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INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS
1. VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER
Voltage transformers (VT) were formerly called "Potential" transformers (PT)
and are often referred to by that name.
A voltage transformer is basically constructed by using a conventional
transformer with a primary winding and secondary windings on a common
core.
Standard voltage transformers are single-phase units that are designed and
constructed so that the secondary voltage maintains a fixed relationship with
the primary voltage.

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The required rated primary voltage of a voltage transformer is determined by


the voltage of the system to which the voltage transformer is to be connected
and by the way in which the transformer is connected to that system.
Most voltage transformers are designed to provide 110V at the secondary
terminals when nameplate rated voltage is applied to the primary.
The basic operation of a VT is similar to that of any transformer. the
secondary voltage is substantially proportional to the primary voltage and
differs in phase from it by an angle which is approximately zero for an
appropriate direction of the connections.

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2. CURRENT TRANSFORMERS
A current transformer (CT) transforms line current into values that are suitable
for standard protective relays and isolates the relays from line voltages.
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Wound-Primary Type
Bar-Primary Type
Window Type
Bushing Type

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Wound-Primary Type
A wound-primary type current transformer has a primary winding that consists
of one or more turns that are mechanically encircling the core or cores. The
primary and secondary windings are insulated from each other and from the
core, and they are assembled as an integral structure. Wound-primary type
CTs can be used in outdoor and indoor applications.

Bar-Primary Type
A bar-primary type current transformer has a fixed, insulated, straight
conductor in the form of a bar, rod, or tube that is a single primary turn that
passes through the magnetic circuit. This primary is assembled to the
secondary, core, and winding. Bar-primary type CTs are often used between
lineups of switchgear, where the switchgear cubicles are connected by a bus.

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Window-Type (or Donut Type)


A window-type current transformer has a secondary winding that is insulated
from and permanently assembled on the core, but the window-type has no
primary winding as an integral part of the structure. Complete or partial
insulation is provided for a primary winding in the window through which one
or more turns of the line conductor can be threaded to provide the primary
winding. Window-type CTs are used to operate watt-hour meters in low
voltage distribution circuits. The window-type CT normally measures the
current in a single conductor in the window. The zero sequence window-type
measures the net result of two or more conductors in the window for ground
fault protection applications.

Bushing-Type
A bushing-type current transformer has an annular core and a secondary
winding that is insulated from and permanently assembled on the core. The

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bushing-type current transformer has no primary winding or insulation for a


primary winding. This type of current transformer is for use with a fully
insulated conductor as the primary winding. Bushing type CTs are mounted
over the lead in bushing of circuit breakers or power transformers.

Operation of CT
The basic operation of the CT is similar to any transformer except that the
output of the secondary is a current signal, which is proportional to the current
through the primary winding. The secondary is wound on an iron core. The
primary winding is connected in series with the circuit that is carrying the line
current to be measured, and the secondary winding is connected to protective
devices, instruments, meters, or control devices.
The secondary winding supplies a current in direct proportion and at a fixed
relationship to the primary current during normal operation.

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Certain current transformer ratios have been designated as standard ratios.


The standard rated secondary current in most instances is 5A but 1A may also
be used.
The maximum continuous-current rating should be equal to or greater than the
rating of the circuit in which the current transformer is used. The magnitude of
inrush current should also be considered, particularly with respect to the effect
of the inrush current on meters, relays, and other connected devices.
Polarity marks designate the relative instantaneous directions of currents. The
primary current enters the marked primary terminal and, at the same instant,
the corresponding secondary current, which had undergone a magnitude
change within the transformer, leaves the similarly marked secondary terminal.