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Final Bibliography

Primary Sources
"Letter To The Speaker Of The House Of Representatives On A Resolution On Armenian
Genocide, October 19, 2000." American Reference Library - Primary Source Documents (2001):
1. History Reference Center. Web. 18 Jan. 2016.
This is a letter from former American President Bill Clinton to Speaker of the House
Dennis Hastert expressing his concern for House Resolution 596, which is about the Armenian
genocide during the time period of 1915-1923. Clinton states that he observes Armenian
Remembrance Day on April 24 and wants to ensure that such events never occur again but he is
concerned that any legislation concerning the event would have a negative impact. The United
States was fighting Sadaam Huseuin in the region at the time.

Elting Morrison ed., The Letters of Theodore Roosevelt (Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University
Press, 1954), p. 6328.
In this letter addressed to Cleveland Hoadley Dodge, Theodore Roosevelt admits to
feeling guilty for being a hypocrite when he professed his friendship for Armenia and the
downtrodden races of Turkey, but did not go to war with Turkey. He also felt foolish for allowing
the Turks to massacre the Armenians and then solicit permission to help the survivors.
N.p., n.d. Web. <>.

Secondary Sources
Kevorkian, Raymond H. The Armenian Genocide : A Complete History. London: I.B.Tauris,
2011. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost). Web. 16 Jan. 2016.
In this book, Raymond Kevorkian provides a description of the events of and consequences of
1915 and 1916. He explains the debates that occurred between Young Turks and the reasons for
the violence that was unleashed upon the Ottoman Armenian. The deportations, massacres and
resistance of the Armenian Genocide are also documented. Kevorkian even offers detailed
accounts of the impact of the genocide relating to the Armenian community itself.

Winter, J. M. America And The Armenian Genocide Of 1915. New York: Cambridge University
Press, 2003. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost). Web. 16 Jan. 2016.
The Armenian Genocide is described as the first genocide of the twentieth century.
Approximately one million people are said to be killed in this genocide in 1915. Sir Martin
Gilbert, Vahakn Dadrian and Jay Winter provide nine essays examining what Americans learned
of this catastrophe and how they tried to provide help to its victims. U.S. knowledge and
compassion, however, were not enough to stop the killings.

I., Aram. "The Armenian Genocide: From Recognition To Reparations." International Criminal
Law Review 14.2 (2014): 233-241. Academic Search Complete. Web. 16 Jan. 2016.
Before the Armenian Genocide, the Armenian Church was the cultural and social center of the
Armenian life. The genocide attacked the church in order to destroy the broader community. The
neglect of the churchs property in modern-day Turkey. As a part of a reparations process for
Armenians, the return of church properties is crucial.
Karamanian, Susan L. "Economic-Legal Perspectives On The Armenian Genocide."
International Criminal Law Review 14.2 (2014): 242-260. Academic Search Complete. Web. 16
Jan. 2016.
The Armenian Genocide not only caused the loss of many lives, it also had massive economic

Atamian, Christopher. "The Old Lies Of The Young Turks." New Criterion 34.2 (2015): 23.
History Reference Center. Web. 18 Jan. 2016.
This article is a retrospective of the Armenian genocide at its 100-year anniversary.
During the Armenian genocide, around 3 million Christians, which accounted for 2/3rds of the
Armenian population were killed. The article also plays particular attention to how fifty percent
of the Turks do not believe the Armenian genocide occurred.

"Armenians Mourn As Turks Deny Genocide." Military History 32.3 (2015): 9. History
Reference Center. Web. 18 Jan. 2016.
This article is a report on demonstrators memorializing the start of the Armenian
genocide. The genocide occurred before and after World War I.

Marsoobian, Armen T. "The Armenian Genocide Of 1915." History Today 65.7 (2015): 56-57.
History Reference Center. Web. 18 Jan. 2016.
Armen T. Marsoobian calls the Armenian genocide one of the 20th centurys worst and
most neglected crimes against humanity. The article discusses how the crimes were once
silenced and now the crimes are still shrouded in mystery, with some questioning if the events
even occurred.

Watenpaugh, Keith David. "The League Of Nations' Rescue Of Armenian Genocide Survivors
And The Making Of Modern Humanitarianism, 1920-1927." American Historical Review 115.5
(2010): 1315-1339. History Reference Center. Web. 18 Jan. 2016.

This article examines the efforts of the League of Nations to assist women and children
who were displaced by the Armenian Genocide. Those efforts would be known as the Rescue
Movement. The author also discusses the perceptions of Muslims.

