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TRINIDAD&TOBAGOELECTRICITYCOMMISSION
PROTECTIONANDSCADADEPARTMENT

TECHNICALTRAINING

To
Manager Protection

Department
Title TRANSFORMERPROTECTION.

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and

SCADA Origin:JasonChinSang
Review:JasonChinSang

IssueDate:AUG.2008
ReviewDate:AUG.2009

Number:

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Table Of Contents

1
2
3
4

Forword ............................................................................................................................ 4
Introduction ...................................................................................................................... 4
Generalprinciples ............................................................................................................. 7
Differentialprotection ....................................................................................................... 8
4.1 PercentDifferentialProtection................................................................................... 10
4.2 AdvantageofPercentDifferentialRelays. ................................................................... 10
4.3 DefiningtheRestraintCurrent. .................................................................................. 11
4.4 CTSaturationandtheDualSlope ............................................................................... 15
4.5 SystemError ............................................................................................................. 16
4.6 ChoosingthePercentSlope. ....................................................................................... 17
4.6.1 THEBREAKPOINT: ............................................................................................. 17
4.6.2 SLOPE1: ............................................................................................................. 17
4.6.3 SLOPE2: ............................................................................................................. 18
4.6.4 ChoosingtheBasicPickUpCurrent(SystemError) ............................................. 19
4.7 MultitapDifferentialRelays ...................................................................................... 20
4.8 InstantaneousHighsetDifferentialRelays. ................................................................. 21
4.9 ExcitingCurrentConsideration .................................................................................. 21
4.10
MagneticInrushonBankEnergization .................................................................... 22
4.10.1
TheDCOffset ................................................................................................... 25
4.10.2
TheSecondHarmonic ...................................................................................... 26
4.10.3
TheThirdHarmonic ........................................................................................ 26
4.10.4
Higherharmonics ............................................................................................ 26
4.11
MagneticInrushOnParalleledTransformerEnergization ....................................... 27
4.12
RelayRestraint....................................................................................................... 27
4.13
CTConnections ...................................................................................................... 29
4.14
ChoosingCTRatios................................................................................................. 32
4.15
ComputingtheCurrentTransformerRatioRelationship. ......................................... 32
4.15.1
ExampleComputation. ..................................................................................... 34
4.16
TwoWindingPercentDifferentialRelayforThreewindingTransformers................ 35
4.17
ProblemswithDifferentialRelays ........................................................................... 38
5 ApplicationConsiderations .............................................................................................. 39
5.1 InfluenceofWindingConnectionsandEarthingonEarthFaultCurrent ...................... 39
5.1.1 Faultonwyewinding .......................................................................................... 40
5.1.2 FaultonDeltaWinding ........................................................................................ 42
5.1.3 TypesofDeltaConnections ................................................................................. 43
5.1.4 CTConnectionforZigZagTransformer ............................................................... 44
5.2 MasterGround .......................................................................................................... 45
6 RestrictedEarthFaultProtection(REF) ........................................................................... 46
6.1 GuidelinesforthedesignparametersandsetpointforREFprotection. ....................... 48
6.1.1 DeterminationofStability ................................................................................... 49
6.1.2 CurrentTransformerRequirements .................................................................... 49
6.1.3 SettingResistor ................................................................................................... 49
6.1.4 NonLinearResistor ............................................................................................ 50

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6.1.5 WorkedExampleProtectionofPowerTransformerHVDeltaWindingUsingAREF
ElementofanARGUSRelay. ............................................................................................. 51
6.1.6 AmountofWindingProtectedagainstEarthFaults. ............................................. 56
7 ShortCircuitProtectionwithOvercurrentRelays ............................................................. 58
8 OtherSchemes ................................................................................................................ 59
8.1 StandbyEarthFault ................................................................................................... 59
8.2 TankLeakageProtection ........................................................................................... 59
8.3 OverfluxingProtection............................................................................................... 60
8.4 Circulatingcurrentsinparallelbanks ......................................................................... 61
8.5 GasProtection ........................................................................................................... 61
8.6 ThePressureReliefDevice(PRD) .............................................................................. 63
8.7 WindingtemperatureandOiltemperatureProtection ................................................ 64
8.8 EarthingTransformerProtection ............................................................................... 67
8.9 PlainBalanceScheme ................................................................................................ 68
8.10
CombinedSchemewhenEarthingReactorisIncludedintheProtectionZone. ......... 69
8.11
Combinedlineandtransformerschemes ................................................................ 70
9 FunctionalcircuitDesign ................................................................................................. 71
9.1 thesinglelineschematic ............................................................................................ 71
9.2 theacschematic ........................................................................................................ 71
9.3 thedcschematic ........................................................................................................ 71
10 RELAYSINservice ........................................................................................................ 76
10.1
TheGE745DifferentialRelay .................................................................................. 76
10.1.1
UnitWithdrawalandInsertion ......................................................................... 76
10.1.2
FrontPanelInterface ....................................................................................... 79
10.1.3
RearView ........................................................................................................ 83

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1 FORWORD
Thisdocumentseekstodescribetheschemesfortransformerprotectionwhichexists,someof
whichareusedbytheProtectionandSCADADepartmentoftheTrinidadandTobagoElectricity
Commission.ThisdocumentisdesignedtoexposethesecondyearEngineerinTrainingtoboth
thetheoryandapplicationaspectsoftransformerprotection.

2 INTRODUCTION
Among the abnormal conditions affecting power transformers, there are five common kinds,
namely,shortcircuits,opencircuits,overheating,overvoltagesandunderfrequency.Generally
speaking,relayprotectionisnotprovidedagainstopencircuitsbecausetheyarenotharmfulin
themselvesandarestatisticallyimprobable.Itispossiblehowever,thatsustainedzerosequence
current in the delta tertiary winding due to an open phase condition left undetected may be
abovetherating.

Furthermore, sustained overloading of a transformer will cause its temperature to rise to


abnormal levels, which can result in insulation degradation. In oil immersed transformers,
failuresoffans,pumpsorblockagesintheradiatorsduetothebuildupofsludgewillalsocause
abnormal temperature rise within the transformer. For that matter, overheating or overload
protection is also provided allowing full advantage to be taken of the transformer overload
capacity. At transformer stations, there may be controls to send an alarm or to control pumps
and banks of fans for cooling purposes but without tripping the breakers to isolate the
transformer. Further increase in temperature may trip load side breakers preventing further
temperaturerise.

Horn gap protectors and lightning arresters provide protection against transient over voltages
such as those caused by lightning strikes and switching operations. These cause endturn
stresses and possible insulation breakdown. Lightning protection is beyond the scope of this
technicaldocumentandwillnotbediscussed.Powerfrequencyovervoltagesarealsoprevalent
andarecausedbythesuddenlossofloadonthesystem.Thisconditioncausesoverfluxingofthe
transformer and an increase in stress on the winding insulation. Over fluxing increases iron
losses and may result in a large increase in exciting current. Such conditions result in rapid
heating of the iron circuits of the transformer, with possible damage to core lamination
insulationandevenwindinginsulation.

Under frequency is also cause by a major system disturbance when there is not enough
generationtomeettheload,e.g.thesuddenlossofgeneration.Atlowfrequenciestheexciting
current of the transformer is greatly increased. The hysteresis loop widens as frequency falls.
Thisalsocausesoverfluxingofthetransformerironcircuits.

Atransformermaybeabletocontinueoperationateitherconditionbutifthetwoconditionsare
experiencedatthesametime,thismayleadtoadisastrousoutcome.HenceVoltageperHertz

~5~
protectionissometimesprovided.UsuallytheratioofVoltagetofrequencyshouldnotexceed1.1
voltsperhertz.

Whenashortcircuitoccurs(externalorinternaltothetransformer)thehighcurrentcauselarge
mechanicalstresseswithinthetransformer.Thelargestmechanicalforceisexperiencedwithin
thefirsthalfcycleofthefaultandthisshorttimeframemakesitimpossibletoprotectagainst
thiscondition.Theprotectionstrategyforthisisthereforeamatteroftransformerdesign.

There remains the protection against faults in the transformers or their connections such as
windingshortcircuitsandincipientfaults.

Themajorityofinternalfaults,whichoccurwithinthewinding,areeitherearthfaults(notethe
HVwindingisusuallywoundovertheLVwindingwhichisclosesttothecore;assuchtheHV
windingisthatwhichisclosesttothetransformersearthedframe,andisthewindingwhichis
likelytoflashtoearth)orinterturnfaults,theseverityofwhichdependsonthedesignofthe
transformer and the method of system earthing. Phase faults within the winding are rare, and
where singlephase transformers are operated in three phase banks, are impossible. The main
causesofphasefaultsarebushingflashoversandfaultsintapchangeequipment.

Incipient faults are internal faults that are not detectable at the transformer terminals, which
constitute no immediate hazard. However, if they are left undetected they may develop into a
major fault. The purpose of providing protection against these failures is to limit the damage,
such that the transformer can be repaired without anextended outage. Themain faults inthis
group are core faults, due to insulation failure between core laminations, and interturn coil
insulationfailureduetodegradationofthepaperinsulation.

Interturn coil faults are unlikely in low voltage (pole & pad mount) transformers unless the
windings have been damaged mechanically by large through currents due to external faults,
whichcancracktheinsulation.

For highvoltage transformers connected to a high voltage system, the unit is likely to be
damagedbysteepfronttravellingwavesorimpulses(switchingandlightning)thatcanbemuch
higherthantheratedtransformervoltage.Theriskofinterturnflashoverisgreatestintheend
ofthewindingwhicharepronetofailureforthistypeofevent.Shortingafewturnswillcause
largefaultcurrentstoflowintheshortedsection,buttheterminalcurrentswillnotbegreatly
affected,makingdetectiondifficult.Itisclaimedthatupto80%ofallhighvoltagetransformer
failuresareduetothiscause.

AnothersubcategoryofshortcircuitfaultsistheCOREfault.Thetransformercorelaminations
arecarefullyinsulatedfromeachothertopreventeddycurrentsfromcrossingthegapbetween
adjacentlaminations.Eventheboltsthatclampthelaminationstogetherareinsulatedfromeach
ofthelaminationstopreventtheboltsfromcausingamagneticshortacrossthelaminations.Any
overheating or over fluxing of the transformer provides the possibility of causing a magnetic
shortofthiskindduetothedeteriorationoftheinsulationbetweenlaminationsoraroundbolts.

Suchashortedpathwillalloweddycurrentstoflow,andwillgreatlyincreasethecorelossesand
causelocalizedheatingtooccur.Thisconditiondoesnotgreatlyaffecttheterminalcurrentsof

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thetransformer,makingthistypeoffaultdifficulttodetectbyelectricalrelaysconnectedtothe
terminals.

The Buchholz device is a major protection device for oil immersed conservator type
transformers.Ithastheabilitytodetectbothhighenergyandlowenergyinternalfaults.

For oil immersed nitrogen cushioned sealed tank transformers, a pressure sensitive device is
alsoapplicable.

It is important to recognize that no single protection element can fully cater for the range of
abnormalconditionswhichcanresult.Intheeventthatanyelementwithinthefulltransformer
protection scheme shall be inoperable, it is the remaining protections and the risk of damage
whichcanresultifaparticularfaultconditionshalldevelop,whicharethefactorsfordeciding
theacceptablerisk.

~7~

3 GENERALPRINCIPLES
To provide a transformer bank adequate protection against internal faults, a number of
protections are necessary. The basic philosophy of protective devices is different for incipient
faultsthanactivefaults.

Active fault protection must be fast to isolate the unit in order to minimize the effect of the
disturbanceonthesystem,minimizedamagetotheequipmentandpreventinjurytopersonnel
whoareinthevicinity.

Incipient faults do not require fast detection and equipment isolation. These faults develop
slowly and there istime for careful observation and testing. Moreover,these faults are usually
notprotectedbythesamedevicesusedforactivefaultdetection.

The exception to this philosophy is perhaps the Buchholz, which has elements to detect both
incipientandactivefaultconditions.

A differential protection is provided on most transformers rated above 3MVA. This does not
meanthatadifferentialprotectionwouldnotbeappliedtoasmallercapacitytransformer.The
decision to use a full range of protection elements is based on the relative importance of the
transformer.Forexample,afactorymayhavea1MVAtransformerforitsoperations,thelossof
whichwillmeanthehaultofproductionuntilitisreplaced.Hence,thoughthecompanycanpay
forareplacement,theleadtimetodeliverymayleadtoalosswhichcannotbewithstoodbythe
company.

Restricted ground fault protection is provided, and is sensitive enough to operate on internal
groundfaultsevenwherethetransformerisgroundedthroughhighimpedance.

Inadditiontoamaingasprotection,ifthetransformerisequippedwithanonloadtapchanger,a
separatesurgeprotectionisprovided.

Apressurereliefdevice(PRD)mayalsobeprovidedtopreventtankruptureonsevereinternal
faults.

Externalshortcircuitsmayonlybelimitedbythetransformerreactanceandwherethisislow,
fault currents may be excessive. The duration of external short circuits, limited only by the
transformer reactance, which a transformer can sustain without damage are quoted from BS
1711936:

Transformer%Reactance
PermittedFaultDuration(sec)
4
2
5
3
6
4
7&over
5
For this reason a separate backup overcurrent protection may be graded with downstream
equipment.

~8~

4 DIFFERENTIALPROTECTION
Differentialprotectionisdefinedasaprotectionthatoperateswhenthevectorialdifference(or
sum) of two or more electrical quantities of the same type exceeds a predetermined value.
Differential protection derives its name from the type of connection that is used to compare
quantitiesattwoormorepointsoftheprotectedequipment.Itisprobablytruethatmostactive
faults involve arching to ground, and can probably be cleared by ground relays. Still, the
differential protection relay predominates as the preferred active fault detection method for
powertransformers.

Any type of current measuring relay, when suitably connected, can be operated as differential
protection.Mostdifferentialprotectionapplicationsareofthecurrentdifferentialtype.

Considerthesimpleexampleshowninthefollowingfigures.

Supposecurrentflowsthroughtheprotectedzonetoaloadortoafaultoutsideoftheprotected
zoneofthedifferentialprotection,theconditionswillbeasdepictedbythearrowsinthefigure
below.I.e.thecurrentwillflowaroundtheCTsandnotthroughtheoperatingcoiloftherelay.

Node

Ib

Ia

IA

IB

Definingthecurrententeringtheprotectedequipmentasthereference,aphasordiagramforthe
systemofcurrentswouldbeasshown.

