Redating the Hebrew Exodus from Egypt to 1551 B.C.

Confirming the data through the Patristic use of the Greeks, and their cited histories.

In regard to those who are pushing a mythological view of the Bible rather than history. History has shown us that there are always those with flights of wild fancy, who would rather chase dreams of mythology, or make story-telling an art for themselves. We call them actors, and hypocrites, and other such historical names. These are set about for amusement for the masses, until they take themselves and their flights of fancy too seriously.

If we investigate the origin of how myths came about with the Greeks, and we can through the literary history of Patristics, then we can also separate mythology from history in other ancient societies beside the Greeks. The Patristics help us in that regard
toward understanding ancient Egypt¶s actual ancient history to some degree as well.

Dating From Christ ... back to Homer There appears to be a certainty among the ancients that Christ was crucified in the second year of the 192nd Olympiad. By examining the Greek histories dealing with the Olympics, and historical markers along the way, we can more deeply appreciate the freshness and vitality of the history of the New Testament, and of Christ. Further, we find, that from the Greeks themselves, they have family ties to Egypt through the Hyksos; the Syrians who oppressed the Jews as Egyptians (cf. Isaiah 52:4); and that the Romans are themselves, de facto Greek cousins, and co-descendants of these same Hyksos. The reckoning of ancient histories outside the Bible is often a task of trying to complete a puzzle that is not clear to many ancient historians themselves. It is easier to attack the Bible, rather than to hold the same thoughtful consideration in reconstructing facts through the historical dative methods, et al. To this day, there is hostility to biblical history spoken by those closest to the events. The Church Fathers utilized the Greeks¶ own histories against them. I have found that they could often do so successfully -- as long as they refrained to the reckoning within the first two millennia B.C. To the untrained eye, at the first, the numbers reckoning the years appear quite wild; but to the trained eye, knowing the use of Greek means of reckoning in the period in which the debate takes place, it is within the confinement of ³reasonability´ in a precalculator society. The inability to understand ancient Greek history with certainty prior to Alexander the Great, may be summed up in this way: µThe greatest difficulty lies with the Greek historians themselves, who were often wildly at variance with one another in their reckonings.¶ And it is true, that when you have variances and debates of up to 420 or even 500 years difference among the Greek historians themselves, you have to really find whom the more reliable and non-speculative source data might be. This search is exacerbated by modern academic hypocrisy when it comes to acceptance of ancient testimonies in regard to non-biblical history versus biblical history. Non-biblically related Greek and Roman histories are often accepted almost without question as if Gospel, and Gospel is scorned as fable or myth-making. Virtue is pooh-poohed upon 1100 and 1200 year severances between oldest manuscripts extant and its Greek and Roman original authors, with no chain of custody accountability in between. In

contrast, the New Testament has over 24,000 more manuscripts extant, with portions to within a generation (30 - 40 years) of one of its authors, John the Apostle; and within two or three generations from others. Yet, the New Testament is attacked relentlessly. In the case of the study of the chronologies of the ancient Greeks, the best handle of some of the wild variances their ancient historians gave for who did what, and when, -- in reference to the ages prior to the Olympiads, -appears to have been grasped by early Church Fathers: Theophilus, Julius Africanus, Clement of Alexandria. Julius Africanus tells us, ³Up to the time of the Olympiads there is no certain history among the Greeks, all things before that date being confused, and in no way consistent with each other. But these Olympiads were thoroughly investigated (hekribonto) by many, as the Greeks made up the records of their history -- not according to long spaces, but -- in periods of 4 years.´ (Julius Africanus, fragment extant 13.1) Even with the noteworthy Galilean Israelite, Josephus, there is a chronic margin of error and inconsistency that plagues his formulation and calculations as well. Therefore, if we can place our calculations within a generation of the actual events, using Greek reckoning of how they arrived at such calculations, we are to consider ourselves within their own margin of error. The following formula is probably as close as we can get in trying to establish what calculations the ancient Patristic writers and Josephus used. The Formula 1) The Greeks who existed before Cyrus I conquering Babylon in circa 539 B.C., reckoned their years upon a 10-month or ca. 305-day calendar (Theophilus to Autolycus, 3.27). This was probably due to glacier recession on the European continent altering consistent seasonal reckonings. Using the example of how the Hebraic 480 years of I Kings 6:1 is tabulated: -- Pre-539 B.C., against a 10-month calendar of about 305 days. Hence, equal to Josephus' tabulation of 592 years in Antiquities, 8.3.1., according to what he calls as a "Macedonian" Greek calendar.

This is a fraction of about .8106 - .8108 of a now observed calendar year of 365.25 days. In other words, for every 81 years we have, they would have reckoned 100 years in their calculations in the pre-539 B.C. period. 2) It was with Cyrus I in Babylon, that the Greeks reckoned a 48month cycle for each Olympiad in place of the 40-month cycle (Julias Africanus, Fragment 13 -.3). --Post-539 B.C., we are to calculate against a 12-month calendar. 3) According to Herodotus, by his era, the Greek calendar became reckoned as 12 months of 30 days, with every other year being given an extra intercalculated month of 30 days -- Year 1 being 360 days, and Year 2 being 390 days, and then repeating itself thereafter (Herodotus, Histories, 1.33). -- From 539 B.C. to 46 B.C., the average Macedonian / Greek year appears to have become tabulated on average of 375 days long: being 360 days 1 year, then 390 the next. So this era of 46-539 B.C. is the point of the greatest trouble in calculating actual years in Greek reckonings. 4) In 46 B.C., the Greeks adopted the standard Roman or Julian calendar of 365 days. In that particular year, adjustments were made, and 46 B.C appears to have been 445 days long. 5) The Olympiads were suspended during the Peloponnesian Wars, thus there lies a possibility of adding a 13-year addendum to any reckoning exclusively by Olympiads. My personal calculations, taking all data into advisement, point to a loss of 2 Olympiads, or another 8 years of common reckoning, during this period. Inter-calulatory era: As covered above, we are gaining time in our inter-calculatory period before the standard Roman calendar, and the auto-implementation of a 360-day Persian calendar. This adds one full year of inter-calculation between 46 B.C. and 539 B.C., for every 61 years that we must reckon within the confines of these years only. In short, a total of 8 years become now as variable. There appears to be a lack of consistent solar and lunar adjustments to the annual cycles, so that one Olympic might occur in summer, another in springtime, and yet another in winter; and still be true to their calendars. It is questionable as to whether this variable is to be ³factored-in´ by the Patristic fathers - who must inter-calculate the Greek historical example they cite. If, however, we take the hypothetical example that the Greek reverts to the Macedonian calendar in 336 B.C.; after Herodotus¶ histories -- we then

find the reversion to the 10-month year of about 305 days. This will be the Macedonian influence of Philip and Alexander upon Greece, and the process (as respecting Greek calendar reckoning), thus reverts to the pre-Cyrian inter-calculation of times for only 336 B.C. to 46 B.C. This too, without the aid of the modern convenience of a calculator, led to some discrepancies in citing the same calculation in different years in different letters or apologetics. The art of comparative dative analysis is much like the sifting of modern intelligence data. While in the process of determining exegetical accuracy, you can commit isogetical errors quite easily. The solution is to find a factual historical bane by which you can pinpoint and say, ³Here. This year and event we know. Now, do the historians mention that point in time we know, and what are his calculations from that point in time?´ Julius Africanus tells us, ³«Cyrus became king of the Persians at the time of the 55th Olympiad, as may be ascertained from the Bibliothecoe of Diodorus, and the histories of Thallus and Castor, and from Polybius and Phlegon, and others beside these, who have made the Olympiads a subject of study. For the date is a matter of agreement among them all. And Cyrus then, in the first year of his reign, which was the first year of the 55th Olympiad«.´ [ca.562 B.C.] (Julius Africanus, Extant 13.2)

