hidden causes. [231 . Parkinson"s disease-i-a chronic and often 'progresstve pheromones-chemicals that trtgger a behavíoral reac-: condition characterized by ínvoluntary shakíng of tíon in other anírnals of the same species. [51 the Iímbs and head. [31 phi phenomenon-an example of apparent motion in partial reinforcement schedule-a schedule of reínwhich the íllusíon is created by rapidly flashing still forcement in which the subject is rewarded after only pictures. [61 some of íts responses. [81 phobia-an anxíety irrationally centered on a particular participant modeling-a therapeutíc technique in objeet or situatlon.  which the therapíst models the feared actívíty and phonemes-the smallest sound units in the language. then helps the client to confront and master a gradu(161 ated series of threatening actívittes. [241 photopigment-a light-sensitive molecule. [51 pathway-"cable" made up of long, parallel axons that phyletic evolution-a straíght-Iíne pattem of evolutíon. .. transmit sígnals in the central nervous system.(3] [41 patt~rp.~ogp.itj.on-pmc-.e.ss_ through whích.we. ic;lepti:.__..~~physiological_psychology~the.appmach_to psychology fya shape or sound as similarto something we have that attempts to untangle the connections between seen before.  the endocrine and nervous systems and behavíor. 111 . pedophilia-sexual gratíñcatíon obtained through sexuphysiological zero-the temperature at which there is al contacts wíth children. (22] no sensatíon. [51 peg-word system-mnemonic system based on _ ten or pitch-the attribute of tones in terrns of whích they may more simple words that act as rnernory pegs or hooks. be described as hígh or low. This attribute ís closely [91 related to frequency of the sound waves.  percentile system-a system of scoríng tests in whích pituitary gland-the "master gland" of the endocrine the group of seores is divided ínto one hundred equal system. [31 parts. [201 place theory-the theory statíng that the stte of maxí- . perception-an organísm's awarenesS of objects and -mum displacement on the bastlar membrane índí-.. · events in the envíronment. brought about by stímucates to the brain, the spectfíc.frequency ofsound.  latíon of the organísrns sense organs. (6] placebo-a substanee that has no direet phystologícal .. .perceptual constancy-the tendency to percetve objects effeet. [3, 51 . . as havíng eertain constant or stable properties. [61 placebo effect-phenomenon in whích subjects' expecperceptuaI set-the' readíness to perceíve stímulí in a tatíons of the effect of a substance result in their specíñc way, ignortng some types of st írnulatíon and experiencing the effect, even though they are aetually becorníng sensttíve to others. [61 gíven an inert substance. [21 peripheral nervous system (PNS)-the relay system conplastic-the characteristíc of hurnan behavíor that nectíng the CNS and all parts of the body. [31 makes it capable of being molded by envíronmental perseveratícn=-t 1) a verbal slip in whích a produeed influenees. [41 sound is erroneously repeated later in the utteranee. plateau phase-the second phase of sexual response .. [2) a tendeney to dwell on the prírnary associatíon to [131 a gtven stimulus. [16. 221 pons-the part of the braín stem that conneets the two personal disposition. [191See individual trait. halves of the cerebellum and that aets as a relay personal unconscious-in .Jung's terrns. a leve! of the station. [31 unconseious similar to the unconscíous as depicted population-a group of interest identified by some parby Freud.  tieular characteristie or group of charaeteristies.  personality-the dífferences among people plus the staposition emission tomography (PET) scan-teehnique bility of any índívídual's behavíor over long períods. that provides color eontour maps of brain actívíty [17, 18] through use of injeeted radíoactíve glucose.  personality disorder-disorder ínvolvíng inflexible and positive correlation-a relationship between two varia-
1 d .:.-.......