Ia or Ib

IA or IB

~9~
Hence,usingKCL;thesumofcurrentsenteringthenodeisequaltothesumofcurrentsleaving
thenode.


I a I b 000 A=Ioperate

Shouldafault,however,developanywherebetweenthetwoCTs,i.e.withintheprotectedzone
ofthedifferentialprotection,thencurrentwillflowthroughtheoperatingcoil,asshowninthe
followingfigureandcausetheoperationoftherelayifitsvalueexceedsthesetpointoftherelay.
i.e. if Ioperate Isetpoint

~10~
4.1 PERCENTDIFFERENTIALPROTECTION
Onetypeofdifferentialrelayisthepercentdifferential.Thisisessentiallythesameasthebasic
type of differential relay except for the addition of restraint coils. It has a rising pickup as
opposedtoanabsolutepickupcurrent.

Ifwedefinethesetpointoftherelayasaratioofthedifferencecurrenttotherestraint(circuit)
current,thenasthecircuitcurrentincreases,thecurrentrequiredtooperatetherelaywillalso
increase.

i2

i1

i1-i2

No current flows through


the operating coil

Relay Coil

Protected Equipment

I1

I2

4.2 ADVANTAGEOFPERCENTDIFFERENTIALRELAYS.
Theadvantageofapercentdifferentialrelayisthatitislesslikelytooperateincorrectlywhena
faultoccursexternaltotheprotectedzone.Itisthereforeconsideredtobemorestable.

TherearethreesourcesoferrorthatcanleadtounbalancesintheCTsecondary
currents:

1. ErrorsintheCTtransformation.
2. Thechangingratioofthepowertransformer,duetotheonloadtapchanger,withoutany
compensationforthefixedCTratios.
3. MismatchbetweentheCTcurrentsandtherelaytapratingforelectromechanicalrelays.

Currenttransformersofthetypesnormallyusedfortransformerdifferentialprotectionmaynot
transform their primary current accurately under fault conditions. They are often of different
types and have dissimilar magnetization characteristics, resulting in spill currents. This is
particularly true when a short circuit current is offset (transient and subtransient short circuit
currents) causing saturation of the magnetic core. Under such conditions, supposedly identical
current transformers may not have identical secondary currents and a spill is produced. The
greater the short circuit current, the greater will be the difference current. Since the percent

~11~
differential relay has a rising pickup characteristic, as the magnitude of the through current
increases, the relay is restrained against improper operation. That is, the pickup current
increases with the through current, thereby providing security against erroneous operation
wheneverdifferencecurrentresults.

Consideraunitbeingprotectedwheretheoverloadintotheequipmentis100A.CTswouldform
theboundariesforthezoneofprotection.IfeachCThasamaximumerrorof10%atacurrentof
up to 20 times its rating (10P20), then the maximum error current from each CT is 10A.
Assuminga+10AonCT1anda10AerroronCT2,themaximumerrorspillis20A.Hence,one
may anticipate that an overcurrent relay set with a pickup current greater than 20 A may be
sufficient.

Considernowifthereisanexternalfaultof1000A,CT1outputmaycorrespondto1050Awhile
CT2outputmaycorrespondto950A.BothCTsarewithintheir10%errorspecificationbutthe
relaywilloperatespuriouslyduetothespillbeinggreaterthan20A.Thisoperationwouldnotbe
desirable.

Increasing the set point current of an overcurrent relay will desensitizetherelayfor lowlevel
internalfaultsandhencethisisnotaviableoptionforthedetectionofsuchfaults.

Thesolutionistohaveanoperatingcharacteristicthatissensitivetodifferencesatlowcurrent
levels, yet secure at high current levels. A percent differential characteristic is thus used. This
characteristicisplottedonanXYgraphwiththevectorialcurrentdifference(Id)ontheYaxis
andarestrainingcurrent(IR)plottedontheXaxis.Therestrainingcurrentisthatvaluewhich
represents the magnitude of the current flowing into, out of, or through the equipment being
protected.

StabilityisalsoachievedforCTratiomismatchesthatoccurduetotheoperationoftheonload
tapchanger(OLTC).IftheCT%errorislargecomparedtothemaximumdeviationduetotheon
loadtapchanger,thenthisfactorisnegligibleasdemonstratedlateron.

4.3 DEFININGTHERESTRAINTCURRENT.

Refertothepreviousfigure.ThedifferentialcurrentintheoperatingcoilisI1I2.Theequivalent
I I2
currentintherestraintcoilis 1
sincetheoperatingcoilisconnectedtothemidpointof
2
therestraintcoilforthecircuitshown.ConsiderinthisexampleifNisthenumberofturnson
therestraintcoil,whichisthesameasthenumberofturnsontheoperatingcoil,therestraining
I N I N
I I2
ampereturnswouldbe 1 2 .Thisisequivalentto 1
flowingthroughtheentire
2
2
2
coil.Thisisbynomeanstheonlywaytodefinetherestraintcurrent.

~12~
The restraint coil receives currents proportional to the current flowing to the protected
equipment and produces contact opening torque, while the operating coil receives current
proportionaltothefaultordifferencecurrentflowingintotheequipmentandproducescontact
closing torque. Consider a multi restraint circuit relay for a three winding transformer. The
restrainingcurrentsareI1,I2,andI3,whilethedifferentialcurrentistheKCLvectorialdifference
ofI1,I2,andI3.

Restraint Coil

Restraint Coil
I2

I1

Restraint Coil
I3

Operating Coil

I1+I2+I3

Theoperatingcurrentisreadilyagreeduponbuttherestrainingcurrentsaresubjecttoavariety
of interpretations. The common definition of restraining current considers the average of the
throughcurrentflowingthroughtherestraintcoils.

There are several accepted definitions for calculating the restraining current. There is no
advantage to using one method over another. However, the amount restrain provided by the
different methods differ significantly, particularly where there is multipoint equipment
protectionsuchasinbusprotection.

TheSumofmethod
I R I 1 I 2 I 3 ... I n

TheScaledSumofmethod
1
I R I1 I 2 I 3 ... I n
n

TheGeometricAveragemethod
I R n I1 I 2 I 3 ... I n

TheMaximumofmethod
I R Max I1 , I 2 , I 3 ,..., I n

~13~
BeforethepercentdifferentialiscalculatedthemaximumerroroftheCTsmustbeplottedonthe
Id IRgraphasaslope.HenceifthemaximumerroroftheCTsis10%thenaslopeof20%must
beplotted.

Id

OPERATE

20% slope for CT error


NON-OPERATE
IR

Any reading above the slope is in the operate region, while any below is in the nonoperate
region.

I I
Thepercentdifferentialisthencalculatedas 1 2 x100 .
IR
Hence for a 1000A fault, as for our example, using the Maximum of method for the restraint
current,IR=1050A. I 1 I 2 is100AsinceI1andI2aremeasuredbytherelayfromtheCTs.The
calculateddifferentialisthen
willnotoperate.

100

9.52%.Thisisbelowthe20%setpointandtherelay

~14~

Slopeistheratioofthedifferentialcurrenttocauserelayoperationtotherestrainingcurrent.In
thebasicpercentdifferentialrelay,theratioofthedifferentialoperatingcurrenttotherestraint
current is a fixed value, giving a slope of a particular gradient in the relays operating
characteristic.

In practice, many transformer percent differential relays have a variable percentage


characteristicasshowninthenextfigure,selectablebysomeadjustment;sothatoneofseveral
slopescanbechosenoveragivenrangeofthroughrestraincurrents.

I1-I2

I1+I2
2

IntelligentElectronicDevice(IED)typepercentdifferentialrelaysmayemploythetechniqueof
allowingtheusertosettheslope,oftherelaycharacteristicsbetweenrestraintcurrentvalues,
givingacharacteristichavingtwoslopesasshowninthenextfigure.
I1-I2

K2

K1
I1+I2
2

~15~
4.4 CTSATURATIONANDTHEDUALSLOPE

Busandtransformerfaultcurrentstendtobeverylargeandhencewemustbeconcernedwith
thepossibilityofCTsaturation.

The10%erroristhemaximumerroriftheCTdoesnotgointosaturation,i.e.iftheCToperates
in its linear region. However during through faults, one CT may saturate before the other and
bothmaysaturatetodifferentdegreesasnotwoCTscanmatchperfectly.ForexampleCT1may
have 65% saturation while CT2 has 50% saturation. The worstcase spill for a through fault
conditionwillexistifoneCT(sayCT1)saturatescompletelywhiletheother(CT2)doesnot.

OnceoneoftheCTsstartstosaturate,anadditionalSpurious currentwillbemeasuredbythe
relay.NotethatevenwhenafaultoccursthatresultsindeepCTsaturation,theCTwillinitially
step down the current correctly. The operating points initial trajectory is such that it will
departfromtheprefaultpositionandshifttotherightasshownwiththegreenarrow.Oncethe
CTs go into saturation the measured current and hence the restraining signal decreases. This
causestheoperatingpointtoshiftupandtotheleftasshownbytheredarrow.Withsufficient
saturation the operating point could enter the elements operate region, resulting in a mal
operation.

Id

Spurious Current
20% slope for CT error

Normal Trajectory
IR

To provide greater stability under large through fault conditions the element can utilize a
steeper slope beyonda defined breakpoint.The resulting characteristic is a dual slope percent
differentialcharacteristic.

~16~

Id

90% slope for CT Saturation

20% slope for CT error

IR
Breakpoint
(Maximum Overload Curerent)

4.5 SYSTEMERROR
Under normal operating Conditions it was found that the element could maloperate under
extremelylightloadconditionsduetosystemerror.Systemerroristhecumulativeerrorofthe
CTsandtheanalogtodigitalconverterswithintherelay.Thetotalofthisistypicallyclosetothe
ratedCTerror.Itispossiblethataverysmallcurrentflowcanberegisteredinonerestraintcoil
andtheoperatingcoilwithcomparativelynegligiblecurrentflowbeingregisteredthroughthe
second restraint coil. To eliminate the possibility of maloperation under such conditions, the
elementhasasettingfortheminimumdifferentialerrortocauseoperation.

Id

90% slope for CT Saturation

20% slope for CT error


Min Value
to cause Operation
Breakpoint
IR
(Maximum Overload Curerent)

~17~
4.6 CHOOSINGTHEPERCENTSLOPE.
Thesetpointsforthischaracteristicarecalculatedasfollows:

4.6.1 THEBREAKPOINT:
IfusingtheMaximumofmethodfortherestraintcurrentcalculation,thebreakpointissettoa
currentjustabovetheoverloadcurrentofthedevicebeingprotected.Thebreakpointintermsof
therestraintcurrentmustbecalculatedfortheotherdefinitionsofrestraintcurrentassuminga
maximumthroughcurrentof40%overload.

4.6.2 SLOPE1:
Thenormalmaximumsettingofslope1isthecumulativeratederroroftheCTs.Forexample,if
twoCTshaveamaximumerrorof10%theslopewouldbesetat20%.
Howeverifthemaximumfaultcurrentwillgenerateavoltagethatislessthanorequaltohalfthe
knee point voltage of the CTs, it is common practice to reduce the CTs rated error by half.
Therefore the CT maximum error would be 5% and the slope 10%. This provides greater
sensitivityforlowlevelfaults.

TheslopesettingisfurthercomplicatedbytheexistenceoftheOnLoadTapChanger.Unbalance
inthesecondaryoutputsofthedifferentialzoneCTsmaybecausedbythetapchangerofthe
powertransformer.Manypowertransformershavetapsattheextremethatwouldgiveplusor
minus k percent change in transformer ratio based on the mid tap. This means that the
maximumerrorthatcanoccurisk%.

CTratiosarehoweverchosentobalancethesecondarycurrentsatavalueequaltoorslightly
higherthantherelayratedcurrentconsideringaloadequaltotheemergencyratingofthebank
(normally1.4xforcedcooledratingofthebankontheT&TECsystem),withthetapchangerat
itsmidpointofthetapchangerrange.Theunbalancethatcanoccurfromtapchangeroperation
needstobedeterminedformaximumstability.

Since the CT ratios are fixed, and there is known CT error, the maximum primary HV side
equivalent spill can be determined. This maximum spill expressed as a ratio of the restraint
currentforthemaximumtapchangerdeviation,givestherequiredslopesetting.

Forexampleconsidera66/33kVtransformerwith21tappositionshavingamidtapof11with
a1.25%voltagevariancebetweentaps.Hencethetapchangerhasarangeof(10x1.25)%.The
maximumratioerrorwillresultwhentheTransformerisatTap21not1,sincethiswillresultin
themaximumsecondarycurrentwhileTap1willresultintheminimumsecondarycurrent.

Sincethereare10stepsbetween11and21thepowertransformerratiochangesby(10*1.25)
12.5%.

Using a primary CTRof 100/1 and a secondary CTR of 200/1, both with10% error. IfX amps
flows through the HV primary, the error current is (X * 0.1). The error current of the LV
secondaryassumingthetransformerisattap21,is:

~18~

66 1 0.125
X
0.1
33

2 X 1 0.125 0.1

FactoringtheCTratiosoneithersideoftheTFtheLVspillreferencedtotheHVsideoftheTF
(viatheCTsecondarycircuits)becomes:
1 100
2 X 1 0.125 *0.1*
*

200 1
X 1 0.125 *0.1

ThemaximumtotalSpillcurrentinprimarytermsis

0.1* X * 1 1 0.125
X * 0.1* 2.125

The maximum spill at nominal tap is X *0.1*2 . Hence the operation of the tap changer has
onlyincreasedthespillbyanadditional(10X1.25%)12.5%.

Assuminganyloadcurrentforourexample(sayX=100AprimaryHV),theHVprimaryreferred
spillwillbe21.25A.

AssumingalsotheCTerrorcurrentisadditiveontheprimarywillyield110Aseenbytherelay.If
instead, we assume the error is additive on the secondary, this will yield

66*1.125 * 100 111.25 A,referredtotheHVprimary.


100 100*0.1*

33
200

Assuming then, the HV primary referred spill is subtractive; giving 90A, and the CT error is
additive on the secondary of the power transformer, gives a spill of 21.25 A. Using also a
Maximumofmethodforrestraint,therestraintcurrentis111.25A.Therequiredslopeisthus
21.25
*100 19.1% .Thisisanegligiblechangeinslopeandhence20%canbeused.
111.25

4.6.3 SLOPE2:
Using the maximum fault level from the fault study, the maximum CT saturation can be
determinedbytestingtheCTs.Thesecondslopeisthenplottedsuchthattheelementwillnot
operateunderworstcasecalculatedCTsaturationconditions.Ifwearetoassumeaworstcase
whereoneCTfullysaturatesandtheotherdoesnot,thenusingtheMaximumofmethodthe
secondslopewouldbe100%.

