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Universidad Politcnica de San Luis Potos

Licenciatura en Administracin y Gestin

Curso del Ncleo General V: Desarrollo de Competencias




1. Management of Time and Priority Setting
To manage the time in a company is critical to make wise choices when
you set priorities, but it can be a big challenge because sometimes all
seems like a top priority. To know on what thing we need to focus we
need to think carefully on the consequences of not attend each thing.

2. Goals and Standards Setting

The priority of a management role is tried to do all for seeing
compliment the goals. For example, if the sales are decreasing, it means
that we need to set a new strategy like offer new items or offer new

3. Work Planning and Scheduling

Its so common that in a management role work with the pressure
about time, so its so important know how make plans and follow
schedules to do everything in time to avoid delays and correct mistakes
in time.

4. Listening and Organising

Part of understand your co-workers consist on listening and at the same
time make a list of the most important concepts that you will need to
give an answer. Your response to anything problem will be the clue of the

5. Clarity of Communication
Whatever the way you choose for communication need be clear. This
competence do the things easier, because when you know what the
information to explain you are focus on it. And it give you an advantage

in the use of sources, time and human capital. You dont need give an
instructions twice.

6. Getting Objective Information

Some competences like this give us a skills that becomes faster when
we use the correct information. As well as having a critical reflection
about the information given, or received. This is due to the fact that
there can exist wrong information.

7. Training, Mentoring and Delegating

This competence helps improve work areas. Also the supervisor should
properly teach all his staff so that they havent mistakes. Although the
supervisor should preserve the image of your entire team.

8. Evaluating Employees and Performance

Currently, the human resources managers use a variety of tools to
evaluate the efficiency of workers. For example psychometric or skills

9. Advising and Disciplining

This competence is very important to know the limits that we should
have at the moment disciplining employees. When they commit
anomalies or dont follow the policy of the company.

10. Problem Identification and Solution

Could called the dirty work but Its not try to found a guilty to be painful
on the contrary, identify a problem search be better each time and give
a solution for work and grow.

11. Assessing Risks and Decision-Making

It is of big importance to identify diverse problems within a company or
organization, but the big deal is no just to detect problems but to solve
these with the best solution possible in terms of efficiency and ideal
application of the resources that are at our reach.

12. Thinking Clearly and Analytically

At the process of learning we have taken a positive attitude and an open
mind us let us think. The knowledge and information are on the place we
looking for and if we make a good deduction. The people have this
positions see the thing a detail and the consequences and risks of the
decisions could have, also this involve more people.

Project Smart. (2016). Project Smart. Obtenido de Project Smart:


~ By ExecutiveBrief

Employees who have the

right attitude that translates
to the best behaviour are
said to be the more
competent. Find out why.
The concept of competency
as a factor in recruitment,
selection, hiring and
employee performance
evaluation has become very
popular not only among HR
practitioners but to the management echelons as well. Yet,
in the more than three decades since it became a buzzword,
still many are really unfamiliar with the details of the
concept. More so with its appropriate application and utility.
Competency is still equated or defined as skills, ability to
perform, capacity, and knowledge. As such, the term has
been used loosely. While it does not really matter much
when used casually to mean physical and mental abilities, it
does matter when used in job analysis to describe job
requirements and performance standards. Competency
takes more than skills and knowledge. It requires the right
and appropriate attitude that eventually translates to
Competency is the sum total of skills, knowledge and
attitudes, manifested in the employee's behaviour. It is the
"means" to achieve the "ends." A golfer for example, may

have the skills to drive 300 yards, the knowledge why the
golf ball fades or draws, yet he is not competent if he does
not practice or if he gets easily affected by his opponent's
better shots. A computer service customer representative
may be very skilful and knowledgeable in repairing
computers, but if he does not arrive on an appointed time to
the client, is similarly incompetent.
For managers, competencies are vital if they want better
performance in their employees. Whether during
recruitment and selection phases or while already on board,
competencies should be identified and studied. It should
always be borne in mind that the competencies required of
each job position differ from one another. In the job analysis
and writing of job descriptions, quick guides can make the
task easier. The following factors should be considered in
determining the appropriate competencies:
1. Level of Decision-Making, Responsibilities and
2. Level of Internal Personnel Inter-Action
3. Level of Customer Contact and Inter-Action
4. Level of Physical and Aptitudinal Skills and Knowledge
Many studies have been undertaken on the subject of job
competency for managerial and supervisory positions, and
they are one in categorising and lumping them into:
1. Administrative Competencies;
2. Communication Competencies;
3. Supervisory Competencies, and;
4. Cognitive Competencies

