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MANPREET SINGH GANDHI P.G.M.S (YMCA) MS-A-03 (BUSINESS LAW)
Sustainable development is a pattern of resource use that aims to meet human needs while preserving the Environment so that these needs can be met not only in the present, but also for future generations. The term was used by the Brundtland Commission which coined what has become the most often-quoted definition of sustainable development as Development that "meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs."
Sustainable development ties together concern for the carrying capacity of natural systems with the social challenges facing humanity. As early as the 1970s "sustainability" was employed to describe an economy "in equilibrium with basic ecological support systems." Ecologists have pointed to The Limits to Growth, and presented the alternative of a “steady state economy” in order to address environmental concerns.
The field of sustainable development can be conceptually broken into three constituent parts: environmental sustainability, economic sustainability and sociopolitical sustainability.
Sustainable development is defined as a pattern of social and structured economic transformations (i.e. development) which optimizes the economic and societal benefits available in the present, without jeopardizing the likely potential for similar benefits in the future. A primary goal of sustainable development is to achieve a reasonable and equitably distributed level of economic well-being that can be perpetuated continually for many human generations.
]Sustainable development implies using renewable natural resources in a manner which does not eliminate or degrade them, or otherwise diminish their usefulness for future generations. It further implies using non-renewable (exhaustible) mineral resources in a manner which does not unnecessarily preclude easy access to them by future generations. Sustainable development also requires depleting non-renewable energy resources at a slow enough rate so as to ensure the high probability of an orderly society transition to renewable energy sources.
Based on similar arguments, sustainable development has been alternatively defined in various manners also; some of them are as follows: "Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs". --The World Commission on Environment and Development, Brundtland Commission 1987.
"Sustainable development ensures that the maximum rate of resource consumption and waste discharge for a selected development portfolio would be sustained indefinitely, in a defined planning region, without progressively impairing its bio-productivity and ecological integrity. Environmental conservation, therefore, contrary to general belief, accelerates rather than hinders economic development.
Therefore, the Development plans have to ensure:
• • •
Sustainable and equitable use of resources for meeting the needs of the present and future generations without causing damage to environment. To prevent further damage to our life-support systems; To conserve and nurture the biological diversity, gene pool and other resources for long term food security".
--State of the Environment Report - 1999, Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India.
"The primary objective of the Sustainable Development is to reduce the absolute poverty of the world's poor through providing lasting and secure livelihoods that minimize resource depletion, environmental degradation, cultural disruption and social instability". --E. Bar bier, "The Concept of Sustainable Economic Development", Environmental Conservation, 1987.
Water is an important natural resource that covers 71% of the Earth's surface. Image is the Earth photographed from Apollo 17. Environmental sustainability refers to the maintenance of functioning natural ecosystems, as well as the control of pollutants and toxins in human environments such as cities and agricultural areas. A condition of "unsustainability" in an environment occurs when natural capital (the sum total of nature's resources) is used up faster than it can be replenished; when ecosystem functions are systematically decaying; or when toxins and pollutants dangerous to human and other forms of life are systematically increasing. Sustainability requires that human activity only uses nature's resources at a rate at which they can be replenished naturally. Inherently the concept of sustainable development is intertwined with the concept of carrying capacity. Theoretically, the long-term result of environmental degradation is the inability to sustain human life. Such degradation on a global scale could imply extinction for humanity.
