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Fs (a) x=0 (b) m Fs (c) x=0 m x x=0 x Fs = 0 x m x

x

Figure 12.1

A block attached to a spring on a frictionless track moves in simple harmonic motion. (a) When the block is displaced to the right of equilibrium, the position is positive and the force and acceleration are negative. (b) At the equilibrium position x 0, the forc e and acceleration of the block are zero but the speed is a maximum. (c ) When the position is negative, the force and acceleration of the block are positive .

x T A t –A (a) x A t –A (b)

Figure 12.2

(a) A graphical representation (position versus time) for the system in Active Figure 12.1, a particle in simple harmonic motion. The amplitude of the motion is A and the period is T. (b) The x-t curve in the special case in which x A and v 0 at t 0.

x

xi

O (a) v

T A t

vi

O (b) a

vmax = ω ωA

t

amax= ω 2A

O (c) t

F I G U R E 12.3

Graphical representation of three variables in simple harmonic motion: (a) position versus time, (b) velocity versus time, and (c) acceleration versus time. Note that at any speciﬁed time the velocity is 90° out of phase with the position and the acceleration is 180° out of phase with the position.

x=0 A m t=0 xi = A vi = 0

Figure 12.4

A block – spring system that is released from rest at xi A. In this case, 0, and therefore x A cos t.

x O

T 2 T

3T 2

x t T O T 2 v t T O T 2 a t O T 2 T (b) 3T 2 3T 2 3T 2

v O

T 2 a

T

3T 2

O

T 2 (a)

T

3T 2

F I G U R E 12.5 (a) Position, velocity, and acceleration versus time for a block undergoing simple harmonic motion under the initial conditions that at t 0, x(0) A and v(0) 0. (b) Position, velocity, and acceleration versus time for a block undergoing simple harmonic motion under the initial conditions that at t 0, x(0) 0 and v(0) vi .

t=0 xi = 0 v = vi

x=0 m vi

Figure 12.6

The block – spring system is undergoing oscillation, and t 0 is deﬁned at an instant when the block passes through the equilibrium position x 0 and is moving to the right with speed vi .

x

t

F I G U R E 12.7

(Quick Quiz 12.2) An x-t graph for an object undergoing simple harmonic motion. At a particular time, the object’s position is indicated by in the diagram.

T2

0

m

F I G U R E 12.8

(Thinking Physics 12.1) A graph of experimental data: the square of the period versus mass of a block in a block – spring system.

U K K, U

1 2 2 kA

U = 1 kx 2 2 K = 1 mv 2 2

φ=0

K, U

Figure 12.9

(a) Kinetic energy and potential energy versus time for a simple harmonic oscillator with 0.(b) Kinetic energy and potential energy versus position for a simple harmonic oscillator. In either plot, note that K U constant.

T 2 (a)

T

t

–A

O (b)

A

x

t a max 0

x

v

a

K

U

θmax

A

0

– ω 2A

0

1 2 kA 2

vmax T 4 0 – ωA 0

1 2 kA 2

0

a max T 2 –A 0 ω 2A 0

θmax

1 2 kA 2

vmax 3T 4 0 ωA ω 0

1 2 kA 2

0

a max T θmax A 0 – ω 2A 0

1 2 kA 2

x –A 0 A

Figure 12.10

Simple harmonic motion for a block – spring system and its analogy to the motion of a simple pendulum (Section 12.4). The parameters in the table at the right refer to the block – spring system, assuming that at t 0, x A so that x A cos t.

θ

L T s mg sin θ m

θ

mg

mg cos θ

Figure 12.11

When is small, the oscillation of the simple pendulum can be modeled as simple harmonic motion about the equilibrium position ( 0). The restoring force is mg sin , the component of the gravitational force tangent to the arc.

Pivot

O

θ

d CM

d sin θ

mg

F I G U R E 12.12

The physical pendulum consists of a rigid object pivoted at the point O, which is not at the center of mass.

R

M

F I G U R E 12.13

(Example 12.6) A circular sign oscillating about a pivot as a physical pendulum.

m

(a) x A Ae

(b/2m)t

0

t

(b)

Figure 12.14

(a) One example of a damped oscillator is an object attached to a spring and submerged in a viscous liquid. (b) Graph of the position versus time for a damped oscillator with small damping. Note the decrease in amplitude with time.

x

a

b

c t

F I G U R E 12.15

Plots of position versus time for an underdamped oscillator (a), a critically damped oscillator (b), and an overdamped oscillator (c).

A b=0 Undamped Small b

Large b

0

ω0

ω

F I G U R E 12.16

Graph of amplitude versus frequency for a damped oscillator when a periodic driving force is present. When the frequency of the driving force equals the natural frequency 0, resonance occurs. Note that the shape of the resonance curve depends on the size of the damping coefﬁcient b.

Figure P12.20 Problems 12.20 and 12.44.

(Telegraph Colour Library/FPG International)

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