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ESL 101R Oral Communication for Academic Purposes

FALL 2014
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
Course Outline
Week One
Pronunciation Diagnostic
Metaphor Task One
Metaphorically Speaking by James Geary (Listening Comprehension L.C.)
Six-word memoir Listening Segment
Week Two
Example of a metaphor sheet (instructors example)
Introducing and Concluding Presentations
Useful Transitions for Presentations
Week Three
Those s sounds and dz sounds
Which sound is it?
Pronunciation Rule: Past Tense Endings
Revealing the Past
Content and Function Words
Pronunciation Rule: Syllables and s endings
Gambits for Discussions
Week Four
Should I or shouldnt I interrupt?
Creating the Perfect Discussion
Turn-taking and Interrupting Guidelines
Week Five
Predicting Word Stress
Week Six
Chunking the Language into Thought Groups
Guidelines for Introducing a Speaker
Week Seven
Slides that Strike a Chord: Blending Literal and Figurative Images in PPP (L.C.)
Compare/contrast Presentation Example
Week Eight
PowerPoint Practice Slide Checklist
PowerPoint Slide Practice Evaluation Form
Week Ten
Prop Gallery: Preparation for Product/Service Presentation
Product/Service Presentation Outline
Week Eleven
How to be persuasive: Activity
Useful Pronunciation Links
Online News Sources


University of Waterloo

Fall 2014

Course number:
Course name:
Class time
& Location:

ESL 101R Section 4

Oral Communication for Academic Purposes
Dr. Christa Schuller
Renison (REN) 0101D
885-4404 ext. 28677

Office Hours:

Monday and Wednesday: 11:30-12:30 p.m.

Monday, Wednesday, and Friday: 10:00-11:20 (REN 0201)

Course description:
Group discussions and presentations have become the norm in undergraduate and graduate
classes in North American universities. This course helps ESL students improve their informal
and formal speaking skills to meet current social, academic, and business practices. A focus on
pronunciation, gambits, metaphor, and vocabulary assists learners in developing strategies to
better engage in conversations, and listen to and deliver English presentations. Materials
organization, rhetorical devices, nonverbal communication, group management, and intonation
patterns are examined.

Course objectives:
By the end of this course, successful students will be able to

identify and implement a variety of conversation styles

create and organize discussions and presentations
use communication gambits and body language effectively
develop awareness of and be able to correct for intonation, stress, syllabic, and consonant
and vowel sound problems
listen for main ideas, details, and inferences in spoken English
critically evaluate and present various sources of information to develop academic
vocabulary and idiomatic expressions for oral communications

A course pack will be made available for both presentation skills and pronunciation
improvement on LEARN. Students are expected to bring along the course pack to class. Handouts that are not part of the course pack will be made available on Learn.

Student grades will be weighted in the following manner for a total of 100%:
Participation and Professionalism (10% total): Students are responsible for attending and
engaging in all class activities in a respectful and active manner. Audience participation is as
important as presentation preparation. Students are expected to maintain regular attendance, and
to arrive to class on time. It is the sole responsibility of the student to catch up on lecture
material missed due to absenteeism and/or lateness. Cell phones and laptops must remain off
during class.
Metaphor Presentation (10% total): Students will present a five-minute talk in which they
introduce themselves by using a 6-word memoir and a cohesive metaphor.
Leading a Group Discussion (15% total): Students will choose articles about current Canadian
news events. Then they will prepare and lead a 15-minute group discussion based on the
Individual PowerPoint Presentation (20% total): Students will use PowerPoint to deliver a
10-12-minute informative compare/contrast presentation. A Q & A session will follow.
Group Persuasive Presentation (15% total): In pairs, students will present a five-minute
persuasive presentation. A Q & A session will follow.
Work-in-progress Assignments & Pronunciation Assessment (10%): Two times during the
term students will be asked to submit reflections on their presentation skills. Students will also be
assessed at the beginning and end of the term and monitored on their pronunciation progress.
They will work on their pronunciation difficulties independently, submit 2 sound file
assignments and be assessed in a final interview.
Final Test (20% total): Students will take home one final test that will cover vocabulary and
listening skills. An oral test, based on the take-home tests material, general pronunciation points
and discussion strategies, will be held on the last day of class.
Attendance Policy: Each absence results in -1% of your final grade to a maximum of -5%
(five absences). If you are absent more than five classes, your instructor may not allow you to
continue with the class. Absences on assignment days do not receive the -1% penalty, however,
you must have a valid doctors note in order to make up the assignment and receive a grade.
Regular class attendance is essential as all teaching and practices are done in class. Instructors
are strict about attendance.

