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system to have?

sense. This limits the number of symbols. Can perform

calculations more easily

clearer than a space would provide.

need to write down infinite symbols.

system, then… discuss which of the number systems we discussed last week

fit your group’s definition of positional?

the value./The position of the symbols is important to determining

the value of the number.

2. Any number system with place value that has some sort of base

number system

3. A positional number system has a constant multiplier

← To classify things, you have to make sure everyone has the same

definition. Definition was “relative” – depending on different definitions,

different classifications could be obtained.

• 10 symbols (0-9)

• Base-10

digit 0.33333)

subtraction in a number system?

• Do multiplication and division provide access to any additional

mathematics?

division).

• If we’re tricky about it, we can treat some operations like others.

• Might not be able to represent all numbers if we don’t have all the

operations

← If we start with 0-9 and +/-, then we can get negatives, we can get all

the integers, Natural, Integers. We’re missing rational numbers, irrationals,

imaginary numbers.

← If we start with 0-9, and +/-/*/÷, we can get natural numbers, integers,

rational numbers & irrational numbers (real numbers). imaginary?

← Do you think that you can use the standard algorithm for addition or

multiplication we are using today in other number systems. Why or why not?

If yes, how?

• Can do

need regrouping.

• Can’t do

o Systems without a zero placeholder, we can’t perform the

standard algorithm for multiplication

o Before there was a symbol for zero, there was just an empty

space. This led to confusion, so a dot was used (sometimes

the same as the punctuation for the end of a sentence). Zero

began as being a symbol for a placeholder (first recognized as

the absence of a quantity). Later recognized as a quantity.

Our symbol for zero evolved from a tiny circle used as a place

holder.

property (any number plus zero is the original number) and

the multiplicative identity (any number times zero is zero).

one, something else?)

changes in conceptions of zero?

Originally, variables were used on both sides of an equation.

Now all variables could be put on one side of an equation.

Quadratic equations could be used to find roots of a quadratic

equation (which is where the graph crosses the x-axis, if there

are two real roots/one real root touches the axis/no real roots

does not cross the axis). These are sometimes called the

zeros of the equation.

o Fractions began as representations of parts of a whole. There

was a need for greater precision in measurement (feet -> half

feet -> quarter feet, etc.). Sometimes fractions were given

unique names instead of parts of a larger whole (cups, pints,

quarts, gallons, etc.)

as 2 and 1/3).

• What is the difference between our current use of fractions and the

unit fraction approach?

fractions were represented as the sum of unit fractions.

Chinese were perhaps the first to go from unit fractions to

more conventional notations of fractions (multiples of a small

unit -> instead of ½ +1/4 you can now say ¾).

computations (which led to better understandings of square

roots and pi). Percents (Per=per, cent=100) came from

fractions. Base 60 used in time and navigation (from

Babylonians).

← What are some of the logical difficulties that arise when you attempt to

define 0/0 to be 1 or 0?

itself is 1/zero divided by anything is zero.

• 0/0=0 is the same as 0 times what equals zero (of which there are

an infinite number of answers). Zero times what equals 1 is not

possible. Quotient Remainder Theorem

←

Imagine a teacher shows her students a shortcut for dividing single digits by

9. She says that all you have to do is to write the numerator as a repeating

decimal (for example, 1/9=.1 repeating, that is 0.1111111..., and 4/9=.4

repeating, that is 0.4444444...). A student raises their hand and asks if that

means that 9/9=.9 repeating. A different students says that this is impossible

because 9/9 has to be equal 1. What would say to these two students?

3/9=1/3=.333333…

0.333….+0.333…+0.333=0.999…

X=.99999…

10X=9.9999….

10X-X=9.9999…-0.99999…

9X=9

x=1

← Discussion on Negatives

accept negative numbers?

and measurements. There needed to be a purpose for negative

numbers (reasons they had to exist). Had a new way of referring to

negatives (as debts). People had to conceptualize something less

than nothing.

• There was confusion about where to put the negatives as compared

to their positive counterparts. People had seen that negatives were

coming up as solutions to equations, but previously they had

ignored them (false root/fictitious solutions).

← One descriptions of negative numbers are numbers that are “less than

nothing”. How would you explain or verify that negative numbers are “less

than nothing”?

• What other descriptions for negative numbers can you think of?

← _________________ 0

← | |

← | |

← | |

← \______________/

o Owing money.

← Have the number line displayed with both positive and negatives.

negative is negative, negative times negative is positive, etc.). How

can you justify those rules?

opposite of Negative times Positive, which is Positive.

thing happening to bad people is a good thing. Good things

happening to good people is good. Good things happening to

bad people is bad. (Friends of friends/friends of enemies…)

o Logic based – Not going to the store -> not going, but not not

going to the store is going.

-n * -m = -(-n * m) = -(-nm)= nm

← Discussion on Imaginary Numbers

accept imaginary numbers?

useless. These were not impossible solutions. They had to

create the conception of imaginary numbers. This didn’t exist

before and actually had to create the conceptions. Had to

have an understanding of negative numbers, as well as an

understanding of square roots.

9?

o Root of g(x) is 3

• Order from least to greatest -2, -1+i, 3-i, 4i, √7-3i. Explain your

methods.

• Within each book – statement -> diagram -> proof -> Q.E.D

• Taught a different way of thinking (step by step using logic), and

going through proofs. The step by step process of the Elements

were a source of inspiration for two-column proofs.

consistent the theorems of geometry, number theory, etc.

