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–60 –50

IT LIM /h 30km

–40

–30

–20

–10

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

x(m)

–60

–50

IT LIM /h 30km

ﬁgure 2.1

(a) A pictorial representation of the motion of a car. The positions of the car at six instants of time are shown and labeled.

40 50 60 x(m)

–40

–30

–20

–10

0 (a)

10

20

30

x (m) 60 40 20 0 –20 –40 ∆t ∆x

(a)

v

t

(c) –60 t (s) 0 10 20 (b) 30 40 50 (c)

(b)Agraphicalrepresentation,knownasapositiontimegraph,ofthecar’smotioninpart(a).Theaveragevelocityvx,avgintheintervalt0tot10sisobtainedfromtheslopeofthestraightl ineconnectingpointsand.(c)Avelocity–timegraphofthemotionofthecarinpart(a).

60 40 20 0 –20 –40 –60

x (m)

60

40

0

10

20

30 (a)

40

50

t (s) (b)

Figure

2.2

(a) Position – time graph for the motion of the car in Active Figure 2.1. (b) An enlargement of the upper left-hand corner of the graph in part (a) shows how the blue line between positions and approaches the green tangent line as point is moved closer to point . x vx = 0 vx < 0 vx > 0 t

F I G U R E 2.3

In the position – time graph shown, the velocity is positive at , where the slope of the tangent line is positive; the velocity is zero at , where the slope of the tangent line is zero; and the velocity is negative at , where the slope of the tangent line is negative.

x (m) 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 1 2 3 4 t (s) Slope = 18 m/s

F I G U R E 2.4

(Example 2.3) Position – time graph for a particle having an x coordinate that varies in time according to x 3t 2. Note that the instantaneous velocity at t 3.0 s is obtained from the slope of the green line tangent to the curve at this point.

x (m) 10 8 6 4 2 0 –2 –4 0 1 2 3 4 t (s) Slope = 4 m/s Slope = –2 m/s

F I G U R E 2.5

(Example 2.4) Position – time graph for a particle having an x coordinate that varies in time according to x 4t 2t 2.

x

xi

Slope =

∆x = vx ∆t

t

F I G U R E 2.6

Position – time graph for a particle under constant velocity. The value of the constant velocity is the slope of the line.

vx t

ax

tA

tB (a)

tC

tC tA tB (b)

t

2.7 The instantaneous acceleration can be obtained from the velocity – time graph (a). At each instant the acceleration in the ax versus t graph (b) equals the slope of the line tangent to the vx versus t curve.

FIGURE

vx

vx

vx

t (a) ax (b) ax

t (c) ax

t

ﬁgure 2.8

(Quick Quiz 2.3) Parts (a), (b), and (c) are velocity – time graphs of objects in one-dimensional motion. The possible acceleration – time graphs of each object are shown in scrambled order in parts (d), (e), and (f).

t (d) (e)

t (f )

t

vi

ti = 0 30 m/s

t f = 2.0 s

15 m/s vf

F I G U R E 2.9

The velocity of the car decreases from 30 m/s to 15 m/s in a time interval of 2.0 s.

vx (m/s) 40 30 20 10 0 –10 –20 –30 t (s) Slope = –20 m/s2

0

1

2

3

4

2.10 (Example 2.6) The velocity – time graph for a particle moving along the x axis according to the relation vx 40 5t 2. The acceleration at t 2.0 s is obtained from the slope of the green tangent line at that time.

FIGURE

v (a)

v (b) a

v (c) a

Figure 2.11

(a) Motion diagram for a car moving at constant velocity. (b) Motion diagram for a car whose constant acceleration is in the direction of its velocity. The velocity vector at each instant is indicated by a red arrow, and the constant acceleration vector is indicated by a violet arrow. (c) Motion diagram for a car whose constant acceleration is in the direction opposite the velocity at each instant.

x Slope = vxf

vx Slope = ax axt vxi Slope = vxi vx i t (a) t 0 (b) t vx f t

xi 0

ax Slope = 0 ax 0 (c) t

Figure 2.12

Graphical representations of a particle moving along the x axis with constant acceleration ax . (a) The position – time graph, (b) the velocity – time graph, and (c) the acceleration – time graph.

v x car = 45.0 m/s a x car = 0 ax trooper = 3.00 m/s 2 tA = –1.00 s tB = 0 tC = ?

F I G U R E 2.13

(Interactive Example 2.8) A speeding car passes a hidden trooper. The trooper catches up to the car at point .

a

v

F I G U R E 2.14 An apple and a feather, released from rest in a vacuum chamber, fall at the same rate, regardless of their masses. Ignoring air resistance, all objects fall to the Earth with the same acceleration of magnitude 9.80 m/s2, as indicated by the violet arrows in this multiﬂash photograph. The velocity of the two objects increases linearly with time, as indicated by the series of red arrows.

(©1993 James Sugar/Black Star)

F I G U R E 2.15

(Example 2.9)

(George Semple)

t B = 2.04 s y B = 20.4 m vy B = 0 2 ay B = –9.80 m/s

tA = 0 yA = 0 vy A = 20.0 m/s 2 ay A = –9.80 m/s

t C = 4.08 s yC = 0 vy C = –20.0 m/s ay C = –9.80 m/s2

50.0 m

t D = 5.00 s y D = –22.5 m vy D = –29.0 m/s ay D = –9.80 m/s2

t E = 5.83 s y E = –50.0 m vy E = –37.1 m/s ay E = –9.80 m/s2

FIGURE

2.16 (Interactive Example 2.10) Position, velocity, and acceleration at various instants of time for a freely falling particle initially thrown upward with a velocity vy 20.0 m/s.

x (m) 10 8 6 4 2 0 –2 –4 –6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 t (s) x (m) 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 t (s)

Figure P2.3 Problems 2.3 and 2.8.

Figure P2.5

ax (m/s 2 ) 2 1 t (s) 5 –1 –2 –3 10 15 20

0

Figure P2.11

vx (m/s) 8 6 4 2 –2 –4 –6 –8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 t (s)

Figure P2.14

vx (m/s) 10 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 t (s)

Figure P2.15

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