Varnava, Andrekos. "Imperialism First, The War Second: The British, An Armenian Legion, And
Deliberations On Where To Attack The Ottoman Empire, November 1914- April 1915."
Historical Research 87.237 (2014): 533-555. History Reference Center. Web. 18 Jan. 2016.
This article criticizes the British and French governments on why they failed to prevent
the Armenian genocide. It also criticizes the British governments failure to create an Armenian
legion, which would consist of Armenian volunteers. The French government would eventually
establish an Armenian legion in 1919.

Grsel, Burcu. "The Mythical Interface Of Turkish Intellectuals' Orientation Toward The
Armenian Genocide." International Journal Of Middle East Studies 47.4 (2015): 791-795.
Academic Search Complete. Web. 19 Jan. 2016.
The emphasis is not on the quality, characteristics, or commitments of the works of the genocide,
but on the fact of the intellectual being the first, and thus, implicitly, a mythical figure above
critical inquiry.

Avakian, Arlene, and Hourig Attarian. "Imagining Our Foremothers: Memory And Evidence Of
Women Victims And Survivors Of The Armenian Genocide: A Dialogue." European Journal Of
Women's Studies 22.4 (2015): 476-483. Academic Search Complete. Web. 19 Jan. 2016.
The article presents memory and evidence of women victims and survivors of the Armenian
Genocide by the authors by taking account of their autobiographical narratives in the context of
family stories and memories. Topics discussed include life stories of girls and women in the
aftermath of genocide.

ngr, Uur mit. "Lost In Commemoration: The Armenian Genocide In Memory And
Identity." Patterns Of Prejudice 48.2 (2014): 147-166. Academic Search Complete. Web. 19 Jan.
It is known in genocide studies that Turkey denies the Armenian Genocide. Elderly Turks often
hold vivid memories from family members or fellow villagers who witnessed or participated in
the genocide. This article is based on interviews conducted with chidren, or grandchildren, of
eyewitnesses to the Armenian Genocide.

Bayraktar, Seyhan. "The Grammar Of Denial: State, Society, And TurkishArmenian

Relations." International Journal Of Middle East Studies 47.4 (2015): 801-806. Academic
Search Complete. Web. 21 Jan. 2016.
Literature on the denial of the Armenian Genocide of 1915 tends to concentrate onthe Turkish
political and civil societys willingness to alternative readings of the event.

Watenpaugh, Keith David. "Are There Any Children For Sale?: Genocide And The Transfer Of
Armenian Children (19151922)."Journal Of Human Rights 12.3 (2013): 283-295. Academic
Search Complete. Web. 21 Jan. 2016
The genocide also had the forced transfer of Armenian children from one group to another. The
experience of transferred children and their recovery is critical to human right. This article
contends that it is important to characterize child transfer as genocide when explaining the
broader social impact of mass violence, forced immigration and cultural destruction.

Ulgen, Fatma. "Reading Mustafa Kemal Ataturk On The Armenian Genocide Of 1915." Patterns
Of Prejudice 44.4 (2010): 369-391.Academic Search Complete. Web. 21 Jan. 2016.
Mustafa Kemal Ataturkis, the founder of modern Turkey and is known as the Father of the
Turks, stood in regard to the colossal violence committed against Armenians during World War
I. Ulgen wants to clarify any doubts surrounding Kemal examining his role in the ratification of
the Turkish denial of the destruction of Ottoman Armenians.

Theriault, Henry C. "Reparations For Genocide: Group Harm And The Limits Of Liberal
Individualism." International Criminal Law Review 14.2 (2014): 441-469. Academic Search
Complete. Web. 21 Jan. 2016.
Recently, handfuls of lawsuits billed as attempts to gain reparations for the Armenian Genocide.
These suits were concerned with wrongs done by individuals, not to the harm done to the
Armenians as a group as a whole through the genocide. The focus on individual suits and
exclusion of genuine group reparations are a function of the limits of the Western liberal
individual intellectual and political system that grounds international law.

Photographs/ Images
N.d. Web. <>.
This is a photograph of some of the hangings that had occurred during the Armenian Genocide.

N.p., n.d. Web. <>.

This is an image of Armenian families attempting to escape the chaos of this tragic event in

N.p., n.d. Web. <>.

This photograph shows Armenians being forced on a death march by Turks.

N.p., n.d. Web. <>.

This represents some of the many casualties during this unrecognized genocide.

N.p., n.d. Web. <>.

The Armenian Genocide Monument, Dzidzernagapert, was constructed in 1965 to commemorate
the 50th anniversary of the Armenian Genocide.

N.p., n.d. Web. <>.

This map shows events, routes, and even camps that have to do with the Armenian Genocide.