Schedule of Activities and Assignments

week of:


Assignments In class

Home Assignments

Week 1
Sept. 8

No Class on Friday
Course Introduction
Metaphors and Speaker Impact
Pronunciation Needs



Week 2
Sept. 15

Nonverbal Communication
Sound/Spelling Patterns

Metaphor Presentations
(Wednesday and Friday)

Metaphor Presentation SelfEvaluation (Due Monday, Sept.

Pronunciation Online
Assignment 1 (Due Friday,
Sept. 26)

Week 3
Sept. 22

Discussion Strategies

Stress in Words
Week 4
Sept. 29
Week 5
Oct. 6
Week 6
Oct. 13

Week 7
Oct. 20

Week 8
Oct. 27
Week 9
Nov. 3
Nov. 10
Week 11
Nov. 17
Week 12
Nov. 24
Week 13
Dec. 1

Encouraging others
Sentence stress
Thought Groups
Importance of Body Language

Leading Group
Discussion Practice

No Class Monday and Friday

Introducing Experts
Moderator Skills
Rhythm in Sentences
PowerPoint Skills: Proverbs
Review of Body Language
Informative Presentations
creating an outline

Speaker Introduction

PowerPoint practice

PowerPoint Slide practice


Informative Presentations


Compare/contrast outline (due

before the presentation)

Persuasive Language
Pair-work for presentations

Group Product/Service
Presentations Practice

Final practice for presentations

Group Product/Service

Presentation Reflection (Due

Monday, Nov. 24)

Review for Final Exam

(Discussion Practice)

Final pronunciation

Take Home Exam

Group Discussions
Pronunciation Online
Assignment 2 (Due Monday,
October 20)

Pronunciation Practice

Final Oral Test (Last day of

class Monday)

Please note: This outline may be altered to better suit the needs of the class.

Important notes
Penalties for Late or Missed Assignments
One mark per day will be deducted from an assignment score if permission for an extension has not been
given. Illness must be verified by a medical note.
Final Examination Policy
For Fall 2014, the established examination period is December 4-19, 2014. The schedule will be
available in October. Students should be aware that student travel plans are not acceptable
grounds for granting an alternative final examination time (see:

Accommodation for Illness or Unforeseen Circumstances:

The instructor follows the practices of the University of Waterloo in accommodating students
who have documented reasons for missing quizzes or exams. See
Academic Integrity:
Academic Integrity: In order to maintain a culture of academic integrity, members of the
University of Waterloo are expected to promote honesty, trust, fairness, respect and responsibility.
Discipline: A student is expected to know what constitutes academic integrity, to avoid committing
academic offences, and to take responsibility for his/her actions. A student who is unsure whether
an action constitutes an offence, or who needs help in learning how to avoid offences (e.g.,
plagiarism, cheating) or about rules for group work/collaboration should seek guidance from the
course professor, academic advisor, or the Undergraduate Associate Dean. When misconduct has
been found to have occurred, disciplinary penalties will be imposed under Policy 71 Student
Discipline. For information on categories of offenses and types of penalties, students should refer
to Policy 71 - Student Discipline,
Grievance: A student who believes that a decision affecting some aspect of his/her university life
has been unfair or unreasonable may have grounds for initiating a grievance. Read Policy 70 Student Petitions and Grievances, Section 4, In addition, consult for the Faculty of Arts grievance processes.
Appeals: A student may appeal the finding and/or penalty in a decision made under Policy 70 Student Petitions and Grievances (other than regarding a petition) or Policy 71 - Student Discipline

if a ground for an appeal can be established. Read Policy 72 - Student Appeals,
Academic Integrity website (Arts):
Academic Integrity Office (uWaterloo):
Accommodation for Students with Disabilities:
Note for students with disabilities: The AccessAbility Services (AS) Office, located in Needles
Hall, Room 1132, collaborates with all academic departments to arrange appropriate
accommodations for students with disabilities without compromising the academic integrity of the
curriculum. If you require academic accommodations to lessen the impact of your disability,
please register with the AS Office at the beginning of each academic term.
Cross-listed course:
Please note that a cross-listed course will count in all respective averages no matter under which
rubric it has been taken. For example, a PHIL/PSCI cross-list will count in a Philosophy major
average, even if the course was taken under the Political Science rubric.

A respectful l living and learning environment for all.

1. It is expected that everyone living, learning or working on the premises of Renison University College
will contribute to an environment of tolerance and respect by treating others with sensitivity and civility.
2. Harassment is unwanted attention in the form of jokes, insults, gestures, gossip, or other behaviours
that are meant to intimidate. Some instances of harassment are against the law in addition to Renison
University College policy.
3. Discrimination is treating people differently because of their race, disability, sex, sexual orientation,
ancestry, colour, age, creed, marital status, or other personal characteristics. The Ontario Human Rights
Code considers actions and behaviours rather than intentions.
4. If you experience or witness either harassment or discrimination, you may contact the Renison
University College Harassment and Discrimination Officer at
(519-884-4404, ext. 28628).