----,--_. -'--1-' .. _
,:.~ :" ...
bles in which a hígh rank on one measure is accompanied by a hígh rank on the other. [21 positive reinforcer-reward that increases an organísrn's tendency to repeat a response that leads to it.
by encouragíng peapie to develop a healthy lifestyle.
postconventional Ievel=-Kohíberg's stage of moral development at which an individual judges moral íssues in terms ofself-chosen príncíples and standards based on universal ethical principies and on the ideals of recíprocity and hurnan equality. [17J post-decision dissonance-state in whích an awareness of the posttíve features of the rejected alternatíve and the negatíve features of the chosen alternatíve creates cognttíve inconsistency. [251 Pg4R method-mnemonic system used to improve memory for test material; consists of six steps. prevíew, questíon. read, reflect, recite, and revíew. [91 pragmatics-the study of língutstic functíon. [l6] precocial-competent (referring to the young of a specíes).
preconventionallevel-Kohlberg's stage of moral development in whích children judge moral issues in terms of paín or pleasure or of the physícal power of authority.  predictive validity-a test's abíhty to produce scores 'that show a relationship to future performance en a job.  prefrontal lobotomy-a surgícal procedure in which a surgícal ínstrurnent ís inserted ínto the braín and rotated to sever nervefíbers connectíng the frontal lobe (thought center) and the thalamus (emotional
primary reinforcer-a stímulus that fulfills some basic need. [81 priming-presenting an ítem or an assoctatíon to an -ttem several seconds or mínutes before memory for the ítem is tested, thus preparíng it for subsequent re trieval. [91 proactive interference-interference in whích earlier learníng blocks out subsequent learning. (9] problem reduction-problem-solving strategy in whích a large problem ís broken into a number of smaller, easíer-to-solve problems. [101 problem space-a persori's conceptíon of the posstbjmoves to be examined in solvíng a problem.  prodromal phase-a phase of detertoratíon, in whích a person beca mes increasingly withdrawn, eccentric in ' behavíor. and unable to carry out daily functions:,j before schízophrenía becomes active.  productivity-a majar characteristic of human lan-" guage: the capacíty to allow individual uníts to bé: combined ínto an unlírníted number of messages-.:
pregenital stage-a coll~~tivete¡niror FreUdOS-flrs"E psychosexual stages. (l8J prejudice-negatively toned attitudesand opinions about an entíre group, such as a racial minority or women, developed in the absence of sufficient knowl- __ edge.  . premature ejacufation-c-a conditionin which men ejaculate rapidly, before they or theír partners would like.  preoperational period-the period of cognítíve development characterized by the development of language, elaborate symbolícplay, and the absence of logícr the preschool years.  primacy effect-c-a process in which the personality traits that are detected first influence subsequent information about the persono  primary appraiSal-a persori's ínítíal appraisal of new or changing circumstances to determine what they mean to hírn or her. [211 primary colors-in additive color míxíng, the three basic colors (blue, red, and green) that can be cornbined to produce any other color.  primary drives-internal motívatíonal factors that seek fulfillment of basic needs.  primary erectile failure-the condition of a man who has never been able to achieve or maintain an erectíon sufficíent for intercourse.  primary orgasmíc dysfunction-the sttuatíon ofwomen who have never experienced orgasm through any means.  primary prevention-a method of maintaining health
profound retardation-mental retardatíon in whích the. (Stanford-Bínet) IQ is below 20; profoundly retarded . persons usually rernaín in institutions but can som~> times carry out a few tasks under close supervísíon." some cannot speak, although they may understand: simple communícatíon. [201 program evaluation-evaluation by psychologists of tne cost and effectíveness of applied programs. [11 progressive relaxation-a relaxatíon techníque i whíchthe mdlvíüüaftenses and 'thenreleases dífferent muscle groups in sequence. (211.,. projection-the unknowing attribution of ones owrr impulses or fears onto others. [181 projective tests-tests whose overall assessment de~' .pends upon clínícal interpretation.  . __ proposítíon-i-the form in which a thought occurs in OUI} .conscíousness: it consísts of a subject (topic) wttha. predicate (comment about the topic). [161 - : prosocial behavior-action intended to benefit another .:.person, taken wtthout expectation of external re, ward. and generally ínvolvtng sorne cost to the indi-··