These competencies were found to be the most important

or vital for managerial and supervisory effectiveness.
For the rank and file employees, the level of physical and
aptitudinal competencies form the larger part in
consideration. This is due to the lack or absence of decision
making tasks that involve significant physical and
manpower resources of the company. In many cases, their
jobs entail routines, clerical and manual. Common to all jobs
in the rank and file category are competencies that enhance
inter-personal relationship, physical skills, and job
As one goes up the higher ladders of organisational
positions, responsibilities widen in scope, authorities
increase, and people management becomes more exacting.
As a consequence, competencies will have to change or the
mix of it will have to be altered in order to adjust to the
requirements of the job. If an accounting clerk or a
bookkeeper for example, is promoted to the position of an
accounting supervisor, his competencies will have to be
enhanced. Aside from maintaining his technical skill in
computing and bookkeeping, he would need to be skilful in
coaching, mentoring, scheduling of work, monitoring,
appraising staff, and team building. The same goes true for
a Finance Manager who is promoted as General Manager,
where the competencies would require more of weighing
risks and making decisions, setting goals and standards,
plotting directions, leading the organisation and inspiring
the employees to excellence, rather than competencies in
supervision, resource management and solving specific
problems. In detail, these competencies would be the
Administrative Competencies which involves
"management of the job" and this includes more

1. Management of Time and Priority Setting

2. Goals and Standards Setting
3. Work Planning and Scheduling
Communication Competencies that comprise of:
1. Listening and Organising
2. Clarity of Communication
3. Getting Objective Information
Supervisory or Building Teams Competencies that
1. Training, Mentoring and Delegating
2. Evaluating Employees and Performance
3. Advising and Disciplining
And, Cognitive Competencies which involve:
1. Problem Identification and Solution
2. Assessing Risks and Decision-Making
3. Thinking Clearly and Analytically

1. Management of Time and Priority

Cutting across all position levels, time management is
considered to be a required competency that must be
possessed by everybody. It is the ability to manage both
one's time as well as others'. It includes self-discipline,
controlling interruptions by moulding the behaviour of

others who have varying priorities, and being time-effective

and time-efficient.

2. Goals and Standards Setting

Setting goals and standards are usually competencies that
are required of managerial and supervisory positions. It is
about the ability to determine activities and projects toward
measurable goals and standards, setting these in
collaboration with others so as to arrive at a clear
understanding and elicit commitment.

3. Work Planning and Scheduling

Like time management, this competency must be possessed
by managerial and supervisory employees and to those that
are engaged in production. It is about controlling manpower
assignments and processes by using the major tools and
techniques of management. This includes the following
skills: analysing complex tasks and breaking them into
manageable units, selecting and managing resources
appropriate to the tasks, using systems and techniques to
plan and schedule the work, and setting checkpoints and
controls for monitoring progress.

4. Listening and Organising

Listening and organising are communication competencies
that deal with relating to people in the organisation. It is
about the ability to understand, organise, and analyse what
one is hearing in order to decide what to think and do in
response to a message. These competencies are
appropriate for employees who deal with customers and
those who work as a team, either as a leader or a member.
Specifically, they include skills like identifying and testing
inferences and assumptions, overcoming barriers to
effective listening, summarising and reorganising a

message for recall, and withholding judgment that can bias

responses to a message.

5. Clarity of Communication
Giving clear information is a competency that should be
required of managerial and supervisory employees.
Whether verbally or in written forms, the messages
conveyed to audiences (whether internal staff or customers)
should be clear and concise and should attain the
objectives. The skills would consist of a) overcoming
physical, psychological, and semantic barriers in
interactions with others; b) keeping on target and avoiding
digressions; c) using persuasion effectively; and d)
maintaining a climate of mutual benefit and trust.

6. Getting Objective Information

For positions involving substantial people management,
getting objective information is a critical competency
requirement in order to ensure fairness. This competency is
about the ability to use questions, probes, and interviewing
techniques to obtain unbiased information and to interpret it
appropriately. It considers such skills as: using directive,
non-directive, projective and reflecting questions effectively,
employing the funnel technique of probing, using probing
methods to elicit additional information, recognising latent
and underlying meanings, confirming understanding and
attaining agreement.

7. Training, Mentoring and Delegating

These competencies should be required of supervisors and
managers as well. They involve the ability to develop people
under them to attain higher levels of excellence. The skills
could consist of coaching, advising, transferring of
knowledge and skills, and teaching and pinpointing

employees where tasks can be transferred with trust and


8. Evaluating Employees and

The ability to undertake a constructive performance
evaluation involving joint assessment of past performance,
agreement on future expectations are managerial and
supervisory competencies. The skills would consist of ability
to develop parameters of evaluation, benchmarking and
face to face confrontation with the employees being
evaluated without any bias and hesitation.

9. Advising and Disciplining

The ability to advise and counsel as well impose discipline in
a positive manner are competencies required of managerial
and supervisory positions that handle large number of
employees. This is to restore, within the acceptable range of
standards, the employees' performance while maintaining
respect and trust. It also involves the ability to impose
penalties and sanctions with firmness and resolve in
appropriate cases.