Week One: Pronunciation Diagnostic

Post to Desire2Learn under Diagnostic. Please be sure this is posted by Sunday night at
Record yourself. Start the recording with a one minute introduction about yourself. Tell me
about you, your field of study, your home county, your family, your hopes and dreams. Speak
naturally for one minute. DO NOT READ A SPEECH!
Then, record the following:
Whats In a Name?
Experts say that what you name your child can make a huge difference. Professor Albert
Merchant, a psychologist at UCLA, has studied how names affect the way we think of people. In
thousands of interviews, he asked Americans to react to certain names. Reactions were very
similar. The name Rock, for example, got top marks for masculinity but low marks for morals.
The name Prudence ranked high for morality but low for cheerfulness. In general, people with
long names were perceived as successful. Alexander, for example, ranked high in success for
men; Elizabeth, Victoria, and Olympia ranked high in success for women. People with short
names like Amy and Jim were perceived as popular and friendly. The same was true of
nicknames like Bob for Robert or Bill for William. In general, Dr. Merchant advises parents to
choose traditional, popular names for their children.
*Adapted from The Power of a Name by Michael Ryan in Parade Magazine, September 22,
1996, p. 12.
Please read the following sentences:
1. Please pass the plate of spaghetti and meatballs, and the basket of bread.
2. Would you like the top part of the chicken?
3. Lets have a dish of chocolate chip ice cream for dessert.
4. Ill have a bagel with cream cheese, please.
5. Did the artist copy the cartoon properly?
6. Dont forget to get the strawberries, jelly, bread, lemons, and pretzels.
7. The owl looked down with his great round eyes.
8. The nurse told me not to be nervous and concerned.
9. The women wondered what the weird animal was as it walked down the road.
10. The hurricane howled through the countryside and caused major flooding.

WEEK 1 - Using Metaphor in Building Critical Thinking and Speaking Skills

Example of a metaphor: Julia is the light of my life.
How do you define the word metaphor?

Can you give synonyms for this word?

Metaphor Task One

With your partner, identify commonly used metaphors for the following:

1. Learner Metaphors
I see myself as the classroom.

2. Teacher Metaphors
I see my teacher as ... in the classroom.

3. Field of Study Metaphors

Medical breakthroughs conquer disease.

4. Metaphors as a Life Memoir

Life is like a bowl of cherries.

WEEK 1 - Metaphorically Speaking by James Geary

Go to the following website:
The following notes list some of the words and phrases used by Geary in his talk. They will
help you follow his presentation. Adding your own notes to the list would be a good
strategy to help you recall his main points.
6 metaphors /minute
Metaphorical thinking: essential to how we understand ourselves and others
- how we communicate, learn, discover and invent
Anything abstract we resort to metaphor
Aristotle the process of giving the thing a name that belongs to something else
1. Pattern Recognition
2. Conceptual Synesthesia silence is sweet, Neck ties are loud.
3. Cognitive dissonance-we cannot ignore the literal meaning of words even when they gave
us the wrong answer.
Some jobs are jails. literally false, metaphorically true
Metaphor creates expectations
Agent Metaphors & Object Metaphors
Metaphor misleads
Metaphor affects decisions by activating analogies
Metaphor opens the door to discovery
Metaphor is ubiquitous yet hidden
Cogito ergo sum Latin- 3 words that symbolize Western Philosophy
Commonly translated I think, therefore I am.
More literally translated I shake things up, therefore I am.
The mind is a plastic snow dome!

WEEK 1 - Six-word Memoir Listening Segment
Listen to the radio interview and answer the following questions. Check your answers with your

1. The word gem is used by the interviewer. What does this word mean as a metaphor for
the six-word memoirs collected in the book called Not Quite What I Was Planning?

2. How does Rachel Fershleiser define the word memoir?

3. Fershleiser uses two metaphors in defining memoir. What do the following two words
mean in the context of this interview?

encapsulate (v.)

distill (v.)

4. A six-word memoir looks at a ____________ moment that may have affected your
____________ life.

5. What do you think the memoir Never should have bought that ring means?

6. Rachel Fershleiser says that these memoirs, although brief, are surprisingly deep. What
does deep mean in this context?

7. What does Larry Smith say is a common theme in many six-word memoirs?

8. What does the image of the thumb mean in the following six-word memoir?
Trains. Planes. Thumb. Then children come.

9. With your partner create two six-word memoirs to describe your experience in Canada or
at the University of Waterloo so far. You will present them to the class.