← What are some reasons that the Pythagorean Theorem is so useful and

widely known among all different cultures?

Independently discovered in many cultures. Various justifications

exist for this theorem.

which stood out to you as being the clearest, simplest, most elegant, and

most convincing? Why?

Had seen proof before. Use non-complex skills to arrive at formula.

Didn’t have to manipulate picture.

the symbolic symbol pi, decimal approximations, 22/7.

• Since pi is irrational, we’ll never know all the digits of the decimal.

There also is no patterns found in the digits. Challenge to find more

digits. Ratio is used so often (so popular) because of its relation to a

circle. Also, possible discovers await if we can discover about the

nature of irrational numbers within the digits.

← Coordinate Geometry

• What is the mathematical definition/description of analytic

geometry?

algebra and geometry, links between the two.

and how to measure distance on a plane. Plots and

trajectories.

distance away from a given point to form a circle.

points.

analytic geometry (and the perpendicular y-axis)?

positive and negatives).

o Can represent more than one variable at a time now. Can use

this to find areas and lengths.

Calculus.

o

← Platonic Solids

o Tetrahedron (4 sides)

o Octahedron (8 sides)

o All the faces are the same regular shapes. Every vertex has

the same number of faces meeting (number of edges as well).

o The angles at each vertex must add to less than 360 degrees

(or else it’ll be flat.)

o 4 elements

necessities for fire)

surface, won’t roll/six major land forms on Earth)

to roll out of your hand)

Solids?

o Archimedean solids have the same properties as Platonic

solids, but the faces don’t all have to be the same one shape.

Each type of shape has to be congruent to all of the same

shapes in the figure.

← Non-Euclidean Geometry

Give an example.

Euclidean is not). An example was Riemann which was on the

surface of a sphere.

doesn’t hold. Triangle angle measures add to over 180

degrees. Pi is different

Explain.

Euclidean geometries.” is an unfair statement to make.

other subject areas rely on and use different kinds of

geometries. (For example, spherical geometry is good for

astronomy.)

← Projective Geometry

o Based on a need from philosophers, artists, and scientists.

Wanted to represent three dimensional scenes on paper (in

two dimensions). Wanted to look at the relationship between

distance on the paper versus distance in real life.

“line” and “point”, interchanging the words still produces a

true statement. “Points are collinear if they all lie on the same

line” and “Lines are concurrent if they all intersect at the

same point.”

← Perspective in Art

• How did the use of perspective change the perception and purpose

of art in society.

story (or portray a message) for record keeping. Perspective

allowed art to be more enjoyable and more abstract.

cartoonish icons to more real world descriptions. Perspective

allowed showing depth in space.

• What is proof?

not true). Provides a reason that something is true (or not

true).

a step by step (sequential) manner which can be

followed to supports a conclusion, and arrived at a

conclusion.

• How is proof used in mathematics? In math education? In real life?

How are these the same and how are they different?

theorems and theories

use manipulatives (not just words), proof can also mean

convincing someone, but not necessarily a formal proof.

Visual signals can be convincing. Understanding a proof can

lead to greater understanding of what was proved.

o Real life – the scope (one instance vs. all instances), trying to

get evidence to be convinced. Visual signals can be

convincing.

something is true.

proof?

definition of algebra? (If so, what?)

symbols and variables (that represent quantities). Can use

algebra to manipulate equations to isolate a variable. Solving

for an unknown. Manipulation of polynomials that can also

represent graphs.

other general symbols, are used to represent numbers and

quantities in formulae and equations.

o Algebra problems (formal) – regardless of how it is written, it

is a questions about numerical operations and relations in

which an unknown quantity must be deduced from known

ones.

branches of mathematics?

being a variable.

doesn’t use algebra to find an answer.

Give an example of each, and state one advantage of each

approach.

A square and five things and six is equal to zero. <- Rhetorical

style uses words.

method.

becomes 18.

o How is the mathematics used in these two solutions the

same? Different? Are there any similarities between this

method other methods we use today.

problems today?

o Will the false position method work for all first degree

algebraic problems? How do you know?

second degree. (It’s general form is ax^2+bx+c=0, where a

is not equal to zero.).

“square”.

• What are different methods that have been used to solve quadratic

equations in the past?

passes through the x-axis. This is also finding the values of x,

such that when you plug them back into the equation, the

equation comes out to zero.

formula, completing the square, difference of squares),

geometric

method & al-Khwarizmi’s method) you came up with?

X^2 + 8X = 20

x 8

•

x •

•

x 4

•

8

•

x

•

• 4

X^2+8X+16=20+16

(X+4)^2=36

X+4=6

X=2

← Imagine you are trying to find different ways of calculating the area of

the shaded region of the parabola. What are different methods you could

come up with?

• Integrals – taking the integral of the first point minus the integral of

the second point.

• Area of the parabola, then subtracting the area underneath it. This

would be using the rectangle approximation.

← Imagine you are trying to find different ways of determining the speed

of a falling object. What different methods can you come up with?

• Measure falling distance and falling time. (9.8m/square second)

• Vertex formula

• Rate of change.

subjects?

derivates, integrals, functions, and infinite series.

point. Things that go to an infinitely small infinity. Also addresses

rates of change and fast things are moving.

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