prototype-a hypothetical best--or most ryptcal=. example of a category. [101 proXimity-a principie of grouping; how close togetherpeople live and work. [6, 26]' psychiatric nurse-a regístered nurse who has specíal-, ízed in psychiatric nurstng. [241 _. psychiatric social worker-a professional. who has. earned a master's degree in social work ando has-.. specíalízed in psychiatric social work.  . psychiatrist-a phystcían (lVID) who specíalízes in the. diagnosis and treatment of mental illness. [241 psychoactive drug-a drug that interacts with the cen-. tral nervous system to alter mood, perception, and behavíor.  . psychoanalysis-the process by which Freud atternptedto bring unconscious material ínto the patíent's. awareness, where ít could be examined ratíonally..-;
1 ¡ 1
psychoanalyst-a person wíth special traíning in the technique of psychoanalysis and who has been psychoanalyzed as part of the traíníng. [241 psychodynamics-the interplay of ccnflictíng forces within the personality. [18J psychogeníc theory-the view that mental disturbances result prtrnaríly from psychologtcal factors. [231 psychohistory-the applícatíonof psychoanalytíc principIes to the study of hístortcal figures. [181 psycholinguistics-the study of Ianguages functíon: how language ís used. [16 J psychological test-an objectíve and standardízed measure of a sample of behavíor that provides a systematíc basis for making inferences about people. [201 psychology-the study of behavíor. [11 psychopharmacology-the study of the relatíonshíp be. tween drugs and behavíor. [1 J psychosis-a condition in whích the person's perceptions of reality are' híghly distorted. [22J psychosocíal-caused by both.psychologícal and social factors. [18J psychotherapy-a systernatíé series of interactions between a therapíst trained to aid in soívmg psychologícal problems and a person who ís troubled or who ís troubling others. [241 psychotic disorder-a disorder characterized by a generalized failure of functioníng in all areas of a persori's life. [221 P300 wave-feature of the event-related potential that aríses when a persori's expectatíons are upset. [31 puberty-the períod of sexual maturation that trans._forms.a child into .a physícal.adult.Ll.Zl. __ ..,punishment-a consequence that leads tó the suppressíon of or to a decrease in the.frequency of a behavíor.
openíng in th~ cent::r of the eye. [51 ._...
qualitative change-c-change.Jn cognítíve developrnent. considered as tnvolvinga radícalrestructuríng of the mínd, [15J . qualíty-c-thekínd of sensatíon a stimulus produces. [5J quantítative caange-c-change.tn cognitive deveiopment, consídered as resulting;from'-theaccumulation of knowledge. [151 quantítatíve psychology-s-the approach to psychology that specíalízes in measurernent and statistics. (1 J racísm-c-specífíc attítudes and behavíor based on. peaple's beliefs that theír ówn race ís superior. (26J randomly assign-to assígn subjects lo a treatment condition in such a way that each subject has an equal chanee of being plaeed in either condition. [21 range-the dilference between the smallest and the largO' est scores in a statístícal dístríbutíon. [21 rape-nonconsenting sexual intercourse with another person as the result of force, threat, or intimidation.
prevíously unexamined beliefs and then are aided in establishing a more realistic cognitive frarnework: a method of cognitive restructuríng. [241 rationalization-defense mechanism in which a person devíses a plausible explanation for doing [or not doingl something that in fact he or she ís doing for dilferent reasons. [181 reaction formation-the replacement of an 'anxtety....-producing impulse by its opposite. [181 reaction range=-the uníque range of responses to the environment possible for the gene tic make-up of each persono [201 realistic fantasy-a state on the contínuum that stretches from normal waking conscíousness to dreamíng: it is most like normal consciousness. [71 realistic job preview [RJP)-an honest pícture of the potential job, including its disadvantages.  reality anxíety-i-tn Freud's terrns. anxíety over danger that comes frorn the outside world. [18,231 receptive field-the restricted regíon of the retina within whích a neural response may be generated by Iíght. [5 J receptor neurons-the specialized cells that receive sensory information frorn the environment. [31 recíprocal altruism-theory proposíng that when a person performs an altruísttc act, he or she increases the chanees that the person being helped will recíprocate and may one day help either the helper or the helpers kin. [4, 271 reconditioning-relearning of a conditioned response that has been extinguished by again pairing the es - -andUS. [81- ,---- - -. referential-use of symbols to refer to objects. [161 reflex arc-the baste functíonal unít of the nervous system: a connectíon between sensory and motor signals. [31 reflexes-nervous system responses that pro vide ímmediate ínvoluntary reactions or responses to stírnulí.
