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Friction in belts.Engineering mechanics sub topic fully explained with examples.

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Transmission of rotary motion, or application of braking torque using friction belts is widely used in machines. Belt transmissions are noise free, require

minimal maintenance and considered safe (non-positive drive). The analysis of friction belts is also useful for analyzing rope/cable friction in various

applications.

Figure 1:

radius r with friction. The tensions in the two portions of the belt are T1 and

T2 with T2 > T1 , and the drum is maintained in equilibrium by the torque M.

slippage. This will also tell us the torque M that can be transmitted.

From the FBD of a small element of the belt shown in Fig. 1

X

d

d

Fx = 0 df + T cos

(T + dT ) cos

=0

2

2

X

d

d

Fy = 0 dN T sin

(T + dT ) sin

=0

2

2

Using the condition of impending slippage df = dN , and the approximations sin d/2 d/2 and cos d/2 1, we have up to first order dN =df ,

and dN =d. Thus,

T2

T1

dT

=

T

d T2 = T1e

0

The equilibrium torque on the drum is then obtained from moment equilibrium as

Mo = 0 M = r(T2 T1).

Problem 1

A person of mass 80 kg has to lower or raise himself/herself using the arrangement shown in Fig. 2. If the coefficient of friction between the rope and

the beam is 0.6, determine the force required to lower and raise.

Solution

The angle of wrap of the rope = rad. Consider the FBD shown in Fig. 3.

When the person is lowering, tension in rope section OA is larger than that

in section OB (held by the hands). Hence

TOA

= e0.6 .

TOB

2

(1)

Figure 2:

Figure 3:

3

TOA + TOB = 80g.

(2)

(1 + e0.6 )TOB = 80g TOB = 103.35 N.

For raising, TOB > TOA . Hence,

TOB

= e0.6 .

TOA

(3)

(1 + e0.6 )TOB = 80g TOB = 680.65 N.

Figure 4:

Problem 2

A uniform beam of mass density 74 kg/m and length 1.8 m is suspended

symmetrically, as shown in Fig. 4. Calculate the maximum force P that can

be supported without tipping the beam. Take the coefficient of static friction

between the chord and the cylinder to be = 0.5.

Figure 5:

Solution

The FBD of the beam is shown in Fig. 5. Here W = mg = 74 1.8

9.8 = 1305.36 N. From force equilibrium in the vertical direction and moment

balance about G yields

X

Fy = 0 T 1 + T 2 W P = 0

(1)

(2)

Since the beam will have a tendency to tip in the direction of the force P, we

must have T2 > T1. Hence, at impending sliding,

T2

= e0.5 .

T1

(3)

5

Figure 6:

Figure 7:

Problem 3

For the arrangement shown in Fig. 6, determine the range of values of m for

equilibrium. Neglect friction in the pulley.

Solution

It may be checked that the 50 kg block can have impending motion downwards. Thus, we can have two cases, namely impending motion down or up

the plane.

6

The FBD of the beam is shown in Fig. 7. We note that T2 > T1, and the

friction force is upwards. From equations of equilibrium of the block

N = 50g cos 20

(1)

(2)

2T1 = mg

(3)

Since the string over the circular extension is also in impending motion

T2 = T1e0.25

where the angle of wrap =

110

180

(4)

mg 0.25

e

m = 12.4 kg.

2

The FBD of the beam is shown in Fig. 8. In this case, the equations of equilibrium of the block, pulley and the relation between T1 and T2 in impending

slippage may be written as

N = 50g cos 20

T2 = 50g sin 20 + 0.15N

2T1 = mg

7

Figure 8:

T1 = T2e0.25

Solving these equations simultaneously for m, we have m = 78 kg.

Thus, for equilibrium, 12.4 kg m 78 kg.

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