~19~
4.6.4 ChoosingtheBasicPickUpCurrent(SystemError)
Historicallythissettinghasbeendescribedastheminimumoperatingcurrentrequiredtocause
thetrippingwhencurrentappearsinonlyonerestraintcoilandtheoperatingcoil(restraintand
operatingregistersasinthecaseofIEDs).Asthefaultsassociatedwithtransformerwindingsare
oftenofalowcurrentmagnitude,itispreferredtosetthebasicpickupcurrentassensitiveas
possible. A low setting will have minimal effect on the relay performance at high currents and
alsoonthepercentageharmonicrestraintaction.

~20~
4.7 MULTITAPDIFFERENTIALRELAYS
Thesearegenerallyelectromechanicalrelayswhichcanacceptthedifferentialcurrentsinsuch
amannertocompensateforCTratiomismatchonthepowertransformerHVandLV.

Consideradeltawyegroundedtransformer.Thetransformerisrated42MVA,69kVdelta12.5
kVwye.Thetransformeristobeprotectedbyapercentagedifferentialrelay,whichisanelectro
magneticinductiondiskrelaywithtworestraintcoilsandoneoperatingcoil.Therelayhastaps
of 1.0, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.5, 1.7 and 2.0. The relay has a nominally 50% percentage slope. The
transformerpreviouslyhadanumericpercentagedifferentialrelaywhichbecamedefective.The
onlyreplacementistheelectromechanicalrelay.TheCTswerepreviouslysizedbasedonaCT
secondarywyeconnection,givingaratioof400/1fortheHVCTsandaratioof2000/1forthe
LV CTs. Since the electromechanical relay is affected by zero sequence currents the LV CT
secondarymustnowbeconnectedindelta.DetermineasuitabletaptoapplythesecondaryCT
connections.

ThesecondarycurrentfromthewyeconnectedCTsis:
351
0.8775
400

ThesecondarycurrentfromthedeltaconnectedCTsis:
3 1940
1.6781
2000

Theratioofthedeltaconnectedoutputtothewyeconnectedoutputis:
1.6781
1.912
0.8775

Theclosesttapis2.0.

~21~
Usingthistap,themismatchiscomputedas:
2.0 1.912
4.6%
%
1.912

ConsideringtheCTshavearatioerrorof10%andtheerrorduetothetapchangeris12.5%the
totalerroris:

%Error=2 10
1.125
1.046 =23.5%

Hencetherelayhasasafetymarginof26.5%.

4.8 INSTANTANEOUSHIGHSETDIFFERENTIALRELAYS.
Adifferentialrelaywithahighovercurrentsettingforitsoperatingcoilmaybeusedasahigh
speedprotection.

4.9 EXCITINGCURRENTCONSIDERATION
A transformer draws a steady state magnetizing current under normal operation. This current
flowsintherelay'soperatingcoilanditissolowundernormalloadconditionsthattherelayhas
notendencytooperate.Thiscurrentseldomexceeds0.2%ofthebankratedloadcurrent.

Butanyoperatingabnormalconditionthatcallsforaninstantaneouschangeinfluxlinkageswill
causemagnetizingcurrentstoincreasetendingtooperatetherelay.

For example when a transformer is subjected to overvoltages, the exciting current increases
di
N i
; B H ,andbecauseofthenonlinearmagnetizationcharacteristic
greatly, V L ; H
dt
l
of the core, harmonic currents predominate, especially the 3rd and 5th harmonic components.
Notewherethereexistsadeltaconnectedwindingofapowertransformeranddeltaconnected
CTs,the3rdharmoniccurrentwillnotbeseenbytherelayastheycirculateintheclosedpathof
thedelta.

~22~
4.10 MAGNETICINRUSHONBANKENERGIZATION
The most important consideration however is the large transient current inrush that occurs
when a power transformer is energized from one side with the other side disconnected from
loadorsource.Whenapowertransformerisfirstswitchedonitactsasasimpleinductor.The
operating coil of the differential relay will therefore, receive currents with high peak values
leadingtogreatertendencyfortherelaytooperate.

Themagnitudeandthewaveformshapeoftheinrushcurrentdependsuponmanyfactors,
Thesizeofthebank.
Strengthofthepowersystemtowhichthebankisconnected.
Resistanceinthesystemfromtheequivalentsourcetothebank.
ThetypeofIronusedinthecore.
Themagnitudeandpointonthesupplyvoltagewaveattheinstantthebankisenergized.
The residual flux and its relationship in polarity and magnitude with respect to the
instantaneousvalueofsteadystatefluxcorrespondingtotheparticularinitialenergizing
pointonthevoltagewave.
Theratioofsaturationfluxdensitytotheoperatingfluxdensityatratedvoltage.
Sympatheticinrushinparalleltransformers.

The time duration of the inrush is influenced by the transformer size and the L/R ratio of the
supplysource.Atypicalinrushcurrentwaveisshown'inthenextFigure.

Thefluxinducedinthecoreisproportionaltothemagnetizingcurrentandisinquadraturewith
theappliedvoltageduringsteadystate.

Consideratransformerthatistobeenergizedfromabusvoltagethatissinusoidal.Thesteady
statefluxistheintegralofthevoltage,or
1
1
sin t dt
cos t C
N
N

Where C is a constant of integration.

~23~

Notethatthefluxlagsthevoltageby90degrees.

Ifattheinstantofswitchingon,thevoltageiszero,thecorrespondingsteadystatevalueofflux
shouldbeatanegativemaximum.Thisisclearlyimpossible,asintheabsenceofremanence(the
magneticfluxthatremainsinamagneticcircuitafteranappliedmagnetomotiveforcehasbeen
removed), no flux linked the core prior to switch on. This steady state value of flux cannot be
instantly accommodated as this would imply an infinite rate of energy transfer. Therefore this
steadystatevalueoffluxcanonlybereachedafterafinitetimedeterminedbytherateatwhich
the circuit can accept energy. This time interval is infinitely long in a purely inductive circuit
L

L
R ,thereforethefluxisafullydisplacedsinewavewhichreachesamaximumof
0

2m ,halfcycleafterswitchon.

Mathematically,theconditionswhichexistintheabsenceofaresidualfluxatzerovoltagestate
thatthefluxiszerowhentheappliedvoltageiszeroatt=0.Thisleadstoanintegrationconstant
T
of m .Henceat t ,thefluxbuildstoamaximumof 2m .
2

As the flux builds, the exciting current grows with the flux. The magnetizing current is
proportional to and in phase with the flux. If the winding inductance were linear, the current
wouldhaveexactlythesamewaveformastheflux,i.e.
1
1
i v dt
cos t C2
L
L

~24~
However, the inductance is not linear, and saturation can be expected to occur since power
transformersaredesignedtooperatenearthekneeofthesaturationcurve(acostissue,utilizing
the entire core in the maximum manner for flux channeling) under normal conditions. Hence
underfullload,themaximumfluxthatcanbeaccommodatedbythecoreis m .Thesaturationof
the core causes the exciting currents to increase greatly beyond those seen under normal
operatingconditions.Theseexcitingcurrentsevenexceedthetransformerratedphasecurrents.
The actual value of magnetizing current will depend on the winding inductance and the
inductancewillbecomeverysmallwhenthecoresaturates.

Theworstcaseinrushisexperiencedwhenthetransformerisenergizedatthezeropointonthe
voltagewavewitharesidualfluxof m (i.e.C=0).Zeroinrushisexperiencedifthetransformer
isenergizedonthepeakofthevoltagewaveasthemaximumfluxdevelopedwillbe m .

The way in which saturation causes severe exciting current buildup is illustrated below. The
saturationcurveontheleftshowstheexcitingcurrentrequiredinordertoprovideagivenlevel
offlux.

Foreachpointonthefluxwave,startingattheresidualfluxvalue R ,avalueofcurrentmaybe
foundfromthesaturationcurveandplottedonthetimeaxes.Thisisillustratedforonevalueof
current, labeled I m . Plotting many different points gives the fully offset current pulse shown.
Notethatthecurrentwaveformisnotsinusoidal,butisasharppulse,withthepeakoccurringat
maximumflux.

Afterthispointwherethevoltagegoesnegativethefluxcannotbuildupanymoreasitsvalue
must now decrease with time. For other values of voltage at switch on, the flux peak will vary
between m and 2m ,andwillreachthepeakwhenthevoltagereachesitsnextzerocrossing.

~25~

Thedecayoftheexcitationcurrentisrapidforthefirstfewcycles,butthendecaysveryslowly.
Usuallyseveralsecondsarerequiredforthecurrenttoreachnormallevels.Thetimeconstant
governingthisdecayisnotaconstant L ,sincetheinductanceisvaryingduetothehighflux
R
leakage(saturation).Thus,thetimeconstantissmallatfirst(henceafastdecay),thenincreases
asthesaturationisreduced(reducedleakage).Moreover,thetimeconstantisafunctionofthe
transformer size and may vary from 10 cycles for small transformers to one minute for large
sizes.

Thedecayofexcitingcurrentalsodependsontheresistanceseenlookingintothepowersystem.
Ifthetransformerisclosetoagenerator,thisresistanceisverysmallandtheexcitingcurrent
willdampveryslowly.Thecurrentdrawnbythetransformercanbedistortedinitswaveform
forasmuchas30minutesafterenergization.

Thedegreeoftheinrushalsodependsonthetypeofsteelused.Thepermeanceofthematerialis
differentforeachsteeltypeandhencetheBHcharacteristicdiffers,whichaffectstheexcitation
saturationcharacteristic.

The inrush as discussed above and typical of single phase banks is further complicated for 3
phasebanks.Thethreephaseinrushcurrentsareinfluencedbytheelectricalconnectionsofthe
transformer windings and/or magnetic coupling between phases (delta or wye configuration
andcoredesign).Sincethepointonthevoltagewaveatwhichenergizationbeginsisdifferentfor
all three phases, it is normally expected that the inrush in each phase of a 3phase bank will
differappreciably.

Generallyspeaking,theinrushcurrentisadistortedwavehavingallordersofharmonics,witha
predominant 2nd and 3rd harmonic component. Energization of a delta or ungrounded wye
winding will have no tripling (3rd order) harmonics. The dcoffset of the current is also
significant.

4.10.1

TheDCOffset

Iftheresidualfluxhappenstoequaltothenormalrequiredsteadystatefluxforthatphaseatthe
instant of switching, then that phase will not have a dc component in the magnetizing inrush
current,butthedcoffsetwilloccurinbothoftheotherphases.

~26~
4.10.2

TheSecondHarmonic

Theproportionofsecondharmoniccurrentvarieswiththedegreeofsaturationineachphase,
but is always present as long as the dc offset is present in the core flux. The second harmonic
contentaspercentageofthefundamentalcantherefore,varyconsiderablywithavalueashigh
as63percentforoldertransformers.Theminimumsecondharmonicmagnitudehasbeenshown
to be about 20% of the excess magnetizing current (over its steadystate value). However, the
minimumvalueuponwhichharmonicrestraintsettingistobebasedmustbedeterminedbythe
particularutilityandisbasedonexperience

It is important to note that, although normal fault currents do not contain second harmonic
componentsoranyotherevenharmonics,avaluethatistoolowmaycausetherelaytorestrain
for internal faults. A value that is too high may result in the false tripping upon energization.
Furthermore,saturationofironcoreddevices(suchasaCTorthepowertransformeritself)may
causedistortioninthecurrents,butthesedistortedcurrentscontainonlyoddharmonics.

4.10.3 TheThirdHarmonic
The inrush current also contains a large amount of third harmonic current, in about the same
proportionasthesecondharmonic.Inthreephasetransformers,thethirdharmoniccurrentin
thethreephasesareallinphaseandmaynotappearinthelinecurrentofdeltaconnectedbanks.
It is also important to note that third harmonic currents are likely to flow as a result of CT
saturation.

4.10.4 Higherharmonics
Manyhigherharmonicsarepresentintheinrushcurrent,buttheirproportionismuchsmaller
thanthosediscussedpreviously.Theseareusuallynotofgreatinterestalthoughtherehasbeen
interestindetectingthefifthharmonicbysomerelaymanufacturers.

Overtheyearsoftransformerdesign,thevalueoftheratioofthesaturationdensitytooperating
fluxdensityhasbeendecreasingandseemstohavebottomedoutatabout1.13to1.15,mainly
due to the advent of high permeability steel. The closer the residual flux to the operating flux
density,thegreaterthebasewidthofthemagnetizingcurrentwavewithconsequentreduction
insecondharmoniccomponent.

Transformercoreconstructionbeingasitis,withallthejointspermittingsmallinadvertentair
gaps,theresidualfluxisnormallyaround6580%ofthepeakoperatingfluxdensity.

Anothermethodtoovercomethisunwantedoperationistotimedelaytheprotectionasisdone
forovercurrentbackupprotection.

~27~
4.11 MAGNETICINRUSHONPARALLELEDTRANSFORMERENERGIZATION
Whena bankisalreadyenergizedandasecondbankisthenenergized,inparallel,notonlywill
the bank being energized have an inrush, but the energized bank can experience an outrush,
referredtoassympatheticinrush.Moreover,theinrushtothebankswilldecayatamuchslower
rate.

This is caused by the dc component of the offset inrush current of the bank being energized
findingaparallelpathintheenergizedbankandfinallycirculatingintheloopcircuitbetween
the banks. The dc component, in fact, may saturate the core of the already energized bank,
causing this bank to experience the apparent inrush. Fortunately the sympathetic inrush will
alwaysbelessthantheinitialinrushanddependsonthesizeoftheunitandonthestrengthof
thepowersystem.

4.12

RELAYRESTRAINT

Asfarasthemagnetizinginrushisconcerned,therearefourcommonmethodsusedtoprevent
thetrippingofasoundtransformer.

1. Detectmagnetizinginrushbyobservingthecurrentharmonics.
2. Addatimedelay.
3. Desensitizetherelayduringstartup.
4. Supervisetherelaywithvoltagerelays.

1.Detectmagnetizinginrushbyobservingthecurrentharmonics
Onewaytogetaroundtheproblemofmisoperationduetothemagneticinrushonenergization
isbymeansofatechniquecalledharmoniccurrentrestraint.Theprincipleliesindesensitizing
therelayduringtheinrushwithoutjeopardizingtheabilityoftherelaytooperateshouldashort
circuit occur in the transformer during the inrush period. The predominant second harmonic
componentofthemagneticinrushcurrentisutilizedtorestraintherelay.