refraetory period=-I 1) a short period after a cell has fired, during whích it cannot transmít an impulse. (2) a per íod 01' time that must pass after a mari's orgasm before he can become sexualIy aroused again.
rational scale-personality test developed by deñníng the varíous constructs to be measured, then writing items that appear to fit the definitions. [20J ratíonal-ernotíve therapy-a therapy in which clients are first led to, recogníze the irrational nature of
regression-defense mechanism in whích a person returns to an earlier stage of development in response to some perceíved threat. [18 J rehearsal-mental repetition of material we wish to retain in mernory. [91 reinforcement control-a way of regulatíng and rnaíntaining behavíor by rewarding an individual after he or she has behaved in a particular way. [191 reinforcement theory-theory of work motívatíon that applies the techniques ofoperant conditioning to the workplace. [281 relative size-the relationship between the size of the retínal image produced by an object and the apparent distance of that object from an observer. [6J reliable-a test, measuring something consistently. [20J REM (rapid eye-movement) sleep-a stage of sleep assocíated wíth dreams, in whích the eyes move rapidly , baek and forth under closed eyelíds, (7J representational thought-thinking in which one men-
tally represents objects not directly in front of one.  representativeness-a heuristíc in whích predictions are based on resemblances between the predícted event and a typícal example. [101 repressíon=.the fundamental defense mechanísm, one that keeps threatening thoughts and memories from consciousness and pushes thern back into the unconscious.  ".residual phase-a period following the active phase of schizophrenia in which behavior resembles that of the prodromal phase.  resistance-a client's attempts to block the therapíst's treatment.  resolution phase-the final phase of sexual response.
resting rate-the rate at whích small spontaneous impulses are sent down the axon during a neurori's resting phase.  retention-the rnaíntenance of information in storage.
retieular formation-the part of theibraín stem that . aro uses higher braín areas to íncomíng information and maíntaíns the sleep-wakíng cycle.  retina-the surface at the back of the eye cornposed of receptors and neurons.  retrieval-the ability to get encoded informatíon out of storage and back into awareness.  retrieval cue-a piece of information that helps us. to retrieve information from long-term memory. retroactive interference-interference in which subsequent.learníng. blocks outearlíer.Ieamtng.Fal .__ . retrograde amnesia-a condition in whích people are unable to remember events precedíng some kind of brain insulto  reverie-a state on the contínuum that stretches from normal waking conscíousness to dreamíng: ít consísts of unrelated images, scenes, or memories.  reversal-verbal slips in which sounds are- exchanged ..  rhodopsin-a highly sensttíve photopígment found in - rods. [51 ' rods-receptor cells in the eye.responsfble for vísion in dim líght. Rodsstgnaltnformation about bríghtness. [51 role enaetment theory-the theory that hypnosís ís simply a special case of role playing.  role taking-being able- to imagine oneself in another's place.  Rorschach Inkblot Test_a test in which a person is handed a series of symmetrícal inkblots. one at a time, and ís asked to report what she cr he' sees, using free association. [201 round window-a membranous spor on the cochlea. 
sadism-sexual gratíñcation obtaíned through ínflíctíng paín on another persono [221 sample-a representative selectíon of mernbers of a defined populatíon,  scatter plot-graph on whích a large number of data are plotted; used to show the range of possíble relatíonships. 