WEEK 2 - Example of the Metaphor Sheet you have to hand in

(These metaphors are taken from the instructorss Presentation)
You will hand in your Six-word Metaphor plus a list of metaphors and the meaning of each metaphor as it
is in the context of your speech. Please hand this in after you do your presentation. Please type your list.
Please follow the format that this example has. Please do NOT use the same metaphors as are here.
Six Word Metaphor: Spread my wings! Saw new worlds!


I felt like a bird in a cage

I wanted to spread my wings

I put my nose to the grind

The call was music to my ears

The world was my oyster

My legs felt like rubber

I was a fish out of water

I stuck to it like glue

It had been an enlightening journey

It was no longer pie in the sky but more of a

dream come true.

WEEK 2 - Introducing and Concluding Presentations

Hints for Introductions

If you lose them in the introduction, you may lose them forever.

Present your introduction with confidence.

Look at the audience.

Never read part of the introduction.

Begin with the grabber, not the specific purpose statement.

Do not be apologetic.

Hints for Conclusions

A conclusion is the final impression on an audience, so present your remarks assertively,

with confidence, and without reading.

Do not introduce any new points in the conclusion.

Make concluding remarks with a mood and facial expression consistent with the tone of
the speech.

Do not pack up your notes or materials as you deliver the conclusion.

Finish the speech with words that reinforce the purpose. A slogan or catch phrase is

Invite your listeners to ask you questions about your presentation.


Adapted from

also, again, as well as, besides, furthermore, in addition, likewise, moreover, similarly
accordingly, as a result, consequently, for this reason, for this purpose, hence, otherwise, therefore
as a rule, as usual, for the most part, generally, generally speaking, ordinarily, usually
especially, for instance, in particular, namely, particularly, including, specifically, such as
for example, for instance, for one thing, as an illustration, as an example, in this case
above all, with attention to, especially, particularly
comparatively, coupled with, identically, likewise, similar, moreover, together with
aside from, besides, except, excepting, excluding, exclusive of, other than, outside of
in other words, namely, that is, that is to say, in short, in brief, to put it differently
Contrast and Comparison:
contrast, conversely, instead, likewise, on one hand, on the other hand, on the contrary, rather, similarly,
yet, but, however, still, nevertheless, in contrast
at first, first of all, to begin with, in the first place, at the same time, for now, for the time being, the next
step, in time, in turn, later on, meanwhile, next, then, soon, the meantime, later, while, earlier,
simultaneously, afterward, in conclusion
after all, all in all, all things considered, briefly, by and large, in any case, in any event,
in brief, in conclusion, on the whole, in short, in summary, to sum up, to summarize, finally
by the way, incidentally
here, there, over there, beyond, nearly, opposite, under, above
to the left, to the right, in the distance

WEEK 3 - Those s sounds and dz sounds

Rule 1 like sh in shoe

-tiWe have a large national debt.
Give me the essential details.
You need to use a ratio of 7:1.

-ciThis will be the social event of the year.

He is working on a special project.
He must learn to work in an efficient way.

-ssi-, -ssuI assure you that you are right.

His blood pressure is very high.
We have some serious issues to discuss.
That country is in a severe economic recession.

Rule 2: like ch in choose

-tuThe strike is a serious situation.
They may settle the strike in the near future.

We should have strikes in the 21st century.

He likes to eat foods with natural ingredients.

Rule 3: like z in measure

-siHe was killed in a head-on collision.
This work needs some minor revision.
There needs to be a division of power in the company.

-suYou have to have precise measurements for this test.

He had too much exposure to the sun.
You need to have more leisure-time activities in your life.
You arent allowed to wear casual clothing to work.

Rule 4: like dz in job or general

We must pay attention to individual rights.

I have to take an educated guess at the answer.
He is a recent graduate from U of T.
You have to work on the new procedures.

Which sound is it??

We have to negotiate a new contract soon.
He is not very professional in his attitude.
It was my pleasure to help you.
He has very poor vision and cant see the computer screen.
We need to update to a new version of Microsoft.
The Persian language is known as Farsi.
Canada has different wedding rituals to China.
I heard the news from a mutual friend.
Do children still learn long division in school?
We need to reschedule the meeting for Wednesday.
I need to know the departure time of my train.
There has been a gradual improvement in his health.
Certain careers allow you to earn residual income after retirement.
He is under a lot of pressure to complete the task today.
This test requires precision.
It was a nice diversion to go away for a couple of days.
There is a lot of confusion about the new test project.
Going to the concert was a pleasurable experience.
Virtual reality has really changed some aspects of real estate.
The government has a provisional agreement with the union.

Rules adapted from: Grant, L. (2010), Well Said. Third edition, Heinle.