10. Problem Identification and Solution

Problem identification and arriving at solutions cut across
organisational functions and job positions. It is about the
ability to identify barriers that prevent achieving goals and
standards. It also involves the application of systematic sets
of procedures to eliminate and reduce the problem origins
and causes. It requires skills like distinguishing between
problems, symptoms and indicators, inputs and outcomes,
gathering and assessing evidence relating to causes, and
plotting a decision matrix and eventually choosing and

recommending the best options. This competency should be

required to positions that engage in evaluation, whether in
managerial, supervisory, or technical job levels.

11. Assessing Risks and DecisionMaking

Assessing risks and decision-making are competencies
required of higher managerial positions where decisionmaking can involve commitment of company resources and
processes that could have company-wide implications. Like
problem identification and solution competencies, assessing
risks and decision-making involve the ability to construct a
decision matrix that aids to identify and evaluate
alternatives and options, identify limits, desirables, and risks
to be considered, assign weights to each option and choose
the best option to achieve the desired goals and standards.

12. Thinking Clearly and Analytically

The ability to apply clear and logical thinking is a
competency required for both supervisory and managerial
positions. The competencies include skills as determining
valid premises arriving at logical conclusions from them,
separating fact from hearsay, unwarranted assumption and
false inferences, applying inductive and deductive logic
appropriately, culling of logical fallacies, invalid premises
and conclusions based on insufficient information.
As a basic process in determining competencies during job
analysis, writing of job specifications and developing
performance assessment instruments, one can easily be
guided by plotting jobs against the 12 major competencies
previously mentioned. Choosing which competencies and
the mix should follow, with the most important competency
taking precedence over the others. The degree and level of
competencies that will be required will vary according to

scope of responsibilities, authorities, people involvement,

and decision-making powers. Putting them in a matrix could
provide a visual guide that would make the tasks easier and

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ExecutiveBrief 2008
(Project Smart, 2016)

Project Smart. (2016). Project Smart. Obtenido de Project Smart:

1. Gestin del Tiempo y Establecimiento de Prioridades

Cortar a travs de todos los niveles de posicin, la gestin del tiempo es
considerado como una competencia necesaria que debe ser posedo por todos.
Es la habilidad para administrar el tiempo, tanto de uno como de otros. Incluye
la autodisciplina, el control de las interrupciones moldeando el comportamiento
de otras personas que tienen diferentes prioridades, y siendo el tiempo eficaz y
eficiente en el tiempo.
2. Objetivos y Normas Marco
Establecer metas y normas suelen ser las competencias que se requieren de
los puestos directivos y de supervisin. Se trata de la capacidad de determinar
las actividades y proyectos hacia las metas y estndares medibles,
estableciendo stas en colaboracin con los dems con el fin de llegar a una
comprensin clara y suscitar el compromiso.
Planificacin y programacin 3. Trabajo

Al igual que la gestin del tiempo, esta competencia debe ser posedo por los
empleados gerenciales y de supervisin ya los que se dedican a la produccin.
Se trata de controlar las tareas y procesos de recursos humanos mediante el
uso de las principales herramientas y tcnicas de gestin. Esto incluye las
siguientes habilidades: anlisis de tareas complejas y romperlos en unidades
manejables, seleccin y gestin de los recursos adecuados a las tareas, el uso
de sistemas y tcnicas para planificar y programar el trabajo, y el
establecimiento de puestos de control y controles para monitorear el progreso.
4. Escuchar y Organizador
Escuchar y organizacin son las competencias de comunicacin que tratan de
relacionarse con las personas en la organizacin. Se trata de la capacidad de
entender, organizar y analizar lo que se est escuchando con el fin de decidir
qu pensar y hacer en respuesta a un mensaje. Estas competencias son
apropiadas para los empleados que tratan con los clientes y los que trabajan
en equipo, ya sea como lder o un miembro. En concreto, se incluyen
habilidades como identificar y probar inferencias y suposiciones, la superacin
de las barreras a la escucha efectiva, resumir y reorganizacin de un mensaje
para el recuerdo y la retencin juicio que puede sesgar las respuestas a un
5. Claridad de la Comunicacin
Dar informacin clara es una competencia que se debe exigir de los empleados
gerenciales y de supervisin. Ya sea verbalmente o por formas escritas, los
mensajes transmitidos al pblico (ya sea personal interno o clientes) deben ser
claras y concisas y deben alcanzar los objetivos. Las habilidades consistiran en
a) la superacin de las barreras fsicas, psicolgicas y semnticas en las
interacciones con los dems; b) mantener el objetivo y evitar digresiones; c) el
uso de la persuasin eficaz; y d) el mantenimiento de un clima de beneficio
mutuo y la confianza.
6. Obtencin de informacin Objetivo
Para las posiciones que implican la gestin de personas importantes, conseguir
informacin objetiva es un requisito competencia crtica con el fin de garantizar
la equidad. Esta competencia se trata de la capacidad de utilizar las preguntas,
sondas y tcnicas de entrevista para obtener informacin imparcial e
interpretar adecuadamente. Considera habilidades tales como: el uso de la
directiva, no directiva, proyectiva y reflejando cuestiones con eficacia,
empleando la tcnica del embudo de sondeo, el uso de mtodos de sondeo
para obtener informacin adicional, reconociendo latente y significados que
subyace, lo que confirma la comprensin y la consecucin de un acuerdo.
7. Capacitacin, Asesora y Delegar
Estas competencias se debe exigir de los supervisores y gerentes tambin.
Implican la posibilidad de desarrollar a las personas en virtud de ellos para
alcanzar los niveles ms altos de excelencia. Las habilidades podran consistir
en el entrenamiento, asesoramiento, transferencia de conocimientos y