schedule of reinforcement-the basís on which a subject is rewarded for a behavíor.  schema-organized cluster of general lmowledge that we possess about any general topic. [9, 101 schemes-i-actton patterns that consist ofwhatever in an "actíon can be repeated and generalized to other situations.  schizophrenia-a group of disorders characterized by thought disturbance that may be accompanied by delusions, hallucinations, attention defictts. and btzarre motor activity.  Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT)-':a test desígned to measure "aptítude for college studíes" rather than school achievement or general íntellígence. [20J sehool psyehology-the approach to psychology concerned with assessment of children with leaming or emotional problems. The school psychologist wíll then work out ways for parents and teachers to help these chíldren.  . scientific management-a system for the redestgn of work methods to make them more efficient.  script-the schema of routíne events that typically occur in a particular sítuatíon. [161 search tree- the set of all poss íble moves that willlead to . soIution of a problem. [lO] . secondary appraisal-a persori's assessment of whether.. he or she has the resources and ability to cope wíth a: situation.  .'.: secondary erectile failure-a condítíon in whích meri. who have experienced no erectile failure with apart-v -ner in the past are unable to achíeve or maintain an. .erectton.in.sorne or.all.sexual.situatíons.J L3.]. :. secondary (situational) orgasmic dysfunction-the siU~ uation of women who experience orgasms sorne-. times, but not wíth theír pnrnary sexual partneror: not during sexual intercourse.  secondary reinforcer.  See conditioned reínforcer: secondary trait-a charactertstíc mode of behavíor that. . ís less prominent than a central trait and is seen mi:;; fewer sítuatíons. [191 second-order conditioníng-c-a phenomenon in which a:: second neutral stimulus, when it repeatedly followsa" conditioned stimUlus,becomes capable of'elícifíng": the condítíoned response by itself. - . selective attentíoa-i-the process of controlling the selec-v, tíon of material from sensory memory.  . -. ,. self--the parts of the total range of a persori's possible'. experíences that the individual recognízes and ac-". cepts.  . self-actualization-fulfillment of an índivtdual's capabilities. [191 . self-fulñllíng prophecies-expectations about behavíor that evoke a sttuatíon in whích the expectations are' confírmed;  self-instructíonal training-a method of cognítíve re' structuring that gíves clients new ways of thínkíng and talking about theír problems. [241 . self-monitoring-controlling our words, actions, and nonverbal dísplays of emotion so as to create a favorable impression. [25, 26] self-schemas-cIusters of generalizations about the self based on past experiences that organize, summaríze. and explaín OUT behavior. [261
the fluids díscharged by males in ejaculatíon.
in voltage of a recervíng neuron.
semicircular canals-the three fluíd-filled canals in the inner ear that make up the vestíbular-organ. [51 sensorimotor period-the períod of cognitive development in which the ínfant relies on action schemes; the fust two years of Me. [151 sensory deprivation-alteration of consciousness by sharp reductíon of al! sensory stimu1ation. [71 sensory memory-the momentary persistence of sensory information after stímulatton has ceased. [91 sensory neurons-neurons that carry messages frorn the sense organs to the spinal cord. [3J separation distress-an infant's protesting when parted from the mother and expressmg joy when the mother returns. [171 septal area-a structure in the lírnbíc system. [31 serotonin-neurotransmltter believed to affect body temperature, sensory perceptíon, and the onset of· sleep. [31 .' severe retardation-mental retardatíon in whích the (Stanford-Binet)IQ ís. between 20 and 35; severe retardates can learn to care for some of their physical needs. [201 sexism-attitudes and behavíor based on the belíef that one's own sex is superior. [261 sex-typed behavíor-s-behavtor that is regarded as appropríate for only one sexo [171 sexual dysfunction-any recurring .problern that prevents an individual from engagíng ín sexual relations or from reaching orgasm during sexo[131 _s~!ip~g.::-it fQrrl1 9pe!..anJ.c()~d.i~iot1!Pg_~sea ..!l"!~._ o( Qn reinforcernent of ever-closer approxírnattons of a de. -sired behavíor. [8J . short-term memory(STM)- the type ofrnernory storage . capable of retaining information for about fifteen seconds. [9J sign stimulus-a particular stímulus thattríggers the appearance of fíxed-actíon patterns as well as some more complex behavíor. [41 signal detectíon theory-the theory proposíng that there ís no single absolute threshold for a stímulus,
social behavior-any behavíor that involves the ínteractíon of two or more índívíduals. [41 social cognition-the child's understanding of the so- . cial world and the process by which the child comes to understand why people behave as they do in social sttuatíons. [171 social facilitation-enhanéed performance in L.'1e resp ./ ence of others. [271 social impact theory-the theory that when social forces affect a situation. the larger the group, the less pressure on any one mernber because the impact of the forces ís spread over the entire group. [271 social influence-waiting for others to define the sítuatíon as an ernergeney. [21+ social interest-in Adlers terms, the inborn desire to strive for the public good. [181 sociallearning theory-the theory proposing that learning is not sírnply a matter of reactíng to stímulí: rather. people apply cognitive processes to the stírnuli they encounter, selecüng.rorganíaíng, and transforming them. [81 social psychology-the approach to psychology concerned with the study of the behavior of people in groups. In social psychology, special attentíon is paid to the influence of other people on índtvíduals. [11 social trap-a sítuatíon in whích as a result of personal dectstons, people, organizattons. or socíetíes start moving in some direction or initiate some relatíonship whose 'consequencesbecome collectivelyharmfui or lethal but that seems virtually impossible to - stop:¡27] --. socialization-the process of absorbing socíety's attítudes, values, and customs. [171 sociobiology-the study of the genetícbasts of social behavíor andorganízatlon. [4J sociopath-one who is indifferent to the ríghts of others.