WEEK 3 - Pronunciation Rule: Past Tense Endings

When the verb ends in a d or a t, the ending is pronounced

[ id ] wan/ted

When the verb ends in a voiceless consonant: p, k, f, s, ch, or sh, the ending is pronounced
[t] washed, hoped.
When the verb ends in a voiced consonant: b , g , v, z , m. n. l, r, or in a vowel sound, then the
ending is pronounced [d] showed,
begged, named, failed.
Practice : Pronounce final ed by reading the sentences aloud.
1. Jean planned (plan/d/) for her future. She saved (save/d/) up a lot of money and started
(start/d/) her own business.
2. I worked on the project for a long time. Finally, I completed it!
3. After my co-worker parked the car, I jumped out and opened the car door for our new VIP
4. After I finished reading over Andreas speech, I called her and we talked for an hour on the
5. Earlier today, I cleaned out my desk drawers.
6. I washed and waxed my car over the weekend, and vacuumed the inside.
7. Giang prepared a long report for his science course. He completed it late last night.
8. I faxed the quote, crossed my fingers and hoped for good news.
9. Jackie asked a question. Susan answered it. Then she repeated the answer for everyone
else to hear.
10. I expected to hear from my professor about my thesis yesterday. I waited all day and
finally e-mailed the professor to see if we could meet.
Where is the stress when the verb is followed by a preposition? What happened when you
say the verb and then the vowel in the preposition?
Try these words..worked on, figured out, cleaned out, planned on
Can you think of other verb and preposition combinations?

Revealing the Past

In small groups, use the verbs in the box below to write statements about your collective past
education, any employment you may have had or life experiences. Write five statements. Three
must be true, and two must be false. Read your sentences. Your class will decide what
statements are false.
You can use the verbs below or any others that you think of that use tense regular past tense


participated in






worked on

WEEK 3 - Content and Function Words

Content Words give meaning to sentences in English and these words are stressed.
Interrogatives: when, where, why, who, etc.
Auxiliary Verbs contracted with not.
Possessive pronouns: mine, hers, etc.
Demonstratives: this, that, these, those

Function Words are NOT stressed in English and the sound is reduced. These words are the
grammar of the sentences.
Articles: a, an, the
Prepositions: to, for, of, etc.
Personal pronouns: /, me, she, them, etc.
Possessive adjectives: my, your, her, etc.
Relative pronouns: which, that, who
Conjunctions: and, but, that, as, if, etc.
The expletive there There's snow on the ground.
The pronoun one the small one
Often the verb to be

Auxiliary verbs: be, have, do, will, would, should, can, could, may, might, and must. These verbs
are usually unstressed even when they are principal verbs in a sentence.

The Importance of Content Words in a Sentence

Every sentence we speak has one word that is the most important word in the sentence. This
word is stressed with a sound that is longer and louder than other words in the sentence. The
following is which words in sentences are stressed from the most important to the least
important in the sentence:

1. Adverbs that act as intensifiers (eg: extremely, absolutely)

2. Negatives (not, cant, hasnt, no, hardly etc)
3. Other adjectives and adverbs
4. Nouns and verbs
5. Modals and auxiliary verbs (positive)
6. All other function words.

Pronunciation Rule: Syllables and s endings

We pronounce s endings in simple present tense verbs, plural nouns and possessive nouns in
three different ways. Listen to the following and write what the s endings sound like:

1. teaches




2. pays




3. fits




Here are the rules!

When the word ends in a voiceless sound:

p, t, k, f then the ending is [s]

Examples: hopes, beats talks

When the word ends in a voiced sound: b, g, v, z, m, n, r, l, w, y or a vowel sound then the
ending is pronounced [z]

cabs, begs, revs

When the word ends in a noisy consonant : s, z, ch, x, (dz) g or dg (judges) then the ending is
pronounced [iz]
Examples: watches, closes, ages.

In the paragraph below, mark the content words. Which ones would you stress the most?
Which s sound do you need to say?
Marias Masters courses are in the departments of Linguistics and Education. She thinks that
studying two majors gives more opportunities for getting ESL positions in universities. ESL
jobs in high schools are fewer these days as many teachers are not retiring at young ages.
Furthermore, government cuts to programs have affected the number of schools with ESL
Pick 8 of the following words or use other words you can think of that end in s and create
sentences using the words in the plural about your usual day at Waterloo. Say your sentences to
a partner, who judges how clear your endings are. In your sentences, remember to focus on the
content words as well as the endings of the words.




















WEEK 3 - Gambits for Discussions

Use these phrases and expressions to participate in and lead a discussion group. Which
expressions do you consider to be formal and which to be informal?
1. Beginning a discussion:
Is everyone ready to begin?
The question we are going to discuss today is ________
We're here to talk about _______.
What do you think about ________?