habilidades, y la enseanza y la localizacin de los empleados en las tareas

pueden ser transferidos con seguridad y confianza.
8. Evaluacin de Empleados y Rendimiento
La capacidad para llevar a cabo una evaluacin de desempeo constructiva
participacin conjunta de evaluacin de los resultados anteriores, el acuerdo
sobre las expectativas futuras son las competencias de gestin y de
supervisin. Las habilidades consistiran en capacidad de desarrollar
parmetros de evaluacin, la evaluacin comparativa y la confrontacin cara a
cara con los empleados que se evala sin ningn prejuicio y la vacilacin.
9. Asesoramiento y disciplinar
La capacidad de asesorar y aconsejar as imponer la disciplina de manera
positiva se requiere competencias de los puestos directivos y de supervisin
que manejan gran cantidad de empleados. Esta es restaurar, dentro del rango
aceptable de estndares, el rendimiento de los empleados, manteniendo el
respeto y la confianza. Tambin implica la capacidad de imponer sanciones y
sanciones con firmeza y resolver en los casos apropiados.
10. Identificacin del problema y la solucin
Identificacin del problema y llegar a soluciones transversales a las funciones
organizativas y puestos de trabajo. Se trata de la capacidad de identificar las
barreras que impiden el logro de metas y estndares. Tambin implica la
aplicacin de conjuntos de procedimientos sistemticos para eliminar y reducir
los orgenes de problemas y causas. Requiere habilidades como distinguir entre
problemas, sntomas e indicadores, los insumos y los resultados, la recoleccin
y evaluacin de las pruebas relativas a las causas, y el trazado de una matriz
de decisin y, finalmente, elegir y recomendar las mejores opciones. Esta
competencia se debe exigir a los puestos que se dedican a la evaluacin, ya
sea en los niveles de empleo gerenciales, de supervisin, o tcnicas.
11. Riesgos Evaluacin y Toma de Decisiones
Evaluar los riesgos y la toma de decisiones son las competencias requeridas de
altos cargos directivos en la toma de decisiones puede implicar el compromiso
de recursos de la empresa y los procesos que podran tener implicaciones en
toda la empresa. Al igual que la identificacin de problemas y competencias de
soluciones, evaluar los riesgos y la toma de decisiones implican la capacidad
de construir una matriz de decisin que ayuda a identificar y evaluar las
alternativas y opciones, identificar los lmites, deseables, y los riesgos a tener
en cuenta, asignar pesos a cada opcin y elegir el mejor opcin para lograr las
metas y estndares deseados.
12. Pensar clara y analticamente
La capacidad de aplicar el pensamiento claro y lgico es una competencia
necesaria para ambos puestos de supervisin y de gestin. Las competencias
incluyen habilidades como la determinacin de premisas vlidas llegar a

conclusiones lgicas a partir de ellos, la separacin de hecho de odas,

suposicin injustificada y falsas inferencias, aplicando la lgica inductiva y
deductiva apropiadamente, el sacrificio de falacias lgicas, locales no vlidos y
conclusiones basadas en informacin insuficiente.
Como un proceso bsico en la determinacin de las competencias durante el
anlisis del trabajo, la escritura de las especificaciones del trabajo y el
desarrollo de instrumentos de evaluacin de desempeo, uno puede fcilmente
guiar por el trazado de puestos de trabajo en contra de los 12 principales
competencias mencionadas anteriormente. La eleccin de las competencias y
la mezcla debe seguir, con la competencia ms importante que pueda
prevalecer sobre las dems. El grado y el nivel de competencias que se
requerir variar de acuerdo con el alcance de las responsabilidades,
autoridades, la participacin de la gente, y poder de decisin. Ponerlos en una
matriz podra proporcionar una gua visual que hara las tareas ms fcil y