_o.oo __ o._ -.-----
similarity-a principie of groupíng. ¡6J simplicity-the concept mtegratíng al! the principies of grouptng. [61 simplification-problem-solVing strategy in whích a solutíon to a similar but relatívely simple problem is worked out in order to generalize .the solutíon method to a more cornplex problem. Llar single feature-s-the classiñcatíon rule that depende on just a single attríbute (for example, doctor). [101 . single-item recognition-test of mernory retríeval in which subject ís asked to confírrn whether an ítern was on a prevíously Iearned; líst., [9J· síngle-unít recording-placement of an electrode to allow researchers to record the electrícal actívíty of a single neuron. [3J situational cause-cause of behavíor that is attributed to condítíons in the environment. [261 size constancy-the tendency to perceíve the size of an object as constant regardless of its 'dístance and, hence, the síze of its retinal image. [61
solo situation-phenomenori in whích a single outsider enters a group of otherwíse homogeneous índívíduals. [261 somatic nervous system-s-the dívíston, of the PNS related to the external world andgerieraüy.under voluntary control. [31 somatoform dísorder-c-dísorderwhose dístínguíshíng feature is the persístence of symptoms that have a somatic or physical form, but in which there is no phystologícal malfunctíon. [221 somatosensory cortex-s-the areaof the parietal lobe tnvoíved in reception and interpretation of touch and posttíonal information. (31 source credíbility-i-the extent to which the prestíge of the source affects a messages belíevabílíty. [25J source trait-an underlying root or cause of a surface traít, [191 species-a group of índívtduals who can mate wíth each other and produce offspring under natural ccndítíons. [4J . species-specific behavior-behavior typical of a partícular species whose members share a common genetic background and a common environment that provides similar influences and experiences. [41
speech act-an utterance. (16] spermatogenesis-the process of sperm production. (131 spinal cord-column of neurons that bring information from the skin and muscles to the braín and send motor commands back to muscles. (3] spontaneous recovery-temporary reappearance of an extinguished response when an organísrn is reíntroduced to the experimental situation. (81 stages-c-cogrntrve períods of development in which a childs thinking patterns are radícally dífferent frorn> those of an earlier periodo (151 standard deviation (S.D.)-the preferred measure of vartab ílíty. If shows how much figures in a gíven set of data vary from the mean.  standard seore system-a system of scoring tests in whích standard scores represent points on a bellshaped curve that reflects the normal pattern of distribution of scores on almost any test. [201 standardlz.atiorrgroup-i--a large andwell-defined. group ofpeople to which a test is gíven to establish the test's norms. (20] . Stanford-Binet Test-a revision of Binet's test of intelligence; devísed at Stanford Uníverstty, (201 state-dependent memory-memory more easily recalled when a person is in the same phystologícal state as when she or he acquired the ínformatíon. (91 stereopsis-perception of depth based on binocular dísparity. (61 stereotype-to rigidly asstgn to a person al! the standardízed attributes that we ordinarily assígn to the group, makíng no allowances for Indívídualíty. [261 stimulant-a drug that íncreases heart rate, blood pres- '-sure~atfd "müsclé Tension' by stünuranrtg the'e-entral nervous svstern. [71 sttmulus-e-any form of energy tbat can evoke a response -Ó. (51 stimulus control-a particular .behavíor taking place only when a particular stírnulus ín the' envíronment evokes it at the appropriatetíme.q l O¡ stimulus genúáJ.ization-the tendency for a response learned in one sttuatíon to occur in response to otber . similar strrnulí or sítuatíons. (81' . -stirrup-oneof the ossicles. , ,,--,". . " Stockholm syndrome-s-the attachmentvthat develops between a hostage and his or her captor. [251 stress~a, term . wíthout .precise ,¡n.e¡uüng;· sometimes defined asany stírnulus that placesa. .straín on a persori's physical or psychologícal capacity to adjust: sometímes defíned as an ínternal