2. Participating in the discussion:

I think that ________
Well, in my opinion, ______
To bring up another point, ________
I'd like to point out that__________
As I see it, ___
Don't you agree that_____

3. Expressing agreement:
That's a good point.
I couldn't agree more.
That's my feeling exactly.
I tend to agree with you.

4. Expressing polite disagreement:

But don't you think that ________
I'm not sure I agree with you on that.
I can see your point but__________
I see what you mean but _________.

5. Clarifying one's opinion:

That's not exactly what I mean.
Let me put it another way____
What I 'm trying to say is____
My point is that____

6. Asking for clarification:

I didn't follow what you said about ____
I'm not sure what you're getting at.
Could you explain that again?

7. Summarizing and ending a discussion:

(Students supply answers here.)

WEEK 4 - Should I or shouldnt I interrupt?

The fine art (or not so fine!!) of interrupting..
Excuse me for interrupting, but.
May I interrupt?
Let me just make a point here.
Do you mind if I break in here?
Can I say something here?
Can I interrupt for a moment?
Pardon me (for interrupting), but..
Im sorry, but
Preventing the Interruption:
Hang on a minute!
Perhaps I could return to that point later on.
If I might just finish.
If you would allow me to continue
If you would be so kind as to let me finish
Let me finish!
Hear me out first, (please).
Getting back to the point
As I was saying.
Coming back to what I was saying.
If I could continue
Where was I?
To return to what I was saying.
Remember that body language is also part of interruption:
Raising the hand to interrupt.
Raising the hand to prevent interruption.

Be careful that you do not seem to aggressive!

What other body language can you think of that indicates an interruption?

WEEK 4 - Creating the Perfect Discussion (practice)

With your partners, create a strong discussion outline based on the article by filling in the following
chart. You will then move to a new group and lead a short (five minute discussion). Remember that the
other members of the group have not read your article, so you will have to give a brief summary!

Summary of the

2 Key Words

3 Questions
(start with something
familiar; move to
recommendations or
more global questions)
Gambits (for questions,
agreement, polite
encouraging others)
(gestures, facial
expressions, eye
Concluding Statement
(summary of

According to

WEEK 4 - Turn-taking and Interrupting Guidelines for Conversations and Discussions

Please listen to your classmates conversation and observe their use of turn-taking techniques.
Check off techniques that you hear them use.


As the speaker
Offering a turn to the listener:

As the speaker
Offering a turn to the listener:

Slowing down
Falling intonation
Gesture with head or arm
Rising eyes
Asking a question

Holding and trying to hold a turn:

Not pausing
Speaking faster
Using high key
Gesture with head or arm

As the listener
Signaling to get a turn:

Gesture with head or arm
Clearing his/her throat

Gaining or trying to gain a turn from the


Starting at a pause
Slightly overlapping as speaker ends
Higher Key
Speaking faster

Slowing down
Falling intonation
Gesture with head or arm
Rising eyes
Asking a question

Holding and trying to hold a turn:

Not pausing
Speaking faster
Using high key
Gesture with head or arm

As the listener
Signaling to get a turn:

Gesture with head or arm
Clearing his/her throat

Gaining or trying to gain a turn from the


Starting at a pause
Slightly overlapping as speaker ends
Higher Key
Speaking faster

WEEK 5 - Predicting Word Stress

Type A: Stress is on syllable immediately ahead of suffix


community, facility, possibility


economic, authentic, geographic


identical, political, statistical


exemplify, intensify, personify


cafeteria, encyclopedia, militia


centennial, essential, material


accessible, credible, incredible

-ion (-ation)

abbreviation, publication, salutation

-ion (-tion)

abolition, obstruction, solution

-ion (-sion)

confession, indecision, suspension


additional, exceptional, rational


dietician, Torontonian, musician


analogy, terminology, ideology


geography, photography, bibliography

calcium, equilibrium, medium


actual, casual, habitual

-ious, -eous,

laborious, courteous, ambiguous

-lent, -ience,

expedient, experience, efficiency


criminal, subliminal


agronomy, autonomy, economy

Type B: Stress is two syllables ahead of suffix


aptitude, gratitude, solitude

-ize, -ise

maximize, monopolize, advertise


photograph, isograph, telegraph


adequate, precipitate, delegate, aggravate


horticulturist, specialist, ventriloquist


anonymous, dangerous, ridiculous


arbitrary, ordinary, subsidiary, preliminary


analysis, antithesis, synthesis

Type C:

Stress is on suffix


technique, unique,

-eer -

engineer, auctioneer, pioneer


employee, lessee, refugee


ordinarily, necessarily, temporarily

Adapted from Stress and Unstress by Harvey Woods 0-660-10083-5

Moveable Word Stress

Look at the words below. Listen or say them out loud and mark the main stress.