Consumption of renewable resources More than nature's ability to replenish Equal to nature's ability to replenish Less than nature's ability to replenish
State of environment
Environmental degradation Environmental equilibrium
Steady state economy
The Notion of Capital in Sustainable Development
The sustainable development debate is based on the assumption that societies need to manage three types of capital (economic, social, and natural), which may be nonsubstitutable and whose consumption might be irreversible. Daly (1991), for example, points to the fact that natural capital can not necessarily be substituted by economic capital. While it is possible that we can find ways to replace some natural resources, it is much more unlikely that they will ever be able to replace eco-system services, such as the protection provided by the ozone layer, or the climate stabilizing function of the Amazonian forest. In fact natural capital, social capital and economic capital are often complementarities. A further obstacle to substitutability lies also in the multi-functionality of many natural resources. Forests, for example, not only provide the raw material for paper (which can be substituted quite easily), but they also maintain biodiversity, regulate water flow, and absorb CO2. Another problem of natural and social capital deterioration lies in their partial irreversibility. The loss in biodiversity, for example, is often definite. The same can be true for cultural diversity. For example with globalization advancing quickly the number of indigenous languages is dropping at alarming rates. Moreover, the depletion of natural and social capital may have non-linear consequences. Consumption of natural and social capital may have no observable impact until a certain threshold is reached. A lake can, for example, absorb nutrients for a long time while actually increasing
its productivity. However, once a certain level of algae is reached lack of oxygen causes the lake’s ecosystem to break down all of a sudden.
Before flue gas desulfurization was installed, the air-polluting emissions from this power plant in New Mexico contained excessive amounts of sulfur dioxide.
If the degradation of natural and social capital has such important consequence the question arises why action is not taken more systematically to alleviate it. Cohen and Winn (2007) point to four types of market failure as possible explanations: First, while the benefits of natural or social capital depletion can usually be privatized the costs are often externalized (i.e. they are borne not by the party responsible but by society in general). Second, natural capital is often undervalued by society since we are not fully aware of the real cost of the depletion of natural capital. Information asymmetry is a third reason— often the link between cause and effect is obscured, making it difficult for actors to make informed choices. Cohen and Winn close with the realization that contrary to economic theory many firms are not perfect optimizers. They postulate that firms often do not optimize resource allocation because they are caught in a "business as usual" mentality.
THE BUSINESS CASE FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
The most broadly accepted criterion for corporate sustainability constitutes a firm’s efficient use of natural capital. This eco-efficiency is usually calculated as the economic value added by a firm in relation to its aggregated ecological impact. This idea has been popularized by the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) under the following definition: “Eco-efficiency is achieved by the delivery of competitively-priced goods and services that satisfy human needs and bring quality of life, while progressively reducing ecological impacts and resource intensity throughout the life-cycle to a level at least in line with the earth’s carrying capacity.” (DeSimone and Pop off, 1997: 47) Similar to the eco-efficiency concept but so far less explored is the second criterion for corporate sustainability. Socio-efficiency describes the relation between a firm’s value added and its social impact. Whereas, it can be assumed that most corporate impacts on the environment are negative (apart from rare exceptions such as the planting of trees) this is not true for social impacts. These can be either positive (e.g. corporate giving, creation of employment) or negative (e.g. work accidents, mobbing of employees, human rights abuses). Depending on the type of impact socio-efficiency thus either tries to minimize negative social impacts (i.e. accidents per value added) or maximize positive social impacts (i.e. donations per value added) in relation to the value added. Both eco-efficiency and socio-efficiency are concerned primarily with increasing economic sustainability. In this process they instrumentalize both natural and social capital aiming to benefit from win-win situations. However, as Dyllick and Hockerts point out the business case alone will not be sufficient to realize sustainable development. They point towards ecoeffectiveness, socio-effectiveness, sufficiency, and eco-equity as four criteria that need to be met if sustainable development is to be reached.
Indian Council For Sustainable Development (ICSD)
Indian council for sustainable development envisages for itself a strong and active advisory role as a non –government initiative, with a purpose of providing guidance and relevant analysis on integrated environmental concerns with development; laying specific emphasis on removal of poverty and ensuring equitable growth of income and wealth in India.
It seeks to further fortify cooperation and exchange between India and the international community in the field of environment and development, with the broad objectives of
Assessing the challenge of integrating environmental issues with development
strategies, in order to establish a pattern of sustainable development in India,
Formulating strategies and directions, which would be provided as
recommendations and advise to various levels and agencies of the Government of India, and, Disseminating and publishing information on issues linking the environment and development in India and practices to promote sustainable development.