response to some dísruptíve or dísquietmg si tuation. (211 subjective contours-s-Itnes or shapes that appear to be part of a figure but are actually not physícally present. (6] subjects-human beíngs orother animals that are the source ofresponses in an experimento [21 sublimation-the dívers íon of emotional energy from íts original source to a socially constructive 'use. (181 subliminal perception-the regístration of sensory information that influences behavíor wtthout producingany conscious experience of the stimulus. (61 superego-according to Freud, that part of the personalíty that represents the moral standards of the socíety as conveyed to the child by the parents, [181
superstítíous beliavior-the increase of a response owing to a coíncídental relationship between the behavíor and a reinforcer. (81 surface traits-clusters of behavíor that tend to go together. (191 survey-method of collecting data in whích researchers obtain tnformatíon about people's characteristics attítudes, optníons. or behavíor by asking them ques, tioris. (21 sympathetic nervous system-the dívistcn of the autonomic nervous system that dominates in emergencies or stressful situations. [31 synapse-a small gap between neurons. [31 synergistic-a combined actíon of drugs. For examDle the effect of two depressants taken together is gre~te~ than the sum of the two drugs' effects. (71 syntax-the rules for combining words to form sentenceso [161 systematic desensitization-a procedure aiming at the gradual extínctíon of anxíety, in which the relaxed client 'is gradually exposed to anxiety-producing stimuli. (241 systematic relationship-correlatíon between two sets of phenomena that happen together that ís stgniñ. cantly hígher than chanceo (21 tardive dyskinesia-a muscle disorder in whích patients grimace and smack theír lips uncontrollably. (241 taste buds-the structures in the mouth and tongue that contain receptor célls for taste stimuli. (51 telegraphic speech-a chtld's utterances in the language-acquísttton stage, characterízed by two'wordsentences. [161.-"--, ... ,-temperament-":the mdívídual's pattern of actívtty, susceptibility to emotional stimulation, response to stimuli, and general mood. (171 template matching-theory of pattern recognition proposing tbat tbe braín recognizes pattems such as letters by comparing fue stímulí to standard patterns ít has sto red in mernory. -(61 temporallobe-the area in the braín involved in audítory reception and processíng of visual information. (31 test-retest reliability-the extent to whích repeated administration of a test to the same group of people produces the same results. (201' texture gradient-the graduated dífferences in texture that occur as distance increases. (61 thalamus-a paír of structures in the braín that provides a link between the cerebral hemispheres and the sense organs. [3i . ' the tragedy oi the commons-an example of a social trapo (27] See social. trap. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)-a test consisting of a series of cards depicting ambíguous scenes ínvoivtng one. two, or threepeople. The subject ís asked, to tell a story about eachpícture. (201 theory-a system of rules or assumptíons about natural .phenornena that can be used to predíct future events or to explaín how these phenomena work. [21 theory oí multiple intelligences-a theory in which equal weíght is gíven to seven different kinds of intelligence. (201 ' theory of psychosexual :development-Freud's theory
that from earlíest infancy people are motivated by powerful bíologícal ínstíncts to seek pleasure and that at different ages, dífferent parts of the body are the focus of this pleasure. [171 . típ-of-the-tongue phenomenon-the condition ofknowing that the tnforrnatíon ís known, while retríeval cues fail to produce the ínformatíon. [91 token economy-a therapeutíc techníque, used primarily in institutions. in whích a wide range of appropriate behavíor ís rewarded with tangible conditioned reínforcers. or "tokens." [241 trait-"any relatively enduring way in which one individual díffers from another" (Guilford. 