Look at how the stress moves down the words as they change endings and also parts of speech.

WEEK 6 - Chunking the Language into Thought Groups

Read the following famous speech made by George Bernard Shaw as a toast to the famous
Albert Einstein. The speech is unpunctuated. Mark where you think the speaker will pause
/. Then, listen to the speech and check.

I have said that great men are a mixed lot but there are orders of great men there are
great men who are great men amongst all men but there are also great men who are
great amongst great men and that is the sort of great man whom you have amongst
you tonight I go back 2,500 years and how many of them can I count in that period
I can count them on the fingers of my two hands Pythagoras Ptolemy Aristotle
Copernicus Kepler Galileo Newton Einstein and I still have two fingers left vacant
my lords ladies and gentlemen are you ready for the toast health and length of days
to the greatest of our contemporaries Albert Einstein.

Adapted from Gomm, H. (2003), In Company Intermediate, Macmillan.

Listen again and underline the stressed words. What is the effect of pausing? When do we
pause? Now you try the speech!
Guidelines for introducing a speaker
1. Begin with Our speaker today and give some background (such as nationality,
education )
2. Give some facts that give the person some credibility such as achievements that make the
person qualified to speak to us on a specific topic.
3. Say how these credentials qualify the person and give the name of the talk
4. Then introduce the speaker. Ladies and gentlemen, please warmly welcome our speaker
5. Make sure to give both first and last names
6. Speak slowly and clearly, make sure all can hear you, chunk the language and be sure to
stress important words.

WEEK 7 - Slides that Strike a Chord: Blending Literal and Figurative Images in PowerPoint
Watch the first 3 minutes of Erin McKeans Redefining the Dictionary at Think about McKeans use of analogy, what she calls metaphor,
in her talk.
1. Erin McKeans career is as a ____________________. The adjective form of this profession is
________________________. This profession is known as ________________________.

2. McKean uses 2 strong analogies at the beginning of her talk. Name these 2 analogies.

3. Briefly describe the pictures or images that the speaker uses in her slides to present these 2

4. What source does McKean cite for these photographs, and where does she show this citation

5. How does McKean use the word compile? What does she mean by compile instead of carve
out of stone?

6. Do you find the speakers slides to be effective? Why or why not.

7. What do you think of McKeans body language as to how she presents her slides?

WEEK 7 - Compare/ Contrast Presentation Preparation

Example: Canada and the United States of America

Background Information:
The United States of America is located in North America between Canada and Mexico.
The state of Alaska is located in the north western part of North America bordering British
Columbia and the Yukon Territory in Canada. The USA does not have a national official
language but the two most prominent languages spoken are English and Spanish.
Canada is located in the northern part of North America. It extends from the Atlantic to
the pacific and northward to into the Arctic Ocean. Canada has two official languages; English
and French. French is most widely spoken in Quebec and New Brunswick.

While Canada and the United States of

American are both great countries,
differences can be found between both
countries in terms of their location and
their languages.


Using the given thesis you have been given and information provided, create a very brief block
style compare/ contrast presentation. Each paragraph should include 3-4 sentences. You will then
present your information in front of the class.

WEEK 8 - PowerPoint Practice Presentation Slide Checklist

(Adapted from PowerPoint Dos & Donts 1997-2006 American Speech-Language-Hearing Association)

In the next class, you will bring ONE PowerPoint slide on a USB stick to class and present it to us as if
you were really doing the presentation. You will then receive feedback on its effectiveness and your
presentation skill. . You can bring any part of your presentation for us to see.
Here is a checklist you can use to measure the quality of the PowerPoint slides that you will prepare for
your presentation.
The Presenter

used legible type size (Titles should be at least 36 to 40 points, bulleted text or body copy at least
24 points.)

was brief (A good rule of thumb is to cut paragraphs down to sentences, sentences into phrases,
and phrases into keywords.)

used key words (Help the audience focus on the message.)

enhanced readability (Dont crowd the slides. Use normal case, not all caps, and punctuate

made every word and image count (Each one should help convey the message in the strongest
possible way.)

limited the number of slides (A good rule of thumb is one slide per minute.)

didnt overuse special effects (Minimize sound, animation, and other effects to emphasize
major points, and dont let them become distracting.)

didnt use more than eight words per line or eight lines per slide

didnt use too many words or include non-essential information

avoided hard-to-read color combinations such as red/green, brown/green, blue/black,

blue/purple (Aim for high contrast between background and text.)

Tips for Preparing PowerPoint Material

After youve created your slides, go back and edit.
Take out sentences and replace them with key words and phrases.
Take out slides you can live without.
Take out clip art as it is not academic
Take off punctuation.
Cut your presentation by as much as half so that your slides are streamlined.
Remember, PowerPoint is a tool to enhance your presentation. Dont let it overwhelm you and your

WEEK 8 - PowerPoint Slide Practice Evaluation Form



Evaluation Descriptors
used legible type size (Titles should be at least 36 to 40
points, bulleted text or body copy at least 24 points.)
was brief (A good rule of thumb is to cut paragraphs down
to sentences, sentences into phrases, and phrases into

enhanced readability (Dont crowd the slides. Use normal

case, not all caps, and punctuate sparingly.)
made every word and image count (Each one should help
convey the message in the strongest possible way.)
didnt use more than eight words per line or eight lines
per slide or include non essential information
used a reference for the visual

avoided hard-to-read color combinations such as

red/green, brown/green, blue/black, blue/purple (Aim for
high contrast between background and text.)
used appropriate body language such as faced the
audience, used hands to indicate slide, did not read,
projected the voice and had good chunking and focus
words when speaking.


Week 10 - Prop Gallery: Preparation for Product Presentation

A. With your partners, visit 9 of the products that have been placed around the room.
Briefly identify each prop according to a sensory description (sight, sound, smell, touch).
Then, if you can, give the props real functions as well as the fabricated function. Finally,
state what the benefit the product could have for its users. Be imaginative!
B. For your product, create a hook and clincher for this item. Write on the back of this
C. You will present ONE of these to the class. You will also sell this product to us.
Convince us why we need it!
Name of Prop

Sensory Description

Real Function



Week 10 - Product/Service Presentation Outline

Use this as a guide to building your speech
Remember : Get attention, bond with audience, be credible, create a need, tell them how it
works, give evidence, create a sense of satisfaction, help them visualize, call them to action.

Tells your audience what you are going to tell them and establishes the foundation for your
speech. A good Introduction 'draws the map' for the journey. For a Persuasive Speech, an
Introduction consists of ...
1. Attention-Getter:

2. Bond: Link-to Audience:

3. "Credentials" of Speaker (Credibility):

4. Destination / Objective Sentence:
Today I am here to show a product that is going to change your life....
5. Speech Preview.....(a map) YOUR THESIS: Briefly outline what you will cover in
your persuasive speech.
Tell what you are going to tell them

This product has two great advantages which are (1) and (2) and\
(possibly 3). (You must have two points.... and a third is optional)


Transition: A transition is how you move from one section or point to the next. It is a linking
You could say Lets begin by ..., Lets start with ... or I prefer Lets consider

B. BODY of your Speech

The Body of your speech is where the detail is found and is best contained in NO more
than THREE points.
Tell them......

1. Main Point #1
State Point 1
State a Reason
Give an Example
Restate the Point
Transition: Create a linking statement to Point 2
2. Main Point #2
State Point 2
State a Reason
Give an Example/ Give evidence
Restate the Point

Transition: Create a linking statement to Point 3 (as above.) You may not have time!

Transition: Create a linking statement to the Conclusion, eg Lets summarise ..." or Can we
consider these main points ..."

Tell them what you have told them

1. Restate thesis:
2. Restate main points:
3. Call-to-Action: eg I encourage you to , Lets all contribute , Sign
now, Make a decision now to change your life by buying
4. Decision-Maker (optional):

Call now to get

A booth is set up at the back of the room and for $$$ you too can
be the proud owner of

This Persuasive Speech Outline is exceptionally powerful. Use it to write YOUR speech.

Week 11 - How to be persuasive

Activity: Audience Analysis
As a class, discuss generally how speakers adapt their message for each audience by selecting
different evidence in support of main points (or by selecting different main points). For example,
if students were trying to gather support for a new public swimming pool in their community,
how would they convince an audience of parents? Local business people? Teenagers? City/town
In small groups, ask students to select one of the topics below. Have students record changes
they would make in their presentations for the four different audiences listed. This activity may
be submitted as a written group assignment or as an oral group assignment, or may be used as a
starting point for small group or whole class discussion.


Join an Aerobics Class

Retirement Planning--Don't Wait
Building a community center
Volunteer at Your Local Hospital or Nursing Home


Vice presidents of major companies

Retired people
High school seniors

(Adapted from Brownell, 1996, p. 255)

Useful Pronunciation Links

The Sounds of American English
A detailed description of the manner and place of articulation
General Pronunciation
Pronunciation, Vocabulary, and Listening & Speaking
General Pronunciation & Minimal Pairs
Minimal Pairs
English Vowel Sounds
English Vowel Sounds & Related Videos
Grammar, Vocabulary & Pronunciation
Listening & Vocabulary

Online News Sources:

Canada. com (On-line News Source_
Globe and Mail Canadas National Newspaper
Macleans - Canadas Current Affairs Magazine
Canadas National News Source
Toronto Star
The Huffington Post