Becauseofthevariousfactorsinvolved,itisnotpossibletoaccuratelypredictbycalculationthe
harmoniccontentintheinrushcurrenttothethreephasepowertransformer.Thequestionthat
nowarisesishowoneselectstheoptimumvalueforthepercentsecondharmoniccontentabove
whichtherelayistoberestrained.Thisvalueisnormallybasedonacombinationofengineering
judgment and practical experience. The second harmonic restraint characteristic employed in
ourtransformerprotectionuseapproximately15to20percentvalueforthesecondharmonic
content in terms of the fundamental on a single phase basis. For internal faults there is still
sufficientenergyinthefundamentalandotherharmonicstocausetripping.

Whenathreephasetransformerisenergized,theinrushexperiencedoneachphaseisdifferent
and the 2nd harmonic content in each phase also differs. There exists the situation where the
harmoniccontentonasinglephasemaybebelowtherestraintlevelwithasufficientinrushto
cause tripping. To guard against these situations, harmonic averaging may be employed in
numericdifferentialrelays.Harmonicaveragingisthetechniqueusedwheretheaverageofthe
2ndharmoniccontentofallphasesisusedtorestraineachdifferentialphase.

~28~
As stated earlier, a transformer already in service when subjected to overvoltage will have its
normalsteadystateexcitingcurrentmultipliedseveralfoldbecomingrichinthirdharmonicand
fifthharmoniccomponents.Itisconceivablethattheseexcitingcurrentswithmagnitudegreater
thanthepickupvaluecancausetherelaytooperate.

Itispreferablethatadedicatedoverexcitationprotectionbeprovidedwhenitisfearedthatover
voltageswoulddamagethetransformerinashorttime.Itisundesirabletotripatransformerby
instantaneousdifferentialrelaywhenafaultdoesnotexistinthetransformer,ontransientover
voltage. Such a trip can be misleading in terms of deciding if to test the transformer or not,
resulting in excessive down time. In order to prevent the relay pickup on over excitation, the
fifth harmonic component can be used to restrain the relay. The third harmonic currents are
generallynotseenbytherelayeitherduetodeltawindingsinthepowertransformer,deltaCT
connections,orrelayfilteringcircuitsoralgorithms.

Note,theusefulnessofthefifthharmonicrestraintfeatureisprudentbecauseofthefollowing:

(a)Itisnotvalidtogeneralizeregardingtheharmoniccurrentofthreephasetransformerbank
excitingcurrentsduringovervoltageconditions.

(b)Operatingexperiencedoesnotbearoutthecontentionthatovervoltagescausesmisstrips
duetorelayoperation.Thisisunderstandablebecausethenormalexcitingcurrentissuchalow
percentofthepickupvaluethatevenifitistripled,itwouldbestillbelowthepickuplevel.

The 5th harmonic restraint is generally not employed on our transmission and distribution
systems.

2.Addatimedelay
Simply adding a time delay to the differential relays during energization of the transformer is
effective,butitmustbeaccompaniedbysomemethodofoverridingthetimedelayifanactual
fault occurs during start up. Usually the time delay is used in conjunction with other relay
intelligence. A 50ms delay is usually sufficient. A definite time delay is usually set for
instantaneousovercurrentelementshavingalowpickup.

3.Desensitizetherelayduringstartup
There are various methods for desensitizing the differential relay during energization. One
method parallels the operating coil with a resistor, with the resistor circuit being closed by an
undervoltage relay b contact. When the transformer bank is deenergized, the undervoltage
relay resets, thereby closing the resistor bypass circuit. On startup, the operating coil is by
passeduntiltheundervoltagerelaypicksup,whichisdelayedforsometime.
Anothermethodusesafusetoparallelthedifferentialrelayoperatingcoil.Thefuseissizedto
withstandnormalstartupcurrents,butinternalfaultcurrentsaresufficienttoblowthefuseand
divertallcurrenttotheoperatingcoil.

4.Supervisetherelaywithvoltagerelays
The voltage supervised relay measures the threephase voltage as a means of differentiating
betweeninrushcurrentandafaultcondition,afaultbeingdetectedbythedepressioninoneof
thethreephasevoltages.

~29~
4.13 CTCONNECTIONS
The CT ratio selection and connections for differential protection should meet four basic
requirements.

Correction of the secondary currents in the connecting circuits due to the different
voltage levels of the protected transformer bank by proper choice of CT ratios,
interposingCTs(ICTs)orviatherelaysratiocorrectionfacilityinnumericrelays.
Correction of the 30o phase angle shift introduced by power transformer internal
connections.
Thesecondarycurrentthroughthedifferentialrelaymusthavesuchavalueastoensure
thattherelaydoesnotoperateonmaximumemergencyload.Thesettingisadirectresult
oftheCTerror.ThelowertheCTerrorthemoresensitivetherelaycanbeset.
The current in the operating coil of the differential relay for internal faults must be
sufficiently above the zero restraint pickup level to ensure the relay operation. This is
relatedtothepolarityofconnectingtheCTs.

The phase shift correction can be achieved by connecting the CTs on the wye side of the
TransformerindeltaandtheCTsonthedeltasideinwye,takingintoaccountthevectorgroupof
thepowertransformers.

Forallexternalfaultconditions,exceptforgroundfaultsonthewyesideofagroundedbank,the
pairofCTconnectionsusedoneithersideofthetransformerisinconsequential,assolongasthe
CTsecondarycurrentstotherelayarebalancedthroughtheproperchoiceofCTratios.

Ifthewyesideofthetransformerisungroundedthereisnosourceforzerosequencecurrents.
Whenthewyeisgrounded,groundcurrentcanflowinthewyewindingsforanexternalfault.
The delta connection is thus requiredfor the CTs to circulate the zero sequence componentof
thecurrentinsidethedeltatherebypreventingitfromenteringtherelay.Theaddedadvantage,
thoughoflittleeffect,isthatthedeltaconnectioncirculatesthethirdharmonicoftheexcitation
current.

The zero sequence phase component of current do not exist on the delta side of a power
transformerforagroundfaultonthewyeside;andtherefore,iftheCTsonthewyesidewerenot
delta connected, the zero sequence currents would not find a circulating path. These currents
would then flow in the operating coils, causing the relay to maloperate for external ground
faults.ThenextfigureillustratesthedeltaCTconnectionforawyedeltapowertransformer.

~30~

ThisconsiderationofCTconnectionisnotimportantinnumericrelaysastheyhavetheabilityto
compensateforthe30oshiftandtofilterthezerosequencecurrentcomponents.

The question now arises as to how the relay will operate for an internal LG fault because the
zero sequence currents are kept out. The answer is that the relay still receives positive and
negativesequencecomponentsofthefaultcurrentforittooperate.

~31~

For an ungrounded wyedelta power transformer with a zigzag grounding transformer


connected externally on the delta side (or the equivalent wyezigzag power transformer), the
CTs on the delta side need to be connected in wye to correct the phase angle shift of the
transformer.

Becauseofthegroundsourceintheprotectedzone,ascanbeseenintheprecedingfigure,zero
sequencecurrentsresultforanexternalLGfaultonthedeltaside.Thesecurrentsarerequired
tobepreventedfromgoingthroughtherelayastheyarenotmatchedfromthewyesideofthe
transformer.Thisrequirementisrealizedbytheuseofacurrenttrap,referredcommonlyasa
zerosequenceshunt.TheshuntcomprisesofthreeidenticalauxiliaryCTswhichcanhaveany
ratio,andconnectedasshown.Inordernottoreducetheeffectivenessoftheshuntincirculating
thezerosequencecurrents,theneutralpointoftherelayshouldnotbeconnectedtotheneutral
pointofthewyeconnectedCTsonthedeltaside.

~32~
4.14 CHOOSINGCTRATIOS
ThebestpracticeistochoosetheCTratiothatwillgiveasecondarycurrentclosebutlessthan
thenominalratedcurrentoftherelayundermaximumloadcondition.Thisassuresthattherelay
willbeoperatingatitsmaximumsensitivitywhenfaultsoccur.Ifthecurrentsuppliedisonlyhalf
therating,therelaywillonlybehalfassensitive.

4.15 COMPUTINGTHECURRENTTRANSFORMERRATIORELATIONSHIP.

~33~

1
Notetheeffectiveratioofthetransformeris : or0.577:

WhereNisthetransformationratioofthetransformer,andnottheturnsration.
I.e. 3.

For the protection to be stable yet as sensitive as possible, we would like the ratio of the CT
secondarycurrentstobeascloseaspossibletounity.

3
1

Note, the ratio of each current transformer must be such that the secondary currents flowing
underfullload,doesnotexceedtheratingoftherestraintcoils.

~34~
4.15.1 ExampleComputation.

Adeltawyetransformerisratedasfollows:

S=50MVA
=115kV
=69kV
=600/5

FindasuitableratioforNCforthedeltaconnectedCTsofthe69kVside.

Solution:

Recall:1

RecallAlso:

Hence:

Thisisaratioof346:1,whichisnotstandard.Thestandardratiosare300and400.

It is best to choose a Standard CTR greater than the required CTR calculated, rather than a
Standard CTR that is lower. This gives a higher voltage on the secondary side of the CT which
tendstominimizetheeffectsofsecondaryleadresistance.

Note, the maximum spill current due to the mismatch must be calculated for the transformer
overloadcondition,andfactoredinwiththeCTerror,whensettingthepercentdifferentialslope
1aspreviouslydiscussed.

Whenstandardratiocurrenttransformersareused,thesecondarycurrentsonthetwosidesof
thepowertransformermaydifferandcanbecorrectedbyusinginterposingCTswithtapsinthe
relaywinding.

~35~
4.16 TWO WINDING PERCENT DIFFERENTIAL RELAY
TRANSFORMERS.

FOR

THREE

WINDING

~36~
A three winding power transformer can have one primary and two secondary windings. It is
possibletoprotectthistransformerwithatwowindingpercentagedifferentialrelayinsteadofa
threewindingversion.Theconnectionofthetwowindingdifferentialisshown.Ascanbeseen,
the two CTs on the secondary side of the transformer are connected in parallel. This
arrangementisacceptableatdistributionstationswherethereisnotransferofpowerbetween
thelowvoltagewindingswhenthehighvoltagedisconnectswitchisopen,i.e.thetransformeris
connectedtothesystemviaasinglesourcepoint.Ifthetransformerisconnectedtothepower
system at both its high and low voltage terminals, each winding of the transformer must have
theirownrestraintcoil.

The advantage of using a two winding differential relay for athree windingtransformer is the
savingincost.

Whentwotransformersareplacedinparallelwithoutseparatebreakersforeachbank,asingle
differentialprotectionschemecanbeused.Theresulthowever,isatransformerprotectionwith
only half the sensitivity of that if separate protections were used for each bank, since the CTs
mustberatedtoatleasttwicethatofasinglebank.Thisisassumingthatbothtransformershave
thesamerating.Ifonebankissmaller,thentheimbalanceinsensitivityisevenworse.

~37~
Autotransformers can also be protected using differential protection schemes. If the
autotransformerisconfigureedinathreephaseconfiguration,theneutralofeachphasemustbe
available for externally for CT connection if grounded. For single phase aplications the neutral
mustalsobeCTconnected.

~38~
4.17 PROBLEMSWITHDIFFERENTIALRELAYS
Inapplyingdifferentialprotectionitisimportanttousecurrenttransformerswhichhavesimilar
excitation characteristics. If the two sets of CTs are of different characteristics, any current
flowingintheoperatingcoiloftherelaytendstoaddtotheburdenofthemoreaccurateCTand
reducetheburdenofthelessaccurateone.Insuchcases,itissometimesrecommendedthata
shuntburden,havingasaturationcharacteristicsimilartothelessaccurateCT,beaddedacross
theterminalsofthemoreaccurateCT,therebymakingthetwosetsequallypoorbutstillbetter
balanced.

If only one set of CTs have poor accuracy, there is also the hazard of locking in for internal
faults.ThismeansthatthelessaccurateCTisunabletosustainanysecondaryinducedemforits
secondary winding is effectively shorted. Thus the better CTs secondary currents are shunted
aroundtheoperatingcoilandtrippingisdefeated.

~39~

5 APPLICATIONCONSIDERATIONS
5.1 INFLUENCEOFWINDINGCONNECTIONSANDEARTHINGONEARTHFAULTCURRENT
Twoconditionsmustbefulfilledforanearthfaultcurrenttoflowinthecaseofawindingfault.

1. Agroundpathmustexistforcurrenttoflowintoandoutofthewinding.I.e.thewinding
orthesystemwhichfeedsthewindingisgrounded.
2. Theampereturnsbetweenpairedwindingsarebalanced(ZigZaggrounding).

Themagnitudeofearthfaultcurrentforagivenfaultpositionwithinawindingdependsupon
thewindingconnectionsandmethodofsystemearthing.

Where the neutral of a star winding is earthed the connection is made solidly or through a
resistance.

OntheDeltasideofatransformeritiscommontoearththesystemviaanearthingtransformer
having a zigzag winding. The zero sequence currents in the two windings on each limb have
canceling ampereturns and the impedance to earth is therefore negligible. For positive and
negativesequencecurrentstheconnectionoffersinfiniteimpedance.

~40~
5.1.1 Faultonwyewinding

Thefollowingdiscussionassumesadeltagroundedwyetransformerconfigurationwithasource
presentonlyonthedeltaside.

When the Wye side is earthed through a resistance, the earth fault magnitude is determined
primarily by the value of the earthing resistance since the transformer winding impedance
(though influenced by an unbalanced flux linkage between the windings, which causes it to
change)isnegligiblebycomparison.

Theclosertotheneutralofthesecondarywinding,thefaultoccurs;theloweristhefaultsupply
voltage, being proportional to the percent of the winding which is faulted. The value of the
secondary side earth fault current is therefore proportional to the position of the fault in the
%Vs
IA

winding.
R .
I A %Vs

%VS
Recall I P I S

VP

Hence
%VS %VS
IP

R VP
IP

%VS
R VP

I B %VS

The primary side current is thus proportional to the square of the percentage of secondary
windingshortcircuited.