The Olympiad Reckoning Traditionally, the first Olympiad is thought to have occurred around 776 B.C. In reality, the early Olympiads, which contained 4 years of 10 months each, first started when Ahaz reigned in his first year in Jerusalem, in 741 B.C. (Julius Africanus, Fragment 15). Therefore, any year before 741 B.C. is pre-Olympic history to the Greeks. By being able to balance proper Biblical Chronology early on, we can more properly reckon the older dates of both Greek and Hebrew Histories as presented in Patristics.

It is entirely important that we know that 741 B.C., like the Diaspora of 586 B.C., be a fixed year and immutable. Once such a year is fixed firmly, such as the Bible does do for us, we can then springboard with greater accuracy

as to what the testimony of the past really is. When discussing their histories in the Olympic periods of 741 B.C., onwards: the Greeks took care to designate an event as happening in the number of the Olympiad, and the year. Each Olympiad being a cycle of four years, they would thus say: ³In the first year of the 12th Olympiad´, so-and-so did thusand-thus. Therefore, we can calculate that 11 cycles of 4 years at the correct annual fraction to have occurred. This is 44 times that fraction from 741 B.C., or to circa 705 to 704 B.C. (for example), for such-and-such a one, doing thus-and-thus. Preferably, in regards to the Greeks, the calculations should be limited to within the times of the first settlements of Attica, which appear to have begun as little as 40 years before the Israelite Exodus from Egypt. By both a biblical Redating and some comparative Greek reckoning, that date of the Israelite Exodus occurred on or about First fruits, the 17th of Nisan, in the spring of 1551 B.C.

Properly dating Homer. One example of using the Patristic reckoning of Greek history is found in the dating of Homer, the author of many Greek myths and false deities. But in order to date Homer, we also need to date the fall of Troy. During the times of the 62nd Olympiad, Heraclitus wrote that the Trojan War and the First Olympiad were separated by 407 [10-month] years (Clement, Miscellanies, 1.21). By that reckoning, the Trojan War ends in 1071 B.C. But Clement also cites the Greek historian Eratosthenes, who appears to ³phrase´ an oversight to historians. a) From the capture of Troy to the descent (or expedition) of the Heraclidae: are 80 [10-month] years b) From the Heraclidae to the founding of Ionia: are 60 [10-month] years c) From the Heraclidae to the protectorate of Lycurgus: are 159 [10-month] years d) From the protectorate of Lycurgus to the First Olympiad: are 108 [10-

month] years First Assumption ------------------------------- Actual Testimony 1070 B.C. --- The fall of Troy ------------------ 1032 B.C. 1005 B.C.--- The descent of Heraclidae --- ----957 B.C. 957 B.C.---- Ionia is founded --- -----------------909 B.C. 828 B.C.--- The ³Protectorate of Lycurgus´ --- 828 B.C. 741 B.C. ---- The First Olympiad ----------------- 741 B.C. In the above, we find that the testimony hinges on a double reckoning from the descent of Heraclidae. Once this µdouble reckoning¶ is established as being the µactual intent¶ of the Greek historian: it is then corrected, and the Greek reckoning falls in line with the biblical testimony. It also casts a light of importance on the µdouble reckoning¶ as well, because to Eratosthenes, the descent of the Heraclidae is a major calculable event in Greek history. Therefore, prior to the Olympics, the Greeks must have used this as an event year from which to reckon from for about 216 years actual, or about 256 years on their calendars. In analyzing this period, we find that the late Second Century A.D. scholar of Alexandria, Egypt, -- Clement of Alexandria -- cites Homer as having been an Egyptian, and not a Greek. Like Herodotus, Clement lists all sorts of dates that various ancient Greeks have speculated through the centuries on the man called Homer. The most reliable of these historians, tells us that Homer died 90 years before the first Olympiad (Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies 1.15, 1.21). Taken after the percentage of what a 10-month year is to a 12-month year, we then calculate 90 years times that fraction to achieve a death of Homer in 814 B.C. (the calculation being now about 73 years prior to the First Olympiad). His birth, according to Philochorus, was 180 years after the Trojan War (Clement, Miscellanies, 1.21). After the calculation of 180 years times the inter-calculatory fraction, the Greek percentage of a 10-month versus the later 12-month calendar, we find that Homer was born in 886 B.C. Therefore, by reckoning Greek history from fixed dates, we find that Homer died in his 71st or 72nd year of life. No more, and no less.

A Matter of Perspective There is never a serious debate as to whether Homer was a man or a woman among the ancients. There is never a truly serious debate as to whether Homer existed. The debate among the ancient Greeks, however, did rage about the period in which Homer lived in. The same kind of debate is reminiscent of what should be said in our own day, regarding the reign of David, king of Israel. There is no real debate of King David¶s existence in the ancients. Instead, the record is silent of such Orwellian rewriters of history...perhaps moreso to ease their consciences than scholarly investigation in lower critical support for such wild hypotheses. There is no debate on whether Christ existed in the First Century as a real person: even by hostile writers who lived in His times, and within a generation after Him. Why is that? Why are those who are closest to the times unwilling to challenge the existence of Christ, or David who preceded Him by over 1,000 years, or Moses who preceded David by some 500 years more? The answer is, because the ancients cannot always be held responsible for the intoxicated canards of its future generations. If the future descendants choose to discard truth for a lie, and live on in an hallucinogenic state, they do it willingly -knowingly --and of their own free will. An unwilling mind can learn to talk himself into disbelieving just about anything. Josephus' alternating Gr./Heb. calculations open the way: The calculation of the last year of the Trojan War is affirmed in the ancient witnesses utilized by the Church Fathers: as being about 1031 - 1034 B.C. Now 1031 - 1032 B.C. is the 4th year of Solomon¶s reign -- making both King Solomon, and his father David, as of an older date than we are lead by modern ³Intellectuals´ will lead you to believe. Using a separate Jewish calendar,

Josephus: reckons a total of 477 years and 6 months between the destruction of Jerusalem in 586 B.C., and the building of Jerusalem by King David
(Josephus, Wars of the Jews 6.10.).

