This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

(a) y1 y2

Figure 14.1

( Left) Two pulses traveling on a stretched string in opposite direction s pass through each other. When the pulses overlap, as in (b) and (c), the net displacement of each element of the string equals the sum of the displacements produced by each pulse. Because each pulse produces positive displacements of the string, we refer to their superposition as constuctive r interference ( Right) Photograph of the . superposition of two equal and symmetric pulses traveling in opposite directions on a stretched spring .

(b)

y1+ y2

(Education Development Cente r, Newton, MA)

(c)

y1+ y2

(d)

y2

y1

(e )

(a)

y2 y1

Figure 14.2

( Left) Two pulses traveling in opposite directions with displacements that are inverted relative to each other. When the two overlap as in (c), their displacements subtract from each other. ( Right) Photograph of the superposition of two symmetric pulses traveling in opposite directions, where one is inverted relative to the othe r.

(b)

y2 y1

(c)

y 1 + y2

(d)

y2 y1

(e )

(Education Development Cente r, Newton, MA)

y

y

y1 and y2 are identical

x

φ = 0°

(a) y y1 y2 y

x

φ = 180°

(b) y y y1 y2 x

φ = 60°

(c )

Figure 14.3

The superposition of two identical waves y1 and y2. (a) When the two waves are in phase, the result is constructive interference. (b) When the two waves are rad out of phase, the result is destructive interference. (c) When the phase angle has a value other than 0 or rad, the resultant wave y falls somewhere between the extremes shown in (a) and (b). r2 S

P r1 Speaker

R Receiver

.

F I G U R E 14.4

An acoustical system for demonstrating interference of sound waves. Sound waves from the speaker propagate into the tube and the energy splits into two parts at point P. The waves from the two paths, which combine at the opposite side, are detected at the receiver R. The upper path length r 2 can be varied by sliding the upper section.

1.15 m 3.00 m

r1 P 8.00 m r2 8.00 m

0.350 m

O

1.85 m

F I G U R E 14.5 (Example 14.1) Two speakers create a minimum in the sound intensity at point P.

v

v

F I G U R E 14.6

Two speakers emit sound waves toward each other. Between the speakers, identical waves traveling in opposite directions combine to form standing waves.

F I G U R E 14.7

Multiﬂash photograph of a standing wave on a string. The vertical displacement from equilibrium of an individual element of the string is proportional to cos t. That is, each element vibrates at an angular frequency . The amplitude of the vertical oscillation of any element on the string depends on the horizontal position of the element. Each element vibrates within the conﬁnes of the envelope function 2A sin kx.

Antinode Node

Antinode Node

2A sin kx

(© 1991 Richard Megna/Fundamental Photographs)

y1

y1

y1

Figure 14.8

Standing wave patterns at various times produced by two waves of equal amplitude traveling in opposite directions. For the resultant wave y, the nodes (N) are points of zero displacement and the antinodes (A) are points of maximum displacement.

y2 A y N N A (a) t = 0 A N N A N

y2

y2 A A N N A (c) t = T/2

y

y

N A

N N

(b) t = T/4

L f2

A N N

A N

Figure 14.9

(a) A string of length L ﬁxed at both ends. The normal modes of vibration form a harmonic series. In each case, the shape of the string is shown at several instants within one period: (b) the fundamental frequency, or ﬁrst harmonic; (c) the second harmonic; and (d) the third harmonic.

(a) A N f1 N f3 1 L = – λ1 2 (b)

n=2 A N N

(c) A N

L = λ2 A N

n=1

n=3 (d)

3 L = – λ3 2

L A N A λ1 = 2L v v f1 = — = — λ1 2L λ2 = L v f2 = — = 2f1 L 2 λ3 = — L 3 3v f3 = — = 3f1 2L (a) Open at both ends First harmonic

A

N

A

N A

Second harmonic

A N A N A NA

Third harmonic

F I G U R E 14.10

A

N

λ1 = 4L v v f1 = — = — λ1 4L 4 λ3 = — L 3 3v f3 = — = 3f1 4L 4 λ5 = — L 5 5v f5 = — = 5f1 4L (b) Closed at one end, open at the other

First harmonic

A

N

A

N

Third harmonic

A N A N A N

Fifth harmonic

Motion of elements of air in standing longitudinal waves in an air column, along with graphical representations of the displacements of the elements. (a) In an air column open at both ends, the harmonic series created consists of all integer multiples of the fundamental frequency: f 1, 2f 1, 3f 1, . . . . (b) In an air column closed at one end and open at the other, the harmonic series consists of only odd-integer multiples of the fundamental frequency: f 1, 3f 1, 5f 1, . . . .

f=?