~41~

When the star winding is solidly earthed, the fault current magnitude is limited solely by the
windingimpedanceandthefaultcurrentisnolongerproportionaltothepositionofthefault.In
this case the unbalance in the flux linkages in the winding causes the impedance of the
transformer to change, and hence the impedance to the fault to change. The impedance of the
transformervariesasthesquareofthenumberofturns.

~42~
Furthermore, the voltage at the fault point no longer varies proportionally to the number of
turns for faults near to the neutral because of the increased leakage. Therefore the impedance
function becomes very complex and the current on the wye side (IF) has a minimum at about
40% of the total winding faulted and increases as the fault point approaches the neutral,
droppingquicklytozeroattheneutral.

5.1.2 FaultonDeltaWinding

The variation of fault current with fault position is not as great as for a star winding, mainly
becausenoneofthewindingislessthan50%ofthenormalphasetoneutralvoltageaboveearth;
buttheactualvalueoffaultcurrentwillbegovernedbythemethodofsystemearthing.

Inthespecialcaseofanearthfaultoccurringatthecentrepointofonelegofthedeltawinding,
theimpedanceinthefaultpathisnolongertheseriesleakageimpedancebetweentheprimary
and secondary windings, but rather the leakage impedance between the two halves of the
affectedwinding.Theimpedanceintransformerswithconcentricwindingscanbeveryhigh,of
the order of 3 to 6 times the normal transformer series impedance. Hence, the minimum fault
currentoccursatthispoint.

~43~
5.1.3 TypesofDeltaConnections

Therearetwotypesofdeltaconnectionsinvolvedtoobtain30degreephaseshift.

Because of the existence of the two types of delta connection, care must be exercised when
making the delta connections for the CT secondaries in the differential circuit. The CT delta
connectionshouldbeareplicaofthepowertransformerdeltaconnection.

~44~
5.1.4 CTConnectionforZigZagTransformer

The CT secondary connections for the wyezigzag power transformer corresponds to that for
thewyedeltatransformerexceptthatazerosequenceshuntwillhavetobeusetokeepaway
thezerosequencecurrentsfromthedifferentialrelay.Theinternalconnectionandthevectorial
relationshipareillustrated.

~45~
5.2 MASTERGROUND

ForthetransformerswithgroundedwyeLVwindingsandusedfor3wiredistributionsystems,
theneutralscanbeusedtoprovideasensitivesupervisionforthefeedergroundrelays.

Duringthetransferofloadsbetweentwofeeders(fedfromtransformerswhosesecondariesare
notparalleled),thethreephasesoftheswitchingdevice,e.g.adisconnectorcircuitbreaker,may
notoperateinunisonandtherefore,createazerosequencecurrentintheresidualcircuitofthe
CTconnections.

Thiscurrentcanoperatethegroundrelaysconnectedtothesecondaryresidualcircuits.But,it
will not operate any over current relay connected to parallel connected CTs between the two
transformer grounds as shown. The zero sequence current flows up the neutral of one
transformer and down the neutral of the other transformer with the result that the master
ground relay will not receive any current or operation. By having the contacts of the feeder
ground measuring over current relays supervised by a contact from the master ground relay,
maloperation of feeder protections during switching operations are avoided. The practice
involvesconnectingthetwomastergroundrelaycoilsinseriestoformacurrentloop.

Noteiffeedersarecharacterizedbyloadunbalance,feederearthfaultrelaysarenotemployedas
thezerosequencecomponentsmayoperategroundprotectionundernormalconditions.

~46~

6 RESTRICTEDEARTHFAULTPROTECTION(REF)
IfthecurrentforaninternalLGfaultislimitedtoalowvaluebyhighimpedancegroundingof
the transformer neutral or a fault on the end of the winding close to the neutral point, it is
possible that the differential relay may not receive adequate current for operation due to a
combinationoffactorssuchasdeltawyetransformerconnectionwithhighturnsratio,largeCT
ratios,etc.

This problem can be solved by using a sensitive time overcurrent relay in the impedance
groundedneutraloraseparateREFprotection.

If dedicated CTs cannot be provided for REF for practical and economical reasons, it can be
operatedfromtheCTsassociatedwiththeoveralldifferentialprotection.

AtypicalarrangementforREFisshowninthenextfigureforadeltawyetransformer.

Theoperationforanexternalorinternalfaultonthesecondarysideofthetransformeriseasily
analyzedbyvectorialsummationofthecurrentsinthephaseandneutralCTs.

Thearrangementofresiduallyconnectedtransformersonthedeltasideofatransformerisonly
sensitivetoearthfaultsonthedeltasidebecausezerosequenceisblockedbythedeltawinding.
Consideranunbalancedsinglelinetogroundfaultonthestarside.Thiscanberepresentedas
threesetsofbalancedcurrents(positivesequence,negativesequenceandzerosequence)inthe
sequencedomain.Thezerosequencecurrentswhenreferredtotheprimaryaretrappedbythe
delta of the power transformer while the positive and negative sequence currents balance. In
termsofthephysicalcurrents,asinglelinetogroundfaultonthesecondarywilltranslateintoa
doublelinecurrentontheprimarywhichwillnotcausetheDeltaREFtooperateastheCTvector
sumwillbezero.

It is usual that the REF protection be based on high impedance principle for through fault
stability, though any over current device can be used. The measuring relay is a 60Hz tuned
instantaneousrelay,whichoperatesforaninternalfaultasthecurrentisforcedthroughit.The
measuringrelaycircuitpathacrosstheCTdifferentialjunctionpointsismadehighimpedanceto
ensure stability foranexternal LG fault. The set point is chosen to be slightly higher than the
maximum voltage which can possibly appear across the relay for a maximum external fault
condition.IfthetransformerisanInterBustransmissiontransformerwhichcanhaveasourceof
supplyfromeithertheHVortheLVsidethenthefaultleveltobeuseditthemaximumofthetwo
available. For a single supply transformer such as a distribution transformer the fault level is
that on the load side. In order to limit high voltage across the relay circuit during an internal
fault,anonlinearresistorisusedinparallel.

AnothermethodutilizedinREFimplementationistheuseoflowimpedanceovercurrentrelay
with load biasing employed. Here a slope setting is employed similar to the Bias Differential
protection in order to guard against operation where CTs can saturate for high magnitude
through faults. This feature can be seen in the GE SR745 relay. The advantage of this

~47~
implementationliesintheabilitytousedifferentratioCTsforthephaseandneutralinputs,asall
CTinputsarewireddirectlytotherelayratherthanparallelatapointbefore.

Current due to internal L-G fault


Current due to external L-G fault

Figure3.2.a

~48~
6.1 GUIDELINESFORTHEDESIGNPARAMETERSANDSETPOINTFORREFPROTECTION.
A low impedance earth fault overcurrent relay may, with the addition of an external series
resistor,andanonlinearresistor,beconnectedasahighimpedancerestrictedearthfaultrelay
fortheprotectionoftransformerwindingsorthestatorwindingsoflargemachines.

Vs
,relaycircuitsettingvoltage
Vstab ,minvoltagerequiredtoensurestability
Vfs ,rmsvalueofrelaycircuitvoltagenotwithstandingCTsaturation
Vpk ,peakvoltageproducedacrossrelaycircuitduringinternalfault
conditions
If
,maximuminzonefaultcurrent
,maxthroughfaultcurrent
Ifs
Rct ,CTsecondarywindingresistance
RL
,CTleadresistance(loop)
N
,CTturnsratio
,CTkneepointvoltage
Vk
Imag ,CTmagnetisationcurrent
Inlr ,nonlinearresistorcurrent
,settingresistance
Rs
Is
,relaysettingcurrent
Pcon ,continuouspowerratingofresistor
Phalf ,0.5secondpowerratingofresistor

~49~
6.1.1 DeterminationofStability
ThestabilityofaREFschemeusingahighimpedancerelaycircuitdependsupontherelaycircuit
setting voltage being greater than the maximum voltage which can appear across the relay
circuitunderagiventhroughfaultcondition(i.e.externalfault).Thisvoltagecanbedetermined
bymeansofasimplecalculationwhichmakesthefollowingassumptions:

a)OneCTisfullysaturatedmakingitsexcitationimpedancenegligible.
b) The resistance of the secondary winding of the saturated CT together with the leads
connecting it to the relay circuit terminals constitutes the only burden in parallel with the
relay.
c)TheremainingCTsmaintaintheirratio.

Thustheminimumstabilityvoltageisgivenby:

Vstab=Ifs(Rct+RL)

Forstability,therelaycircuitvoltagesettingshouldbemadeequaltoorexceedthiscalculated
value.Nofactorofsafetyisnecessarybecausethisisbuiltintotheassumptionsmade.

Experienceandextensivelaboratorytestshaveprovedthatifthismethodofestimatingtherelay
settingvoltageisadopted,thestabilityoftheprotectionwillbeverymuchgreaterthanthevalue
of Ifs used in the calculation. This is because a CT is not normally continuously saturated and
consequentlyanyvoltagegeneratedbythisCTwillreducethevoltageappearingacrosstherelay
circuit(lesscurrentflowsintheCTlooparmiftheCTispartiallysaturated).

6.1.2 CurrentTransformerRequirements
TheCTsusedinthistypeofschemeshould beofthehighaccuracyandlowleakagereactance
type, and the minimum CT knee voltage should be greater than twice the minimum stability
voltagesettingcalculatedfortherelay.AlowleakagereactanceCThasajointlessringtypecore,
thesecondarywindingevenlydistributedalongthewholelengthofthemagneticcircuitandthe
primaryconductorpassesthroughtheapproximatecenterofthecore.

Also,allCTsshould,ifpossible,haveidenticalturnsratios.

6.1.3 SettingResistor
Insettingtherelayoperatingpoint,therelayoperatingcurrentmustbeselectedorbeknown.
Theeffectofallshuntpathsmustalsobeconsidered,i.e.allCTmagnetizingcurrents,allshunt
resistor paths, and the nonlinear resistor if installed. Hence since the primary fault setting is
givenby.

Primary Fault Setting = N(Is I1 I 2 I3 I shunt I Metrosil )

~50~
Where,
Is

I1,I2,I3
Ishunt

=Relayoperatingcurrent
=TheexcitationcurrentsoftheCTsattherelaysettingVoltage.
= Shunt current due to shunt resistor connected across the Relay and Hi
Impedance.
=Leakagethroughmetrosilatrelaysettingvoltage.

IMetrosil

Iftherelayusedintheschemehasalowburden,thenaseriessettingresistorwillberequiredto
providetherelaycircuitsettingvoltageforstability.Assumingtherelayburdenisverysmalland
the CTs do not have very low knee point voltages (less than 25V), the relay burden can be
V
neglectedandthesettingresistorvalueisthengivenby: Rs s
Is
Theprimaryfaultcurrentsettingobtainedmaybetoolow,andmayberequiredtobeincreased.
Wheretheoperatingcurrentoftherelayisvariablethisisachievedbychangingthepickupof
therelay.Alternativelytheoperatingcurrentoftherelaymaybefixed.

For any relay, ifthe relative increase in fault setting required is small, an increase in the relay
circuit voltage setting and hence an increase in the values of I1, I2, and I3 (desensitizing the
scheme),maygivetherequiredresult.Alternatively,whentherequiredincreaseinfaultsetting
is large, the correct result can be obtained by connecting a resistor in parallel with the relay
circuit,therebyeffectivelyincreasingthevalueofprimarycurrent(difference)setting.

6.1.4 NonLinearResistor
Themaximuminternalprimaryfaultcurrentintheprotectedzonewillbethesameasthatfor
the stability condition when the primary network circuit is solidly earthed. This current may
causehighvoltagespikesacrosstherelayatinstantsofzerofluxsinceapracticalCTcoreenters
saturationoneachhalfcycleforvoltagesofthismagnitude.

Aformulaincommonuse,whichgivesareasonableapproximationtothepeakvoltageproduced
underinternalfaultconditions,isexpressedas

V pk 2 2Vk V fs Vk

WhereVkistheCTkneepointvoltage.

V fs I f ( RS RRe lay )

Recall that the CT will saturate at Vk although Vfs is greater than this value. This will limit the
valueVpk.

To protect the CTs, the secondary wiring, and the relay from damage due to excessively high
voltages,anonlinearresistorisconnectedinparallelwiththerelaycircuitifthepeakvoltage

~51~
would exceed 3kV. Ifthe calculated peak is less than 3kV, itisnotnecessaryto employ a non
linearresistor.

Thetypeofnonlinearresistorrequiredischosenby:

1. Itsthermalratingasdefinedbytheempiricalformula:

4
P I fs Vk

2. Itsnonlinearcharacteristici.e

V CI B
WhereCandBareconstants.

AnonlinearresistorwithCandBvaluesisselectedwhichensures
1. Thepeakvoltagecannotexceed3kVand,
2. In the region of the relay circuit setting voltage, the current shunted by the nonlinear
resistorisverysmall(e.g.<10mA).

6.1.5 WorkedExampleProtectionofPowerTransformerHVDeltaWinding
UsingAREFElementofanARGUSRelay.

4.1.Datarequired
(Withvaluesinsertedfromatypicalexample)

4.1.1.CTsecondarywindingresistance3
4.1.2.Leadresistance(loop)3

~52~
4.1.3.MagnetisingcharacteristicofCTseeFig.4[Vk>270]
4.1.4.CTturnsratio1/200
4.1.5.Nameplateratingofpowertransformer30MVA
4.1.6.Voltageratioofpowertransformer132/11kV
4.1.7.Requiredprimaryfaultsetting10%to60%
4.1.8.Powertransformerimpedance9.5%
4.1.9.Systemearthingsolid
4.1.10.Maximumsystemfaultlevel3500MVA
4.1.11.Relaydata,Argus1relay(REF/SEFversion)

REFsettingrange0.5%to95%ofInin0.5%steps
ACburden,5Atap0.4VA
1Atap0.2VA

AUKstandardinuseforsomeyearsnow,EATS483,recommendsthatthefigureusedforIfs
shouldbe16timestheratedcurrentoftheprotectedwinding.Thisisatypicalfigurebasedon
infeedstoanexternalearthfaultfromthetransformerunderconsideration,whichisinparallel
withtheremainderofthesystemuptothepointofconnectionofthetransformer.

Notealternativelyonecancalculatethesecondarysidefaultlevelforadistributiontransformer
byusingtheHVsidefaultlevel,andthetransformerimpedance.