1959). [l91 transference-a client's transfer to the analyst of childhood feelings toward important people in his or her Iífe, particularly the parents. [241 transference neurosis-the stage of therapy in which the client reenacts wíth the analyst childhood conflícts wíth the parents, [241 transsexualism-gender ídentíñcatíon withthe opposite sexo [13. 221 transvestism-sexual gratification obtained thrciugh dressing in clothing of the opposíte sexo [22 I traumatic-psychological!y damagíng. us I trichromatic theory-the theory proposing that color vtsíon is based on three types of cones thought to be mmgled in a mosaíc pattem throughout the central retina. [51 trimester-one-third of the períod of pregnancy, [141 Turner's syndrome-the condition of a fetus that has recerved only a single X chromosome and nó Y chromosome. [131 . funi:takIñg-conveñiions="sigilalS tháiiñdicatéw"hci'wÜl be next to speak in a conversation. [161 two-factor theory of emotion-the theory that the experíence of an emotíon ís basecl.on a' physíologícal change plus a cognitive interpretation of that change. [111_ .. . '. Type A behavior-a personality pattem;: people who ñt this pattem are híghly cornpetítíve, hostile when thwarted, and their behavior shows the urgency of working against the pressures of time: [21 I
vaginismus-a condition in which involuntary muscle spasms cause the vagina to shut tíghtly so that penetratíon by the penis ís extremely painful or impossible. [131 valid-of a test. measuring what it purports to measure.
[201 . _
variability-the degree to which a group of responses spreads out from the mean or median. [21 v~ble interval schedule-a partial reinforcement schedule in whích reinforcement comes at unpredíctable times. [SI variable ratío schedule-a partíal reinforcement schedule in which .reínforcement comes after an unpredictable number of responses. '[81 verbal encoding-naming or verbal!y descríbíng material to be stored into short-term rnemory. [91 vestibular sense-the sense of balance. [51 . visual cortex-area of braín most involved in recetvíng and analyztng visual information; located in occipital lobe. [31 visual depth perception-the ability to tel! how far away . an object 1S'. [6 I voyeurism-sexual gratification obtaíned through secret observations of another persori's sexual actívítres or genitals. [221 wariness of strangers-a baby's responding to strangers wíth. for example, fear or wíthdrawal. [171 wavelenth-s-a unit of scale of the electromagnetic spectrum. [51 Weber's law-the law stating that the amount of stimu_,_ ..tu:=¡ l}ee<;ls;,.dJº--p.mduce a,just.I1Q.ticeab.le.difference is.a... constant fractíon of the Intensíty of the stírnulus. [51 Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAlS)-a test for adults that measures both performance and verbal ability. [201 Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC)-a ': test of children thatmeasures both verbal and performance ability. [201 • Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale oflntelligence [WPPSI)-a test. that measures both verbal and performance ability of children from four to six and a half years old. [201 'weÜ:defined problem-aproblem with a clearstructure; one in whích there is always a clear standard for . '>cieciding whetherthe problem has been solved. [101 Wernicke's aphaaía-e-Ioss of ability to cornprehend language, brought about by damage to the left temporal cortex. [31 'working backward-a specíal form of means-end analysts consisting oí devísíng a plan by working backward fram the goal state. [101 Young-Helrnholtz hypothesis-color víston relíes on only three baste kinds oí color cenes, sensitíve to the three primary colors of red. blue, and green. [5 I
ultimate attribution error-c-the tendencyto fina dísposttíonal causes for the misdeeds of an outgroup ando sttuatíonal causes for the mísdeeds of aningrdup.
unconditionaf positive regard-i-contínued support of a person (by the self or others) regardless of what the person says 01' does. [19. 241 ' unconditioned response. (UCR)-an unleamed response to a stímulus .. [81 unconditioned: silinulus (UCS)-a stímulus that evokes a response wíthour havíng been leamed. [81 unconscious-an aspect of personality unknown to the mind of the subject. [181 uniformity-cornmon features or behavíor shared by almost al! rnembers of a grven group. [271
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