At present, the Council is working with and seeks to build further collaboration with the CCICED (China Council for International Cooperation on Environment and Development) in order to play a key role in bringing together experts and the policy community from India and China to help forge an understanding and appreciation of the sustainable development construct in the two countries.
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA
Sustainable development in India now encompasses a variety of development schemes in social, cleantech (clean energy, clean water and sustainable agriculture) and human resources segments, having caught the attention of both Central and State governments and also public and private sectors. Social sector, cleantech investments into green energy and fuel alternatives and development schemes for backward and below the poverty line (BPL) families are being touted as some of the more heavily invested segments in India in 2009, despite the economic slowdown. In fact, India is expected to begin the greening of its national income accounting, making depletion in natural resources wealth a key component in its measurement of gross domestic product (GDP). Sustainable energy investment in India went up to US$ 3.7 billion in 2008, up 12 per cent since 2007. It included asset finance of US$ 3.2 billion, up by 36 per cent. Venture capital and private equity saw an increase of 270 per cent to US$ 493 million. Merger and acquisition activities totalled US$ 585 million. Most acquisition activity was centered on biomass, small hydro and wind projects, according to the report, Global Trends in Sustainable Energy Investment 2009. India’s sustained work towards reducing Greenhouse Gases (GHG) will ensure that the country’s per capita emission of GHG will continue to be low until 2030-31, and it is estimated that the per capita emission in 2031 will be lower than per capita global emission of GHG in 2005, according to a new study. Even in 2031, India’s per capita GHG emissions would stay under four tones of CO2, which is lower than the global per capita emission of 4.22 tones of CO2 in 2005. India has been ranked ninth in the tree planting roll of honor in a campaign to plant a billion trees, which was launched by the United Nations Environment, Program me (UNEP) in November 2006. The country has registered 96 million trees. Two Indian companies including Wipro and HCL have figured in the list of top five green electronics brands as per the 8th edition of the Guide to Greener Electronics, because of their strong focus on the e-waste management and climate control. The study which for the first time has included climate and energy as criteria for evaluation has placed Wipro in joint second position with Samsung.
Global systems and services company Dell, in partnership with The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), has launched ‘The Climate Eduxchange’–an IT-enabled initiative to improve environment education in schools across India. The campaign aims to raise awareness and understanding about climate change issues among students and teachers of all disciplines. SOS Children’s Villages of India and Coca-Cola India announced the commencement of work on 24 million liters of rainwater harvesting (RWH) project at SOS Children’s Village in Aluva near Kochi. The project, on completion, will help ensure safe drinking water for children and nearby communities. Tata Steel Rural Development Society (TSRDS), an organization involved in the steel major's community building initiatives, has embarked on an initiative to empower communities by creating awareness on the Right to Information (RTI) Act at the grassroots level. Wipro InfoTech, provider of IT and business transformation services, has unveiled its new eco-friendly and toxin-free desktops, manufactured with materials completely free of deadly chemicals like polyvinyl chloride and brominated flame retardants.
National Solar Mission
According to the Union Minister of New and Renewable Energy, Dr Farooq Abdullah, the government targets to set up 1,100 MW grid-connected solar plants including 100 MW capacity plants as rooftop and smaller solar power plants for the first phase of the National Solar Mission till March 2013. The government has approved US$ 974.65 million for this. In addition, the government plans to generate 20,000 MW solar power by 2022 under the three-phase National Solar Mission, with 2000 MW capacity equivalent off-grid solar applications, including 20 million solar lights, also planned to be installed during this period.
Clean Energy and Technology
The Energy Efficiency Indicator (EEI) survey for corporate India, released in June 2009, reveals that 47 per cent of the respondents are paying more attention to energy efficiency, compared to last year and 94 per cent of the respondents feel that energy management is extremely important. An increase in capital investments for energy efficiency is needed say 62 per cent, while 72 per cent of the respondents feel their organizations can achieve more energy efficiency from operating budgets. More than 92 per cent of the respondents say energy efficiency is a priority in new construction as well as in renovation projects.