UsingtheUKStandard

TF _ Rating
I fs ( primary ) 16
3 System _ Voltage
I fs ( primary ) 16

fs (sec ondary )

30 MVA
2.1kA
3 132kV

2100 / 200 10.5 A

TheminimumCTkneepointvoltageshouldbegreaterthan[2xIfs(RCT+RL)]volts.
ThusVkmin=2[10.5(3+3)]=126V

Minimumstabilityvoltagetoensurestabilityduringmaximumthroughfaultis:
Vstab >Ifs(RCT+RL)
>10.5(3+3) >63V

EATS483recommendsthattheprimaryfaultsettingshouldbeintherangeof10%to60%of
theratedcurrentoftheprotectedwinding(whentheprotectedwindingisconnectedtoasolidly
earthedpowersystem).Generallyavalueof20%isnormal.IfthepowerTransformerisearthed

~53~
througharesistorratedtopassanearthfaultcurrentof100%ormoreoftheratedcurrentof
theprotectedwinding,afaultsettingof10to25%oftheratedcurrentoftheearthedresistoris
recommended.

Theacceptablelimitsfortheprimaryfaultsettingare:

3MVA to 18MVA
13.1A to 78.7A (I.E for 30MVA transformer)

3 132kV

Thereforetherelayoperatingcurrentlimitsare:
13.1 to 78.9
65mA to 400mA
200

The Argus relay REF element has a setting range from 0.005 to 0.96A in 5mA steps. An initial
setting of 0.18A (180mA) is chosen. However the shunt connection of all other paths must be
added to this to allow the actual fault setting to be determined. The fault setting is the actual
current(primaryamps)atwhichtherelayoperates.

Shuntpaths=(numberofCTsxtheirmagnetizingcurrent)+nonlinearresistor(ifrequired).

Thus,actualsetting=0.18+3Imag+Inlr

NotethereisnoShuntResistorinthisexample.Inrestrictedearthfaultapplicationswherethe
relay setting voltage is considerably lower than the nonlinear resistor C value, Inlr can be
ignored. The magnetizing current of all parallel CTs must be taken into account at the relay
settingvoltage,Vs,whichisnowcalculated.

Inreferencetofigure4,themagnetisationcurveshowsakneepointvoltageof270V.Astability
voltage within the range Vk/4 to Vk/2 is normal unless a customer has special requirements,
thereforeavalueofsay90VforVscanbechosen.ThisismorethantheminimumvalueofVstab
calculatedat63V(seesection4.2above)andislessthanVk/2.

~54~

Thevalueofmagnetisingcurrent,Imag,atVsis0.011A.

Revertingtothecalculationofcurrentsetting,thiscannowbecompleted.

OperatingSetting,insecondaryamps,
Is=0.18+3(0.011)=0.213A
Say0.20A(nearestsettingforArgus1relay)

ThePrimaryoperatingcurrent(POC)fortheschemeis=IsxCTR=0.213x200=42.6A

Fullloadcurrentat30MVA=131AThereforeP.O.C.=42.6/131=32.5%ofrating.

This ignores any current passed through the Metrosil at the setting voltage. With typical
standardvaluesfortheMetrosilcharacteristicforBandC,thecurrentatsettingvoltagewould
berelatively
verylow,e.g.<1mA.

Basedonarelaycircuitsettingvoltageof90V,theseriesstabilizingresistorcannowbe
calculatedbythefollowingformula:

Rs=(VsVrelay)/Is

TheArgusrelayburdenisverysmallandcanbeneglected.

~55~
Rs=90/0.18=500

Theresistorvalueof500canbeobtained,withstandardtolerancebande.g.+/5%.

Thustherelaycircuitsettingvoltagebecomes,
Vs=0.18x500=90V
Tocheckwhetheravoltagelimitingdeviceisrequiredtoprotecttherelaycircuit,calculateVpk.

Vpk=2[2Vk(VfsVk)]>3000

Where,
Vk=270V(lowestkneepointvoltageofCTsfromfig.4)
Vfs=If(Rs+Rrelay)

The resistors incorporated in the scheme must be capable of withstanding the associated
thermalconditions.

Continuouspowerratingofthesettingresistor=Pcon=(Icon)xRs

where Icon = continuous resistor current, normally taken as being the current at circuit setting
voltage(Vs).

Pcon=0.18x500=16.2Watt

Theshorttimeratingoftheresistoristakentobe0.5seconds.Thisisconsideredsoastoensure
thattherelaycircuitcomponentsarenotdamagedintheeventofacircuitfailure,causingafault
tobeclearedbybackuporCBfailprotection.

The0.5secondratingofthesettingresistor,

Phalf=IrxRs.

WhereIr=Vf/Rs.

The rms voltage, Vf, developed across Rs under internal fault conditions is defined from the
empiricalformulaasfollows:
Vf=(VkxRsxIf)x1.3

WhereIf=rmsvalueofsecondaryfaultcurrentformaximumsystemfaultlevel,calculatedabove
(If=77Amps).

Vf=(270x500x77)x1.3=1270V.

Therefore,
Phalf=Vf/Rs=1270/500=2.69kWfor0.5sec

~56~
MaximumInzonefaultcurrentfromshortcircuitlevelof3500MVAonHVsideforHVREF.

3500
1
If

77 A (Secondary)
3 132 200

Vfs=77x500=38.5kV

Thus,Vpk=9.1kV

Therefore it is recommended that a voltage limiting device is connected into the circuit. If the
shuntcurrentatVsissignificant,relativetotherelaysetting,thismustbetakenintoaccountin
the calculation in establishing the relay setting current required to achieve an appropriate
primaryoperatingcurrentvalue.

Therequiredthermalratingofthenonlinearresistorcanbecalculatedbytheformula,

P=4/xIfxVk

P=4/x77x270=26.5kW

Thisisabovethedeclaredwithstandofastandard3diametertypeMetrosilnonlinearresistor
anda6diametertypewouldberequired.

RecommendedSettingsandComponents

>ArgusREFsetting=0.18A(Resultantfaultsetting,e.g.thep.o.c.=39A)

>Externalsettingresistor=500(Vs=90V)

>Nonlinearresistor=3inchtypewithCandBvalueschosentosuit,i.e.tolimitthemaximum
peakvoltageto3kV(atmaximuminzonefault=77ampinthisexample),andtoensurethatthe
currentdrawnbytheMetrosilattherelaycircuitsettingvoltage,isnotsignificant(e.g.lessthan
1.0mA).Ifthiscurrentissignificantitneedstobeincludedintheexpressionforthep.o.c.

6.1.6 AmountofWindingProtectedagainstEarthFaults.

The amount of winding that can be protected by a differential system is dependent on the
method ofsystem earthing. Withsolidly earthed systems, there isno problem in obtaining the
desired protection coverage since the fault current is only limited by the position and
configurationofthefaultedportionofthewinding.

With a resistance earthed neutral, the fault current is limited by the resistor and furthermore
wheredifferentialprotectionisconcerned,wherethereexistsadeltaarrangementofthecurrent

~57~
transformers, this eliminate the zero sequence component of the fault current, the combined
effect,desensitizesthedifferentialprotectiontoearthfaults.

The amount of winding that can be protected for a given setting and neutral earthing resistor
valueisshownbythefullcurve.

Theprimaryoperatingcurrentoftherelayisexpressedasapercentageofthecurrentratingof
theresistor.

Ascanbeseen,fora20%settingrelatedtothefullloadratingoftheresistor,59%ofthewinding
isunprotectedbythedifferentialprotectionscheme.However,theREFschemeleavesonly20%
of the winding unprotected. This is why differential protection schemes are almost invariably
supplementedbyaREFscheme,whenthetransformerisresistanceearthed.

~58~

7 SHORTCIRCUITPROTECTIONWITHOVERCURRENTRELAYS
Over current phase relays and, an over current ground relay (only if the HV side of the
transformerisconnectedtoasystemwhichprovidesagroundingpath)areusuallyemployedon
theprimaryHVsideofthetransformerasabackupprotection.Theelementisahighsetcurrent
gradedone,setwithapickup1.3timestheLVfaultlevel.Thisisaninstantaneouselementwitha
short time delay of approximately 3cycles (50ms) to ride out inrush current during
transformer energization. Although the inrush can last as long as 10 cycles, it will stay above
(spike)thehighsetpickupvaluefornomorethan3cycles.Thestabilitywhereinrushandoffset
fault currents is concerned, can also be achieved by using relays sensitive only to supply
frequencycurrents.

ALVsideTimeovercurrentelementisusuallyemployedfordistributiontransformers.Thisis
installedasbackuptothedownstreamfeederandincomerrelaysandtoprotectthetransformer
fromexcessoverloadandexternalshortcircuitcurrentoflongduration,whichcandamagethe
transformerinsulation.Itssettingisusuallyidenticaltothatusedontheincomerrelayandon
the1ststageovercurrentinthetwostageovercurrentscheme.

The overcurrent relays should have an inverse time characteristic whose pickup is above the
maximum emergency load rating, with sufficient time delay in order to coordinate with other
protections of adjacent system elements during LV external faults and to override magnetic
inrush.Ideallytheextremelyinversecharacteristicshouldbeusedasthisbestapproximatedthe
thermal damage curve of the transformer weakest point, but coordinating with downstream
elements can prove impossible, in which case negative sequence filter protection or under
voltageblockingmaybeusedtoobtainthedesiredsensitivity.

GenerallytheinstantaneousovercurrentwillbewiredtoisolateboththeHVandLVwindingsof
thetransformer,whiletheIDMTwillbesetuptotriponlytheTransformerLVbreaker.

~59~

8 OTHERSCHEMES
8.1 STANDBYEARTHFAULT
Where transformers are earthed via an earthing resistance which is short time rated, standby
earthfaultprotectionisappliedtoprotecttheresistorfromdamagewhenanearthfaultpersists
foratimelongerthantheratingoftheresistor.

The relay is energized from a current transformer in the neutral connection and it time of
operationismadetomatchthethermalratingoftheresistor.Sometimesatwostagesystemfor
isolatingthetransformermaybeemployed.

8.2 TANKLEAKAGEPROTECTION
Ifthetransformertankisnominallyinsulatedfromground(aninsulationresistanceof10ohms
issufficient)earthfaultprotectioncanbeachievedbyconnectingarelaytothesecondaryofa
current transformer, the primary of which is connected between the transformer tank and
ground.

~60~
8.3 OVERFLUXINGPROTECTION
Transformersaredesignedtooperatenearthekneeoftheironcoresaturationcurvesothatthe
expensivecoreisutilizedtoitsmaximumasafluxchannel.Anyovervoltageorunderfrequency
willcausehigherthannormalfluxinthecorematerial,andmayresultinsubstantialincreasein
coretemperature.Asageneralstatementoftheconditionwemaywritethefluxas:

V
k
f

ThefunctioncanbemeasuredbyconnectinganRCloadtoavoltagetransformer.

1
V2 V1
n
I2

V2 V1
V1

Z nZ n R 2 X C2

Vo I 2 X C

V1 X C

n R 2 X C2

If the circuit components are chosen such that R 2 X C2


Vo

V
V1 X C
V1

k 1
nR
2 fnRC
f

Theoutputvoltageisproportionaltotheratioofvoltageoverfrequency.

Anoverfluxingconditiondoesnotrequirehighspeedtripping.Infact,thiswouldbeundesirable
sinceovervoltagemayoccurasatransientconditionforwhichtrippingshouldbeavoided.This
type of protection is sometimes recommended for generator stepup transformers, where the
riskofoverfluxingmaybehigh.

~61~
8.4 CIRCULATINGCURRENTSINPARALLELBANKS

Thiscanoccurifparallelbankshavedifferenttapsettings.Theresultisthatbothtransformers
will heat unnecessarily. Protection is not usually provided for this specific condition, but the
overheatingprotectionwouldsuffice.

8.5 GASPROTECTION
Thecombinationgasaccumulatorandpressurerelay,a.k.a.theBuchholzrelay,isapplicableonly
toconservatortypetransformers.Inthistypeoftransformer,thetankiscompletelyfilledwith
oilandapipeconnectedtoanauxiliarytankmountedabove(calledtheconservator),actsasan
expansionchamber.TheBuchholzrelayisconnectedalongthispipe.

One element is a gas collecting chamber in which, gas evolved from the slow breakdown of
insulationinthepresenceofasmallelectricarc,iscollected.Whenacertainamountofgashas
beencollected,acontactclosestosignalanalarm.Thegreatmajorityofseriousfaultsarealways
accompaniedbyaviolentliberationofgas.Theoilisvaporizedinthevicinityofthebreakdown.
There is a sudden increase in the pressure within the tank as the oil is displaced by the
generation of a gas bubble, and an oil surge results. The other element contains a vane that is
operatedbytherushofoilthroughthepipingwhenaseverefaultoccursinsidethetransformer.
Acontactwillclosetoinitiatethetrippingofthenecessarybreakerstoisolatethetransformer.

Thistypeofrelayiscapableofdetectingthefollowingtypesoffaults:
1. Hotspotsonthecoreduetoashortinlaminationinsulation.
2. Coreboltinsulationfailure.
3. Faultyjoints.
4. Interturnfaultsorotherwindingfaults.
5. Lossofoilduetoleakage.
6. Majorwindingfaults,eitherbetweenwindingsortoground.

TheBuchholzrelayprovidesprimaryprotectioninthemajorityofturntoturnfaultswherethe
fault source is an interturn voltage of low magnitude. Hence it is sensitive for low intensity
internal faults. The main advantage of the gas protection is that the gas accumulator element
givesearlywarningofincipientfault,permittingthetransformertobetakenoutofserviceand
repairedbeforeextensivedamageisdone.

Aninspectionwindowisfittedoneithersideoftherelaycastingthroughwhichtheoillevelcan
beread.Observationofboththerateofgasaccumulationanditscolourallowsanestimateofthe
typeandseverityofthefaulttobemade.Forexample,ifthegasiswhiteoryellow,insulationhas
beenburnt,whilstifitisblackorgrey,thisindicatesdissociatedoil.

The type used for transformer tapchanger protection is of the Buchholz family, but has only a
surge(pressure)tripelement.Itisofnousetoemployagasaccumulationelementbecausetap
changingoperationsarelikelytoproducesomegas.

~62~

~63~
8.6 THEPRESSURERELIEFDEVICE(PRD)
ThePRDguardsagainsttankrupture.Innonconservator(gascushionedatthetopofthetank
ratherthanaconservator)thesuddenpressurerelayisoftenused.Thisrelaymeasurestherate
ofchangeofpressureintheoilorinasmallbellowsthatisimmersedintheoil.

ProblemscanariseiftheBuchholzorPRDaresettoosensitive,suchthattherelayistrippeddue
toshock,vibrationorearthtremors.Theyaregenerallyslowtooperateunlessthefaultisquite
severesincetheyoperateonstaticpressurechangesratherthanadynamicpressurechange.

The pressure relief device is essentially a springloaded valve having a unique means of
providinginstantaneousamplificationofactuatingforce.Operationiseffectedwhenthepressure
acting against the area defined by top gasket (4) exceeds the opening pressure established by
springs (7). As operating disk (3) moves slightly upward from top gasket (4), the transformer
pressurethenquicklybecomesexposedtothediskareaofthediameterofNITRILEsidegasket
(5),resultinginagreatlyincreasedforceandcausingextremelyrapidopeningoftheoperating
diskcorrespondingtotheclosedheightofthesprings(7).Thetransformerpressureisrapidly
reduced to normal values and the spring (7) return disk (3) to the sealed position. The
mechanicalindicatorpin(8)moveswiththediskduringoperationsandsignalsthatthedevice
hasoperated.Itmayberesetbypushingitdownwarduntilitrestsonthedisk(3).Thesealed
whether proof alarm switch (9) is actuated by movement of the disk (3), and is latched. The
switchmustberesetmanuallybyarm(10).

~64~
8.7 WINDINGTEMPERATUREANDOILTEMPERATUREPROTECTION
Lossofoilthroughleakscanreducetheabilityofthewindingsinsulationtocooleffectively.Oil
sludgingcanblockcoolingductsandpipes.Blockedductscanalsobeinferredfromahighlevel
alarmandanoverflowofoilintothebreatherfromtheconservatortank.Forcedcoolingsystems
canalsofail.Theseconditionsleadtooverheatingwithinthetransformer,whichreducesthelife
oftheinsulationandhencethelifeofthetransformer.

The rating of a transformer is based on the temperature rise above an assumed maximum
ambient temperature. Under this condition no sustained overload is usually permissible. Short
durationsofoverloadishoweverpermissibleatalowerambienttemperature.Thedegreeand
length of overloading permissible depends on the recent history of loading, which determines
the present operating temperature of the unit. No definite rule can be stated in regard to
overloading except that the winding must not overheat. A temperature of about 95o C is
consideredtobethelimitworkingvaluebeyondwhichariseof8oCto10oC,ifsustainedwould
half the life of the unit. Other causes of overload include unequal load sharing of parallel
transformersorunbalancedloadingofathreephasebank.

A temperature measurement at the hottest location in the winding is required for a direct
determination of possible winding damage, but this is not practical. Protection, therefore, is
usuallybasedonsomehowmodelingthetemperatureatthishottestpoint.Windingtemperature,
therefore,mimicsthetemperatureatthehottestpointinthewindingandnotthetemperatureof
thewindingitself.ForthisreasonitissometimesreferredtoastheHotspottemperaturetrip.

A thermal sensing element is placed in a small pocket located near the top of the transformer
tankinthehotoil.Asmallheaterisplacedinthispocketandisfedfromacurrenttransformer
fromonelegofthelowvoltagewinding.Itproducesalocaltemperaturerise,similartothatof
the main windings, above the general oil temperature. The sensing element therefore
experiencesatemperaturesimilartothatofthewinding.Itistunedtorespondtoasuddenand
severeincreaseinloadbeyondtheratingofthetransformer,forexamplewheretheremaybean
uncleared12kVfaultsustainedbytheunit,andgenerallywillrespondgraduallyforperiodsof
sustainedmoderateoverload.Duringaperiodofsevereoverloadtheoilwithintheimagepocket
heatsquickly,mimickingtheapparenthotspottemperaturewithinthewinding,whilstthereis
noappreciablecorrespondingchangeinoveralltankoiltemperature.Protectionagainstsevere
overloadisthereforeprimarilybasedonwindingtemperature,whichisusuallymeasuredbya
thermalimagingtechnique.

Dialtypethermometerscomprisingapressuretypeinstrumentconnectedbycapillarytubingto
abulbintheoilpocketandfilledwithasuitableliquid,areextensivelyusedonourtransformers.
Thedialhasconnectedtoitmicroormercuryswitches,whichisusedtoactivateordeactivatea
coolingfunction,signalanalarmortoinitiateatripsequence.

~65~

Other sensing techniques employ a heat sensitive silicone resistor or silistor. The silistor is
incorporatedwiththeheatingelementinathermalmassofmoldedmaterial.Themassisplaced
inthepocketofthetransformeraboutteninchesbelowthetopofthetank,whichisestimatedto
be the hottest layer in the oil. The silistor forms one arm of a resistance bridge, which is
energized from a stabilized dc source. The unbalanced output signal energizes an indicating
instrument and the voltage across the silistor is applied to static sensing circuits for cooling
controletc.

Thetemperaturesensorreadingappliedtosensingcircuitsmayalsobeusedtodeterminethe
probable Loss of Life of the transformer. The temperature readings are used by a temperature
timeintegrator,whichintegratesthetotalperiodofoverheatinginthetransformerlife,thereby
providinganoverheathistoryoftheunit.

The oil temperature on the other hand is the means by which the temperature of the general
mass of the transformer is monitored. Owing to the large mass of metal and fluid, the oil
temperature changes gradually. Protection against moderate overload is therefore primarily
basedonoiltemperature.

~66~

Figure3.7.b

Theagingofthetransformer,asaresultofrepeatedperiodsofoverheating,takesplaceovera
long period of time. In almost all cases, special protection is not provided since the need for
protection must be balanced against the possibility of false tripping, but numerical relays do
havetheabilitytoprovideforcalculationofthetransformeragingasanalarmortripfunction.

Ourstandardsettingsforthevarioustemperaturefunctionsareasfollows:

FansStop

:60oC
FansStart

:65oC
OilTempAlarm

:75oC
OilTempTrip

:85oC
WindingTempAlarm
:85oC
WindingTempTrip
:95oC

~67~
8.8 EARTHINGTRANSFORMERPROTECTION

When the earthing transformer or reactor is not included in the protection zone of the power
transformerdifferentialschemeseparateprotectionisprovided.

Ontheoccurrenceofanexternalfault,equalzerosequencecurrentsflowinallthreephasesof
theearthingtransformer,thusbyconnectingthecurrenttransformerssupplyingtheovercurrent
relaysindelta,apathisprovidedforthecirculationofthesecurrentswhich,inconsequence,do
notappearintherelaycircuit.

Thisenablestherelaystobesetindependentlyofotherrelaysinthesystemthuspermittingfast,
sensitiveprotectionforfaultsoccurringintheearthingtransformeritself.

~68~
8.9 PLAINBALANCESCHEME

Thisschemeisappliedwhenanearthingtransformerisincludedinthezoneofprotectionanda
separateearthfaultprotectionisnotrequired.

Ratiomatchingbetweenthelinecurrenttransformersoneachsideofthepowertransformeris
achievedbymeansofanauxiliarystar/delta/starinterposingcurrenttransformer.Thefunction
of the delta winding is to provide a path for the flow of zero sequence current to balance that
produced by the current transformers on the delta (earthing reactor side) of the power
transformer,thushelpingtoensurestabilityoftheprotection.Itshouldbenotedthatthedelta
tertiary winding serves precisely the same purpose as the single neutral current transformer
feedingthreeauxiliarycurrenttransformersinthefollowingscheme.

~69~
8.10 COMBINED SCHEME

WHEN

EARTHING REACTOR

IS

INCLUDED

IN THE

PROTECTIONZONE.

Itiscommonpracticetoearththesystemconnectedtothedeltasideofapowertransformerby
means of an earthing reactor. If it is included in the protection zone, the scheme must be
arranged to stabilize for external earth faults on the delta side when zero sequence currents
circulateviatheearthingtransformer.

A combined differential and restricted earth fault scheme which meet these requirements is
shown.Theschemeisstabilizedbytheadditionofacurrenttransformerintheearthingreactor
neutralhavingthesameratioasthelinecurrenttransformers.

Theneutralcurrenttransformerisconnectedtothedifferentialpilotcircuitviathreeinterposing
transformers whose ratios are one tothree. The primaries of theinterposingtransformers are
connectedinserieswiththeneutralcurrenttransformerwhiletheirsecondariesareconnected
togetherinstar.Ifthecurrentdistributioninthepilot,relayandcurrenttransformercircuitsare
tracedthroughfortheexternalearthfaultshown,itwillbeobservedthatnocurrentcirculatesin
theoperatingwindingofthedifferentialrelaysortheearthfaultrelay.Theschemeistherefore
stableagainstzerosequencecirculatingcurrentswithintheprotectedzoneduetoaearthfault
outsidethezone.

~70~
8.11 COMBINEDLINEANDTRANSFORMERSCHEMES
Occasionally, where a transmission line terminates at a transformer, the possibility exists for
omittingthelinesidecircuitbreakerandprotectingthelineandtransformertogetherasaunit.
The type of transformer connection is important, especially in considering ground relaying
requirements.

Onemethodofisolatingthetransformerfromtheremoteendinvolvessomemethodoftransfer
tripping.Thisrequiresacommunicationsinfrastructurethatisnototherwiserequired.

AnothermethodemploysaFaultThroughSwitch(FTS)whichplacesasolidphasetoearthfault
onthelikewhichwouldbedetectedbyremoteprotection.

Some protection can be offered to the transformer through the use of distance relays at the
remotebustocovertheentire(100%)lineaswellasintothetransformer.Thenominalruleisto
extendthefirstzonehalfwaythroughthetransformer.Theadvantageofthisarrangementisthat
there is little problem of the line protection overreaching past the transformer, though the
protection offered to the transformer is questionable. If the system Thevenin impedance is
nearlyconstant,overcurrentrelayscanbeusedratherthandistancerelays,sincethetotalfault
current can be readilycomputed. If both ends of the line are connected to system sources, the
overcurrentrelaysmustbedirectional.

Transmissionlinegroundrelayingdependsontheavailabilityofagroundsourceoffaultcurrent
at the transformer. For the connection shown in (a), the line side of the transformer is wye
grounded. In this case, high speed ground fault protection can consist of a directional ground
faultrelayinthetransformerneutral.

Forthesystemof(b),thelinesideofthetransformerisdeltaconnected,andtheonlysourceof
groundcurrentisfromthesystembehindbusH.AnREFschemecanbeusedattheremoteend
ofthelineinsuchcase.(c)presentsasimilarproblem.

~71~

9 FUNCTIONALCIRCUITDESIGN
9.1

THESINGLELINESCHEMATIC

TheSingleLineSchematicoutlinestheprotectionschemesusedtodetectabnormalconditionsin
the transformer, andoutlines the devices that will operate to disconnect the transformer from
the power system in the event that the protection operates. Since the CTs define the zone
coveredbyanysingleprotection,thevariouszonesofprotectionwithinthestationareoutlined.
Figure4.1.ashowsatypicaltwobreakerstationSingleLineSchematic.AscanbeseeninFigure
4.1.a,theLVREF(87NL)zoneofprotectionalsoencompassestheLVcableofthetransformerand
henceifboththeLVREFandDIFFweretoflagduringafault,itcanbeinferredwithcertainty;
thatthetransformerhasfaultedandthatthereisnofaultonthecable.IftheLVREFonlywereto
flag,itisnotexclusivelycorrecttoinferthattheLVcableisfaultedandthatthetransformeris
not,asalowwindingfaultonthesecondarymaynotbedetectedbythedifferentialprotection,
aspreviouslydiscussed.

9.2

THEACSCHEMATIC

The AC circuit of a transformer protection primarily consists of current transformers that


transformtheprimarycircuitcurrenttolevelsthatareuseablebymonitoringrelays.Inorderto
perform calibration testing on the relays in the field, for example during maintenance, test
terminals(TT)arealsoincludedinthesecondarycurrentcircuit.

The AC schematic outlines the interconnection if the secondary circuit elements required in
providingthecurrentsignalstotherelay.Figure4.2.ashowsatypicaltransformerACcircuit.

9.3

THEDCSCHEMATIC

TheDCSchematicconsistsofprotectionrelayswhichprovideaclosing(normallyopen)contact
tooperateatriprelay.Thetriprelayinturnprovidesaclosingcontacttoputasupplyontothe
trip coil of the breakers required to isolate the transformer. Figure 4.3.a shows a typical DC
circuit.

Generallytransformerprotectionwillemploytwotriprelays,aSelfReset(94)triprelayanda
LockOut(86)triprelay.The94triprelaywilltriponlytheincomerofthetransformersothatit
canbeprotectedagainstoverload.The86triprelayisactivatedforfaultconditionswithinthe
transformerszoneofprotectionandinitiatesatriptoallcircuitbreakersrequiredtocompletely
deenergizethetransformer.

~72~
Figure4.2.a

PT. LISAS
66KV GCB
1000/500/1
CL. X

1000/500/1
CL. X

1000/500/1
5P20

500/1
CL. X

500/1
CL. X

ZONE 1
VTs

ZONE 2
VTs

66KV/110V
CL0.3 CL1.2

66KV/110V
CL0.3 CL1.2

66KV BUSBARS

CHAGUANAS
EAST
66KV GCB
500/1
CL. X

500/1
CL. X

1000/500/1
5P20

1000/500/1
CL. X

1000/500/1
CL. X

H
G
67-21-21N B

94L

H
94L

67-21-21N A
51-51N
150/1
CL. X

87T-B

94B
86B
86T

86T

PRD

B
66/12kV T/F/#2
600/300/1
CL. X

87NH-B

150/1
CL. 10P20/0.5

800/1
CL. X

87PW

50-50N

150/1
CL. X
1000/500/1
CL. X

800/1
CL.10P20

67-21-21N A

87T

150/1
CL. X

87NH

150/1
CL. X

PRD

63GT-MT

63GT-MT

63GT-TC

63GT-TC

49WT

49WT

49OT

49OT

A
66/12kV T/F/#1
300/1
CL. X

800/1
CL. X

800/400/1
CL. X

800/1
CL. X

825/1
CL. X

825/1
CL. X

800/400/5
CL 1.0
800/400/5
5P20
800/600/300/1
CL X

MET
67-50-50N
67-51-51N

MET

800/400/5
CL 1.0

67-50-50N
67-51-51N

800/400/5
5P20

87NL-B

87NL

800/600/300/1
CL X

INCOMER #2
12KV VCB

INCOMER #1
12KV VCB

Figure4.2.a

~73~

66KV BUS
66/12kV TF#2
NEW KOREA TRANSFORMER
66/12kV 12.5/16MVA
Dy11 ONAN / ONAF

150/1
CLX

1000/500/1 150/1
CL 0.5 &
CLX
10P20 10VA

150/1
CLX

R
S12

S21

S23

S31

S12

S21

S23

S31

S12

S13

A31 B

A51 B

A70 B

A21 B

A41 B

A61 B

TT1

23

25

27

A81

A85

25

27

MMLG02
22

24

A12

A32

S31

S32

TT2

A52

28

26

28

S53

S54

S53

S54

5
S52
S53

S54

A170 B

A151 B

A131 B

A111 B

NCT3
800/1
CL 10P20 10VA

A270 E

A251 E

A275

A271

* (1)

NCT2
600/300/1
CLX

19
A270N B

TT1

17

15

13

27

(MMLG02)

A275

NCT1
800/1
CLX

20

18

16

14

A171

A152

A132

A112

28

A271

470
OHM

H1

H2

H3

DIFF
G2

26

470
OHM

A83

A84

27

28

H6

HVREF
(5B3)

(GE745)

G1

25

TT3

(MMLG02)

* (1)
A271N B

A71

TAMCO
INCOMER #2
12KV VCB

800/600/300/1
CLX

yn

(MMLG02)

26

S52

A80 B

21

S51

S51
S23

800/400/5
5P20

c2

S14
S21

A11 B

S52

S32
C2

S11

800/400/5
CL1.0

b2

S14

S13

S51
S32
B2

S11

825/1
CLX

a2

S14

S13

800/1
CLX

A2
S11

H5

H4

G6

A273

28

27

LVREF

DIFF
(GE745)

G3

A274

(5B3)

G5

G4

A231 E

A211 E

~74~
Figure4.3.a

J1 125Vdc (+ve)
TO SHEET 2 OF 2

16A

K1 H

K5A
1

K31 H
13

(XR152)
14

5
TT1
'H'

F2

F3

K35 H

K55 H

K101 H

1
3

K65 H

8
TT1
'H'

4
TT1'H'

TB1:9
TB1:10

PRD
TF 'H'

TB1:17
TB1:18

63GT
TF 'H'

K93 H

18

14

TB1:20

63GN
TF 'H'

K83 H
51-51N(SG1)
DIFF 'H'

E4
F4

K103 H

K3A
TB1:15

49OT
TF 'H'

TB1:16

K85 H

11

PRD
FR 'B'

TT2'H'
17

TB1:19

TB1:13
TB1:14

K113 H
7

63GT/GN
FR 'B'

TO TRIP
CENTRAL
66kV GCB

TF MARSHALLING BOX
TT1'H'

K75 H

TT2'H'
3

K111 H

9
10

K73 H
87NL
REF2 'H'

13
4

K81 H

TF MARSHALLING BOX

16

K63 H
87NH
REF1 'H'

K91 H

TT2'H'

K53 H
51-51N(SG2)
DIFF 'H'

E3

K71 H
15

TT2'H'

K33 H
87TF
DIFF 'H'

E2

1
TT1'H'

SS 'H'

K61 H

K51 H

K1A

86TF
TR1 'H'

12

12

K5B
5
7

K123 H

K1B
TO TRIP
BC
66kV GCB

86TF
TR1 'H'

49OT
FR 'H'

TT1'H'
11

49WT
TF 'H'

K3B

49WT
FR 'H'
10

T7-1

T1-1

1
9
3

K59 H

K115 H

27

RES1 'H'

11

K125 H
RES2 'H'

T2-1

27

86TF
TR1 'H'
28

T7-2
94TF
TR2 'H'

29

28

30

49OT
FR 'H'

27
28

49WT
FR 'H'

1
3

94TF
TR2 'H'

13
15

T1-2
TO TRIP
INCOMER #2
12kV VCB

86TF
TR1 'H'

T2-2

K2 H

J2 125Vdc (-ve)

TO TRIP
INCOMER #1
12kV VCB

86TF
TR1 'H'

TO SHEET 2 OF 2

~75~

J1 125Vdc (+ ve)
TO SHEET 1 OF 2
2A

6A

K201 H

49WT
49OT
63GT/GN
PRD
FR 'B'

L1 H
86TF
TR1 'B'

TF MARSHALLING BOX
2
4

IRIG-B SIGNAL
TB1:3
TB1:4

49OA
TF 'H'

TB1:1
TB1:2

49WA
TF 'H'

TB1:11
TB1:12

63GA
TF 'H'

TB1:5

71OL

TB1:7

71OL

TB1:6

MT-OLG

TB1:8

TC-OLG

2
4

K205 H
L113 H

L123
3

49OA
FR 'H'
2

B9

H12

63GA/OL
FR 'H'

K207 H

21

49OA
'B'

22

K209 H

D1

D2

D3

(GE745)

LOGIC
INPUT
1

LOGIC
INPUT
2

LOGIC
INPUT
3

H11

D12

T/F DIFF

G11
L115

87NL
LVREF

K211 H

37

34

38

K213 H

D4

D5

K223 H

49WA
FR 'B'

35

63GA/OL
FR 'B'

36

K225 H

K227 H

LOGIC
INPUT
4

LOGIC
INPUT
5

D6

D7

D8

C1

C2

C3

C4

C5

C6

C7

C8

LOGIC
INPUT
6

LOGIC
INPUT
7

LOGIC
INPUT
8

LOGIC
INPUT
9

LOGIC
INPUT
10

LOGIC
INPUT
11

LOGIC
INPUT
12

LOGIC
INPUT
13

LOGIC
INPUT
14

LOGIC
INPUT
15

LOGIC
INPUT
16

G12

D9

D10

RES3 'H'
K202

L2 H

TO SHEET 1 OF 2

33 FR

49WA
FR 'H'
4

87NH
HVREF2

L103 H

B8
1

94TF
TR2 'B'

J2 125Vdc (- ve)

SET POINT
ACCESS
JUMPER

~76~

10 RELAYSINSERVICE
10.1 THEGE745DIFFERENTIALRELAY
10.1.1 UnitWithdrawalandInsertion

TURN OFF CONTROL POWER BEFORE DRAWING OUT OR REINSERTING THE RELAY TO
PREVENTMALOPERATION!

Toremovetheunitfromthecase:

1.Openthecoverbypullingtheupperorlowercorneroftherightside,whichwillrotateabout
thehingesontheleft.

2.Releasethelockinglatch,locatedbelowthelockinghandle,bypressingupwardonthelatch
withthetipofascrewdriver.

FIGURE3.5:PressLatchtoDisengageHandle

3.Graspthelockinghandleinthecenterandpullfirmly,rotatingthehandleupfromthebottom
oftheunituntilmovementceases.

~77~

FIGURE3.6:RotateHandletoStopPosition

4. Once the handle is released from the locking mechanism, the unit canfreely slide out of the
case when pulled by the handle. It may sometimes be necessary to adjust the handle position
slightlytofreetheunit.

FIGURE3.7:SlideUnitoutofCase

Toinserttheunitintothecase:
1.Raisethelockinghandletothehighestposition.
2.Holdtheunitimmediatelyinfrontofthecaseandaligntherollingguidepins(nearthehinges
ofthelockinghandle)totheguideslotsoneithersideofthecase.
3. Slide the unit into the case until the guide pins on the unit have engaged the guide slots on
eithersideofthecase.
4.Graspthelockinghandlefromthecenterandpressdownfirmly,rotatingthehandlefromthe
raisedpositiontowardthebottomoftheunit.
5.Whentheunitisfullyinserted,thelatchwillbeheardtoclick,lockingthehandleinthefinal
position.

~78~

Topreventunauthorizedremovalofthedrawoutunit,awireleadsealcanbeinstalledintheslot
provided on the handle as shown below. With this seal in place, the drawout unit cannot be
removed.Apasscodeorsetpointaccessjumpercanbeusedtoprevententryofsetpointsbutstill
allow monitoring of actual values. If access to the front panel controls must be restricted, a
separatesealcanbeinstalledontheoutsideofthecovertopreventitfrombeingopened.

FIGURE3.8:DrawoutUnitSeal

~79~
10.1.2 FrontPanelInterface

When the keypad and display are not actively being used, the screen sequentially displays
defaultmessagesprovidingsysteminformation.Thesemessagesappearafteratimeofinactivity.
Pressing any key after default messages have appeared will return the display to the last
message displayed before the default messages appeared. Trip and alarm condition messages
automaticallyoverridedefaultmessages.

Frontpanelindicatorsaregroupedinthreecolumns:
RelayStatus,whichprovidesinformationaboutthestateofthe745;
System Status, which provides information about the state of the transformer and the
powersystem;and
OutputStatus,whichprovidesdetailsaboutabnormalconditionsthathavebeendetected.

~80~
Thecolorofeachindicatorconveysinformationaboutitsimportance:
GREEN(G):indicatesageneralcondition
AMBER(A):indicatesanalertcondition
RED(R):indicatesaseriousalarmorwarning

10.1.2.1 LEDIndicators

RELAYINSERVICE:TheInServiceLEDisonwhenrelayprotectionisoperational.

SELFTEST ERROR: The SelfTest Error LED is on when any of the selfdiagnostic tests,
performed either at poweron or in the background during normal operation, has detected a
problemwiththerelay.

TESTMODE:TheTestModeLEDindicatorisonwhenanyofthe745testingfeatureshasbeen
enabled.

DIFFERENTIAL BLOCKED: The Differential Blocked LED indicator is on when the restrained
differential protection feature is enabled but is being blocked from operating by any of the
harmonic inhibit features. The indicator is on if the Harmonic Inhibit element is blocking any
phase.

LOCAL:TheLocalLEDindicatorisonwhenthe745isinlocalmode,i.e.thefrontpanelRESET
keyisoperational.

MESSAGE: The Message LED indicator is on when any element has picked up, operated, or is
now in a latched state waiting to be reset. With this indicator on the front panel display is
sequentiallydisplayinginformationabouteachelementthathasdetectedanabnormalcondition.

10.1.2.2 SystemStatusIndicators

TRANSFORMERDEENERGIZED:TheTransformerDeEnergizedLEDindicatorisonwhenthe
energization inhibit feature has detected that the transformer is deenergized. The indicator is
oniftheEnergizationInhibitfeatureisdetectingthetransformerasdeenergized.

TRANSFORMER OVERLOAD: The Transformer Overload LED indicator is on when the


TransformerOverloadelementhasoperated.

LOADLIMIT REDUCED: The LoadLimit Reduced LED indicator is on when the adaptive
harmonic factor correction feature is detecting enough harmonic content to reduce the load
ratingofthetransformer.

SETPOINT GROUP 1(4): These indicators reflect the currently active setpoint group. The
indicatorsflashwhenthecorrespondingsetpointgroupisbeingedited.

~81~
10.1.2.3 OutputStatusIndicators

TRIP:TheTripLEDisonwhenanyoutputrelayselectedtobeoftheTriptypehasoperated.

ALARM: The Alarm LED is on when any output relay selected to be of the Alarm type has
operated.

PICKUP:ThePickupLEDisonwhenanyelementhaspickedup.Withthisindicatoron,thefront
paneldisplayissequentiallydisplayinginformationabouteachelementthathaspickedup.

PHASEA(C):ThePhaseA(C)LEDisonwhenPhaseA(C)isinvolvedintheconditiondetectedby
anyelementthathaspickedup,operated,orisnowinalatchedstatewaitingtobereset.

Ground: The Ground LED is on when ground is involved in the condition detected by any
elementthathaspickedup,operated,orisnowinalatchedstatewaitingtobereset.

10.1.2.4 Keypad

The745displaymessagesareorganizedintomainmenus,pages,andsubpages.Therearethree
main menus labeled Setpoints, Actual Values, and Target Messages. Pressing the MENU key
followedbytheMESSAGE keyscrollsthroughthethreemainmenuheaders,whichappearin
sequenceasfollows:

Pressing the MESSAGE key or the ENTER key from these main menu pages will display the
correspondingmenupage.UsetheMESSAGE andMESSAGE keystoscrollthroughthepage
headers.Whenthedisplayshows SETPOINTS,pressingtheMESSAGE keyortheENTERkeywill
displaythepageheadersofprogrammableparameters(referredtoassetpointsinthemanual).
WhenthedisplayshowsACTUALVALUES,pressingtheMESSAGEkeyortheENTERkeydisplaysthe
page headers of measured parameters (referred to as actual values in the manual). When the
display shows TARGET MESSAGES, pressing the MESSAGE key or the ENTER key displays the page
headers of event messages or alarm conditions. Each page is broken down further into logical
subpages.TheMESSAGEandMESSAGEkeysareusedtonavigatethroughthesubpages.

~82~
TheENTERkeyisdualpurpose.Itisusedtoenterthesubpagesandtostorealteredsetpoint
valuesintomemorytocompletethechange.TheMESSAGE keycanalsobeusedtoentersub
pagesbutnottostorealteredsetpoints.

The ESCAPE key is also dual purpose. It is used to exit the subpages and to cancel a setpoint
change.TheMESSAGEkeycanalsobeusedtoexitsubpagesandtocancelsetpointchanges.

TheVALUEkeysareusedtoscrollthroughthepossiblechoicesofanenumeratedsetpoint.They
also decrement and increment numerical setpoints. Numerical setpoints may also be entered
throughthenumerickeypad.

The RESET key resets any latched conditions that are not presently active. This includes
resettinglatchedoutputrelays,latchedTripLEDs,breakeroperationfailure,andtripcoilfailure.

TheMESSAGEandMESSAGE keysscrollthroughanyactiveconditionsintherelay.Diagnostic
messages are displayed indicating the state of protection and monitoring elements that are
pickedup,operating,orlatched.WhentheMessageLEDison,therearemessagestobeviewed
withtheMENUkeybyselectingtargetmessagesasdescribedearlier.

10.1.2.5 DiagnosticMessages

Diagnostic messages are automatically displayed for any active conditions in the relay such as
trips,alarms,orassertedlogicinputs.Thesemessagesprovideasummaryofthepresentstateof
the relay. The Message LED flashes when there are diagnostic messages available; press the
MENUkeyuntiltherelaydisplaysTARGETMESSAGES,thenpresstheMESSAGE key,followedbythe
MESSAGEkey,toscrollthroughthemessages.

10.1.2.6 InterfacingandUploadingfromtheGE745
RefertoTP001R0PROCEDUREFORUPLOADINGEVENTREPORTSFROMMICROPROCESSORRELAYSUSING
APERSONALCOMPUTER.

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10.1.3 RearView