# Chapter 13 Mechanical Waves

F I G U R E 13.1

A pulse traveling down a stretched rope. The shape of the pulse is approximately unchanged as it travels along the rope .

P

P

P

P

A pulse traveling on a stretched rope is a transverse disturbance. That is, any element of the rope, such as that at P, moves (blue arrows) in a direction perpendicular to the propagation of the pulse (red arrows).

F I G U R E 13.2

Compressed

F I G U R E 13.3

A longitudinal pulse along a stretched spring. The displacement of the coils is in the direction of the wave motion. The compressed region moves to the right along the spring.

y v

y vt P v

A P O (a) Pulse at t = 0 x O (b) Pulse at time t

x

F I G U R E 13.4

A one-dimensional pulse traveling to the right with a speed v. (a) At t 0, the shape of the pulse is given by y f(x). (b) At some later time t, the shape remains unchanged and the vertical position of any element of the medium is given by y f(x vt).

y (cm) 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 3.0 cm/s t=0 y(x, 0)

0

1

2

3

4 (a)

5

6

x (cm)

y (cm) 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0 1 2 3 4 (b) y (cm) 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0 1 2 3 4 (c) 5 6 7 8 x (cm) t = 2.0 s y(x, 2.0) 3.0 cm/s 3.0 cm/s t = 1.0 s y(x, 1.0)

5

6

7

x (cm)

(Example 13.1) Graphs of the function y(x, t) 2.0/[(x 3.0t)2 1] at (a) t 0, (b) t 1.0 s, and (c) t 2.0 s.

F I G U R E 13.5

y

A x

(a) y T A t

T (b)

Figure 13.6

(a) A graph of the y position of elements of a medium versus x position, measured along the length of the medium. The wavelength of a wave is the distance between adjacent crests or adjacent troughs. (b) A graph of the y position of one element of the medium as a function of time. The period T of the wave is the same as the time interval required for the element to complete one oscillation.

y A P (a) Vibrating blade (b) P

Figure 13.7

One method for producing a sinusoidal wave on a continuous string. The left end of the string is connected to a blade that is set into vibration. Every element of the string, such as the one at point P, oscillates with simple harmonic motion in the vertical direction.

P

(c)

(d)

P

y

vt

v x

t=0

t

Figure 13.8

A one-dimensional sinusoidal wave traveling to the right with a speed v. The brown curve represents a snapshot of the wave at t 0, and the blue curve represents a snapshot at some later time t.

y (cm) 40.0 cm 15.0 cm

x (cm)

F I G U R E 13.9

(Example 13.2) A sinusoidal wave of wavelength 40.0 cm and amplitude A 15.0 cm. The wave function can be written in the form y A cos(kx t).

∆s

R O (a)

v

∆s

θ

T R

θ

T

θ

O

(b)

F I G U R E 13.10

(a) To obtain the speed v of a wave on a stretched string, it is convenient to describe the motion of a small element of the string in a moving frame of reference. (b) The horizontal components of : the force T on a small element of length s cancel. The radial components add, so there is a net force in the radial direction.

5.00 m 1.00 m

2.00 kg

F I G U R E 13.11

(Example 13.4) The tension T in the cord is maintained by the suspended object. The wave speed is given by the expression v √T/ .

Incident pulse (a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

Reflected pulse

F I G U R E 13.12

The reﬂection of a traveling pulse at the ﬁxed end of a stretched string. The reﬂected pulse is inverted, but its shape remains the same. Incident pulse (a)

(b)

(c) Reflected pulse (d)

F I G U R E 13.13

The reﬂection of a traveling pulse at the free end of a stretched string. In this case, the reﬂected pulse is not inverted.

Incident pulse Incident pulse

(a) Transmitted pulse Reflected pulse (b)

(a) Transmitted pulse (b)

Reflected pulse

Figure 13.14

(a) A pulse traveling to the right on a light string attached to a heavier string. (b) Part of the incident pulse is reﬂected (and inverted), and part is transmitted to the heavier string.

Figure 13.15

(a) A pulse traveling to the right on a heavy string attached to a lighter string. (b) The incident pulse is partially reﬂected and partially transmitted. In this case, the reﬂected pulse is not inverted.

m (a) ∆m

A sinusoidal wave traveling along the x axis on a stretched string. Every element, such as the one labeled with its mass m, moves vertically, and each element has the same total energy. The average power transmitted by the wave equals the energy contained in one wavelength divided by the period of the wave.

F I G U R E 13.17

m (b)

F I G U R E 13.16 (a) A pulse traveling to the right on a stretched string on which an object has been suspended. (b) Energy is transmitted to the suspended object when the pulse arrives.

Undisturbed gas

(a) Compressed region

(b) v

(c) v

(d)

F I G U R E 13.18

A longitudinal wave propagating along a tube ﬁlled with a compressible gas. The source of the wave is a vibrating piston at the left. The high- and low-pressure regions are dark and light, respectively.

s smax

x

(a) ∆P ∆Pmax

x

(b)

F I G U R E 13.19 (a) Displacement versus position and (b) pressure versus position for a sinusoidal longitudinal wave. The displacement wave is 90° out of phase with the pressure wave.

(a)

v waves

(b)

v boat

v waves

(c)

v boat

v waves

F I G U R E 13.20 (a) Waves moving toward a stationary boat. The waves travel to the left and their source is far to the right of the boat, out of the frame of the drawing. (b) The boat moving toward the wave source. (c) The boat moving away from the wave source.

S ×

O

Figure 13.21

vO An observer O (the cyclist) moving with a speed vO toward a stationary point source S, the horn of a parked car. The observer hears a frequency f that is greater than the source frequency.

B Observer B S vS

λ λ′

A

C

(a)

(b)

Figure 13.22

(a) A source S moving with a speed vS toward a stationary observer A and away from a stationary observer B. Observer A hears an increased frequency, and observer B hears a decreased frequency. (b) The Doppler effect in water observed in a ripple tank. The vibrating source is moving to the right. Letters shown in the photo refer to Quick Quiz 13.5.

Newton, MA)

Observer A

(Courtesy of the Educational Development Center,

3L/4

L/2

L/2

m

Figure P13.16

**Figure P13.26 Problem 13.26
**

(Joe McDonald/Visuals Unlimited)

k

m x

Figure P13.36