Investors from the US and European countries are keen to invest around US$ 416.4 million to promote and equip small and medium enterprises engaged in green business such as advanced technologies for water management, agriculture/organic products, clean technologies, ecotourism, renewable energy, green building materials, etc. PV Technologies India (a subsidiary of Moser Baer), Titan Energy Systems, Reliance Industries Ltd, Tata BP Solar Power are among the 12 Solar Photo Voltaic projects filed under Special Incentive Package Scheme (SIPS), which have received inprinciple clearance from the Government. Together, these 12 projects would entail an investment of US$ 16.34 billion over a 10-year period. Finnish company, Win Wind Power Energy, has opened its US$ 77.5 million wind turbine-cum-blade manufacturing facility near Chennai. Clinton Climate Initiative (CCI), a program me of US-based William J Clinton Foundation, has signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with the Gujarat government for the setting up of five solar parks in Gujarat. The proposed 3000 MW solar power project will see an investment of over US$ 10.3 billion. Natural Energy Processing Company (NEPC) India Ltd is planning to set up a special economic zone (SEZ) at Palladam near Coimbatore with an investment of around US$ 429.09 million. Gamesa Corporacion Tecnologica, a Spanish company specialising in sustainable energy technologies, especially fabrication of wind turbines and setting up of wind farms has set up a 500-MW per year capacity facility in Chennai at an investment of 40 million euro.
The government has formulated the National Policy on Biofuels and given its approval for setting up the National Bio-fuel Coordination Committee and Bio-Fuel Steering Committee. Under the policy, it targets increasing the blending of biofuels with petrol and diesel to 20 per cent by 2017. The Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency (IREDA) will be investing
around US$ 3.39 billion for the development of renewable energy (RE) sector projects during the 11th Five Year Plan. As per Planning Commission estimates, RE projects worth US$ 15.97 billion, (expected to generate 15,000 MW power) are likely to come up in the Plan. The government is considering a regulation to make use of renewable energy mandatory for special economic zones (SEZ) to save on traditional fuel like coal and diesel. India is likely to spend over US$ 20.4 billion on setting up of power plants based on renewable energy sources by the end of 2011-12. The government has allowed 100 per cent FDI (foreign direct investment) in the renewable energy sector and a conducive policy has been put in place to attract foreign companies. The government is proposing to convert special economic zones (SEZs) into green hubs. In the Union Budget 2010-11, the government announced the setting up of the National Clean Energy Fund (NCEF) for funding research and innovative projects in clean technologies. To build the corpus of the NCEF, clean energy cess on coal produced in India at a nominal rate of Rs.50 per tone will be levied. This cess will also apply on imported coal. Moreover, the plan outlay for the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy has been increased by 61 per cent, from US$ 136.83 million in 2009-10 to US$ 220.70 million in2010-11.
1. Firstly, India should have to stop using such fuels which are non-renewable and not good for our environment too. Such as petrol, diesel etc. In place of these, researches should have been take place to think about other alternatives. Such that the recent research is agreed to use of water in vehicles in place of petrol etc. 2. Secondly, We should do Afforestation.Indian government should have make plan in which every colony should have to contain about 30to40 percent area with trees and plants. 3. Third, Industries should have to stop using the dangerous chemicals like cluoro-flourocarbon i.e. cfcs, methane or other chemicals which are not only affecting our environment but us too. The recent example of this is the change of the color of our one of the most beautiful monument i.e. "The Taj" and now its condition is getting worsend day by day due to acid rain which is caused by these horrible chemicals. 4. Fourth, Awareness and Sincerity be the most effective factor in sustainable development because, we are responsible for making our environment polluted and now we are trying to developed and only we can developed our country sustainly.
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