This places David in Jerusalem in ca. January-February of 1063 B.C.

But in his Antiquities of the Jews, 8.3.1. Josephus uses the reckoning of the familiar Greek calendar (of his Roman audiences) to state that Solomon built the Temple 592 years after the Hebrew Exodus, before switching gears and reverting to the Jewish calendar of reckoning again. Josephus knows the Scriptures use 480 years, as according to Hebrew reckoning, in I Kings 6:1. The Greek calendar years of 592 times our inter-calculatory fraction is about 480.05 «or rounded off, 480 years. In Antiquities of the Jews, 20.10.1, in discussing the lineage of the high priests from Moses to the A.D. 70 destruction of Jerusalem; Josephus gives a similar length of time (612 short years). When calculated against our intercalculatory fraction, we are given a new insight into Biblical History. Josephus cites a rule of the high priesthood for the last 16 years of the 40 years in the wilderness, when Moses was 104 - 120 years old. This was followed, again, by a 480-year gap between the entry into the Promised Land by Joshua, and the Temple of Solomon¶s dedication.{1} Thus, Josephus also uses this methodology for preservation of Jewish history, when mentioning the Greek calendar, in Caesar¶s library. The testimony of the Galilean Israelite, Josephus, is that he agrees with the Greek reckoning that puts King David, in Jerusalem and building it, in circa 1060 to 1063 B.C.! It appears that a few years elapsed before the actual major construction began. Thus, David¶s reign is calculated to have begun no more recent or later than 1075 to 1070 B.C David reigned in Jerusalem for 33 years, and based on Josephus¶ calculations, until ca. 1037 to 1036 B.C. (I Kings 2:11). Therefore, for Solomon to dedicate the Temple in the fourth year of his reign (2 Kings 6:1), and for it to be 480 years after coming into the land from the Exodus: the Exodus entry into Canaan must date to ca. 1512 1511 B.C. In I Kings 6:1, the literal reading show us that ³«it was 480 years from the lasa¶ah of the children of Israel from the Land of Egypt.´ That is, it was the finishing moment, the end destination, the conclusion to -- leaving Egypt, being the end of 40 years in the wilderness, and the feet of all Israelites touching both sides of the Jordan. This makes the entry a certainty at 1511-1512 B.C. This is hundreds of years before Rameses, and places the Exodus as being during the reign of the Hyksos! Therefore, Rameses now becomes Ra- Ameses or Ra-

Amosis: µthe wicked and afflicted Ameses¶. Can that really be? The Egyptians priests, such as Ptolemy of Mendes, in his 3 volume work ³Chronology´, cites ³Amosis´ as being king during the Hebrew Exodus; Inachus being his contemporary in the colony of Greece (Clement, Miscellanies, 1.21). In the same source, we read that Dionysius of Halicarnassus, in his ³Times´, told the ancients that the Argolic states were founded first by Inachus, and later evolved to the Hellenic states of his day. There are some who would tell us Ah-mose was a woman ruler, and that Thutmose I was the husband. So, what is the truth?

Pharaoh Histories in Chronological turmoil In examining the Chronology of the Pharaohs that is recounted by Manetho, we find that unlike the Bible, the histories of Egyptian rulers are F.U.B.A.R.{2} Modern Egyptology fails miserably in attempting to reckon its dates to any accuracy near the Biblical record. We are then to understand by the priests of Egypt, through Herodotus, that there are 330 rulers of Egypt from its beginnings until his time in the 450s B.C. Upon closer examination, this is not the case. We find that the same ruler of Egypt may go by several names during his reign, and that a vice-Pharaoh subjoins him. That is, a Chief Executive Officer, and his Chief Operating Officer rule Egypt. There is also a sub-division under this of an upper and Lower Egypt that is also portioned out, in which the number of rulers multiply, while the generations reduce yet again. So if for 800 years, Pharaohs ³A´ rule upper Egypt, while Pharaohs ³B´ rule lower Egypt, and each have 25 generations: then the number of Pharaohs become 50, with 50 more vice-Regents. There, in just 800 years, you now have 100 of the required 330. If each of the Pharaohs alone have a second identifying name in those 800 years, we now add another 50 names to the 330 cited by the Egyptian priests to Herodotus, and have now reached almost half our required number: 150 of 330. That is a total of 150 or almost half the required number of the 330, in just 800 years! The notion of a neat and orderly chronology, as Egyptologists try to fancy, just obliterates like the tobacco off the end of a lit cigarette. The dilemma becomes a question of who was really the de facto potentate. In the Bible, we have clear distinctions of Israel and Judah and its kings, their names and years of rule, and their genealogies. In Egyptology, we have guesswork. Upon closer examination of Manetho¶s 3rd Century B.C. Histories of Egypt, we find that Amosis is really both Ahmose, and Tethmosis (Thummosis) - the son of Alisphragmuthosis. Under his leadership, says Josephus in Against Apion 1.14, while citing Manetho, 480,000 Egyptians rallied around the city of Avaris, and expelled the Hyksos families of those who perished in the Red Sea with their king, Assiss (Asehre Khamudi). These families were expelled along the northern route out of the country, and settled in Judea.

In Manetho¶s Chronology, through Josephus, we find a man called ³Jonias´ as the Greek equivalent of the Hyksos name of Moses¶ step-grandfather. Modern Egyptologists disbelieve his existence, although he reigned 50 years and 1 month, his name -- and the length of his rule -- having been stricken from the histories by them. When dealing with this kind of mutilation of history, one is at the mercy of the prevailing opinions of the field, until the carnival tricks and literary slights of hand be exposed for what they are. This is why the Bible is so much superior to any religion or history of the world: it is consistent, it is reliable, it is verifiable, it is historical and outside the bounds of ready alterations, and it is above rational reproach -- against any work the world has to offer in its place. Manetho¶s Time-line adjusted and reconstructed -- B.C. format: Dates and months are approximated to Manetho. Name --------------- ----------------Reign Tethmosis - Amosis Chebron 13 years Amenophis 20 years 7 mos. March 1551 B.C. to July 1526 B.C. 25 Years 4 mos. July 1526 B.C. to November 1513 B.C.

November 1513 B.C. to July 1491 B.C.

Amesses (Hatsheput) July 1491 B.C. to April 1469 B.C. 21 years 9 mos. Memphres 12 years 9 mos. Memphramuthosis 25 years 10 mos. Tethmosis (II) 9 Years 8 mos. April 1469 B.C. to February 1456 B.C.

February 1456 B.C. to October 1432 B.C.

October 1432 B.C. to June 1422 B.C.