λ/4 First resonance

3λ/4 5λ/4

L

Water (a)

Second resonance (third harmonic)

Third resonance (fifth harmonic)

(b)

(Example 14.5) (a) Apparatus for F I G U R E 14.11 demonstrating the resonance of sound waves in a tube closed at one end. The length L of the air column is varied by moving the tube vertically while it is partially submerged in water. (b) The ﬁrst three normal modes of the system shown in (a).

y (a) t

Figure 14.12

Beats are formed by the combination of two waves of slightly different frequencies. (a) The blue and black curves represent the individual waves. (b) The combined wave has an amplitude (broken line) that oscillates in time.

y

(b)

t

(a) Tuning fork

t

(b) Flute

t

(c) Clarinet

t

F I G U R E 14.13

Waveforms of sound produced by (a) a tuning fork, (b) a ﬂute, and (c) a clarinet, each at approximately the same frequency.

Relative intensity

Relative intensity

1 2 3 4 5 6 Harmonics (a)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Harmonics (b)

Relative intensity

Tuning fork

Flute

Clarinet

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Harmonics (c)

F I G U R E 14.14

harmonics.

Harmonics of the waveforms shown in Figure 14.13. Note the variations in intensity of the various

f f + 3f

3f (a) f f + 3f + 5f

5f

3f (b) f + 3f + 5f + 7f + 9f Square wave f + 3f + 5f + 7f + 9f + ...

(c)

Figure 14.15

Fourier synthesis of a square wave represented by the sum of odd multiples of the ﬁrst harmonic, which has frequency f. (a) Waves of frequency f and 3f are added. (b) One more odd frequency of 5f is added. (c) The synthesis curve approaches the square wave when odd frequencies up to 9f are combined.

y (cm) 2.00 cm/s 4 2 2 A 4 6 8 10 –2.00 cm/s B 12 14 16 18 20 x (cm)

Figure P14.2

L

d

Figure P14.10

y (x, y)

A 9.00 m 10.0 m

x

Figure P14.11

Vibrator P

L

µ

m

Figure P14.20 T is vibrating at its fundamental frequency. What

θ

L M

Figure P14.25

f

R

Figure P14.34

Figure P14.44

- THERMODYNAMICS
- Jan 2012
- 918216 Polarization 1
- 30470415-AIEEE-2010-Solution
- Iit Jee 2010 Paper 2
- Iit Jee 2010 Paper 1
- 27943663 Physics Halliiday
- 7538549 Calculus Based Physics 1
- 28171687 Irodov Problems in General Physics
- AIEEE2011SOLUTIONS
- iitjee2011paper2
- iit Jee Paper 1 ,2011
- physics model test paper 2011
- physics 2011 model test paper for 12th cbse
- CBSE 2011 model test paper for physics 12th
- Solutions H.C.verma
- m510
- m495
- m494
- m493
- m366
- m142
- m135
- m134
- m130

Sign up to vote on this title

UsefulNot useful- ch-12
- ch-7
- ch-6
- ch-13
- BC_1ppt
- ch-2
- mass transfer
- ch-5
- ch-15
- Diffusion
- ch-10
- Carbon Credit_illustration Through HYSYS Simulation
- Light Emitting Polymer
- Fluidized Bed Reactor
- Idealidad en CSTR
- Ch 1 Chemical Kinetics
- Chemical Kinetics
- Ammonia Solar Heat Engine
- Chemical Kinetics
- What Went Wrong
- Absorption Columns
- Filtration
- Fluid Mechanics
- Bubble Column Reactors
- Reactors
- Chemical Kinetics
- Reaction Kinetics
- Diffusion
- Auditing Presentation 1
- Gas Absorption
- ch-14

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd