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NEBOSH International General Certificate

(Revision)
Element 1:- Health and Safety Foundations
Accident Definition:An unwanted, unplanned event which results in a loss of some kind
Incident/Near miss:An unwanted, unplanned event that had the potential to result in a loss
Hazard:Something with the potential to cause harm
Risk:- The likelihood that harm will occur and the severity of the harm
Why manage health and safety
1- Moral, Legal, Financial

Reduced accidents
Reduced loss through damage to equipment
Reduced absenteeism
Reduced insurance premiums
Improved morale
Improved company reputation
Reduced fines,
Reduced compensation claims
Increased likelihood of securing business

Law:- Civil and Criminal


Civil: to compensate an injured party for loss as a consequence of an accident or
ill health
Criminal: To punish and deter individuals/Organizations from behaving in a way that
society has decide is unacceptable

Fault Liability
There was a duty of care owed to the injured party.
The duty of care was breached (Negligence)
The breach cause the injury or loss
Employer to provide

Safe place of work and safe access and egress


Safe systems of work
Safe plant and equipment
Information, Instruction, Training and supervision
Safe and competent fellow workers

Hidden costs of accidents

Lost Time
Extra wages, overtime payments, temporary workers
Sick pay
Fines
Legal costs
Claims
Damage to equipment
Repairs to plant and equipment
Production delays
Loss of contracts
Increased insurance premiums
Loss of business reputation

Variation of Legislation between countries caused by:

Different legal systems


Different standards of legislation and enforcement
Different penalties for breaches
Religious and cultural issues
Knowledge of enforcement bodies
Funding of enforcement staff
Degree of monitoring/reporting to enforcement authorities
Political pressure

Sources of Information
1- Internal

Risk assessments
Policies
Inspection reports
Medical records
Health and safety committees
Plant registers
Safety advisors

2- External

Government bodies
National safety organizations
Suppliers and manufacturers
International standards
Consultants and specialists
Insurance companies

Successful Management Systems (HSG 65)


1) Policy:Health and safety aims of the organization, health and safety objectives and
management commitment
2) Organizing:Competence, commitment and control, Co-operation & Communication
3) Planning and Implementation:Identify hazards, assess risks, and decide how risks can be eliminated or
controlled. Sets standards against which performance can be measured.
4) Measuring performance:-

Be used as a means of determining the extent to which health and safety policy
and objectives are being implemented and should be both reactive and
proactive.
5) Reviewing:Analyzing data gathered through monitoring to see whether performance is
adequate
6) Audit:Systematic critical examination of each stage of an organizations management
systems and procedures
OHSAS 18001: 1999
1) Health and safety policy
2) Planning
3) Implementation and operation
Control, Competence, Co-operation, Communication
4) Checking and corrective action
5) Management review.

(Test)
1) Replacement and retraining of staff is a cost that an organisation
may face following a workplace accident.
List EIGHT other possible costs to an organisation when an employee
has been seriously injured in such an accident.
Or
2) Replacement or repair of damaged plant and equipment is a cost
that an organisation may face following a workplace accident.
List EIGHT other possible costs to an organisation when an employee
has been seriously injured in such an accident.
Or
3) It is generally accepted that, following a workplace accident the
hidden costs (usually uninsured) greatly exceed the more obvious
costs which are usually covered by insurance. Outline FOUR of these
hidden costs, giving an example of each

Payments to injured employee


Loss of production
Damage to equipment and materials
Repairs to plant and equipment
Legal action , e.g. fines
Loss of contracts
Loss of business reputation
Cost of accident investigation
Increased insurance premiums

4 ) List the main components of a health and safety


management system
a) A clear health and safety policy
b) The organisation of staff
c) The planning of specific procedures for H & S
d) The implementation of the planned systems
e) Measuring/monitoring that system is working
f) An audit/review of the system
5 ) Outline FOUR main components of the health and safety management
system.
Policy:Health and safety aims of the organisation, health and safety objectives and
management commitment
Organising:Competence, commitment and control, Co-operation, Communication
Planning and Implementation:Identify hazards, assess risks, and decide how risks can be eliminated or
controlled. Sets standards against which performance can be measured.
Measuring performance:Be used as a means of determining the extent to which health and safety policy
and objectives are being implemented and should be both reactive and
proactive.
Reviewing:-

Analysing data gathered through monitoring to see whether performance is


adequate
Audit:Systematic critical examination of each stage of an organisations management
systems and procedures

6)
a) Explain the difference between the objectives of a Criminal Law
system and a Civil Law system
Criminal Law aims to punish
Civil Law aims to compensate for loss or injury
b) Outline the THREE standard conditions that are usually required
to be met to prove a case of negligence against an employer.

There was a duty of care owed to the injured party.


The duty of care was breached (Negligence)
The breach cause the injury or loss

c) Outline the typical actions that might be brought against an


employer who has breached Criminal Law in relation to health and
safety
Provide health and safety advice and guidance to rectify the breach
Issue legal document to the employer to make specified
improvements to rectify the breach.
Issue legal mandate demanding that work in dangerous situations is
stopped and made safe.
Take out a prosecution to punish the employer.

d) Explain why health and safety legislation might be enforced to


different standards in different countries
a) Different legal systems
b) Different standards of legislation and enforcement
c) Different penalties for breaches
d) Religious beliefs and cultural issues
e) How society views the offences
f) Ability and knowledge of Enforcing Authorities
g) Funding, number and workload of enforcement staff
h) Degree of reporting to Enforcement Authorities
i) Political pressure e.g. enforcement initiatives