Amenophis (II) ± Osiris {3} June 1422 B.C. to April 1391 B.C. (Gk. diety as- Bacchyus) 30 Years 10 mos. (credited as though unbroken) (Gk. diety as Dionysus) w/ Queen Isis {4} Orus April 1391 B.C. to February 1354 B.C. (Gk. diety as Apollo) {5} 36 Years 10 months Acenchres February 1354 B.C. to March 1342 B.C. (Ikhnaton/Amenhotep¶s wife) 12 years 1 month (Egyptian - Nefertiti: ³the beautiful one has arrived´) (Gk. diety as Artemis/Diana) {6}

Rathotis March 1342 B.C. to March 1333 B.C. (Egyptian - Tutankhamen) 9 years Acencheres (I) 12 years 5 mos. Acencheres (II) 12 years 3 mos. Armais 4 years 1 mos. Ra-Ameses (I) 1 year 4 mos. March 1333 B.C. to August 1321 B.C.

August 1321 B.C. to November 1308 B.C.

November 1308 B.C. to December 1304 B.C.

December 1304 B.C. to March 1302 B.C.

Armesses (Miamoun) March 1302 B.C. to May 1242 B.C. {7} (perhaps Ra-Ameses II) 60 years 2 mos. Amenophis (III) 19 years 6 mos. Sethosis 13 years May 1242 B.C. to November 1223 B.C. {8}

November 1223 B.C. to November 1210 B.C. {9}

Ra-Ameses (III) {10} 67 years

November 1210 B.C. to November 1143 B.C.

--------------------------------------------------------------1 There were only 13 high priests ruling in all that time. 480 divided by 13 is about 37 years per high priest¶s tenure. Contrast this with the 28 appointed high priests in the 107 years from Herod I to Titus¶ conquest, in which the average high priest served for a little less than 4 years because of robbery and political corruption of the office.

2 A clear example can be seen in lineage trees that are drawn up for the dynastic families. One tree actually shows that Thutmosis - Isis - Akhenaten all share the same era of rule as though brothers and sisters, children of Amenhotep III and Tiye (Archaeology, Mar/Apr 2002, ³All in the Family´ by Mark Rose, p.22). It is a high affront and insult, for Egyptologists (in general) to reckon demands for stringent requirements of lineage upon Hebraic Kings and take great fabrication liberties and myth-making endeavors upon their own craft. If the world of academia did not take them so seriously, we would be permitted to equate their historical Egyptology ³craft´, (at times), with base humor and thespian slapstick. Josephus is clearly at odds with these modern historians, citing that ³Pharoah´ was as much a ³household´ representation of the royal family as was ³Caesar´. We would not place Brittanicus, son of Claudius, as a ruler of the Roman Empire simply because he was

called a ³Caesar´. But that is exactly what Egyptologists do with the history of the Pharaohs. 3 What few bones were left of Osiris, (if there are any), was buried under the Sphinx of Egypt, about 300 feet below the surface. (e.g., Archaeology, Sep/Oct 2000, ³Tales from the Crypt´ by Angela M.H. Schuster, pp. 30-33). 4 Isis was known as IO, Ceres, and Demeter among the Greeks. Demeter was known as the goddess of grain harvests. Therefore, upon marriage to Osiris, she not only brought culture to Greece, she was its grain benefactor as well. 5 The Tel Amarna tablets are written to the Sun deity, Orus (a type of counterfeit Messiah): in 1384 B.C. His city, and that of his father, is Heliopolis. The Greeks name the ³sun´ as ³Helios´. Thus, to the Greeks, Heliopolis becomes the city of the sun deity, Apollo. The Romans call the sun after the Greek as ³Teitan´ or ³titan´. In the Greek, this designation corresponds Gematrically to 666, the number of AntiChrist and the Beast (Irenaeus, Against Heresies, 5.30.3). In Greece, the priestesses of Delphi conferred ³oracles´ in Apollo¶s name, being a cult of µApollo¶. 6 Artemis / Diana continued the work of her mother or grandmother as a benefactor of Attica. In Rome, she was remembered as the one who brought about the wharves of the Tiber, and fed Rome from Egypt -- justifying Rome¶s relationship with the breadbasket economics of Egyptian wheat. The Greeks may also have called her as Kore / Persephone, who was raped by her father (identified for us here as Osiris) by force. This activity appears to deal with the mother of Nefertiti as being either the victim of, or the offspring of Osiris. Based on the Chronology of Manetho, the raped child would have to have been anywhere from 1-10 years of age at the time of such an occurrence. This act was the reason why Osiris was slain by his own brother, who chopped him to pieces, scattering him to the far reaches of Egypt; to which we now call Osiris µHades¶, and µPluto¶, and the ³Sphinx¶ (under which what was left of Osiris is thought to be buried. Yet, this later offspring of rape is deified as love and beauty, whose Egyptian worshipers remembered her mother and grandmother¶s angst by ritually beating their breasts. As Nefertiti, Artemis/Diana married an Ethiopian from Thebes who moved the capitol from Thebes to Amarna. Amarna was about 130 miles north of the then Ethiopian controlled region of Egypt, and was probably a marriage contract for peace between two nations. Together, Nefertiti and her husband worshipped a sun deity, (the ³Helios´) -- her deified ³brother´ Horus, whom was later, renamed ³Apollo´ in Greek adaptation of the mythology, was more than likely her uncle. Egypt refused to continue abandonment of all its other deities upon her death, supposedly some 13 years after assuming the throne. Amarna wall inscriptions show she lost at least one child in its infancy, but that she was happily married with several children. The Egyptians eventually revolted against the racial crossbreeding of their queen, erasing her memory across Egypt; and then reinventing her history through worship and the mythology of Artemis/Diana. Although Orus was

remembered as ³a deity among the many´, there was never again a sole deity of Egypt. 7 In 1292 B.C., Saturn/Bellus comes into prominence, colonizing families Greece, Crete, and Italy (which is then called µlesser Greece¶). The Jews call the Romans the children of Bel, and Beelzebub. Thus, the act of slandering another Jew by this name, is the same as accusing that one of being a ****, or illegitimate child of Roman stock, without the furnishing of proof. In 1271 B.C., Ceres / Isis is deified by both Greeks and Egyptians, perhaps being the 100th anniversary of her death. 8 In 1231 B.C., Tyre is founded, either within or just beyond Egyptian military influence. The lineage is traced directly from Saturn, a Hyksos descendant born in the Egyptian colony of Greece. 9 The Babylonian language wanes as the universal - language of communication in the Middle East¶s eastern Mediterranean region, circa 1211 B.C., as Egypt begins to expand its influence yet again. 10 This Ra-Ameses is listed in Judges 13:1 as being at Kadesh, 331 years after the Exodus!!! The testimony, as discussed in the next section, is supported by a victory relief in Karnak, Egypt. The fact that the myth of a wrong Ra-ameses, and other factual errors have existed for centuries, was probably based more on anti-Semitic and anti-Christian bias, than upon historic fact. Even just a few casual observations, discussed in the next section, make this clear.

Greek origins from Egypt In circa 1580 to 1568 B.C., a group of colonists from Hyksos controlled Egypt, led by a mixed breed (probably Hyksos-Egyptian) called Inachus, settled in the harbor in what would become known as Attica (and later, Athens). These colonists spoke Attic, or a variant of Syriac-Babylonian. Some scholars will call it a Semitic dialect. From this colonization until the Doric Invasion, the average generation was reckoned as anywhere from 20 to 33 years. It would be safe to say about 25 - 27 years, to the Greeks of pre-1000 B.C., to be the length of a generation. Prior to the Trojan War, both the Greeks and the Egyptian Homer reckon Greece to be populated by ³Danaans, Argives, and Achaeans´ (Thucydides, Peloponnesian War, 1.3). From the time of Inachus to the Trojan War, are 20 Attic generations. In 1016 B.C., the Dorian invasion brought the Doric language to Greece (Thucydides, Peloponnesian War, 1.12). In 909 B.C., the Ionic language took root there. In later centuries, Greece also came to possess an Aeolic and a Koine (common) language. It is by this last language that we have come to possess the New Testament. But more importantly, in the third century B.C.: through Egypt, we receive a translation of the Old Testament (known as the LXX or the Septuagint) as well. The Greeks -- in their culture and philosophy --are intertwined like strands on a rope, with Egypt for over 1,000 years. First, we have the era of Ogygus (ca. 1551 B.C.), then with the marriage of Ceres seven short generations later. This is followed by the settlement of the navies of Danaus. Sethos, whom called himself Aegyptus (Josephus, Against Apion, 1.26), was brother to Danaus. Danaus also goes by the name of Hermeus. Tertullian, in his Apology, .19 calls him as ³the most ancient name´ of the Romans. That honor is exclusive, and suggests the lineage of Rome¶s rulers as being, in part, as from the families of the Pharaohs. Later, we see the Greek settlements on the Nile and in the Delta, and so on.

The Biblical, Greek, and Egyptian points to ponder

1) In Egyptology, we find that there is a relief that celebrates Raameses victory at Kadesh in 1180 B.C. This same victory is recorded in Judges 13:1, which the biblical record of successions tells us, is 331 years AFTER THE EXODUS. Therefore, this Pharaoh is not the one who died in the Red Sea during the Hebrew Exodus in the era of the Hebrew Judges of Israel, who judged IN ISRAEL.

2) Kadesh: 31 years earlier. In Judges 11:26, Jephthaa speaks of 300 years having passed from the entry of the Hebrews into Israel, to his time. The Judges, like Jephthaa, are more so contemporaneous with the Tell El-Amarna tablets, than is the Exodus to its contents. The tablets, dated by some to ca. 1375 - 1358 B.C., calls for Egypt to deliver the Philistine Lords from their µapiru´ or µhabiru¶ oppressors. Archer, Gleason L. ³A Survey of Old Testament Introduction,´ Chicago: Moody Press, ©1964, p. 164, (1974 edition.); cf. pp.241, 289-295 (1994 edition.)

In 1422 B.C., Amenophis ruled Egypt, until 1391 B.C. Osiris is known as the deity of Heliopolis. In the reign of Amenophis, there were ambassadors ³sent out to those shepherds driven out of the land (of Egypt) by Tethmosis, to the city of Jerusalem, whereby he informed them of his own affairs«´ (Josephus, Against Apion. 1.26.). The result of this communication forges an alliance between the Rephaims and Philistines with Egypt, against the local Israeli Hebrew population. If this is the case, this supports the validity for and the era of the Tel Amarna tablets. These Babylonian linguistic tablets from the Philistines to Egypt are to be dated to circa 1384 B.C., when: 1) Ehud, the son of Gera, of the tribe of Benjamin, delivers the Israelites from Eglon (Judges 3:16 -20); and 2) Shamgar, the son of Anath, kills 600 Palestinian men with an ox goad the same year (Judges 3:31). The Hyksos, former masters in Egypt, only 167 years after their concurrent Exodus through the northern Sinai, were servants of Egypt in Israel. In Canaan/Israel, the once oppressive Hyksos were, in turn, afflicted by the Hebrews: and resorted to asking Egyptians (who their ancestors despised as weak), for archers as protection against the Hebrew judges and a popular uprising. In 1391 B.C., Horus, the son of Osiris and Isis was upon the throne. Isis, says

Clement of Alexandria, in Miscellanies 1.21. will be deified in what we may reckon as somewhere near 1271 B.C. The Romans over a thousand years later, will worship her as Demeter: the deity of the fruitful and bountiful earth, and the ³protector of marriage´. Her son, Horus, also is -- centuries later -- remembered by the Greeks, and thought of as a deity: Apollo. His sister, Acenchres (called ³Nefertiti´), is Artemis and Diana. She ruled from 1354 B.C. until 1342 B.C. through Ikhnaton (Amenhotep IV). Her successor from 1342 to 1333 B.C. was Rathotis (a.k.a., Tutankhamen). Thus, the Tell Amarna tablets become a type of formula for prayers or requests to the fabricated deities Apollo (Horus) and Diana (Acenchres), for deliverance from the Jews, and the One True Faith in YHVeH. 3) In the Tell El-Amarna tablets, the Philistine lords or city-kings, communicate to Egypt in the Babylonian language«not in Egyptian. Why? One tablet speaks of Gezer having fallen, along with Ashkelon and Lachish. In Joshua 16:10, 21:21; and Judges 1:29; we find that Gezer was portioned as halfJewish priests with their families and half-Canaanite. The Babylonian language entered the land with distinction in ca. 1450 B.C. with the invasion of Chushanrishathamin (Judges 3:8 , and remained the language of trade from 1450 B.C. until ca. 1211 B.C., some 239 years later. This example we see again with the Hellenization of the region and the influence of the Greek language over 1,000 years later. 4) In Isaiah 52:4, we find the Jewish history that those who oppressed the Jews in Egypt before the Exodus were not Egyptian at all: they were Syrian or Assyrian. In other words, the only peoples that fit this description within Egypt during the era in question: are the Hyksos, who came out of Syria-Assyria and into Egypt, because the Hittites were too strong for them to defend against at the time. This brings into Egypt the language of Aram, which is later characterized as SyriacBabylonian. Therefore, the language of Moses and of the Hyksos was a separation of distinctions or dialect of the same general mother tongue. To not be immersed and familiar with the characterizations and recent slang might cause one to stammer and stutter in conversing with those who use certain unfamiliar idioms regularly. This is perhaps what Moses meant in his asking GOD for, and receiving, a helper in Exodus 4:10-16.

The Tidal Wave, the Exodus, and Greco-Egyptian deities Julius Africanus records that the Greek historians call the Great Cataclysm as ³the Flood of Ogygus´, or like terminology (Julius Africanus, Fragments, .12, .13.4). They remained following the last great Krakatoa-like explosion of Santorini in 1551 B.C., which occurred simultaneously with the Dead Sea crossing. After the deaths of Phoroneus and hundreds of colonists, only Ogygus and a handful of survivors remained. There is no doubt that the nations in that era, such as Crete, and the Hittite Empire, must have also sustained damage in that same cataclysm or massive Tidal Wave. There is no contesting this Cataclysmic event as happening, or of the year or month or day of its happening among the ancients. Only Philochorus challenged the name of Ogygus¶ successor, Acteus, as having never existed, and apparently, he was a lone dissenter. He probably considered Apis, the son of Phoroneus, who is deified as a bull in Memphis of Egypt, as the successor. The first official king in Attica following the Flood and gradual repopulation was Cecrops, in circa 1398 B.C. From the Flood to the First Olympiad, there were reckoned 1020 10month years. That is, 827 12-month years. If subtracted from 741 B.C., we come to a year of 1568 B.C. However, with the double reckoning of the ³descent of the Heraclidae´, we find that we can allow for the plus or minus of a generation of up to 25-27 years. Doing this, we fall within our margin of error and within the justified criticism of the consistency in the Greek reckoning of years prior to the Olympiads. Polemo, in his ³Greek History´, volume I, recorded how that a division of the Egyptian Army left Egypt and settled in Canaan, following the tidal wave: Apis, the Son of Phoroneus of Attica being among the survivors of the Cataclysm. (Julius Africanus, Fragments, 13.6.). In Egyptology, Apis is the bull, (the stud who repopulates by being oversexed, much like the oversexed Osiris) but the Greeks call him ³Epaphus´ - the intensive of ³upon informing secretly of crimes in progress´ (Herodotus, Histories, 2.153).12 As Dionysus, the deity of the vine and wine, we find that Osiris is also a

known habitual drunkard. Understanding these Greek and Egyptian labels, we may conclude that he may also have practiced a sexual deviancy, which we now label as sado-masochism. The ancient Egyptians thought upon Apis as the deity of cataclysms and disaster. After a disaster, the Egyptians are called to celebrate and make merry to Apis (Herodotus, Histories, 3.27). Apis is deified in Memphis as the bull of Ptah, making him out to be an Egyptian son. Memphis, as referred to by the Greeks, translates as being ³the house of the spirit of Ptah´. Apis, as a festivity deity, is out-celebrated only by Osiris: whom the Greeks call Bacchyus and Dionysius, whom married Ceres, the daughter of Prometheus (Herodotus, Histories, 2.42, 2.49, 2.59, etc.). In return, Osiris brought Egyptian arms and civilization into Greece. Ceres became known as Isis among the Egyptians, and Demeter among the Romans in later centuries. To the Greeks, she became known as IO, the beginning of all time: ³As of now, and forever, we have arrived´, might be a free translation of this. Osiris married Ceres, the Greeks claim, because of his sex drive. The Egyptians call Ceres or ³Isis´ the ³moon´, perhaps as an idiom of Osiris first obsession with her. In honor of his memory, the phallic orgies of Greece were annually celebrated, with male organs of every size and material waved about; until drunken or - gies raged through the night by the torches and campfires. It must be remembered, that these ³adults´ engaging in this activity were most often only from their mid-teens to their mid twenties; there being a life expectancy of no more than 33 years among the Greeks of the period from Osiris to the First Olympiad. So it probably also was with the ages of maturity in regards to those Hyksos who were forced to leave Egypt. They were most likely a largely ³teen-and-under´ population, with parents no older than in their 30s. What are believed to be the bones of parts of Osiris are buried deep beneath the Sphinx, which image represents the man and his se - xual appetite. During the festival of Isis, the people are called to beat their fists upon their chests for hours on end; symbolizing the grief that this man put Isis through. He met his end by raping a young girl, who perhaps was the daughter of his own brother. Her offspring, either daughter or granddaughter, became Nefertiti to the Egyptians; but to the Greeks, she became the goddess "Artemis" /³Diana´. Josephus relates that Manetho agrees with Polemo, stating that no fewer than 240,000 of the Hyksos (men, women, and children) left Egypt immediately (and peacefully), following a brief siege by native Egyptians

(from Thebes) after the Red Sea crossing; and settled in Judea, -- even in and about Jerusalem (Josephus, Against Apion, 1.14). These were the very ones, being giants and Rephaim/Nephilim, who the spies of Israel, only days later, discovered and feared in Numbers 13:33.

Geo-climatic obstacles: a frozen pre-1000 B.C. Europe The reason why the 10-month calendar existed in the first place probably had to do with the melting glaciers of Europe. In the pre-1000 B.C. era, much of what was north of the Balkans, and certainly north of the Danube, was glacial ice. In this period, and until after the Assyrian conquests of Israel in the 8th Century B.C., for example, Britain was called as the southern area of the Artic (i.e., polar) regions (Theophilus to Autolycus, 2.32). However, by the reign of Cyrus I, the region above the northern Mediterranean had stabilized. Slowly, civilization was migrating into the western and northern unsettled wildernesses. Why else, except for glacier flows, would Europe for so long been unexplored earlier? And within these regions allegedly lurked remnants of the dinosaur species, which still were known on occasions to kill ³multitudes´. These dinosaur remnants were to be led astray out of the forest, and into an open plain; because they could be killed only by employing a proven technique and with hordes of warriors against it from all sides (Irenaeus, Against Heresies, 1.31.4). This activity, of slaying dinosaurs, was a current necessity as late as 181 183 A.D. and was the means by which we have our dragon legends dating to as late as the 500s A.D. in our day. Tthe use of this key to understanding the Greek reckoning is a matter of willingness to apply the formula left behind for us, and to examine what is being passed down to us. The Chronology of the ancients, some to greater and many to lesser degrees, will need to be re-evaluated and re-dated, and re-learned. Who would have thought that a real woman named Ceres married Osiris and became ³Isis´, turning her homeland of Attica (Athens) into an enriched Egyptian colony? Or who would have thought that a tidal wave would have wiped Attica out a couple centuries earlier, when it was a minor settlement of the (SyriacBabylonian) Hyksos who ruled Egypt, at the same time the Jews passed

through the Red Sea on dry land? This too, is contained in the reckoning of the Greeks. Julius Africanus, in Fragments 13.7, cites that Theopompus in his µTricareneus¶, stated that it should have been expected that Attica (Athens) would share in the judgments of the Exodus, of hail and storms, and to suffer with the Egyptians, as Attica was a colony descended from these same Egyptians. Some call Danaus, uncle, and vice-Pharaoh (or ³Administrative Regent´) with Rameses, as the most ancient name of origin among the Greeks who later settled Italy and became Romans (Tertullian, Apology, .19). This Danaus built many monuments and statues in tribute to his nephew all over Egypt, before taking his navy and settling Greece. We also learn that about 200 years later, some 20 ³Greek´ years after the Trojan War, in 1012 B.C., the Dorians conquered Greece, and the government of Ascanius began. Then, in just two generations (in 957 B.C.), these same oppressive Dorians sparked the ³descent of the Heraclidae´: a mass migration to lesser Greece (Italy, and also Sicily - when as yet the Corinthian Sea had not emptied out to indicate that tidal wave that removed Sicily¶s then land passage to Italy). Thus, the Syrians or Assyrians who migrated to Egypt as Hyksos, migrated to Greece, then migrated also to Italy, and later became the Romans. Some of those Hyksos who migrated to Greece, also migrated to Tyre, becoming Tyrians, and some of those migrated to Carthage, becoming the Carthaginians to which Hannibal made his name of renown. This makes the Carthaginians and Romans as distant cousins. Strangely enough, the Hyksos were also related to the Anakims (Numbers 13:33) or ³Nephilims´. Nephilims are translated as giants, but literally, it means ³the fallen ones´, and is a direct reference to those who died in the Red Sea while pursuing Israel. In Joshua 11:21-22, we see that --although they are later defeated -- they are pressed into an area and people from which Goliath the giant was from. For the Greek pirates of Crete and Greece, the Aegean Sea based ³Philistines´; it was only natural for them to invade Israel against the Hebrews, as the Anakims and the Philistines were ³cousins´. This explains why the Philistine conquest came about after the Exodus: it was a family conquest to regain land lost to the giants of the land, who lost their lands to the Hebrews -- a lowly people who had once been their slaves. And so, history falls into place, and the ³nonsensical histories´ of the Bible suddenly begins to make sense and be quite logical.


A 1551-1140 B.C. using the Clementine Stromata Book 1, Chapter 21 with Josephus' Antiquities of the Jews and the Bible. .
1551 ± 1486 B.C. Joshua 24:29 ; Judges 2:8 -- ³And Joshua the son of Nun«died, being a 110 years old.´ Clement: ³As the book of Joshua relates, the above mentioned man was the successor of Moses 27 [ actual 25] years´ Clement: ³After the close of Moses¶s life, Joshua succeeded to the leadership of the people, and he, after warring for 65 years, rested in the good land other 25.´ [Corrected by Josephus] 1511 B.C. -1486 B.C. Josephus, Antiquities, 5.1.29: ³So Joshua, when he had thus discoursed to them, died, having lived a 110 years; 40 of which he lived with Moses, « He also became their commander after his death for 25 years. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1486-1471 B.C. [Unknown 8 year tributary period at any time in this 15 year period] Judges 3:8 -- ³the children of Israel served Cushan-rishathaim 8 years.´ Clement: Then the Hebrews having sinned, were delivered to Chusachar [ Chushan-rishathaim] king of Mesopotamia for 8 years´ -----------------------------------------------------------------1511 B.C. ± 1471 B.C. Judges 3:11 ± ³ And the land had rest 40 years. And Othniel the son of Kenaz died.´ Clement: ³Gothoniel [ Othniel]. the younger brother of Caleb, of the tribe of Judah, who, having slain the king of Mesopotamia, ruled over the people 40 years in succession.´ ----------------------------------------------------------------------

1477 -1459 B.C. Judges 3:12 -- ³and the L-RD strengthened Eglon the king of Moab against Israel´ Clement: ³ And« were delivered into the hands of Æglom [ Eglon] king of the Moabites for 18 years´ Josephus AoJ 5.4.1.: ³´Eglon, king of the Moabites«reduced [the Israelites] to poverty for 18 years.´ --------------------------------------------------------------------------1441 ± 1361 B.C. Judges 3:30 -- ³So Moab was subdued «and the land had rest 80 years.´ Clement: ³ But on their repentance, Aod, [ Ehud.] « was their leader for 80 years´ Josephus AoJ 5.4.3: ³Ehud«died after he had held the government 80 years.´ --------------------------------------------------------------------------1361-1341 B.C. --------------------[actual ³Jabin´, king of Canaan] Judges 4:3 -- [Jabin for ] ³20 years « mightily oppressed the children of Israel´. Clement: ³On the death of Aod [Ehud]« were delivered into the hand of Jabim,«20 years.´ Josephus AoJ 5.5.1-2 - Israel subdued by Sisera to Jabin¶s control, 20 years. -------------------------------------------------------------------1341-1301 B.C. Clement: ³Deborah ruled, judging the people 40 years´ Josephus AoJ 5.5.3-4 - Israel delivered to Deborah administration and commander Barak. ------------------------------------------------------------------------A Kadesh in May, 1300 BC would have encountered a simultaneous Midianite bid for control of the plains and farmlands of the Hebrews. 1301 ± 1294 B.C. Clement: ³On her death, the people « were delivered into the hands of the Midianites 7 years´ Josephus AoJ 5.6.1: For about 3 years the Israelites fought off the Midianites and Arabians, then retired to the mountains, and endured famine. --------------------------------------------------------------------1294-1254 B.C. Clement: ³Gideon, of the tribe of Manasseh «ruled 40 years´

Josephus AoJ 5.6.7 ± Gideon ruled over the government 40 years. -----------------------------------------------------------------1254-1251 B.C. Clement: ³The son of Ahimelech, 3 years´ ---------------------------------------------------------------------1251-1229 B.C. An Israelite judge [obscured by Clement]«³of the tribe of Ephraim, who ruled 23 years´ Josephus AoJ 5.7.6.: ³Jair the Gileadite of the tribe of Manasseh«22 years.´ ----------------------------------------------------------------------------1229 ± 1211 B.C. Clement: ³The people having sinned again, were delivered to the Ammonites 18 years´ ----------------------------------------------------------------1211-1205 B.C. Judges 11:26 ± [And Jepthaah inquired] - ³While Israel dwelt in «all the cities that are along by the side of the Arnon, 300 years; wherefore did ye not recover them within that time?´ Clement: ³Jephtha the Gileadite, of the tribe of Manasseh« ruled 6 years´ ---------------------------------------------------------------1205 ± 1198 B.C. Clement: ³Abatthan. of Bethlehem, of the tribe of Juda, ruled 7 years.´ Cf. Judges 12:7,9 --------------------------------------------------------------Clement: 1198 - 1190 B.C. Clement: ³Then Ebron the Zebulonite, 8 years´ Scripture: 1198 - 1188 B.C. Judges 12:11

-------------------------------------------------------------Clement: 1190 ± 1182 B.C. Scripture: 1188 ± 1180 B.C. "And after him Abdon... judged Israel...8 years."

Judges 12:13-14 Clement: ³Then Eglom of Ephraim, 8 years´ -----------------------------------------------------------A Kadesh battle in 1180 B.C. would left a vacuum of power quickly filled by the Cretan based Philistines. Clement: Scripture 1182 ± 1142 B.C. 1180-1140 B.C.

Judges 13: 1 And the children of Israel ...into the hand of the Philistines 40 years." Clement: ³Under the power of the foreigners, the Philistines, for 40 years´ [Cretan based]

Appendix 2: Some Quick Insights into the Origin of Greek Deities via Patristics

Some Theophilus to Autolycus literary insights. ³«in the land of Canaan there was a city, by name Haran. And in these days [from the dating of Haran], Pharaoh, who by the Egyptians was also called Nechaoth, was first king of Egypt, and thus the kings followed in succession.´ Theophilus to Autolycus, 2.31 And Haran died before his father Terah in the land of his nativity, in Ur of the Chaldees.(Genesis 11:28). In other words, the first king of Egypt preceded Abraham¶s visit by less than one generation, according to the records available to Theophilus. Therefore, Egypt is not older in its formation as a nation in the making than Terah, the father of Abraham.

For it was fit that they who wrote should themselves have been eye-witnesses of those things concerning which they made assertions, or should accurately have ascertained them from those who had seen them; for they who write of things unascertained beat the air. For what did it profit Homer to have composed the Trojan war, and to have deceived many [about deities, etc.]; or Hesiod, the register of the theogony of those whom he calls gods; or Orpheus, the three hundred and sixty-five gods, whom in the end of his life he rejects, maintaining in his precepts that there is one God? Theophilus to Autolycus 3.2

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------³And I will inquire of you, my friend, how many Jupiters exist. For there is, firstly, Jupiter surnamed Olympian, then Jupiter Latiaris, and Jupiter Cassius, and Jupiter Tonans, and Jupiter Propator, and Jupiter Pannychius, and Jupiter Poliuchus, and Jupiter Capitolinus; and that Jupiter, the son of Saturn, who is king of the Cretans, has a tomb in Crete, [still present in Theophilus day, T to A, 2.3] but the rest, possibly, were not thought worthy of tombs.´ Theophilus to Autolycus, 1.10

« Plato« legislates in « The Republic, that the wives of all be common, using the precedent of the son of Jupiter and the lawgiver of the Cretans, Theophilus to Autolycus, 3.6

For why should I recount the impurities of « Jupiter Latiaris thirsting for human blood, or «of Jupiter, surnamed Tragedian, and how he defiled himself, as they say, and now is worshipped among the Romans as a god? Theophilus to Autolycus 3.8

Thallus mentioned Belus, king of the Assyrians, and Saturn, son of Titan

[Armais /Danaus was this Saturn]: --³And the country was called Egypt from the king Sethos. For the word Sethos, they say, is pronounced ³Egypt.´ And Sethos had a brother, by name Armais. He is called Danaus, the same who passed from Egypt to Argos«.´ Theophilus to Autolycus 2.20 -alleging that Belus with the Titans made war against Jupiter [the Cretans]and the so-called gods in his alliance; and on this occasion he says that Gyges, being defeated, fled to Tartessus. At that time Gyges ruled over that country, which then was called Acte, but now is

named Attica. And whence the other countries and cities derived their names, we think it unnecessary to recount, especially to you who are acquainted with history. That Moses, and not he only, but also most of the prophets who followed him, is proved to be older than all writers, and than Saturn and Belus and the Trojan war, is manifest. For according to the history of Thallus, Belus is found to be 322 [261 actual] years prior to the Trojan war [ca. 1293 B.C.]. But we have shown above that Moses [sic, should be Jacob at 729 - 810 years prior to the 1032 B.C. sack of Troy -Brianroy] lived somewhere about 900 or 1000 years before the sack of Troy. And as Saturn and Belus flourished at the same time, most people do not know which is Saturn and which is Belus. Some worship Saturn, and call him Bel or Bal, especially the inhabitants of the eastern countries, for they do not know who either Saturn or Belus is. And among the Romans he is called Saturn, for neither do they know which of the two is more ancient²Saturn or Bel. Theophilus to Autolycus 3.29 This last quote is resolved in Isaiah, when the ancient Romans in Isaiah's day transported idols through Israeli ports to Babylon/Assyria. The idols were of Saturn and called Belus by those purchasing such idols, and the two mixed. Danaus was the patriarch of a Greek faction which settled Sicily and Italy, as well as being the Patriarch the Tyrians and Carthaginians. Hence, Danaus was a contributing or primary patriarch involved in 5 important or primary ancient Mediterranean civilizations/ peoples. We should perceive this possibility with the testimony of some men of the Old Testament having many wives and many children, such as Gideon, father to 70 male off-spring in Judges 8:30 "And Gideon had 70 sons of his body begotten: for he had many wives." and that it only took Israel 215 years to populate until more than 2 millions had sprung from less than 70 of their males. Danaus / Saturn, the once head of the navy of Egypt, defecting, in light of history therefore, could well have begotten and supported several times that number.

Origins of gods / deities in Greece are traceable to a definitive year they had to be created after:

Tertullian, Apology .10 "No one of your gods is earlier than Saturn: from him you trace all your deities, even those of higher rank and better known. What, then, can be proved of the first, will apply to those that follow. So far, then, as books give us information, neither the Greek Diodorus or Thallus, neither Cassius Severus or Cornelius Nepos, nor any writer upon sacred antiquities, have ventured to say that Saturn was any but a man: so far as the question depends on facts, I find none more trustworthy than those²that in Italy itself we have the country in which, after many expeditions, and after having partaken of Attic hospitalities, Saturn settled, obtaining cordial welcome from Janus, or, as the Salii will have it, Janis. The mountain on which he dwelt was called Saturnius; the city he founded is called Saturnia to this day; last of all, the whole of Italy, after having borne the name of Oenotria, was called Saturnia from him. He first gave you the art of writing, and a stamped coinage, and thence it is he presides over the public treasury. But if Saturn were a man, he had undoubtedly a human origin; and having a human origin, he was not the offspring of heaven and earth.

Tertullian, Ad Nations 2.12 For the origin characterizes all that comes after it. Now this origin of your gods dates, I suppose, from Saturn. [This Saturn was the same Armais / Danaus, who was in the year 1293 B.C. Therefore, the origin of Greek 'god / deification' mythology began no

earlier than 1293 B.C. !!! The same year Danaus settled in Greece with his navies from Egypt] And when Varro mentions Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva, as the most ancient of the gods, it ought not to have escaped our notice, that every father is more ancient than his sons, and that Saturn therefore must precede Jupiter, even as C lus does Saturn, for Saturn was sprung from C lus and Terra. [Hence, Tertullian isolates for us that the oldest deification was of Armais as Saturn among the Greeks. Other deifications came later, after 1293 B.C., also based, at the first, upon reinventing real people in real history. That is, it began as a monotheistic worship of a singular Patriarch that graduated to polytheism. The monotheism came first.]

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful