ANDAMAN ISLANDS

COASTAL AREA ASSESSMENT
A POST TSUNAMI STUDY ON COASTAL
CONSERVATION AND REGULATION
EQUATIONS
INDIA
Coastal Area Assessment
A post tsunami study on coastal
conservation and re¿ulation.

E0uATl0h5
lndia
Published in lndia, zoo6 by E0uATl0h5
E0uATl0h5 was founded in 1¤8ç in response to an ur¿e to
understand the impacts of tourism development particularly
in the context of liberalised re¿imes, economic reforms and
the openin¿ up of the economy. we envision tourism that is
non-exploitative, ¿ender iust & sustainable where decision
makin¿ is democratised and access to and beneñts of
tourism are equitably distributed.
This publication may be reproduced in whole or in part for
educational, advocacy or not-for-proñt purposes. we would
appreciate your seekin¿ permission from us, lettin¿ us know
of the use you wish to put it to, and acknowled¿in¿ us as the
source.
Citatien: E0uATl0h5, Feb zoo6.
"Andaman lslands - Coastal Area Assessment:
a Post Tsunami 5tudy on Coastal
Conservation & ke¿ulation", 8an¿alore lhulA.
Cere kesearch 1eam:
Ms. 8rinda Ayer
Mr. 5yed Liyakhat
Ms. Maniu Menon
Mr. P. Muthu
£xtended CensuItative 1eam:
Mr. 5amir Acharya, 5ociety for Andaman & hicobar Ecolo¿y
Mr. 5amir Mehta, 8ombay Environmental Action 0roup
Mr. 5udarshan kodri¿uez
Mr. Pankai 5ekhsaria, Kalpavriksh
Ms. Aarthi 5ridhar, Ashoka Trust for kesearch on Ecolo¿y &
Environment
ANDAMAN ISLANDS
Acknowledgements
£0bA1I0N5 -Equitable Tourism 0ptions, # u1ç, zC -Cross, uth Main, 0M8k Layout, 8anaswadi, 8an¿alore ç6o ou¸, lhulA
Ph: +¤1-8o-zçuç,6o,]zçuç,6ç¤, Fax: +¤1-8o-zçuç,66ç, £maiI: infoQequitabletourism.or¿, website: www.equitabletourism.or¿
E0uATl0h5 sincerely acknowled¿es the contribution of
Mr. Rarry Andrews, Andaman and hicobar Environment
Trust, Mr. Manish Chandi and Mr. 5aran¿ Kulkarni, keef
watch for their support to carry out the Coastal Area
Assessment in the Andamans. Their inputs have been very
valuable towards the completion of this report.
Layeut desiçn: smriti.chanchaniQ¿mail.com
AII phetes: Ms. Aarthi 5ridhar, ATkEE
address

TABLE OF CONTENTS
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Context of the study
0biectives of the study
Activities & report
kecommendations
PART I - INTRODUCTION
1.1. The Milieu
1.z. The Tsunami and its Aftermath
1.¸. Methods
1.¸.1. 0eo¿raphical 5cope of the Assessment
1.¸.z. Limitations of the 5tudy
1.u. Andaman and hicobar lslands
1.u.1. Andaman lslands
1.u.z. Threats to 8iodiversity and Endemism
1.u.¸. vulnerability & lmpacts of unplanned uevelopment
PART 2 - IMPLEMENTATION OF LEGAL & POLICY FRAMEWORK
FOR COASTAL CONSERVATION & REGULATION IN ANDAMANS
z.1. Coastal ke¿ulation Zone (CkZ) hotiñcation, 1¤¤1 - The Potential to Protect Coastal
Rabitats and Coastal Communities
z.z. CkZ hotiñcation, 1¤¤1- salient features
z.¸. Classiñcation of CkZ in the Andaman lslands
z.u. lmplementin¿ a¿encies
z.ç. uilutions to the provisions of the notiñcation
z.6. Analysis of amendments made to the CkZ hotiñcation
z.6.1. keduction in the ho-uevelopment Zone for promotion of tourism
z.6.z. Cate¿orisation of CkZ ll areas:
z.6.¸. ho ñrm check on sand minin¿
z.,. lssues kelatin¿ to the Lack of lmplementation of the CkZ hotiñcation and the
Coastal Zone Mana¿ement Plan (CZMP)
z.,.1. Present status of CZMP and the initiation of lCZMP
z.,.z. Linka¿es ] conficts between the CkZ and local development re¿ulations
z.,.¸. CkZ violations: Construction and activities within the ho uevelopment Zone
z.8. Facilitatin¿ Effective Coastal Mana¿ement
PART 3 - OVERVIEW OF IMPACTS OF EARTHQUAKE & TSUNAMI
¸.1. lmpacts on the Andaman lslands
¸.1.1. 0eomorpholo¿ical chan¿es
¸.1.z. lmpacts on the Coastal ke¿ulation Zone
¸.1.¸. lmpacts on coral reefs
¸.1.u. lmpacts on man¿roves
¸.1.ç. lmpacts on a¿ricultural lands
- e1
- e¶
- 11
- z6
¸.1.6. 5alination of ¿round water and other freshwater resources
¸.1.,. lmpacts on ñsheries
¸.1.8. lmpacts on structures
¸.z. CkZ implementation in the context of the tsunami
¸.¸. lssues concernin¿ reconstruction and rehabilitation activities and their impacts
¸.¸.1. Construction of dykes alon¿ the coast for a¿ricultural restoration
¸.¸.z. kehabilitation of man¿rove forests
¸.¸.¸. 8io-shield pro¿ramme
¸.¸.u. lncrease in water and chemical usa¿e for reclamation of a¿ricultural land
¸.¸.ç. Chan¿es in land use
¸.¸.6. Environmental sanitation in intermediate shelters
¸.u. hew constructions and reconstructions in CkZ l
¸.ç. 5upreme Court order post-tsunami permittin¿ sand minin¿
PART 4 - TOURISM IN THE ANDAMAN AND NICOBAR ISLANDS
u.1. hatural uisasters and Tourism in 5mall lsland uevelopin¿ Economies
u.z. Tourism Policy of the lslands
u.¸. Tourism Policy in the Andamans and the Tsunami
u.u. Tourism Policy in the Andamans: A uesperate heed for Chan¿e in the Li¿ht of the Tsunami Experience
u.ç. A 8asket Full of Tourism Master Plans for the lslands
u.6. uevelopment 5trate¿y for Environmentally 5ustainable Tourism in the Andamans (1¤¤,)
u.,. ln Addition to Master Plans
u.8. The Twinnin¿ of Cities A¿reement - Frau¿ht with Controversies
u.¤. Current tourism related problems in Andamans
u.1o. Future Trends in Tourism uevelopment in the lslands
u.11. Local Tourism Entrepreneurship in the lslands: The case of Ravelock lsland
RECOMMENDATIONS
ANNEXURES
Andaman & hicobar lslands
Tourism vision - Andaman and hicobar Administration
8ack¿round hote on uevelopmental Activities in the Andaman & hicobar lslands
A Comparison of Two 5ustainable Tourism uevelopment Plans for Andaman & hicobar lslands
BIBLIOGRAPHY
PLATES
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Context of the study
Objectives of the study
This study was undertaken in the context of the
tsunami of z6 uecember zoou, which was a ¿rim
reminder of the need to ensure the protection of
coastal and island ecosystems and to revisit issues
relatin¿ to le¿al and policy frameworks ¿overnin¿
them. 8oth coastal and island ecosystems are
ecolo¿ically fra¿ile and extremely sensitive to the
natural and anthropo¿enic activities affectin¿ them.
A number of relevant questions need to be addressed
in the context of the tsunami and the series of events
that followed. Primary amon¿ these are:
1. Row can the inte¿rity of coastal ecosystems be
ensured and not compromised, ¿iven, on one
the hand, the rehabilitation and reconstruction
of affected communities, and on the other, the
numerous development plans that have been
chalked out by ¿overnments for different sectors!
z. Are the existin¿ le¿al and policy frameworks
and their processes adequate to re¿ulate these
activities!
¸. what are the implications that natural disasters
like the tsunami, pose for the implementation of
le¿al and policy frameworks!
This study may be considered as a contribution
to the on¿oin¿ debate and advocacy efforts with
concerned individuals, ¿roups and authorities to
revisit the coastal area development debate and
current le¿al and policy frameworks, speciñcally the
Coastal ke¿ulation Zone hotiñcation, 1¤¤1 under
the Environment (Protection) Act, 1¤86. E0uATl0h5,
havin¿ worked on impacts of tourism on communities
and ecosystems, sees this study as an opportunity
to revisit these issues in the particular context of
tourism development, hi¿hli¿ht concerns where
we have been consistently attemptin¿ to infuence
tourism policy and its implementation.
The study was initiated with a set of short term and
lon¿-term obiectives, which were;
Short-term objectives
a) Assess the extent of impact on human life,
livelihoods, property and coastal and island
ecosystems from an environmental perspective.
Long-term objectives
1. uocument procedural lapses in permittin¿ such
activities.
z. Facilitate stren¿thenin¿ of existin¿ le¿al frameworks
to address unplanned development.
¸. Critique development plans and activities on coasts
and islands.
Rowever, durin¿ the course of the study, the team was
compelled to revisit some of them. ln the short-term
obiectives, le¿al violations of environmental laws,
which in this case are the Coastal ke¿ulation Zone
hotiñcation, 1¤¤1, could not be established due to
the ambi¿uity in the hotiñcation re¿ardin¿ clearance
mechanisms for proiects. what would appear to be
an "in-principle" violation may actually be a cleared
proiect. uetailed and case-by-case investi¿ations
have to be undertaken for this. Therefore, this aspect
of the hotiñcation has not been dealt with in this
study. ln the lon¿-term obiectives, documentation of
procedural lapses in allowin¿ such activities was also
not undertaken due to the aforementioned reasons.
The study has been able to deal with address all other
obiectives reasonably well.
Activities & Report
This study was undertaken durin¿ the period March
- uecember zooç. This assessment was undertaken
by way of ñeld visits, consultations with local
individuals and ¿roups, photo-documentation and
compilation of secondary information and data. This
investi¿ation helped ascertain the extent of impacts
on human lives, livelihoods, and ecosystems on the
one hand, and to document and critique existin¿
le¿al frameworks and development plans, especially
tourism relatin¿ to coastal and marine systems in the
lsland ¿roup.
The results of this study reconñrm the biophysical
and cultural uniqueness of the Andaman and hicobar
b) Assess the vulnerability of coastal and island
ecosystems due to unplanned and unre¿ulated
development.
c) Collect preliminary information from the affected
sites.
d) Examine violations of environmental laws and
related matters thereof.
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
1
lslands, however, they also point to the extremely
fra¿ility of these ecosystems in view of natural and
anthropo¿enic perturbations affectin¿ them. The
extent of loss of human life and property especially
in the hicobar lslands demonstrate how lar¿e-scale
natural disasters like tsunami can devastate small
islands. The ñrst section of this report contextualises
the impact of the tsunami by describin¿ the role and
function of coastal and marine ecosystems in the
Andaman and hicobar islands. A detailed description
of the various components of marine and coastal
ecosystems in the lslands and the human activities
impactin¿ them are described in the introductory
section are available in the appendices. This includes
information on the distribution of coastal systems
such as man¿roves, wetlands and coral reefs, their
ecolo¿ical role and the anthropo¿enic activities and
population densities reported from the districts and
tehsils.
Part z of this report addresses how on¿oin¿
and planned reconstruction, rehabilitation and
development activities need to be mana¿ed and
presents an analysis of coastal conservation and
re¿ulation issues with respect to le¿islations and
policies. The sin¿le overarchin¿ le¿islation for coastal
areas, the Coastal ke¿ulation Zone (CkZ) hotiñcation,
1¤¤1 is examined in detail. Althou¿h proposed more
that a decade a¿o, this notiñcation is ambi¿uous and
is yet to be fully implemented. The procedural lapses
and loopholes re¿ardin¿ implementation of this
le¿islation, problems with the iurisdictional scope
and dilution of this hotiñcation is also discussed in
this context.
ln Part ¸, the impact of the tsunami in terms of loss
to life and property are listed for districts as well
as speciñc sites. 5tructural and ¿eomorpholo¿ical
chan¿es as well as impacts on various ecosystems
includin¿ a¿ricultural lands are assessed. The
vulnerability of the island ecosystems to natural
disasters is stressed upon especially in the li¿ht of
these development activities. The challen¿es posed
by reconstruction activities for implementation of
CkZ hotiñcation are analyzed here.
ln Part u the study has closely examined tourism
development plans amon¿ the various activities that
are planned in the islands for economic development.
This report examines impacts of tourism development
in detail in this section. The existin¿ tourism master
plans are reviewed and speciñc recommendations
are ¿iven on various aspects. 5peciñcally, the A&h
Recommendations
The key recommendations of this assessment are:
COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT
1. uemarcation of the RTL and the LTL needs to be
done at the earliest.
z. The new maps and plans should also be widely
distributed and made available at important
ofñces for public examinations at all times and
also posted on the ofñcial websites.
¸. The ambi¿uity in functionin¿ of A&hCZMA needs
to removed by brin¿in¿ into the public realm and
disclosin¿ practices they use to ¿ive clearances
for proiects.
u. The lnner Line Permit process needs to be put in
place at the earliest.
ç. The amendment to allow tourism proiects beyond
çom of RTL should be revoked.
TOURISM
6. All existin¿ tourism master plans and documents
should be shelved and the form of tourism that
would be sustainable for the islands needs to
be reconsidered based on current contexts and
developments, throu¿h participative processes. A
Administration is ur¿ed to examine this issue from
all an¿les takin¿ into consideration environmental,
infrastructural, economic, and socio-cultural aspects
and considerin¿ especially natural disasters such as
cyclones, earthquakes and tsunami.

Finally, a number of speciñc recommendations
have been put forth as a result of this study. For
the Andaman and hicobar islands, these include:
plannin¿ effective reconstruction and rehabilitation
measures without encroachin¿ on ecolo¿ically
sensitive areas (especially the CkZ l areas) or
exhaustin¿ valuable natural resources (such as timber
and sand), plannin¿ appropriate tourism strate¿ies
in tune with the environment, culture and carryin¿
capacity of the islands, developin¿ ¿uidelines to
stren¿then the existin¿ frameworks on coastal
le¿islation, preservation of ecolo¿ically sensitive
areas rich in biodiversity, discoura¿in¿ the sand
minin¿ and timber extraction and the construction
of harmful structures like sea walls, and renewed
restrictions on constructions and conversion of land
alon¿ the coast.
z
notiñcation to this effect should be brou¿ht out
for public information.
,. Tourism development should be in accordance
with the order of the 5upreme Court, based on
the recommendations of the 5hekhar 5in¿h
Committee report, which stron¿ly emphasised
very low permanent infrastructure based approach
to tourism.
8. hew areas should not be opened for tourism,
includin¿ for ecotourism, unless proper impact
assessment studies have been undertaken
and made available for public scrutiny and
intervention.
¤. Current local tourism enterprise in Ravelock and
heil needs to be re¿ularized and supported.
1o. hicobar lslands should not be opened for
tourism.
11. The Phuket - Port 8lair tourism linkin¿ plans need
to be terminated.
¸
List of abbreviations
1. A&h Andaman & hicobar lslands
z. A&hCZMA Andaman & hicobar Coastal Zone Mana¿ement Authority
¸. Cu 8lock Community uevelopment 8lock
u. CPC8 Central Pollution Control 8oard
ç. CkZ Coastal ke¿ulation Zone
6. CZMA Coastal Zone Mana¿ement Authority
,. CZMP Coastal Zone Mana¿ement Plan
8. ElA Environment lmpact Assessment
¤. EP kules Environment (Protection) kules
1o. EPA Environment (Protection) Act (1¤86)
11. 0ol 0overnment of lndia
1z. RC Ri¿h Court
1¸. RTL Ri¿h Tide Line
1u. lCZMP lnte¿rated Coastal Zone Mana¿ement Plan
1ç. Lh0 Liqueñed hatural 0as
16. LTL Low Tide Line
1,. m metres
18. MoEF Ministry 0f Environment And Forests
1¤. MoPh0 Ministry of Petroleum & hatural 0as
zo. Mo5T Ministry of 5urface Transport
z1. MoT Ministry of Tourism
zz. huZ ho uevelopment Zone
z¸. h0C ho 0biection Certiñcate
zu. 5C 5upreme Court
zç. 5CC 5upreme Court Cases
z6. 5EZ 5pecial Economic Zone
z,. 5PC8 5tate Pollution Control 8oard
z8. uol union of lndia
z¤. wP writ Petition
u
part 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1. The Milieu
Coastal areas are subiect to natural dynamics
induced by processes such as low and hi¿h tides,
land and sea breezes, the formation of sand dunes
alon¿ beaches, the formation of sand bars and spits,
frequent storms and cyclones and the occasional yet
devastatin¿ tsunami. These ecosystems have the
capacity to respond to chan¿es and recover from such
situations in the normal course, but this response
is often affected and slowed down as a result of
anthropo¿enic activities. A spanner is thrown in the
system when human activities assume proportions
beyond what coastal ecosystems can bear-in
the form unplanned, unre¿ulated and unfettered
expansion of developmental activities and what
are considered remedial activities or mana¿ement
measures, e.¿. sea walls and coastal plantations of
exotic species like casuarina.
As is the case in many parts of the world, the coastal
areas in lndia are also densely populated. Apart from
rural and urban settlements, coastal areas are the
site of many kinds of industrial and infrastructure
developments. Chemical and petrochemical
industries, thermal power plants, aquaculture and
tourism are the main industrial activities alon¿ the
coastline. hot to mention all maior and minor ports,
harbours and ietties that dot the lndian coastline
and islands of Andaman and hicobar lslands and
Lakshadweep. uefence and nuclear installations also
favour coastal areas.
Coastal ecosystems such as estuaries, man¿roves,
wetlands, coral reefs and deep seas receive less
attention in the form of policy and le¿al frameworks
as compared to terrestrial ecosystems like forests.
This is also evident from various laws and policies
that ¿overn forests nationally. Althou¿h some
these would be applicable to speciñc sub-systems
of coastal areas (e.¿. man¿rove forests come under
the wild Life (Protection) Act, 1¤,z and the Forest
(Conservation) Act, 1¤8o), the remainin¿ coastal
areas are to be ¿overned by a sin¿le notiñcation
under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1¤86 - the
Coastal ke¿ulation Zone (CkZ) hotiñcation, 1¤¤1.
1.2. The Tsunami and its
Aftermath
lnitial assessments carried out by the ¿overnment
as well as non-¿overnment and inter-¿overnmental
a¿encies emer¿ed with similar ñndin¿s - rehabilitate
natural ecosystems; natural protective measures are
preferred to artiñcial physical barriers; manmade
barriers such as seawalls fra¿ment habitats and
would a¿¿ravate the impacts of tsunami by creatin¿
turbulence. Most of these environmental assessments
are also critical and advocate better coastal
mana¿ement and land use strate¿ies to reduce
vulnerability and stress on coastal ecosystems.
lt may not be possible to directly correlate the extent
of tsunami linked dama¿e to life and property to
the volume of development on the coastal areas
due to various factors in play, e.¿. the time of the
day, the proximity to coastline, etc. lt may also
not be possible to assess how vulnerable coastal
ecosystems have become due to natural disasters
because of hi¿h level of technical expertise and time
required to undertake such assessments. At the
same time, it is possible to deduce how haphazard
and unrestricted developments have rendered
coastal ecosystems vulnerable to undesired chan¿e.
This is more pronounced in the case of coastal states
such as Tamil hadu and Pondicherry which suffered
maximum dama¿e (5ee ñ¿ures 1 for ¿eneral impacts
of the tsunami in south Asia).
The tsunami has impacted coastal ecosystems to
varyin¿ de¿rees. ln the case of Andaman and hicobar
lslands, the tsunami coupled with earthquakes has
drastically chan¿ed the landscape. The island ¿roups
have been lifted by a few metres in the northwest
and subsided by a few metres in southeast. This
has modiñed the perimeters and parameters of
the islands. 5tudies and assessments conducted
by competent a¿encies have established these
crucial aspects in ¿reater detail. At the same time,
these chan¿es pose challen¿es to the conservation
of affected coastal areas and to rethink the form of
development that can be proposed in these areas. lt
is worth reiteratin¿ that earlier development plans
and mana¿ement processes cannot be implemented
in their current form, as is presented in the analysis
of tourism development plans in this report.
The Coastal ke¿ulation Zone (CkZ) hotiñcation, 1¤¤1
was conceived to be a ¿uideline that would infuence
all types of developmental activities on the coast, yet
ç
Figure 1 : path of tsunami on time scale & magnitude of impact
1.3. Methods
1.3.1. Geographical Scope of the
assessment
when the study was conceptualised in February
zooç, it was expected that all island ¿roups in the
Andaman and hicobar lslands that were affected
would be studied. Rowever, based on reports that
were comin¿ in from individuals and or¿anisations
workin¿ in the lslands, it was felt that an assessment
in the hicobars would not be feasible in terms of the
time, effort and lo¿istics. Additionally, the process
of obtainin¿ permits from the Andaman and hicobar
lslands Administration would have been time
consumin¿ and expensive as it would have involved
the team members bein¿ stationed in Port 8lair for
extended periods of time. Furthermore, durin¿ this
period a number of h00s were already in the hicobars
doin¿ assessments and involved in relief activities,
and the administration was hesitant to issue more
permits. 8ased on these factors and on the basis of
the recommendations of our network partners in luly
zooç, the hicobar ¿roup of islands was not covered
in the present study. ln addition to this, the hicobar
lslands have not witnessed as much development as
Andaman lslands where coastal conservation and
mana¿ement pose challen¿es. Rence it was decided
to concentrate only on the Andamans.
5patial - lnitially three areas were identiñed for the
assessment in the Andaman ¿roup: Port 8lair, Rut
8ay and Ravelock lsland. Rowever, based on the
5ource: http:]]www.¿rid.unep.ch]product]map]ima¿es]indianocean_propwave.¿if
it has not been fully implemented since its inception
a decade and a half back. There are numerous
violations of its philosophy, provisions and clauses.
The hotiñcation itself remains ambi¿uous as to its
implementation (for e.¿. the process of obtainin¿
clearances for proiects), althou¿h it lays down clearly
what are permissible and non-permissible activities.
Affected areas like Tamil hadu and the Andaman
and hicobar lslands do not yet have an approved
Coastal Zone Mana¿ement Plan; almost a decade
has passed since the 5upreme Court deadline was
¿iven for submission and approval of these Plans.
uevelopmental proiects and activities seem to be
takin¿ place on an ad hoc basis. Even with all its
shortcomin¿s, the hotiñcation remains as the only
le¿al support for coastal conservation and re¿ulation.
0ver and above this, le¿islations brin¿ about policies
and plans that contradict the principles of CkZ. ln
the context of tourism, it is important to study the
wide ran¿e of lobbies that push for "certain kinds of
developmental activities" that will have impacts on
communities, livelihoods, ecolo¿y and development
of sustainable tourism.
The need of the hour is to ¿o back to the ori¿inal
philosophy of the CkZ hotiñcation, take on board
the contemporary challen¿es and rework its norms,
provisions and re¿ulatory measures. This study is an
attempt in this direction.
6
Thematic: the followin¿ themes were covered for
the purpose of the assessment:

1. lmpact of the tsunami on human community
and ecolo¿y and chan¿in¿ ¿eomorpholo¿y of
the islands. This included an assessment of
both natural and man-induced factors affectin¿
ecosystem health, dynamics and their impacts.
z. keconstruction measures adopted and their
quality, community structures and their response.
¸. uevelopment plans for various sectors, especially
tourism and includin¿ others like ñsheries and
a¿riculture.
u. 5tatus of implementation of le¿al frameworks
(CkZ hotiñcation).
The study was carried out throu¿h:
1. Collection of secondary information - statistics,
development plans and status reports.
z. kapid visual assessments by the study team
which were discussed within the team and photo-
documented to substantiate the observations.
¸. uiscussions and meetin¿s with various
stakeholders in ¿overnment departments,
includin¿ the Lt. 0overnor and Chief 5ecretary,
and other heads of departments (Environment,
Forests, Fisheries, Collectorate and 5ocial
welfare), the tourism industry and local people on
speciñc issues.
u. Meetin¿s and discussions with network partners
and other civil society or¿anisations workin¿ in
the lslands.
The scheme of data collection is summarised in the
fow chart alon¿side (Fi¿ure ¸).
team's assessment of the ¿round situation and after
discussions in Port 8lair with Mr. 5amir Acharya of
5ociety for Andaman and hicobar Ecolo¿y (5AhE),
it was decided to include parts of horth and Middle
Andaman in the study. 5AhE is an h00 based in Port
8lair that has been actively pursuin¿ conservation
and indi¿enous peoples' issues in the Andaman &
hicobar lslands.
,
Figure 2 : andaman & nicobar
islands
Figure 3: Field assessment process
uATE
L0CATl0h
kapid visual Assessment
Meetin¿]uiscussion with
5takeholders
Team Meetin¿]Meetin¿ with
hetwork Partners
Assessment eI:
1. The extent of development
(settlements]tourism]ñsheries
etc.) alon¿ the coastline and
vulnerability of settlements and
eco systems to natural disasters
z. The impact of the tsunami
to coastal ¿eomorpholo¿y,
eco-system health and human
settlements
¸. The impact of reconstruction
and rehabilitation work
followin¿ the tsunami on
coastal ecolo¿y and human
settlements
u. The challen¿es in
implementation of le¿al
frameworks related to
developmental activities and
environmental protection e.¿.
the CkZ hotiñcation, 1¤¤1
ç. Photo-documentation
ßiscussien eI:
1. uevelopment plans for various
sectors, especially tourism.
0ther sectors include ñsheries
and a¿riculture
z. The implementation of
le¿al frameworks related to
developmental activities and
environmental protection
¸. The development of human
settlements alon¿ the coastline
and related issues
u. 5ocial, cultural and economic
impacts of the tsunami
ç. 5ocial, cultural and economic
impacts of tourism development
ßiscussien eI:
1. Field survey lo¿istics
z. Assessment 5trate¿y
¸. uebrieñn¿ meetin¿s to discuss
future strate¿y and action
1.3.2. Limitations of the Study
a) The study has been limited to the coastal areas of
the Andaman lslands that are covered by the CkZ
hotiñcation. keco¿nizin¿ that areas beyond the
coastal re¿ulation zone have an impact on coastal
areas, the study was able to focus on coastal area
issues only. Addressin¿ other issues would have
complicated analysis.
b) The study was done on the basis of information
¿athered from populated areas of Andaman
lslands. The coastal areas of e.¿. uninhabited
islands and fallin¿ under the larawa reserve were
also not covered.
1.4. Andaman & Nicobar
Islands
The Andaman and hicobar lslands is the lar¿est
archipela¿o in the 8ay of 8en¿al. Ali¿ned in a north-
south direction, they comprise ç,z islands, islets
and rocks con¿re¿ated into two maior ¿roups-the
Andaman and the hicobar ¿roups. The Andaman
¿roup, which is located closer to Myanmar, consists
of çço islands, islets and rocks and covers a land
area of 6uo8 kmz. This ¿roup includes lar¿e islands
such as the Middle Andaman, horth Andaman, 5outh
Andaman, 8aratan¿ and Little Andaman. The hicobar
¿roup consists of zz islands havin¿ a total land area
8
of 18u1 kmz. 0reat hicobar (the southernmost island
of the hicobar chain) is the lar¿est island (1ouç kmz).
The total area of the Andaman & hicobar islands is
8zu¤ kmz and the total len¿th of islands' coastline
is about 1¤6z km, accountin¿ for about one fourth of
the total coastline of lndia.
ln hovember 1¤ç6 the A&h islands were constituted
Table 1
Administrative units of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands
District Sub-Division C.D Block Tehsil
Andaman Mayabunder horth Andaman ui¿lipur
Middle Andaman Mayabunder
kan¿at
5outh Andaman 5outh Andaman Port 8lair
Ferrar¿uni
hicobar Car hicobar Car hicobar Car hicobar
hancowry hancowry hancowry
as a union Territory of lndia and are administered by
the President of lndia throu¿h the Lt. 0overnor whose
head quarters is at Port 8lair on 5outh Andaman.
Administratively, the lslands are divided into two
districts i.e. the Andaman district and the hicobar
uistrict¹. Table 1 outlines the districts and further
administrative subdivisions of the island ¿roup.
1.4.1. Andaman Islands
Topo¿raphically, the Andaman lslands are
characterised by low ran¿e of hills and narrow
valleys, except in the coastal stretches. The ran¿es
are ali¿ned in a north-south direction, but several
spurs and rid¿es run off the main ran¿es in all
directions. The slopes are moderate to steep, ra¿¿ed
and prone to erosion. Flat lands are comparatively
scarce and conñned to some of the lar¿er valleys.
The hi¿hest point in all the areas is 5addle Peak on
horth Andaman lsland. lt is at an elevation of about
8oom above mean sea level.
There is no maior perennial fresh water river in
these islands except Kalpon¿ in horth Andaman.
There are several rainfed streams that dry up durin¿
the summer. The coastline of these islands is wavy
with lar¿e number of bays, la¿oons and serpentine
creeks.
The inland forest eco-system is characterised by the
ever¿reen and semi-deciduous ve¿etation types.
The lslands still have approximately 86% of ori¿inal
forest cover left, and probably another 1o-zo% has
been de¿raded by human activities. (MacArthur and
wilson 1¤6, as quoted by AhET zoo¸). The area of
man¿roves in Andamans is ¤z¤ km¹.
The Andaman (and hicobar) lslands have the last
pristine reefs in the lndian 0cean re¿ion, and are
emer¿in¿ as one of the most important coral reef
sites in the world. Coral reefs stretch over an area of
11,ooo km¹ in the Andamans
The coral reefs of the islands are under various
de¿rees of threat such as siltation, sand minin¿,
a¿ricultural runoff and dama¿e due to ñshin¿ and
tourism activities. These are apart from ¿lobal
climatic factors such as the rise in sea surface
temperatures. The collection of shells and sea
cucumbers for commercial purposes has led to their
drastic decline. while they are protected now, the
uepartment of Environment and Forests has not been
¿iven the additional resources necessary to enforce
the ban on their collection.
The Andaman (and hicobar) lslands harbour some
of the richest and unique biodiversity in the world.
The lslands are an internationally acknowled¿ed
hot spot for biodiversity, with over ¸,ççz species of
fowerin¿ plants (with zz¸ endemic species), ç,1oo
species of animals (1oo freshwater, z,8u, terrestrial,
ço¸ endemic) and u,ço8 marine species (of which
zzo are endemic), çz species of mammals (with ¸¸
endemics), zuu species of birds (¤6 endemics) and
111 species of amphibians and reptiles (66 endemic)
(uas 1¤¤u, 1¤¤,a, 1¤¤¤; Andrews zoo1). The islands
also have a reported 1¤, species of corals, with about
8o% of the maximum coral diversity found anywhere
in the world. This makes them the richest coral reefs
in the lndian 0cean and an area of ¿lobal si¿niñcance
(Turner et al. zoo1, vousden zoo1, quoted in Andrews
and 5ankaran zooz)¹.
¹ www.andaman.nic.in
¹ uialo¿ue April-lune, zoo¸, volume u ho. u, Conservin¿ the 8iodiversity in Andaman and hicobar
lslands, ur. vasumathi 5ankar, Astha 8harati.
¤
1.4.3. Vulnerability & Impacts of
Unplanned Development
The ecosystems of small islands such as the Andaman
and hicobar ¿roup are particularly vulnerable to
factors affectin¿ environmental setup of small island
states. These include:
· Limited assimilative and carryin¿ capacity, leadin¿
to problems associated with waste mana¿ement,
water stora¿e and other factors affected by small
territorial size.
· A relatively lar¿e coastal zone, in relation to the
landmass, makin¿ these states especially prone to
erosion.
· Fra¿ile ecosystems, because of low resistance to
outside infuences, endan¿erin¿ endemic species
of fora and fauna.
· vulnerability to natural disasters, includin¿
earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, cyclones,
hurricanes, foods, tidal waves and others-these
disasters also affects lar¿er territories, but the
impact is more devastatin¿ on small islands.
· A relatively hi¿h proportion of land, which could be
affected by climate chan¿e, and in particular a rise
in sea level, possibly resultin¿ in proportionately
lar¿e land losses, particularly in low-lyin¿ areas.
1.4.2. Threats to Biodiversity and
Endemism
This endemism is due to the isolation from mainland
Asia (uas 1¤¤¤). Thus, considerin¿ the size and area of
the islands, loss of habitat leadin¿ to extinctions will
have far ¿reater consequences in terms of the loss of
¿enetic diversity than comparable areas elsewhere. A
rou¿h calculation usin¿ island bio¿eo¿raphy theory
indicates that with the area of forest down to 86% of
what it used to be, about u. ç% of species may have
been lost.
lntroduced species are a problem in the Andamans.
Typical island introductions such as rats, do¿s, and
cats may be harmin¿ the endemic Andaman crake
(kallina cannin¿i) (5tattersñeld et al. 1¤¤8). 5potted
deer (Axis axis) are now widespread throu¿hout the
Andamans, as is the African ¿iant snail (Achatina
fulica). Elephants (Elephas maximus) have been
introduced to lnterview lsland and horth Andaman.
· The si¿niñcant impact on the environment on
economic development, often leadin¿ to a
quick depletion of a¿ricultural land and natural
resources." (8ri¿u¿lio 1¤¤¤).
The Andaman and hicobar lslands are susceptible
to all the threats mentioned above. The tsunami
that struck the islands on uecember z6, zoou not
only affected the human populations of the islands
and their infrastructure, but also caused extensive
dama¿e to the natural ecosystems that were already
stressed by anthropo¿enic pressures such as
deforestation and destruction of man¿roves, sand
minin¿, unsustainable ñshin¿ practices, soil erosion,
coral destruction, unplanned and unsustainable
tourism, wildlife trade and the introduction of exotic
species.
while there are limitations to the extent to which
the ne¿ative impacts of the above processes can
be arrested or tackled, appropriate development
plannin¿ in these areas could surely help to counter
or miti¿ate some of the ne¿ative impacts or at least
make the communities dwellin¿ here less vulnerable
to these impacts. ln the development context of the
Andamans this is more so as only ç% of the land
is ñt for a¿riculture and not too much industrial
activity can take place and therefore pressures on
coasts is more and hence need to conserve coasts
is even more imperative. Rowever, over the last
few years, unre¿ulated development has de¿raded
coastal stretches and depleted resources - this has
happened in contravention of the CkZ hotiñcation,
which is one of the most important le¿islations for
the coasts.
1o
part 2
2.1. Coastal Regulation
Zone (CRZ) Notification,
1991 – The Potential to
Protect Coastal Habitats
and Coastal Communities
ln this section the primary focus is on the Coastal
ke¿ulation Zone hotiñcation, 1¤¤1 and its
implementation in the Andaman lslands. The focus of
this study is limited to the hotiñcation as it is a vital
le¿al framework ¿overnin¿ coastal areas. Althou¿h
other environmental laws would apply to select
areas, e.¿., forest and wildlife laws on man¿roves,
the CkZ would primarily be applicable to allow or
not allow activities. with respect to Andamans, the
CkZ would be instrumental in decidin¿ activities and
developments because of its special status as an
oceanic island ¿roup (reco¿nized by CkZ as cate¿ory
lv; refer details below) and environmental issues
confrontin¿ islands are more complex; it is critically
important to address these.
ln the context of the tsunami, the challen¿es posed
to the CkZ are centered around the fact that the
lsland's tidal lines have under¿one a shift because of
chan¿es brou¿ht about by earthquakes and serious
reconsideration that is required due to inadequate
implementation of the CkZ since its inception.
The CkZ hotiñcation, issued in 1¤¤1 under the
Environment (Protection) Act, 1¤86 and the
Environment (Protection) kules, 1¤86 is the most
si¿niñcant and specialised le¿islative ¿uidelines
re¿ulatin¿ anthropo¿enic activities alon¿ the coast.
lts importance lies with the fact that it empowers
the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) with
substantial power to take action "for the purpose
of protectin¿ and improvin¿ the quality of the
environment and preventin¿, controllin¿ and abatin¿
environmental pollution."
"Apart from the Coastal ke¿ulation Zone hotiñcation,
1¤¤1, there are many le¿islations, ofñcial orders
and notiñcations, related to coastal activities.
The followin¿ are important: lndian Fisheries Act,
18¤,(and the various state ñsheries laws that
followed); the lndian Ports Act, 1¤o8; Merchant
5hippin¿ Act, 1¤ç8, wildlife (Protection) Act, 1¤,z;
water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1¤,u,
Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1¤81; the
IMPLEMENTATION OF LEGAL & POLICY FRAMEWORK FOR
COASTAL CONSERVATION & REGULATION IN ANDAMANS
lndian Coast 0uard Act, 1¤,u; and Maritime Zones of
lndia (ke¿ulation of Fishin¿ by Forei¿n vessels) Act,
1¤81 and Environment (Protection) Act, 1¤86; The
Petroleum Act, 1¤¸u; hational Environment Tribunal
Act, 1¤¤ç; Razardous wastes (Mana¿ement and
Randlin¿) kules, 1¤8¤, the Coast 0uard Act, 1¤,8,
the Territorial waters, Continental 5helf, Exclusive
Economic Zone and 0ther Maritime Zones Act, 1¤,6,
the 0ffshore Mineral (uevelopment and ke¿ulation)
Act, zooz.
ln addition to this, lndia has si¿ned and ratiñed
several international conventions relatin¿ to oceans
and related activities. 5ome of these are related
to marine environment and applicable to coastal
areas also. The important ones are the followin¿:
MAkP0L 1¤,¸]1¤,8; London uumpin¿ Convention,
1¤,z; Convention on Civil Liability for 0il Pollution
uama¿es (CLC 1¤6¤) and its Protocol, 1¤,6; Fund,
1¤,1 and its Protocol, 1¤,¤; ClTE5, Convention on
8iodiversity, 1¤¤z includes coastal biodiversity also.
0thers such 'soft laws' include uh Convention on the
Law of the 5eas (uhCL05), and ¿uidelines under the
lnternational Maritime 0r¿anisation such as ballast
water ¿uidelines.
The CkZ notiñcation seeks to operationalise three
obiectives, which are very si¿niñcant:
Siting cr lccoticn cf octivitics cr cpcroticns
This is based on the understandin¿ that coasts
perform important functions for coastal communities
and ecosystems. The coasts are important nestin¿
and feedin¿ ¿rounds for several terrestrial and
aquatic species. These coastal habitats also provide
sustenance and livelihood opportunities to several
coastal communities (both ñshin¿ and non-ñshin¿
communities). kules for the sitin¿ of activities can
ensure that the ri¿hts of traditional ñshin¿ and coastal
communities over certain areas are not compromised
to meet increasin¿ development requirements such
as the demands of the bur¿eonin¿ tourism industry.
kcstricting onJ pcrmitting octivitics
The CkZ hotiñcation deñnes the nature of activities
11
2.2. CRZ Notification,
1991– salient features
The CkZ notiñcation declares the coastal stretches of
seas, bays, estuaries, creeks, rivers and backwaters
which are infuenced by tidal action (in the landward
side) up to çoo metres from the Ri¿h Tide Line (RTL)
and the land between the Low Tide Line (LTL) and
the RTL as the Coastal ke¿ulation Zone. lt imposes
restrictions on the settin¿ up and expansion of
industries, operations, processes, etc. in the said
CeastaI keçuIatien Zene (CkZ). For purposes of the
hotiñcation, the Ri¿h Tide Line (RTL) is deñned as the
level up to which the hi¿hest point reached by the
hi¿h tide durin¿ sprin¿ tides.
The hotiñcation also stated that the coastal states
and union Territories should prepare within a period
of one year from the date of the hotiñcation, CeastaI
Zene Manaçement PIans (CZMP) identifyin¿ and
classifyin¿ the CkZ areas within their respective
territories in accordance with the ¿uidelines ¿iven
in Annexure l and ll of the hotiñcation and that
these plans are to be approved (with or without
modiñcations) by the Central 0overnment in the
Ministry of Environment and Forests.
The CkZ notiñcation follows a classiñcation
system for the CkZ based on their ecolo¿ical and
¿eomorpholo¿ical characteristics and on the nature
of anthropo¿enic presence in these areas.
1. CkZ-I (i) is to comprise areas that are ecolo¿ically
sensitive such as national parks, sanctuaries,
wildlife habitats, man¿roves, coral reefs, areas
close to breedin¿ and spawnin¿ ¿rounds of ñsh
and other marine life, areas of outstandin¿ natural
beauty]herita¿e, areas likely to be inundated due
to a rise in sea level resultin¿ from ¿lobal warmin¿
and such other areas as may be declared by the
Central 0overnment or the concerned authorities
at the 5tate]union Territory level from time to
time.
2.3. Classification of CRZ
in the Andaman Islands
Most of the area in the union Territory of the Andaman
& hicobar lslands has been classiñed to come within
CkZ-lv. This classiñcation of CkZ-lv is unique to
islands of Andaman & hicobar, Lakshadweep and
others and it was speciñcally drafted takin¿ into
consideration the islands' unusual, rare and fra¿ile
coastal ecosystem because of their ¿eophysical
features. The hotiñcation further states that in some
of the islands the coastal stretches may be classiñed
as belon¿in¿ to CkZ l, ll or lll.
ln reality, CkZ-l include areas of reserved forests,
protected forests, man¿roves, wildlife sanctuaries,
national parks, ecolo¿ically sensitive areas, etc.
The entire rural]revenue area is under CkZ-lv
except a very small area, which is under CkZ-ll. The
coastal stretches of Port 8lair, 8amboofat, Rut 8ay,
Mayabunder, Campbell 8ay Readquarters and several
other areas have been proposed to be declassiñed as
CkZ ll ¹.
¹ List of CkZ ll areas in draft Coastal Zone Mana¿ement Plan of the Andaman and hicobar lslands.This classification is a matter of contention. The above
information on classification was sourced from a document titled the 'Coastal Zone Mana¿ement Plan for the Andaman and hicobar lslands' which is a
document approved with conditions specified by the MoE
2.4. Implementing agencies
The responsibility of implementin¿ the CkZ
hotiñcation rests with the 5tate 0overnments
and the MoEF. 0n z6 hovember 1¤¤8, the MoEF
constituted 1¸ 5tate Coastal Zone Mana¿ement
Authorities (5CZMAs), one for each of the coastal
states and union Territories and a hational Coastal
Zone Mana¿ement Authority (hCZMA) to monitor and
implement the provisions of the CkZ hotiñcation.
that are to be re¿ulated or restricted. lt does not issue
a blanket ban on all activities but lists activities that
are restricted and those that are permitted.
8oloncing Jcvclcpmcnt onJ prctccticn nccJs
This obiective is in¿rained in the spirit of the CkZ,
which reco¿nises that different areas have different
ecolo¿ical sensitivities and therefore need varyin¿
levels or modes of protection.
Thus, the protection afforded to CkZ l is desi¿ned to
be more strin¿ent than that accorded to CkZ ll areas,
where more activities are permitted.
z. CkZ-l (ii) are those areas lyin¿ between the Low
Tide Line and the Ri¿h Tide Line.
¸. CkZ-ll areas are those already developed up to or
close to the shoreline. This refers to areas within
municipal limits or in other le¿ally desi¿nated
urban areas provided with draina¿e, approach
roads, water supply, etc.
u. CkZ-lll areas are those which are relatively
undisturbed and do not belon¿ to either CkZ l or
ll. These include the coastal zone in rural areas
(developed and undeveloped) and those within
municipal limits or in le¿ally desi¿nated urban
areas that are not substantially built up.
ç. CkZ-lv are the coastal stretches in Andaman and
hicobar, Lakshadweep and small islands, except
those desi¿nated as CkZ-l, CkZ-ll or CkZ-lll.
1z
The hational and 5tate CZMAs also have the powers
to enforce clauses of the notiñcation and address
violations usin¿ the penal clauses in the Environment
(Protection) Act, 1¤86.
The 5CZMAs have a fairly extensive and important
mandate, empowered to "take action and issue
directions". They can identify ecolo¿ically sensitive
and economically important areas, implement
all provisions of the CkZ hotiñcation includin¿
recommendin¿ proiects for clearance to the central
and state ¿overnments.
The Andaman and hicobar lslands Coastal Zone
Mana¿ement Authority was constituted vide
amendment. 5.0. Ne. ccz(£) z6th Nevember 1cc8.
1he Iatest netihcatien with the extensien eI the term
eI the CZMA members in the ANI is dated j1st March
zee¶.
ln particular they can:
1. Enquire into cases of alle¿ed violations and issue
directions under 5ection ç of the Environment
(Protection) Act, 1¤86.
z. keview cases of violations and refer such cases to
the hCZMA.
¸. Take action to verify the facts related to the cases
of violations.
u. File complaints under the Environmental
Protection Act.
ç. ueal with environmental issues referred to it.
6. lt has a proactive responsibility of identifyin¿
ecolo¿ically sensitive areas alon¿ the coastal
2.5. Dilutions to the provisions of the notification
5ince 1¤¤1, there have been zo amendments and ¸
corri¿enda (up to lanuary zooç) to the provisions of
the hotiñcation. Each of these amendments dilutes
and introduces newer clauses that complicate and
A CHRONOLOGY of AMENDMENTS & EVENTS² RELATED TO THE CRZ NOTIFICATION IN THE
CONTEXT OF ANDAMAN & NICOBAR ISLANDS
¹ E0uATl0h5 ¿ratefully acknowled¿es Ms. Aarthi 5ridhar (ATkEE) for her efforts and contributin¿ the table for this report.
Date of amendment/order/
event & legal clauses
Details / comments / features
¸1st uecember 1¤¤z lntense pressure from hotel & tourism lobby on 0ovt. of lndia that the restrictions
under CkZ severely limited their scope of work.
As a consequence, the 88 vohra Committee set up by the Central 0overnment
to study the CkZ hotification and its implications and submitted its report with
recommendations to 0ol on uecember ¸1, 1¤¤z.
5.0 6¤o(E) Corri¿endum dated 1¤th 5eptember 1¤¤u rectified that the 88 vohra
Committee was set up to look into 'tourism, and hotel facilities in the said zone'
(i.e. CkZ)
11th hovember 1¤¤¸5.0. 8ç¤ (E) 8ased on pressure from the tourism lobby, amendments were proposed to CkZ
hotification
A draft notification was issued invitin¿ obiections and su¿¿estions from the
public.
stretches and economically important areas and
formulatin¿ speciñc mana¿ement plans for these
areas.
,. 5uch plans are to be authorised by the hCZMA.
8. Their most si¿niñcant function however, is
examinin¿ all proiect proposals for CkZ areas
before the relevant a¿encies such as the Central
0ovt or the 5tate 0overnments]Administrations of
u.Ts approve these proiects.
Rowever, it is not clear if all proiects that take place
in the Andamans actually do reach the CZMA for their
scrutiny or whether these functions have been further
dele¿ated to any other speciñc committee. lt appears
from our discussions with various ¿overnment
ofñcials in the forest and revenue departments that
in the Andaman and hicobar lslands, the followin¿
authorities play an important supportive role in the
monitorin¿ and enforcement of the CkZ notiñcation:
1. The ofñcials of the concerned Municipal Councils
for CkZ areas fallin¿ within municipalities.
z. The ueputy Commissioner of the district for CkZ
areas fallin¿ within revenue lands.
¸. 0fñcers under the uepartment of kevenue.
u. Concerned uivisional Forest 0fñcers and other
ofñcials of the Forest uepartment for CkZ areas
fallin¿ within forest lands.
render many of the protective clauses meanin¿less.
5ome of the amendments which are speciñcally
relevant to the Andaman and hicobar lslands are
mentioned below:

Date of amendment/order/
event & legal clauses
Details / comments / features
18th Au¿ust 1¤¤u later chan¿ed to 16th
Au¿ust 1¤¤u vide Corri¿endum dated 1¤th
5eptember 1¤¤u 5.0. ç¤ç (E)EPA, ¸(z)(v),
¸(1)EP kules ç(¸)(a), ç(¸)(d)
Amendment stated that RTL was to be demarcated by demarcatin¿
authority constituted by 0ol in consultation with 5urveyor 0eneral.
lmportantly, the resultant amendment, in clarifyin¿ the meanin¿ of
RTL:- 5i¿niñcantly amended the mandatory CkZ of 1oom for rivers,
creeks, etc to çom - 0ave expansive powers to Central 0overnment,
which could now ¿rant permission for construction on the landward
side within zoom from RTL (i.e. ho uevelopment Zone {huZ}) accordin¿
to its discretion.
uid not allow for fattenin¿ of sand dunes while landscapin¿, but allowed
live and barbed fencin¿ and conditional construction of basements.
0oal posts, net posts, lamp-posts were allowed.
8asements were permitted subiect to receipt of ho 0biection Certiñcate
from 5tate 0round water Authority and provided it would not obstruct
the free fow of ¿round water.
Permitted plot fallin¿ in huZ areas to be included for F5l calculation,
althou¿h no construction would be permitted in huZ.
18th April 1¤¤6The 5upreme Court's
iud¿ment in the lndian Council for Enviro
Le¿al Action case:writ Petition (Civil) 66u of
1¤¤¸l.A 1¤ of 1¤¤ç by The 0oa Foundation,
lndia Rerita¿e 5ociety (0oa chapter), hirmal
vishwa
The 5C dealt with two main contentions of the petitioner; that of
non-implementation of the notiñcation and the validity of the 1¤¤u
amendment.
The 5C quashed ¸ of the proposed amendments of Au¿ust 1¤¤u:
1. The relaxation of CkZ limits to çom from 1oom limit for rivers, creeks,
etc.
z. unbridled power ¿ranted to the Central 0overnment ¸. The area of
huZ to be taken into account while calculatin¿ F5l-FAk be 1oo per
cent. (F5l-FAk indexes, it was decreed, could take into account only
ço per cent of huZ in its calculations.)
ke¿ardin¿ the hotiñcation implementation, the 5upreme Court:
1. Pulled up enforcement authorities for dereliction of duties, while
directin¿ authorities to implement the hotiñcation. The court further
commented that a sin¿le authority may not be able to monitor the
CkZ, and su¿¿ested the constitution of 5tate and hational Coastal
Zone Mana¿ement Authorities, which could also draw upon the
resources of h00s to help implement laws.
z. kuled that CkZ for rivers be reinstated as a minimum of 1oom in the
absence of adequate iustiñcation to reduce it to çom, and quashed
the move to ¿rant the Central 0overnment arbitrary "un¿uided and
uncanalised" powers to ¿rant permissions for relaxation of huZ
limits. ln addition, the court directed that CZMPs of all coastal states
and union territories must be submitted by end lune 1¤¤6, and set the
date of hearin¿ compliance of submission and ñnalisation re¿ardin¿
this for 5eptember 1¤¤6.
¸. uirected that in matters dealin¿ with local ¿eo¿raphical areas, the
Ri¿h Court must see that the law is enforced and hear complaints
made by local inhabitants. The 5upreme Court would only scrutinise
matters re¿ardin¿ approval of CZMPs, or any su¿¿ested modiñcations
in existin¿ classiñcation of areas.
u. lssued show cause notices to the chief secretaries of states of Andhra
Pradesh, Karnataka, 0uiarat and Kerala for not havin¿ submitted their
mana¿ement plans as directed in interim orders issued earlier.
ç. Finally, ruled that till the CZMPs are ñnalised, the interim orders
mentioned above would continue to operate.
1u
Date of amendment/order/
event & legal clauses
Details / comments / features
¸1st lanuary 1¤¤,5.0.,¸(E)EPA ¸(1),
¸(z)(v),EP kulesç (¸)(a), ç(u)
This amendment was result of requests from A&h lslands Administration
to Central 0overnment re¿ardin¿ difñculties faced by local people due
to restrictions on withdrawal of ¿round water and prohibition of sand
minin¿ in CkZ.
ho obiections were invited for this amendment.
Manual drawal of ¿round water throu¿h ordinary wells or hand pumps
was permitted for drinkin¿ purposes for local inhabitants only. ·
Permission for the same was required from 5ecretary, uepartment of
Environment.
5and minin¿ was allowed in A&h lslands as lon¿ as a special Committee
¿ave permission based on certain conditions.
Minin¿ was permitted upto ¸1st March 1¤¤8 and not beyond. (This
means a prohibition exists on the extension of the deadline)
¤th luly 1¤¤,5. 0. ho. u¤u(E)EPA ¸(1),
¸(z)(v),EP kulesç (¸)(a), ç(u)
ho obiections were invited for this amendment.
The Court has issued no orders to date.
The rationale was that 5tate 0overnments had expressed need for
several essential facilities to be constructed in the coastal zones.
5everal provisions of the amendment continue to be operative.
zoth April 1¤¤8 5.0 ¸¸u (E)EPA ¸(1), ¸(z)(v),EP
kules ç(¸)(a), ç(u)
This rationale for this amendment was stated a¿ain to be difñculties
faced by local people of A&h lslands due to restrictions on sand minin¿.
ho obiections were invited for this amendment.
The amendment extended the permission for sand minin¿ to the ¸oth
5eptember 1¤¤8, i¿norin¿ prohibition of extension of this deadline as
stated in ¸1st lanuary 1¤¤, amendment.
¸oth 5eptember 1¤¤85.0 8,¸(E)EPA ¸(1),
¸(z)(v),EP kules ç(¸)(a), ç(u)
8ased on the same rationale of difñculties of local people of A&h
lslands another amendment was issued.
ho obiections were invited for this amendment.
Permission for sand minin¿ was extended upto ¸oth 5eptember 1¤¤¤
The permitted quantity of sand for minin¿ was to be based on the
"requirements of 1¤¤8-¤¤ and 1¤¤¤-zooo annual plans."·
This amendment also i¿nores prohibition of extension of this deadline
as stated in ¸1st lanuary 1¤¤,.
z¤th uecember 1¤¤85.0 11zz(E)EPA ¸(1),
¸(z)(v),EP kules ç(¸)(a), ç(u)
ho obiections were invited for this amendment.
The Central 0overnment is said to have deliberated upon and decided
to simplify procedure for demarcation of RTL, which it laid down in this
notiñcation.
The RTL is deñned as the line on land up to which the hi¿hest water line
reaches durin¿ sprin¿ tide.
The amendment lays down that RTL shall be demarcated uniformly
in all parts of the country by demarcatin¿ authority or authorities
so authorised by Central 0overnment, in accordance with ¿eneral
¿uidelines issued in this re¿ard.
Rowever these have not been spelt out in the hotiñcation.
uraft amendment dated çth Au¿ust 1¤¤¤5.0
6¤z(E) EPA ¸(1), ¸(z)(v), 6
0biections were invited to this amendment.
The notiñcation states that inhabitants of the CkZ area have faced
difñculties and there is a need for infrastructure facilities alon¿ the
coast.
lt sou¿ht once a¿ain to reduce CkZ for rivers, creeks and backwaters to
çom based on certain conditions.
lt also stated that for permitted facilities for stora¿e of petroleum
products in Annexure - lll, both MoEF and Mo5T were involved
dependin¿ on location of proiect and port limits (port limits are those
that have been notiñed as such before the ¤th luly 1¤¤, amendment)

Date of amendment/order/
event & legal clauses
Details / comments / features
Facilities for receipt, stora¿e and re¿asiñcation of Liqueñed hatural 0as
were permitted accordin¿ to ¿uidelines issued by MoPh0 and MoEF.
lt permitted salt harvestin¿ in CkZ-l areas between the LTL and RTL
provided they were not classiñed as CkZ-l
lt removed the authority for permittin¿ construction alon¿ CkZ-lll areas,
which was introduced by the ¤th luly 1¤¤, amendment.
Permission for construction required for 'local inhabitants' is to be
¿ranted by either the Centre or 5tate or any desi¿nated authority
(however it is not speciñed which of these is the ñnal authority). The
amendment lays down more conditions under which such construction
maybe permitted.
Constructions in CkZ -lll between zoo-çoom from RTL, were previously
permitted for meetin¿ traditional ri¿hts and customary uses. The words
'local inhabitants' have replaced the previous words 'traditional ri¿hts
and customary uses'. The term local inhabitant used in this clause and
elsewhere in the notiñcation is deñned as a person or his descendants
who have been inhabitin¿ in the area prior to the 1¤th February, 1¤¤1.
kelaxations were made for reconstruction ] alteration of existin¿
buildin¿s allowin¿ for horizontal landward extension of dwellin¿ unit
not exceedin¿ a total plinth area of 1oom.
lt made 'exploration for extraction of oil and natural ¿as in CkZ a
permissible activity requirin¿ permission from the MoEF'.
z¤th 5eptember 1¤¤¤5.0. ¤¤8 (E)EPA ¸(1),
¸(z)(v)EP kules ç(u)
ho obiections were invited for this amendment.
usin¿ the rationale that local people of A&h lslands faced difñculties,
another amendment was issued.
Permission for sand minin¿ was extended upto ¸oth 5eptember zooo.
uth Au¿ust zooo5.0 ,¸o (E)EPA ¸(1), ¸(z)(v),
6
The amendment is the ñnal notiñcation for çth Au¿ust 1¤¤¤ draft
amendment.
The amendment states that all obiections and su¿¿estions relatin¿
to oil and natural ¿as exploration; procedure for accordin¿ clearance
to stora¿es of speciñed petroleum products and receipt, stora¿e and
re¿asiñcation of Lh0 and points raised by the petitioner in uelhi Ri¿h
Court in civil writ petition ho. u1¤8]¤8 have been duly considered by
the Central 0overnment.
This ñnal amendment to earlier draft retained only two of proposed
chan¿es and withdrew the rest.
The chan¿es were ones related to para z(ii) about facilities for receipt,
stora¿e and re¿asiñcation of Lh0, which was permitted accordin¿ to
¿uidelines issued by the MoPh0 and MoEF and ¸(z)(ii) about exploration
for oil and ¿as in the CkZ.
z¤th 5eptember zooo5.0 ¤oo(E)EPA ¸(1),
¸(z)(v)EP kules ç(¸), ç(u
ho obiections were invited for this amendment either.
usin¿ the rationale that the local people of the union Territory of the
Andaman and hicobar lslands faced difñculties, another amendment
was issued.
Permission for sand minin¿ was extended upto ¸oth 5eptember zoo1.
The dates for the annual plans were also extended by a year.
1zth April zoo15.0 ¸z¤(E)EPA ¸(1), ¸(z)(v),EP
kules ç(¸)(a), ç(u)
ho obiections were invited for this amendment.
Proiects of uepartment of Atomic Ener¿y were exempted from
prohibition.
Facilities for receipt and stora¿e of petroleum products and Lh0 as
speciñed in Annexure lll appended to the hotiñcation and facilities for
re¿asiñcation of Lh0 were permitted provided certain ¿uidelines were
followed.
The dele¿ation of powers to accord clearances to Mo5T were
withdrawn.
16
Date of amendment/order/
event & legal clauses
Details / comments / features
Land reclamation etc was permitted for certain activities provided
that reclamation for was not done for commercial purposes such as
shoppin¿ and housin¿ complexes, hotels and entertainment activities.
Minin¿ of sands, rocks and other substrata materials was permitted for
exploration and extraction of oil and natural ¿as.
Construction activities related to proiects of uepartment of Atomic
Ener¿y were treated as permissible activities requirin¿ permission from
the MoEF.
0perational constructions for ports, harbours and li¿ht houses
and constructions for activities such as ietties, wharves, quays and
slipways, pipelines, conveyin¿ systems includin¿ transmission lines
were also added to permissible activities needin¿ MoEF clearances.
Proiects relatin¿ to uepartment of Atomic Ener¿y and (b) Pipelines,
conveyin¿ systems includin¿ transmission lines were permitted in CkZ-
l (i) areas
ln the CkZ-l area, exploration and extraction of natural ¿as was
permitted.
The west 8en¿al CZMA was made responsible for accordin¿ permission
for construction of dispensaries, schools, public rain shelters,
community toilets, brid¿es, roads, ietties, water supply, draina¿e,
sewera¿e which are required for traditional inhabitants of the
5underbans 8iosphere keserve.
The amendment permitted stora¿e of petroleum products speciñed in
the Annexure in any part of CkZ other than CkZ-l areas. Previously this
was restricted only to port areas.
Lh0 was added to list of petroleum products on Annexure lll.
Environmental clearances accorded by Mo5T from ¤th luly 1¤¤, till
publication of this hotiñcation.
¸rd 0ctober zoo15.0 ¤¤8(E)EPA ¸(1),
¸(z)(v),EP kules ç(¸)& (u)
ho obiections were invited for this amendment.
The ratio nale was that local people of A&h lslands faced difñculties,
yet another amendment was issued.
Permission for sand minin¿ was extended upto ¸oth 5eptember zooz.
The dates for annual plans were also extended by a year.
11th lanuary zoozuraft amendment 5.0
ç1(E)EPA ¸(1), ¸(z)(v), 6EP kules ç(¸)(a)
The rationale for this amendment is stated to be:
- The inhabitants of areas fallin¿ within CkZ are facin¿ difñculties and
there is a need for infrastructural facilities in these areas.
- The Central 0overnment is stated to have had consultations with
state ¿overnments and taken a decision to permit construction of
dwellin¿ units and development of infrastructural facilities for local
inhabitants; housin¿ schemes of urban uevelopment Authorities
which had been approved prior to 1¤th February 1¤¤1, facilities and
activities includin¿ settin¿ up of non pollutin¿ industries in the ñeld
of information technolo¿y and other service industries in the 5pecial
Economic Zones, and salt harvestin¿ by solar evaporation of sea
water in the said zone.
lt introduced a ¤o-day time limit for assessment of proiects and ¸o days
for conveyin¿ a decision on the clearance status of proiects proposed
within the CkZ.
lt introduced the same provisions (with sli¿ht modiñcations) for the
hote of Para 1 (i) of the notiñcation that the çth Au¿ust 1¤¤¤ draft
amendment introduced. This was despite these proposed provisions
of çth Au¿ust 1¤¤¤ draft amendment bein¿ excluded in the subsequent
amendments dated uth Au¿ust zooo and 1zth April zoo1, and ¸rd
0ctober zoo1.
The draft amendment exempted "non pollutin¿ industries in the ñeld
of information technolo¿y and other service industries in the CkZ of
5pecial Economic Zones" from prohibitions as Para z (i) (c).
1,
Date of amendment/order/
event & legal clauses
Details / comments / features
lt sou¿ht to exclude minin¿ of certain minerals under Atomic Ener¿y
Act, 1¤6z from the prohibited activities clause, subiect to ElA studies
and an approved minin¿ plan.
Rousin¿ schemes in CkZ area, minin¿ of rare minerals and speciñed
activities]facilities in 5EZ were to be permissible activities requirin¿
clearances from MoEF.
5alt harvestin¿ by solar evaporation of sea water was to be permitted
in CkZ-l areas.
ln CkZ-ll areas, exemption was made for housin¿ schemes of 5tate
urban uevelopment Authorities.
Further relaxations were sou¿ht for CkZ-lll areas, based on similar
chan¿es proposed in çth Au¿ust 1¤¤¤ draft amendment. All activities
within 5EZs were permitted.
This amendment substitutes the words 'local inhabitants' for traditional
ri¿hts or customary uses.
The notiñcation replicates all other provisions of the çth Au¿ust 1¤¤¤
draft amendment as far as relaxations for constructions for 'local
inhabitants' etc are concerned despite most of these bein¿ omitted in
subsequent ñnal amendments.
z1st May zooz5.0 çço(E)EPA ¸(1), ¸(z)(v),EP
kules ç(¸)
The amendment is the ñnal notiñcation for the draft 11th lan zooz
amendment.
lt redeñned distance upto which CkZ is measured alon¿ the rivers,
creeks etc, as upto the point where a minimum salinity level of ç ppt
is recorded.
All the provisions that were common to the çth Au¿ust 1¤¤¤ draft and
the 11th lanuary zooz draft were struck down by this ñnal amendment.
lt permitted "non-pollutin¿ industries in the ñeld of information
technolo¿y and other service industries in CkZ of 5pecial Economic
Zones (5EZ)".
lt retained the time limit on assessment of proiect documents that was
proposed in the 11th lanuary zooz draft.
Certain chan¿es were made to activities permitted in CkZ l, ll & lll
zones.
1¤th 0ctober zooz5.0 11oo (E)EPA ¸(1),
¸(z)(v),EP kules ç(¸)& (u)
ho obiections were invited for this amendment. lt was issued in 'public
interest' usin¿ kule ç(u) of the EP kules· kationale was 'to harmonise &
elaborate provisions of the hotiñcation' and to provide permission for
settin¿ up of certain proiects that were presumably in public interest.
The followin¿ were permitted within the CkZ in areas (includin¿ CkZ ll
and lll) not classiñed as CkZ-l:
- Facilities for ¿eneratin¿ power by non-conventional ener¿y sources
and settin¿ up of desalination plants and construction of airstrips in
lslands of Lakshadweep and A&h with MoEF permission.
lt stated that clearances ¿iven for activities in CkZ area were valid for
ç years before which construction or operations should commence.
Rowever further actions have not been elaborated on, for instance, on
adherence to clearance conditions.
The followin¿ activities required MoEF clearances to be set up in CkZ
areas:
- Facilities for ¿eneratin¿ power by non conventional ener¿y sources,
desalination plants, weather radars, airstrips and associated facilities
in Lakshadweep and A&h lslands.
- ln CkZ-l areas installation of weather radar for monitorin¿ of cyclone
18
Date of amendment/order/
event & legal clauses
Details / comments / features
movement and prediction by lndian Meteorolo¿ical uepartment was
permitted.
- ln the CkZ-l between RTL and LTL, the followin¿ was permitted:
desalination plants, stora¿e of non-hazardous car¿o such as edible
oil, fertilizers and food ¿rain within notiñed ports.
- ln CkZ ll and lll areas list of products in Annexure lll was permitted
subiect to conditions mentioned in Para z(ii).
16th lanuary zoo¸5.0 çz (E) EPA ¸(1),
¸(z)(v)EP kules ç(¸), ç(u)
ho obiections were invited for this amendment since it was stated to be
in public interest.
kationale was that A&h Administration had stated that local population
was facin¿ difñculties due to restrictions on sand minin¿.
lt extended sand minin¿ in A&h lslands upto ¸1st March zoo¸.
This was to be permitted by a Committee from 1st April zooz to ¸1st
March zoo¸.
There was total upper limit ñxed on amount of sand that could be
mined at çç,1z, cu.m and this was only to be permitted for construction
purposes on a case by case basis.
The sand was to be mined from selected sites inter alia based on rate of
replenishment of deposition of sand.
Permission could be ¿ranted based on minin¿ plans, with stipulations
on safe¿uards to prevent dama¿e to the sensitive coastal eco-system
includin¿ corals, turtles, crocodiles, birds nestin¿ sites and protected
areas.
zznd April zoo¸5.0 u6o(E)EPA ¸(z)(1),
¸(z)(v)EP kules ç(¸), ç(u)
This amendment was issued usin¿ the public interest clause without
invitin¿ obiections to the same.
For the ñrst time in history of CkZ, this clause |EP kules ç(u)| had
been used to actually prevent further ecolo¿ical dama¿e, unlike
earlier instances where the clause was used to relax provisions of the
hotiñcation and allowin¿ more and more activities on coasts.
kationale ¿iven by Central 0overnment was that it had been informed
that lar¿e sized proiects were bein¿ implemented without clearance from
MoEF and that this resulted in destruction of man¿roves, depletion of
¿round water and certain other activities involvin¿ ecolo¿ical dama¿e.
lt sou¿ht to add a few more activities to list of permissible activities
requirin¿ environmental clearance from MoEF.
There were:
- The demolition or reconstruction of buildin¿s of archaeolo¿ical or
historical importance, herita¿e buildin¿s and buildin¿s under public
use (deñned in the amendment as includin¿ 'use for purposes of
worship, education, medical care and cultural activities.
All other activities involvin¿ an investment of less than ñve crore
rupees were to be re¿ulated by the 5tate level authorities in keepin¿
with provisions of the hotiñcation in Annexure l; any proiect costin¿
more than ñve crores required clearance from MoEF.
¸oth May zoo¸5.0.6¸ç (E)EPA ¸(1), ¸(z)(v) ho obiections were invited for this amendment either.
kationale was that local people A&h lslands were faced with
difñculties.
Permission for sand minin¿ was extended upto ¸1st March zoou.
The dates for the annual plans were also extended by a year.
The quantity of sand to be mined was ñxed at uu,1oz cu.m only for
construction purposes

Date of amendment/order/
event & legal clauses
Details / comments / features
¸oth May zoo¸ 5.0.6¸6(E)EPA ¸(1), ¸(z)(v)EP
kules ç(¸), ç(u)
ho obiections were invited for this amendment as this was in public
interest.
The amendment was introduced presumably takin¿ into consideration
requirement of construction of ietty and wharves for embarkation and
disembarkation in Lakshadweep.
The amendment revised the Committee to permit sand minin¿ in.
Permission for sand minin¿ was extended upto ¸oth 5eptember zoo1.
The dates for the annual plans were also extended by a year.
zuth lune zoo¸5.0.,zç(E)EPA ¸(1), ¸(z)(v)EP
kules ç(¸), ç(u)
The notiñcation introduced another clause under norms for development
for CkZ lv for settin¿ up of facilities for treatment of wastes and effuents
arisin¿ from hotels, beach resorts & domestic sewa¿e and disposal of
treated wastes and effuents in areas other than CkZ-l.
This was to be based on a detailed scientiñc study to assess
environmental impact of the same.
zuth luly zoo¸ 5.0.8¸8 (E)EPA ¸(z)(1),
¸(z)(v)EP kules ç(¸), ç(u)
This amendment was issued usin¿ the public interest clause without
invitin¿ obiections to the same.
The amendments were introduced by Central 0overnment after it had
considered speciñc requirements of proiects relatin¿ to uepartment of
Atomic Ener¿y in terms of their location.
Another reason stated was that Central 0overnment had considered
proposals of the Ministry of Tourism and Culture, the A&h Administration
and the Lakshadweep Administration for promotion of tourism
development.
lt reduced the huZ area in CkZ-lll to çom in A&h lslands and
Lakshadweep.
This reduction was for the purpose of promotion of tourism, based on
an inte¿rated coastal zone mana¿ement study conducted by MoEF by
itself or throu¿h any a¿ency authorized by it in this behalf.
lt also introduced other buildin¿ relaxations for the islands.
zçth lan. zooç50.hil (E) The amendment states that in A&h lslands, minin¿ of sand may
be permitted for construction purpose on a case to case basis by a
Committee constituted by the Lieutenant 0overnor of the Andaman
and hicobar lslands consistin¿ of - (1) the Chief 5ecretary, Andaman &
hicobar Administration; (z) 5ecretary, uepartment of Environment; (¸)
5ecretary, uepartment of water kesources; and (u) 5ecretary, Andaman
Public works uepartment;
That total quantity of sand to be mined shall not exceed z8,zz6 cu m
for period endin¿ on ¸1st uecember, zooç and that sand minin¿ shall
be undertaken only in those areas identiñed as accretin¿ areas by
lnstitute for 0cean Mana¿ement (l0M), Chennai and based on rate of
replenishment or deposition of sand;
That permission as may be ¿ranted under this sub-para¿raph for minin¿
of sand shall be based on minin¿ plans and shall stipulate sufñcient
safe¿uards to prevent dama¿e to the sensitive coastal eco-system
includin¿ corals, turtles, crocodiles, birds nestin¿ sites and protected
areas·
A&h Administration to identify alternate construction materials within
period of one year i.e., from 1st lanuary, zooç to ¸1st uecember,
zooç;
A monitorin¿ Committee shall be constituted for monitorin¿ the minin¿
activity and environmental safe¿uards taken, by A&h Administration.
The monitorin¿ Committee shall comprise of representatives from
union Territory Administration, ke¿ional 0fñce of the Ministry of
Environment and Forests, 8hubaneshwar and a h00 based at Andaman
and hicobar.
The monitorin¿ report shall be sent quarterly to Ministry of Environment
and Forests.
zo
2.6. Analysis of
amendments made to the
CRZ Notification
2.6.1. Reduction in the No-
Development Zone for promotion of
tourism
· The ñrst amendment to the hotiñcation was made
because of pressure from the tourism lobby.
· The amendment was vide notiñcation no. 5.0.
ç¤ç(E) dated 18th Au¿ 1¤¤u on recommendations
of the vohra Committee, which was constituted on
1st lan 1¤¤z and report submitted on ¸1st uec 1¤¤z.
The issue dealt with was tourism. The reason for the
constitution of the committee was that there was
intense pressure from the hotel and tourism lobby
on the 00l statin¿ that the said notiñcation was very
strin¿ent and their work was severely restricted by
the CkZ.
· 0ne of the recommendations of the Committee
was reduction of distance of the huZ in selected
coastal stretches for promotin¿ tourism. The
Ministry amended the CkZ hotiñcation, 1¤¤1 on
18th Au¿ 1¤¤u, reducin¿ ho uevelopment Zone
(huZ) area all alon¿ the coast from zoom to çom.
The amendment also permitted construction in
huZ thus ¿ivin¿ expansive powers to the central
¿overnment to permit such constructions on the
landward side within zoom from the RTL accordin¿
to its discretion.
· The vohra Committee report also noted that the
RTL demarcation was not clearly deñned. 8ased
on the recommendations, the Ministry deñned the
RTL and demarcation a¿encies in the amendment
dated 8th Au¿ust 1¤¤u. Rence it was stated that the
demarcatin¿ authority would demarcate the RTL.
This authority was to be constituted by the 0ovt. of
lndia in consultation with the surveyor-¿eneral.
· The keport recommended landscapin¿ in the huZ
by dressin¿ of sand dunes, live fencin¿ alon¿ the
resorts and permitted playñelds but not swimmin¿
pools in the huZ. The amendment thou¿h did not
allow for the fattenin¿ of the sand dunes while
landscapin¿ but permitted net posts, lampposts,
¿oal posts and live and barbed fencin¿ and
conditional construction of basements. For the
construction of basement, h0C was to be obtained
from the 0round water 8oard and provided it did
not obstruct the natural fow of ¿round water.
· lt also permitted for the area under huZ to be
covered under the F5l calculation even thou¿h no
construction would be permitted.
· Althou¿h the 5C quashed the amendments later,
the tendency of MoEF to dilute its own laws raises
concerns about where its loyalties lie - a facilitator
of impact inducin¿ developments rather than that
of a re¿ulator.
· The tourism chapter of the 5tate uevelopment keport
of the Andaman and hicobar lslands (draft) voices the
same attitude: "while most of the acts in force are
desi¿ned to protect the ecolo¿y and environment,
the CkZ ¿uidelines are ¿enerally perceived to be
inhibitin¿. ln case of CkZ l, no new construction is
permitted up to çoo meters from the hi¿h tide line
(RTL) while this is reduced to zoo meters in case of
CkZ lll. CkZ ll and lv also restrict development up
to zoo meters from the RTL. Rowever, it is reported
that internationally CkZ norms of ço and ,o meters
are commonly used and combined with strin¿ent
limits on land area covered, number of buildin¿s,
etc. There is thus a su¿¿estion to look at the CkZ
re¿ulations on a case-to-case basis" (hlPFP zooç
c). lt is important to note that the ñrst amendment
that the ñrst amendment to the CkZ came because
of tourism.
· The huZ reduction was eventually reduced to çom
in the case of A&h lslands and Lakshadweep for
tourism development throu¿h amendment of
amendment, 5.0.8¸8 (E), zuth luly zoo¸ a¿ainst
the directives of 5C in zooz, which were based on
5hekhar 5in¿h Committee report. The relaxation
was based on identiñcation of areas in huZ by the
lnte¿rated Coastal Zone Mana¿ement Plan study
conducted by the Ministry of Environment and
Forests.
· First, the CZMPs of states are not prepared, includin¿
that for Andaman & hicobar lslands; then an lCZMP
is commissioned speciñcally for the purpose of
relaxin¿ CkZ norms for tourism development. To
date, both the CZMP and lCZMP have not been
ñnalized or approved. 8ut the obiective of reducin¿
the huZ to çom has been successfully achieved
for tourism development purposes! Tourism has
succeeded in achievin¿ its obiective of reducin¿
the huZ from zoom to çom in the A&h lslands. This
has been possible by with active connivance of the
MoEF. what the MoEF could not ¿et throu¿h in Au¿
1¤8u, it achieved in luly zoo¸. The was done in the
¿uise of the lCZMP. The uepartment of Environment
& Forests, A&h lslands Administration has included
uo islands to be opened up for 'ecotourism' in the
Andamans. For the vulnerable and ecolo¿ically
sensitive islands, this could as well mean doom.
z1
2.6.3. No firm check on sand mining
As per Amendment no 5.0.¡j(£) dated j1st Ianuary
1cc¡ minin¿ was permitted upto ¸1st March 1¤¤8
and net beyend. 1his means a prehibitien exists en
the extensien eI the deadIine. After this there have
been 1o extensions made to allow sand minin¿ in
A&h lslands to date. The 5C ordered in May zooz that
extraction of sand shall be phased out at a minimum
zo% per year on reducin¿ balance basis to brin¿ the
sand minin¿ to the level of ¸¸% of the present level of
minin¿ within a maximum period of ç years. The sand
minin¿ is to be brou¿ht down to zu,6¸¸ cubic metres
by May zoo, as per the order.
As per the amendment 5.0. 6j¶ (£), ¸oth May zoo¸
of the CkZ notiñcation, 5and minin¿ was permitted
up to uu,1oz cubic metres for construction purposes
on a case by case basis for the period on and from
the 1st day of April, zoo¸ to the ¸1st day of March,
zoou from sites selected, inter alia, based on the
rate of replenishment or deposition of sand, by
a committee. The CkZ hotiñcation says that the
Committee was to be constituted by the Lieutenant
0overnor of the Andaman and hicobar lslands
consistin¿ of: (1) the Chief 5ecretary, Andaman and
hicobar Administration; (z) 5ecretary, uepartment
of Environment; (¸) 5ecretary, uepartment of water
kesources; and (u) 5ecretary, Andaman Public works
uepartment.
This amendment took place after the submission of
the 5hekhar 5in¿h committee report to the 5upreme
Court which stated "The extraction of sand should
be phased out and no further extension should be
¿ranted after the current extension is over on ¸o
5eptember, zooz".
As per ¿uidelines ¿iven in the CZMP of A&h lslands,
minimum quantity of sand will be collected from
identiñed eco safe pockets on a rotational basis;
sands collected from coastal areas will be used after
keepin¿ the same in the open place for at least one full
rainy season so that salt if any may be leached out;
sand will not be collected from areas near man¿rove
patches, sand would ¿enerally not be collected durin¿
the monsoon to minimise disturbance to the coastal
zone and landscape; coral sand will not be collected;
stone dust from stone crushers and quarries will be
utilised to reduce the use of sea sand; use of clay
³ Personal communication with ACF, uF0 Mayabandar.
2.6.2. Categorisation of CRZ II
areas
The question re¿ardin¿ the classiñcation of the
islands demands a detailin¿ of events in the past. 0f
particular relevance are the observations made by
the uivisional 8ench of the Calcutta Ri¿h Court in an
order dated z¤.o¤.zoo¸.
· 5ection 6(z) of the CkZ notiñcation provides norms
and re¿ulations for the Andaman and hicobar
lslands, which it classed as CkZ lv. Rowever, it does
have a provision in point (vi) for the classiñcation
of the certain areas as CkZ l, ll and lll with approval
from the MoEF.
· ho documents were available to prove that
reclassiñcation of CkZ lv areas of parts of the Ahl
(such as Port 8lair) into CkZ ll areas were made
with approval from the MoEF. uespite this, 8yelaw
ho. 1ç of the Port 8lair Municipal Council 8uildin¿
8yelaws, 1¤¤¤ classiñes coastal areas of Port 8lair
as CkZ ll areas.
· ln their letter dated z,th 5eptember 1¤¤6, the MoEF
accorded only conditional clearance to the CZMP
for the lslands submitted to the MoEF by the Ahl
Administration.
· ho documents were produced before the court to
show that the conditions laid out by the MoEF were
actually met. This would mean that the present
document is not a fully approved document as
no revisions were made to it based on any of the
stipulations contained in the ministry's letter.
· 0ne of the conditions laid out in the letter was that,
for CkZ lv areas to be classiñed as CkZ ll areas, a
Committee had to be formed which would decide on
this matter.
· ho document was provided to the court to prove that
such a Committee was ever formed before the CkZ
lv areas of Port 8lair in particular, were reclassiñed
as CkZ ll.
· The court therefore concluded that decision of
the Administration and the Municipal Council to
reclassify CkZ lv areas into CkZ ll areas in areas
such as Port 8lair was "wholly unauthorised and
ultra vires the CkZ notiñcation".
Therefore it can be concluded that the reclassiñcation
of CkZ areas from CkZ lv to CkZ ll is still not approved
by the MoEF. Another inference which presents itself
as a most serious matter is that from the inception
of this important coastal le¿islation, till date, the
Ahl does not have a CZMP which is implementable
because it is not fully approved by the MoEF.
zz
bricks will be encoura¿ed, this would reduce the use
of hollow blocks which need considerable quantity
of sand; sand will not be collected from sanctuaries,
national parks or other ecolo¿ically sensitive areas
close to the breedin¿ and spawnin¿ ¿rounds of ñsh
and other marine life.
The 5and Allotment Committee re¿ulates and ¿ives
permission for sand minin¿ from identiñed sites that
are incorporated into the forest workin¿ plans³ . lt is
not clear whether there are additional parameters
than those stated above for the identiñcation of sites.
The sites that are appropriate for sand minin¿ were
identiñed by the hational lnstitute of 0ceano¿raphy.
The permissible quantities are based on extraction
capacity studies or after detailed assessment of the
impacts of the activity. They also appear to be based
on assessment of the actual need of the resource
after havin¿ considered all the material options
available for the construction sector, which may be
less harmful to the ecolo¿y of the islands.
Areas eI cencern
Althou¿h the 5C in its order has taken co¿nisance of
the fact that unrestricted and continued sand minin¿
is harmful to the ecolo¿y of the islands, ensurin¿
that sand minin¿ takes place only up to permissible
quantities is a difñcult iob. unless areas are clearly
marked out for sand extraction and there is adequate
public awareness that the extraction of sand from
other areas is a le¿al violation that will result in
penalties, it will be impossible for the administration
to implement this.
The methodolo¿y for sand extraction has not been
speciñed beyond what currently exists. There is no
information on the parameters, or permissible limits,
or monitorin¿ and assessin¿ the ñnal impacts of
such an activity. lf sand minin¿ is to take place in the
islands, considerin¿ its sensitivity, it does require
further plannin¿ for proper implementation and
enforcement of restrictions. Currently there is little
enforcement and this has resulted in a severe impact
on the ecolo¿y of these islands. The mana¿ement of
the islands must factor in an exercise for re¿ulatin¿
the sand minin¿ currently takin¿ place and plan for a
phasin¿ this out in a determined fashion.
2.7. Issues Relating
to the Lack of
Implementation of the
CRZ Notification and the
Coastal Zone Management
Plan (CZMP)
The need for an inte¿rated approach to the
sustainable mana¿ement of coastal anthropo¿enic
activities and the protection of coastal ecosystems is
imperative. The vision of the CkZ notiñcation needs
to be adequately built into the CZMP and all the
other relevant plans mandated by the notiñcation
and should be drafted by various departments and
institutions. various 'vision documents' for the
development of the islands need to incorporate
coastal protection measures while addressin¿ the
needs of coastal communities. lssues such as solid
waste mana¿ement, water resource au¿mentation,
land use re¿ulations and buildin¿ re¿ulations must
be addressed in order to sustain island ecosystems.
Currently, plans and vision documents of the various
departments of the Andaman and hicobar lslands
Administration are replete with ¿eneral statements
such as "hatural resources of Andaman are under
exploited", "0ver exploitation and competition for
resource utilisation in certain re¿ions of the islands
are also considered for plannin¿". These have
dan¿erous implications and mi¿ht lead to a situation
where the Andaman Administration becomes an
a¿ent that facilitates the dispersal of ne¿ative
anthropo¿enic and development pressures to all]
most islands in order to maximise 'exploitation' of
natural resources.
2.7.1. Present status of CZMP and
the initiation of ICZMP
There is no fully approved CZMP for the Ahl since
the initiation of the CkZ hotiñcation in 1¤¤1. All that
is available for implementation a¿encies is a draft
CZMP that has been conditionally approved by the
MoEF. This conditional approval could mean that
the Ahl Administration was to revise their maps and
plans alon¿ the conditions speciñed in the MoEF's
letter dated z,, 5eptember 1¤¤6, and submit the ñnal
revised documents to the MoEF. lt is not clear whether
this has taken place, since there is no letter from the
MoEF to this effect.
The M0EF also initiated a parallel process of draftin¿
an Inteçrated CeastaI Zene Manaçement PIan
(MoEF zoou). This was initiated for the Andaman
and hicobar and Lakshadweep islands throu¿h
scientiñc institutions such as the lnstitute of 0cean
u
lnte¿rated Coastal Zone Mana¿ement Plan Preparation for Andaman and hicobar islands. A study commissioned by the Ministry of Environment and
Forests, 00l. Period of the study: zooz-zoou. Cost involved: ks. 8¸.oo lakhs. The obiective of the proiect is to promote the sustainable development of
natural and physical resources and the maintenance of coastal ecolo¿ical processes and ¿enetic diversity in the coastal resources of Andaman and hicobar
islands throu¿h lnte¿rated Coastal Zone Mana¿ement plans.

Box 1 Reconstruction
Guidelines
As per the ñndin¿s of the ñeld surveys conducted by
the APwu and the kevenue uepartment placed before
the ¸rd meetin¿ of a committee (constituted vide the
Andaman and hicobar Administration's 0rder ho.
.5ect.]1z-o¤]8¤]Forests]PF]1z, dated ¸1 uecember ¤,),
only ¸6% of the buildable area of Rope Town was built
and therefore it did not fall within the cate¿ory of CkZ
ll. As per clariñcation contained in the MoEF's letter no.
l-1,o11]1¸]¤z-lA-lll dated z, 5ept. ¤6 vide, the revised
Coastal Zone Mana¿ement Plan of Ahl was approved
subiect to certain conditions. 0ne condition |(8 (i)| states
that in the determination of CkZ ll areas, an area can be
considered substantially built up only when the ratio of
built-up and buildable area to that of total plots is ço%
or more. Rowever, at this meetin¿ it was decided that a
resurvey would be conducted by the uistrict Commissioner
(Andaman district). At its subsequent meetin¿ held on ç
hovember ¤8, the committee reconsidered the details
submitted by uC(A) and it was found that the total built-
up area of Rope Town under CkZ is ¸¤ ha as a¿ainst the
area of total number of plots under CkZ which is 6ç ha.
The committee therefore decided that Rope Town area
shall be placed under the CkZ ll cate¿ory as the built up
and buildable area is more than ço% of the plots and
also it meets other requisite conditions of the notiñcation
under which coastal stretches can be cate¿orised as CkZ
ll. ln the second meetin¿ of this committee under the
chairmanship of the Chief 5ecretary, to identify areas to
be cate¿orised as CkZ ll, the Chairman advised the uC,
Andamans to prepare a map with relevant information for
such revenue areas as they are existin¿ within the limits
of CkZ ll for takin¿ up further action. Re also desired that
the Chief En¿ineer, Andaman Pwu should direct staff to
assist the kevenue uepartment in preparation of these
maps. lt was directed that up-to-date maps showin¿
settlements, various types of structures, etc. which
have come up within the zoo meters area from RTL,
except in the ñve areas identiñed as CkZ ll , should be
prepared at the earliest. lt is not known if these maps
were prepared.
2.7.3. CRZ violations:
Construction and activities within
the No Development Zone
The CkZ hotiñcation clearly mentions the area
that it seeks to protect and the activities from
which it seeks to protect these areas. Rowever,
the notiñcation leaves several issues which are
2.7.2. Linkages / conflicts between
the CRZ and local development
regulations
As stated earlier, the ñnal cate¿orisation of areas
such as Port 8lair still remain issues of contention
and need to be clariñed with the MoEF. The Land
keforms and ke¿ulations Act, 1¤68 and the Andaman
& hicobar lslands (Panchayats) ke¿ulation, 1¤¤u
control developmental activities in the kevenue
lands of the island. ln the case of Port 8lair, the Port
8lair Municipal Council 8uildin¿ 8yelaws, 1¤¤¤ and
the appropriate development plan are applicable.
Rowever, no exercise appears to have been conducted
whereby coastal zone maps are overlaid on villa¿e
revenue maps to assist the concerned revenue ofñcer
in makin¿ appropriate comments from the an¿le of
the CkZ. As stated earlier, while it appears that there
are several other ofñcers who mi¿ht play an important
role in the implementation of the notiñcation, it is
mana¿ement, Anna university, Chennai
u

and Centre
of Earth 5cience 5tudies, Thiruvananthapuram
respectively. under this proiect, twenty inhabited
islands of the Andaman ¿roup have been selected
for developin¿ lCZM Plans based on the status of
the environment, socio-economic conditions and
development potentials. The lCZMP is yet to be
completed, ñnalised and discussed with various
civil society ¿roups that are involved in ecolo¿ical,
social and anthropolo¿ical research and advocacy.
Rowever, without completin¿ these processes, the
M0EF amended the CkZ notiñcation to state that
based on the ñndin¿s of the lCZMP, in identiñed areas
of 1¸ islands which are part of the lCZMP process, the
huZ can be reduced from zoo m to ço m for tourism
development
ç
.
The lCZMP report has not been ñnalised
6
. The study
considered the constraints to development in the
coastal areas of inhabited islands. As per plans,
Cinque, Ravelock, heil, kutland, horth Passa¿e,
Lon¿ lsland, koss and 5mith lslands have been
recommended for development throu¿h tourism in
the lCZMP.
lt is still unclear whether the revised CZMP has been
submitted to the M0EF and whether this has been
approved. Therefore for all practical purposes, the
CZMP and its current zonation are still not approved
until so stated by the MoEF. An additional area of
concern is that unless a cut off date is imposed, more
and more areas will come under CkZ ll as the ratio of
built up to buildable area is constantly risin¿.
not clear if they have special orders with speciñc
checklists or protocols to work under. under the
present circumstances, the implementation of the
notiñcation becomes exceedin¿ly difñcult for local
authorities.

ç
5.0 8¸8 (E) dated zuth luly zoo¸, vide 0azette of lndia (Extra) ho. 6çu.

6
Pers. Comm. 5amir Mehta, uec zooç.
zu
2.8 Facilitating Effective
Coastal Management
From preliminary investi¿ations, it is evident that
several clauses of the CkZ and other re¿ulations
related to conservation and re¿ulation of coastal
areas are not bein¿ implemented. 8ut detailed
studies need to be undertaken to identify the speciñc
¿aps and loopholes in the implementation of these
re¿ulations and the reasons for existin¿ violations.
0iven below are some of the key areas that need to
be undertaken for investi¿ation.
5itinç eI prejects in the CkZ area
5ince the CkZ hotiñcation is based on spatial
re¿ulations, it is possible to visually identify which
proiects or activities are located in the prohibited
area. Rowever if their date of establishment precedes
the notiñcation, they are not in violation of the
notiñcation.
5and mininç reçuIatiens
5and minin¿ is permitted by the Allotment Committee
in certain areas and up to certain quantities. The new
forest workin¿ plans are to have this information too.
An investi¿ation needs to be conducted to identify to
what extent the sand minin¿ re¿ulations are actually
effective. Thou¿h the statistics indicate that sand
minin¿ has reduced by half followin¿ the 5C orders,
this needs to be ascertained throu¿h independent
investi¿ations. lt is also quite likely that the statistics
does not refect the ille¿al sand minin¿ that may be
takin¿ place without the knowled¿e of the Forest
uepartment or other ofñcial a¿encies. whether such
sand minin¿ is takin¿ place and if yes, to what extent
could also be ascertained throu¿h investi¿ations.
CempIiance eI CkZ cIearance cenditiens by prejects
The CkZ notiñcation ¿ives the MoEF the powers to
¿rant clearances to certain proiects or activities on
the coast. under the ElA notiñcation of the MoEF,
such clearances are ¿ranted after review of all
the information re¿ardin¿ the proposed proiect
and certain conditions for the protection of the
environment are imposed on the proiect while
¿rantin¿ clearance. lt is not known if a similar system
is followed for proiects ¿ranted clearance under CkZ
notiñcation. lf indeed a similar system is followed,
then it will be useful to undertake investi¿ations to
identify the extent to which proiects are complyin¿
with the clearance conditions and thereby ensurin¿
that environment impacts due to their proiects are
minimal.
1he impIementatien eI buiIdinç reçuIatiens
lnvesti¿ations need to be undertaken to ascertain
the extent of implementation of the re¿ulations for
location, desi¿n and construction of buildin¿s as per
the laid down norms in the lslands.
1he impIementatien eI the 5upreme Ceurt erders
The Court 0rders of zooz coverin¿ the issues of
lo¿¿in¿, saw mills and other wood based industries,
encroachments on forest lands, sand minin¿ and
diversion of forest land for development activities
were passed by the 5upreme Court in May zooz.
lnvesti¿ations should be undertaken to ñnd out the
level of compliance of these orders. 5everal of the
time lines set by the Court while passin¿ these orders
have not been met by the administration. lf civil
society ¿roups do not keep track of the compliance
of these orders and pressure the administration to
implement the orders within the stated time lines,
more dama¿e to the ecosystems will take place.
0iven all this, the tsunami has iust reafñrmed that
de¿radation of natural environmental barriers due
to unfettered development and poor implementation
of the CkZ hotiñcation has exacerbated its impacts
- thereby increasin¿ dama¿e to life and property.
important for implementation and monitorin¿, very
va¿ue. 5ection ¸ (z) states that a list of activities will
require environmental clearance from the Ministry of
Environment and Forests, 0overnment of lndia, but
nowhere in the notiñcation is the process of ¿rantin¿
clearances laid down.
lt also states that for "Construction activities related
to proiects of the uepartment of Atomic Ener¿y or
uefence requirements for which foreshore facilities
are essential such as slipways, ietties, wharves,
quays; except for classiñed operational component
of defence proiects for which a separate procedure
shall be followed." what the 'separate' procedure
entails is not known. lmpact Assessments must be
made mandatory for these activities.
As a result, it is likely that most proponents who
propose to develop proiects in the CkZ are not aware
of the conditionalities, and this lack of awareness
may result in violation of the CkZ. 5econdly, the
lack of clarity of clearance procedures also makes
it impossible for citizens and civil society ¿roups
to participate in the decision makin¿ or monitorin¿
of the process or clearance and post clearance
functionin¿ of the proiect.
5ince the CkZ notiñcation is clear about which
proiects]activities are allowed in speciñc areas, it
is possible to visually identify proiects that may be
in violation of the CkZ. Rowever these need to be
veriñed based on the exact location of the RTL and
the date of establishment of the proiect or activity.

part 3
OVERVIEW OF IMPACTS OF EARTHQUAKE & TSUNAMI
0n z6 uecember zoou, an earthquake measurin¿ ¤.o
on the kichter scale struck the west coast of horthern
5umatra. This was followed by aftershocks ran¿in¿
from 6.¸ to ,.o (uhEP, zooç ¹). The earthquakes
tri¿¿ered off a tsunami which battered the lndian
coastline, provin¿ to be one of the ¿reatest disasters
in the country's livin¿ memory, killin¿ many people
and causin¿ extensive dama¿e. ln the lslands,
more than ¸,çoo people lost their lives and about
1o,ooo houses were completely dama¿ed (Table
z summarises the types and extent of dama¿e).
8esides the extensive loss of lives, immense dama¿e
to the coastal ecolo¿y, settlements, ports, roads and
brid¿es, water supply, a¿ricultural land and ñsheries
has occurred. The maximum dama¿e occurred in
the hicobar 0roup of islands in the south that were
very close to the epicentre of the quake. lmpacts on
the economy of the islands from trade, a¿riculture,
ñsheries, small-scale industries and tourism in the
short and lon¿ term are not fully calculable at this
sta¿e. Rowever, there are some estimates of the
dama¿e caused by the earthquake and the tsunami.
After the earthquake and the tsunami, lar¿e scale
seawater inundation of the coastal areas has taken
place in parts of the lslands. Floodin¿ of the low lyin¿
areas has been widespread. 5ome parts of the land
have been uplifted in the northern ¿roup of islands
creatin¿ new land and subsidence has happened in
the southern parts of the Andaman lslands and in the
hicobars. This has also altered the Ri¿h Tide Line. The
Ri¿h tide level has risen in many areas of subsidence
causin¿ foodin¿. The Low Tide Line has also risen,
as a result of which seawater is not recedin¿ to the
earlier levels.
Table 2 5ummary of dama¿es due to the Tsunami in
Andaman & hicobar lslands
Damage D a m a g e
Actuals
Loss of lives ¸ç1¸
Paddy land affected 1,¸o ha
Plantation Land affected ¤1o, ha
8oats fully dama¿ed ¤¸8
8oats partially dama¿ed ,6ç
Loss of livestock 1ç,ç,,
Rouses fully dama¿ed (Approx) 1oooo
letties dama¿ed zu
5ource: Andaman and hicobar lslands throu¿h Tsunami
- A 5a¿a of Coura¿e. kelief Commissioner, Andaman and
hicobar Administration, Au¿ust zooç
3.1 Impacts on the Andaman
Islands
3.1.1 Geomorphological changes
¹
united hations Environment Pro¿ramme ] 0ffice for the Coordination of
Rumanitarian Affairs, zooç. "lndian 0cean Tsunami uisaster of uecember
zoou - uhuAC kapid Environmental Assessment in the uemocratic 5ocialist
kepublic of 5ri Lanka", 5witzerland.
The earthquake was caused as a result of the collision
of the lndian tectonic plate with the 8urma plate and
the subsequent slidin¿ of the lndian plate underneath
the 8urma plate. The archipela¿o of the Andaman
and hicobar lslands has developed a crack between
the horthern and 5outhern Andaman lslands with a
tilt in the northwest-southeast direction. Accordin¿
to a study, the outermost hicobar lslands have sunk
by about 1.6 m, the northernmost Andaman lslands
have risen by about 1.z meters and between ç m and
over zoo m of the shoreline have been lost to the sea
( in the hicobars) (5ankaran et al. zooç). The northern
most inhabited island of ui¿lipur has risen between
o.ç - o.8 m while southern Andaman has sunk by 1.o to
z.o m. The ¿eolo¿ical and ¿eomorpholo¿ic chan¿es in
the islands are continuin¿ as the seismic oscillations
and tectonic plate tremors are still occurrin¿ and will
last till equilibrium is achieved (hlPFP zooç c).
Figure 2: Sumatra – Andaman
Islands earthquake of 26
December (from McCloskey et al
2005).
z6
The internationally reputed peer-reviewed scientiñc
iournal "hature" in its March 1, lssue zooç,
(McCloskey et al, zooç) published a paper revealin¿
that after the uec z6 zoou quake, the lndian 0cean
re¿ion is more prone to quakes and tsunamis than
Box 2
Field Observations at South and North Andaman
ln 5outh Andaman, it was observed that lar¿e tracts of land (mainly a¿ricultural) were inundated by seawater. This can
be attributed lar¿ely to the sinkin¿ of the landmass due to the earthquake, which preceded the tsunami. 5ubmer¿ed
houses were also observed.
ln horth Andaman, observations at the letty as well as near some of the smaller creeks and inlets revealed the lowerin¿
of the Ri¿h Tide Line as a result of the upliftment of land in the northern parts of the islands.
before. Another peer reviewed paper dated February
1o , zooç in the same iournal (5eabed reveals
earthquake scars) it has been hi¿hli¿hted that the
seabed has under¿one considerable chan¿es as a
result of the uec. z6, zoou earthquake.
3.1.2 Impacts on the Coastal
Regulation Zone
The upliftment of land in the northern ¿roup of islands
and subsidence in the southern parts has created
new terrestrial land mass is the northern parts while
terrestrial land has been lost in the southern parts of
the Andaman lslands. This has caused a chan¿e in
the Ri¿h Tide Line and consequently in the Coastal
ke¿ulation Zone.
3.1.3 Impacts on coral reefs
The entire reef fats, startin¿ from the north of
Constance 8ay on the western side of 5outh Andaman
lsland, further north alon¿ the Middle and horth
Andaman lslands and alon¿ the eastern coast from
the north up to 5hoal 8ay area in 5outh Andaman
lsland, are exposed by about o.,çm-1m, durin¿
low tide and are dead. This is the same for all maior
outlyin¿ islands around these areas and is clear proof
of the upheaval of the landmass by an avera¿e of 1 m.
The exposed reef fats, in time, will become extensive
beaches and the littoral forests are likely to extend
further out, increasin¿ the land area (Andrews and
vau¿han zooç). Accordin¿ to 5amir Acharya of the
5ociety for Andaman hicobar Ecolo¿y (5AhE), Port
8lair, the construction of improper bunds has resulted
in parts of the bunds bein¿ washed off thereby
sedimentation and chokin¿ of the corals. The partial
destruction of bunds also results in waterlo¿¿in¿ and
associated health problems like malaria.
3.1.4 Impacts on mangroves
The man¿rove creeks alon¿ the above mentioned
areas have been affected due to the hi¿h tide waters
not reachin¿ the roots of man¿rove trees, the water
level stays o. ,çm-1m below the normal level in the
creeks. This is causin¿ root shock and eventually
the dryin¿ of ñrst three rows of man¿rove trees and
shiftin¿ of the stands into the creeks. These creeks
have lost most of their substratum at the bottom,
leavin¿ only sand alon¿ the bottom, affectin¿ ñsh
and other creek fauna. The man¿roves on the eastern
side of the Middle Andamans, from kan¿at 8ay, east
of Lon¿ lsland and to the north of 8aratan¿ lsland and
in 5hoal 8ay area are submer¿ed durin¿ hi¿h and
low tides. This has resulted in the dryin¿ of man¿rove
trees and is causin¿ the shiftin¿ of strands into the
creeks. This is because the roots cannot breathe as
they are not exposed. Man¿rove roots have to be
exposed for at least six to ei¿ht hours a day (Andrews
and vau¿han zooç).
Box 3
Field Observations at
Ross and Smith Island
A visual study of the creeks and bays around 5mith and
koss lslands showed exposed man¿rove roots due to
uplift of the land. hew man¿rove recruits were observed
beyond the ed¿e in the new inter-tidal re¿ion. At koss
lsland, lar¿e areas of exposed coral reefs due to uplift of
land was observed.
3.1.5 Impacts on agricultural
lands
A¿ricultural lands have been severely affected
by inundation of seawater after the tsunami. The
area dama¿ed is assessed to be about 11,o1o ha
estimated to be one ñfth of the total area that used
to be under a¿riculture. 0f the total affected area,
1,¸o ha was under paddy and other ñeld crops and
¤1o, ha was under plantation crops. The number of
farmers affected by the tsunami is about 6,ooo. lt
was observed that the inundated lands have become
very fertile for ñsh and molluscs and are bein¿ used
as ñshin¿ areas by local ñshermen.
z,
3.1.7 Impacts on fisheries
5ixty-nine ñshermen were either reported dead or
missin¿. 5everal ñsher folk have become homeless.
Many lost their ñshin¿ inputs such as ñshin¿ craft,
ñshin¿ ¿ear, en¿ines, iceboxes, etc. The ice plants
and cold stora¿es of the uept. of Fisheries were
severely affected. The uepartment assessed loss to
the ¿overnment property, departmental staff and
loss to ñshermen as detailed below:
1. Loss to ¿overnment property was estimated at ks.
8zo.oo lakhs.
z. Two technical ofñcials from Katchal lslands were
reported missin¿.
¸. 6¤ ñshermen have been reported missin¿]dead.
u. A total of z¸z¸ ñshermen were directly affected.
ç. 6zz local made don¿ies (boats without en¿ines)
were fully dama¿ed.
6. u,1 local made don¿ies were partially dama¿ed.
,. ¸16 en¿ine ñtted boats were fully dama¿ed] lost.
8. z¤u en¿ine ñtted boats were partially dama¿ed.
¤. 5everal ñshers lost their nets, ñshin¿ implements,
marketin¿ assets, etc.
ln addition to this, the department also received
about 16oo additional claims for loss to craft and
¿ear which are bein¿ processed and will be approved
by a committee consistin¿ of the Assistant uirector of
Fisheries of the Zone (Convener), a representative of
the kevenue uepartment of the area and Panchayat
kai lnstitution representative viz. concerned pradhan
in rural areas]ward Council in Municipal area]Tribal
captain in tribal areas (Ahl Administration zooç b).
3.1.8 Impacts on structures
The study carried out by llT Kanpur states 'while
the dama¿e in Little Andaman lsland and all hicobar
lslands was predominantly tsunami-related, that in
the islands north of Little Andaman was primarily
3.2. CRZ implementation
in the context of the
tsunami
The occurrence of the tsunami has enhanced the
concerns about coastal mana¿ement that civil society
¿roups had. lt has brou¿ht to the fore the issue of
lack of implementation of precautionary clauses to
safe¿uard coastal communities from natural disasters
as well as the loss of natural ecosystems.
Throu¿h all the rebuildin¿ and reconstruction
initiatives in the lslands, CkZ re¿ulations will need to
be upheld. The uplift of the land in the northern ¿roup
of islands and subsidence in the southern parts have
created new terrestrial land mass is the northern
parts while land has been lost in the southern parts
of the Andaman islands. This has thus caused a
chan¿e in the Ri¿h Tide Line and consequently in the
Coastal ke¿ulation Zone.
There is therefore an ur¿ent need to remap the RTL
and the CkZ, as the present situation ¿ives scope
for violations of the CkZ hotiñcation. uemarcation of
the Ri¿h Tide Line and cate¿orisation of CkZ l, ll, lll
and lv in areas both affected and unaffected by the
tsunami and ¿eomorpholo¿ical chan¿es is necessary
to be done before undertakin¿ reconstruction and
rebuildin¿ of the coast.
Lack of exact knowled¿e about CkZ areas and
the activities permitted and restricted by the
CkZ notiñcation and the CZMP will affect the
implementation of the notiñcation and thus add to
the already enhanced vulnerability of the coastal
communities in the lslands.
3.1.6 Salination of ground water
and other freshwater resources
5eepa¿e of seawater into shallow aquifers, wells
and other freshwater sources was reported durin¿
the team's ñeld visit to 5outh Andaman and
Ravelock islands. These have direct and immediate
implications for human health and a¿riculture.
The extent of contamination must be assessed and
remedial action taken in cases where salinity will
not be fushed out rapidly throu¿h rainfall and other
natural processes.
due to earthquake shakin¿, thou¿h the tsunami
waves and hi¿h tides were also an issue. ln ¿eneral,
the buildin¿ stock consists of a lar¿e number of
traditional and non-en¿ineered structures. Many
traditional structures are made of wood, and they
performed well in the earthquake shakin¿. Rowever,
a number of new, poorly constructed reinforced
concrete (kC) structures suffered severe dama¿e or
even collapse due to shakin¿' (llT zooç).
ln addition, several so-called "rehabilitation and
reconstruction measures" have inherent problems in
them and are inconsistent with environmental milieu
of the islands.
z8
3.3 Issues concerning
reconstruction and
rehabilitation activities
and their impacts
The reconstruction and rehabilitation activities,
which have been discussed here, are those, which
are directly related to the coastal ecolo¿y and eco-
systems, and those, which are likely to have direct
or indirect impacts on the environment and on the
health and safety of settlements.
3.3.1 Construction of dykes
along the coast for agricultural
restoration
As part of the a¿ricultural restoration plan, extensive
construction of dykes alon¿ the coast has been
initiated. As per the report of the Administration, 'To
stop the in¿ress of seawater into a¿riculture ñelds,
1oo dykes of ço meters each with 1oo drop spillway
with sluice arran¿ement will be constructed at an
estimated cost of ks. u crores . The administration
has en¿a¿ed the Andaman Lakshadweep Rarbour
works (ALRw) for repair and reconstruction of dykes.
Permanent dykes will be required in the 5outh
Andaman area to check the in¿ress of seawater,
which will be constructed as part of the lon¿ term
packa¿e' (Ahl Administration zooç a).
Box 4
Field Observations at
South Andaman
Construction of dykes made of mud]stone was observed
alon¿ the creeks at 0aracharama and 5ippi¿hat.
A lot of quarryin¿ of mud and stone was observed alon¿
the hill slopes in the vicinity, presumably for construction
of the bunds. A stone-crushin¿ site was also observed.
Another fact that was observed was that the seawater,
which has entered inside, does not seem to have a path
to fow out as the bunds probably are blockin¿ some of
the natural draina¿e channels.
3.3.2 Rehabilitation of mangrove
forests
The draft 5tate uevelopment keport (hlPFP zooç b)
in its forestry chapter has proposed a mana¿ement
strate¿y for rehabilitation of man¿roves based on
the recommendations of the study carried out by the
M.5. 5waminathan kesearch Foundation (M55kF).
The report has recommended action plans for
rehabilitation of man¿roves, cate¿orised on the basis
of their location. These are:
a. Man¿rove areas that are lifted beyond the reach of
normal tidal inundation
b. Man¿rove areas that are completely submer¿ed as
of now
c. hon-man¿rove areas that have been inundated by
the tidal wave
a. Mançreve areas that are IiIted beyend the reach eI
nermaI tidaI inundatien.
ln man¿rove areas where the land has been elevated
beyond o.6m (o.6m to o.8 m) resultin¿ in the
withdrawal of water, tidal inundation by di¿¿in¿
trapezoidal canals has been recommended, to
brin¿ back the lost water re¿ime and replenish the
exposed and dryin¿ man¿roves. After leachin¿ of
salts by the rains durin¿ the monsoon, fresh water
lovin¿ man¿rove species such as Exocaria a¿allocha,
Rereteria sp., etc. can be planted. Continuous
monitorin¿ of biophysical conditions of elevated
areas alon¿ with interventions-as the case may
be-based on broad consultations with stakeholders,
includin¿ local communities is also su¿¿ested.
b. Mançreve areas that are cempIeteIy submerçed as
eI new.
Continuous monitorin¿ of chan¿es in the biophysical
condition of the submer¿ed land should be carried
out. lf the area becomes permanently submer¿ed to
a depth of one meter or more, no man¿roves could
be ¿rown there. 0n the other hand, if the level of
submer¿ence is shallow, man¿roves belon¿in¿ to
the ¿enera khizophora,, Ceriops and 8ru¿uiera could
be planted. These interventions should be ñrst tried
in small areas for further replication.
Areas eI cencern
Lon¿ term impacts of topo¿raphical modiñcations
for man¿rove plantation will need to be studied in
detail before implementation. lt is also to be debated
if human intervention is necessary when nature
takes its own course. The shiftin¿ of the tectonic
plate is a natural phenomenon that resulted in the
earthquake and tsunami, which led to destruction
and devastation to nature and man. hature has its
own ways of recoverin¿ from natural disasters. 0ne
such disaster was the destruction of man¿roves due
to elevation of land mass. we observed (man¿rove)
recruits further into the creek, where they did not
exist before. hature (in this case man¿roves) was
ñndin¿ its way back. why then is human intervention
required in the form of rehabilitation of man¿rove
forests!

3.3.4 Increase in water and
chemical usage for reclamation of
agricultural land
keclamation of a¿ricultural land will require
si¿niñcant amounts of water for fushin¿ out the
salinity and some chemicals to re-establish the
land's bufferin¿ abilities. As part of the a¿riculture
restoration packa¿e, scrapin¿ of salt and application
of ¿ypsum and or¿anic matter have been proposed.
3.3.5 Changes in land use
There is an increased risk of land use chan¿e if
affected a¿ricultural lands are not rehabilitated to
their earlier productive capacity. 0ne of the examples
of potential land use chan¿e is cited in the proposal
for development of Fisheries in inundated a¿ricultural
ñelds (lCAk zooç). The report states the followin¿:
Pre and pest 1sunami 5cenarie eI ßrackish water
keseurces
The lslands have around 11o,ooo ha of brackish
water]salt affected area besides ¸¸,ooo ha of
man¿roves. 8efore the tsunami ,about 68o ha was
identiñed as suitable for development of brackish
water aquaculture .After the tsunami, another uooo
ha has become brackish due to salt water intrusion
and out of this 1ooo ha have been identiñed as
havin¿ the potential for aquaculture. The total area
now available for development is 168o ha where the
saline]brackish water will be available for takin¿ up
aquaculture in ponds, ca¿es, pens, etc. Currently,
brackish water aquaculture is insi¿niñcant in the
islands and only 1o ha is currently under culture.
NewIy Iermed tidaI peeIs and inundated areas
As a result of the tsunami, lar¿e tracts of a¿ricultural
lands were inundated with salt water, and which left
certain areas under continuous inundation durin¿
sprin¿ tides. The water level and extent of water
spread depends on the force of the tides. These
newly formed brackish water areas can also be
converted for aquaculture since they have become
unsuitable for a¿riculture or horticulture due to salt
water intrusion. The suitability of all these sites has
to be ascertained throu¿h micro level surveys.
Areas eI cencern
A lot more thou¿ht and debate needs to ¿o into
permanently chan¿in¿ the use of such inundated
land. These lands have now become saline due to
natural reasons and causes. 5teps that could be
undertaken in this re¿ard are:
1. The proposed micro level survey should ñrst
establish whether or not it is advisable to recover
these lands.
3.3.3 Bio-shield programme
The M5kkF report has also proposed a bio-shield
pro¿ramme for coastal protection in non-man¿rove
areas that are inundated by tidal water or submer¿ed
by sea water. The report states that "8io shield
pro¿ramme should be initiated immediately, usin¿
food for work and all feasible methods of mobilisin¿
the labour needed for the work. Trees species of
priority such as casuarina, arecanut, pandanus,
sea mahua, etc. could be raised. ln the bioshield
pro¿ramme with non man¿rove species, coconut,
arecanut, pineapple, pandanus, casuarina, sea
mahua, cashew nut, kudsu vine and vetiver ¿rass,
cinchona, Ficus sp. and littoral forest species could
be tried. The choice of bioshield species should be
based on the nature of soil. ln areas suitable for
raisin¿ bioshield with non-man¿roves care needs
to be taken to address the environmental issues"
(hlPFP zooç c).
Areas eI cencern
5ome concerns re¿ardin¿ the need for a bio-shield
and the choice of species have been raised in the AhET
report (Andrews and vau¿han zooç): 'Currently no
maior mana¿ement or conservation effort is required
for the Andaman and hicobar lslands. Plantin¿ and
restoration pro¿rammes are currently not required
and it must be remembered that man¿roves, and
casuarina plantations do not provide protection from
tsunami. There is also no need for creatin¿ wind
breakers, moreover, there are other native littoral
species (other than casuarina) that can be used to
reduce erosion alon¿ the coast'.
The usa¿e of a man¿rove shelter belt as an omnibus
solution all alon¿ the coast is not feasible. From an
ecolo¿ical point of view, it may not be ideal to situate
man¿roves where they are not naturally found. The
coast has a number of natural features, which include
amon¿ others, coral reefs, rocky coastline, sandy
beaches, littoral forests, creeks and man¿rove forests
and these features are formed where conditions are
most ideal (5ekhsaria zooç).
Areas eI cencern
The availability of adequate fresh water is a maior
concern. Leachin¿ of chemicals into soil and coastal
waters may happen as may consequent secondary
impacts.
¸o
z. lf not, the land owner should be told that the land
will have to remain inundated. Further,
a. The land owner should be ¿iven the option of
retainin¿ the inundated land provided he leaves
the land inundated and uses it for purposes that
are ecolo¿ically and environmentally acceptable.
b. lf the owner does not wish to retain the land, he
should be compensated for the land lost in a
manner that is fair, iust and equitable.
c. The land should then permanently revert back to
0overnment to become common land.
d. The 0overnment should then ensure that the
inundated land is made part and parcel of the
surroundin¿ water body by removin¿ man made
blocks (if any have been made followin¿ the
tsunami).
¸. lf yes, then a number of options arise.
a. lt should be ascertained ñrst whether the inundated
land can be used as it is for different ecolo¿ically
and environmentally acceptable purposes, and if
so it should be used thus.
b. The land should then be made dry by usin¿
means that are ecolo¿ically and environmentally
acceptable and put to appropriate use.
£nvirenmentaI impacts eI aquacuIture
5hrimp culture is bein¿ banned in many places
because of its adverse effects and it is not clear why
this environmentally deleterious activity is sou¿ht to
be introduced into the islands. Maior environmental
impacts of aquaculture are:
(1) the decrease in the re¿ional ¿round water level
(z) sedimentation and destruction of coastal water
fow
(¸) the dischar¿e of aquaculture-effuents
(u) chemical and human health hazards in ¿eneral
3.3.6 Environmental sanitation in
intermediate shelters
There seems to have been a lack of adequate study on
the nature of appropriate technolo¿y for sanitation
before implementation. uiscussions with various
h00's workin¿ for k& k in the Andamans, revealed
that this was primarily due to lack of time .ln most
areas pit latrines have been constructed, which are
unsuitable in areas of hi¿h water table as in the
Andaman and hicobar lslands. These are potential
hazards as they can lead to ¿round water and surface
water contamination and consequently affect the
health of the people.
3.4 New constructions and
reconstructions in CRZ I
The hotiñcation states that in CkZ l there shall be no
'new constructions'. The deñnition and interpretation
of the term 'new construction' is important, althou¿h
not explicitly stated in the notiñcation (5ridhar zooç).
The expert le¿al view is that there is a difference in
the interpretation of the words 'no construction',
'no new construction' and 'no reconstruction'.
The term 'new construction' need not apply to the
reconstruction of an earlier authorised structure
that was demolished or destroyed by the tsunami,
if it is bein¿ reconstructed (as part of rehabilitation
measures) provided the reconstructed structure is as
per the same speciñcations, style and desi¿n as the
earlier construction. There should be no increase in
the area occupied or in the hei¿ht of the construction
as earlier.
This throws up several practical problems. There are
no records available for several earlier constructions
and it is also likely that a reconstruction will have
different impacts on the environment than the earlier
one, particularly if it is constructed usin¿ certain
kinds of buildin¿ materials.
Most importantly, the situation then and now (post-
tsunami) has chan¿ed drastically, where safety of
constructions and desi¿n are much more important.
The CkZ does not address any of these issues
at present since these were simply not matters
envisa¿ed durin¿ the draftin¿ of the notiñcation.
The hotiñcation is clear that no new constructions
can be allowed within çoo metres of the CkZ l areas.
This would include all new residential homes,
temporary settlements, permanent structures,
recreational facilities, cyclone shelters, public
infrastructure facilities such as roads, brid¿es,
schools, play¿rounds, parks, medical facilities,
hospitals and health centres, shops, etc.
For areas classiñed as CkZ lv, the CkZ hotiñcation
does not clearly specify any kind of buildin¿ norms for
reconstruction in the ço]zoo m to çoom zone, as the
case may be, as it does for CkZ lll areas. lt also does
not specify norms for construction]reconstruction in
the ho-uevelopment Zone as for CkZ lll¹ .
z
ln the case of CkZ lll, the notification specifies that in the ho-uevelopment zone (up to zoo m from the RTL) only repairs of existin¿ authorised structures
not exceedin¿ existin¿ Floor 5pace lndex, existin¿ plinth area and existin¿ density are permissible, besides other activities that are permissible in the
notification. ln the zoo-çoo m zone, construction]reconstruction of dwellin¿ units is permitted so lon¿ as it is within the ambit of traditional ri¿hts and
customary uses such as existin¿ fishin¿ villa¿es and ¿aothan and subiect to the conditions that the total number of dwellin¿ units shall not be more than
twice the number of existin¿ units; total covered area on all floors shall not exceed ¸¸% of the plot size; the overall hei¿ht of construction shall not exceed
¤ m and the construction shall not be more than z floors (¿round floor plus one floor) hi¿h. Construction is allowed for permissible activities under the
notification includin¿ facilities essential for such activities. These include public rain shelters, community toilets, water supply, draina¿e, sewera¿e, roads
and brid¿es, schools and dispensaries for local inhabitants of the area.
¸1
As mentioned in the case of CkZ l, practical problems
related to lack of adequate land records, built up
area and type of construction will also arise in CkZ
lv areas.
ln areas classiñed as CkZ ll, the notiñcation speciñes
that keconstruction of the authorised buildin¿s will
be permitted subiect to existin¿ F5l]FAk norms and
without chan¿e in the existin¿ use.
ln areas such as Port 8lair, which is a municipal town,
the issues related to lack of availability of land and
buildin¿ records, may be relatively less.
3.5 Supreme Court order
post-tsunami permitting
sand mining
8ased on a report submitted by the Central
Empowered Committee, the 5upreme Court issued
orders as an interim measure permittin¿ extraction
of sand as follows:
kemoval for sand from beaches for the purpose of
buildin¿s]road construction etc. for a period of six
months subiect to the followin¿:
1. Total quantity of sand removed from the beaches
will not exceed the upper limit permitted by this
court by order dated ,th May, zooz. (As per 5C
orders, the extraction allowed is uu,1o1.,6 cubic
metres based on phasin¿ out at the rate of a
minimum of zo% per year on reducin¿ balance
basis, the extraction in zooz bein¿ 68,¤o¤ cubic
metres).
z. ho removal will be done from national parks and
sanctuaries.
Areas eI cencern
The permissible quantity unless clearly mentioned
alon¿ with areas from where they can be extracted,
by name, is difñcult to control and monitor. The
quality of sand is not appropriate for construction
and this may enhance the vulnerability of the coastal
communities.
For the purpose of economic development in the
aftermath of the tsunami, the Andaman & hicobar
lslands Administration is actively pursuin¿ lar¿e
scale development plans. what's more, the
tsunami has only hi¿hli¿hted the incon¿ruity of
the current development model bein¿ adopted by
the Administration for the lslands and this needs
revisitin¿. 0ne of the most lucrative sectors to the
Administration is tourism - which is bein¿ currently
bein¿ promoted as the economic saviour of the
lslands. The problem with tourism is. is what the
vision says: ".in the context of the tsunami.." A
detailed analysis on tourism development plans is
presented herewith.
¸z
part 4
TOURISM IN THE ANDAMAN AND NICOBAR ISLANDS
4.1 Natural Disasters and
Tourism in Small Island
Developing Economies
Tourism as a means of livelihood to the economy
of small islands like the Andamans needs speciñc
attention. The si¿niñcance of tourism in the island
countries of the Caribbean and the Paciñc and the
adversities that arise out of unre¿ulated tourism has
been hi¿hli¿hted time and a¿ain. The Pro¿ramme
of Action for the 5ustainable uevelopment in 5mall
lsland uevelopin¿ 5tates (5lu5) stresses the point by
acknowled¿in¿ the important contribution of tourism
to the development of many small island developin¿
5tates, while notin¿ that "if nct prcpcrlv plonncJ onJ
monogcJ, tcurism cculJ signihcontlv JcgroJc thc
cnvircnmcnt cn which it is sc JcpcnJcnt (Commission
on 5ustainable uevelopment, 1¤¤6). lt also issues a
speciñc warnin¿ to small island developin¿ states
on the risks of over-reliance on tourism. lt states:
".cccncmic rcccssicn in inJustriolizcJ ccuntrics,
thcir mojcr scurcc cf tcurists, and the impacts eI
trepicaI sterms and cycIenes te which many eI them
are particuIarIy prene have devastatinç eIIects en
the teurism secter and hence en teurism-based
isIand ecenemies" (emphasis added). lt is this
aspect of tourism development that needs emphasis
while analysin¿ the impacts of the tsunami on the
Andamans from the perspective of the tourism
sector.
5mall islands, by virtue of their unique ¿eo¿raphic
location, topo¿raphy and ¿eomorphic forces are much
more prone to natural disasters of all kinds-tropical
storms, hurricanes, earthquakes and tsunamis-that
wreck havoc year after year on coasts around the
world. kesearch indicates that in zoou, the month
of Au¿ust alone saw four successive hurricanes,
which hit the Caribbean islands, particularly
devastatin¿ Puerto kico, Raiti and the uominican
kepublic¹. 0n tsunamis, the lnternational Tsunami
lnformation Centre has it that maior Paciñc-wide
tsunamis have made their presence felt periodically
each century¹ . 5cientists also predict that ¿lobal
warmin¿ is increasin¿ly threatenin¿ small islands
like the 5eychelles and the Maldives, which are also
maior tourist destinations, and a model that the
Andaman wishes to adopt. 5uch a repeated batterin¿
of prime tourist locations by natural disasters has
had ¿overnments in 5lu5 sufñciently worried. The
Caribbean Tourism 0r¿anisation has be¿un serious
discussions on improvin¿ disaster preparedness
as a consistent spate of hurricanes devastates the
re¿ion's tourism economies year after year. lronically,
in the Caribbean-as in most other island states-
tourism has been advocated as the best alternative
to traditional a¿ricultural occupations, which has
increased dependence of local communities and
economies on tourism-based activities for income
and employment³. ln such a climate, the economic
devastation caused by natural disasters increases
manifold and often communities are unable to ever
recover fully from its impact
u
.
Tourism development in small islands is a risky
proposition due to their exposure to periodical natural
disasters and therefore that policies on tourism
development in such re¿ions much acknowled¿e
this vulnerability and seek to reduce rather than
exacerbate it.
The importance that the Andaman and hicobar lslands
Administration attaches to tourism is based on their
vision statement, which states that the limited scope
for industrial activity on the islands coupled with
the decline in wood-based industry (pursuant to the
1
'hatural uisasters and Tourism', Rarold 0oodwin, lnternational Centre for kesponsible Tourism - 0ccasional Paper l, z8th February zooç
z
ld. 1
¸
5tatistics reveal that in 1¤¤8, Rurricane 0ilbert is estimated to have cost lamaica $u-6 billion, while the Eastern Caribbean Central 8ank reports that in
1¤¤ç, because of Rurricane Luis, Anti¿ua and 8arbuda saw losses of u,ooo to ,,ooo iobs, an estimated 1ç-zç% of the workforce. ('Caribbean: Plan to miti¿ate
the impacts of natural disaster' by uionne lackson Miller, Third world hetwork.)
u
ln the Caribbean island of uominica, industry estimates place the losses arisin¿ out of a sin¿le disaster - Rurricane Lenny that hit the country in 1¤¤¤- at
EC$ ç million or approx u5u 1.8 million. uata also reveals that the impact of the first maior hurricane to hit uominica - Rurricane uavid in 1¤,¤ - impact
on the tourism sector was so severe that visitor numbers that had peaked the previous year, sharply declined by ¸o% in 1¤,¤-8o and never reached the
same hi¿h fi¿ures a¿ain until 1¤86. ('uominica; hatural uisasters and uevelopment in a 5mall lsland uevelopin¿ 5tate', The world 8ank, uisaster kisk
Mana¿ement workin¿ Paper 5eries ho z, 0ctober zoo1.)
¸¸
5upreme Court iud¿ment dated May ,, zooz) has
led to tourism bein¿ identiñed as a thrust sector for
economic development, revenue and employment
¿eneration on the islands (Andaman and hicobar
Administration zooç c). The state development
report also su¿¿ests expansion of the present tourist
season to throu¿hout the year by expandin¿ tourist
attractions to aspects other than beautiful beaches
of the islands. After the tsunami, the Administration
announced as early as March zooç that it was ready
to receive tourists. ln May zooç, when the President
of lndia visited the lslands, he announced his vision
to see 1 million (or 1o lakh) tourists a year, based
on the Maldives model. 0f late, the Administration
has launched an a¿¿ressive marketin¿ campai¿n in
the print and electronic media with the catch phrase
"vitamin 5ea" to promote its 'sea, sand and surf'.
5tatistics on tourist arrivals indicate that tourism in
Andaman and hicobar lslands has picked up in the
last zo years and increased steadily over the last
few years. There were only 1o,ooo tourists visitin¿
the islands in 1¤8o and in zoo¸, the number had
increased almost tenfold to ¤8,ooo. ln zoou, it had
been expected to cross the 1oo,ooo mark
ç
. Table
1z summarises statistics on tourist arrivals in the
lslands since 1¤8o.
year Domestic
Tourists
International
Tourists
Total
1¤8o
,çoo
zo¤6 ¤ç¤6
1¤81 88¸ç 11,o 1oooç
1¤8z 1¸uuu 11oz 1uçu6
1¤8¸ 1uozo 181, 1ç8¸,
1¤8u 16ooo ¸1çz 1¤1çz
1¤8ç zoz¤1 1z6u z1ççç
1¤86 zo¤uz 1,¤1 zz,¸¸
1¤8, ¸1ç¤1 zo8ç ¸¸6¸6
1¤88 ¸uç8¤ ¸66¸ ¸8zçz
1¤8¤ ¸¤¤6, z¸¤z uz¸ç¤
1¤¤o z,o1¤ 66¤, ¸¸,16
1¤¤1 ¸zzuz zzu8 ¸uu¤o
1¤¤z ¸ç81, zu¸ç ¸8zçz
1¤¤¸ ¸çooo 1,,1 ¸6,,1
1¤¤u ço,¸, ¸,¤8 çuç¸ç
1¤¤ç 6uu¤o ¸8u¤ 68¸¸¤
1¤¤6 6,¤ç8 ç,¤6 ,¸,çu
1¤¤, ,¸çç8 u,zu ,8o8z
1¤¤8 ,u,¸z u¤1ç ,¤6u,
1¤¤¤ ,,uu8 6o¸ç 8¸u8¸
zooo 81u¸z u68u 86116
zoo1 8ç866 çzu¤ ¤111ç
zooz ¤o6z¤ u,o, ¤ç¸¸6
zoo¸ ¤¸8¤¤ uz81 ¤818o
zoou 1oçoou uç,8 1o¤ç8z
Table 3
Tourist arrivals statistics in the
Andaman and Nicobar Islands
since 1980
ç
88C hews, "Post tsunami tourism in the lslands", Port 8lair, Andaman lslands, 11 lanuary zooç.
5ource: 1¤8o to 1¤¤¤: uept. of lnformation, Publicity & Tourism,
A&h, zooo to zoou: Parliamentary 5tandin¿ Committee on Rome
Affairs, lune zooç. "8ack¿round hote on uevelopmental Activities
in the Andaman and hicobar lslands", vol. 1.
¸u
The 5tate uevelopment keport (draft) also states
nearly ¤ç per cent of tourists to the Andaman &
hicobar lslands are domestic and many of them are
¿overnment employees and their families who travel
to the lslands to avail of their leave travel concession
(LTC). The report notes that forei¿n tourists are mostly
from the back-packer cate¿ory and both domestic
and forei¿n tourists contribute very little to island
revenues.
uomestic tourists ¿enerally hail from the east or
south of the mainland of lndia. These are mostly
family tourists with 6ç% travelin¿ by air while ¸ç%
travel by ship. Their avera¿e len¿th of stay on the
islands is between u to ç days with an avera¿e
expenditure of about ks. çoo per day per person.
The domestic tourist infow peaks in the months of
uecember and April that coincide with the holiday
months in educational institutions.
Rowever, compared to domestic tourists, the
international tourists are more thinly spread
throu¿hout the year but even here a lar¿er proportion
prefer the sunny and mild winter months. 0n an
avera¿e an international tourist stays on the islands
for between 1ç to zo days. The normal per day per
person expenditure is not very different from that
by domestic tourists but the overall expenditure is
between u to ç times that of the domestic tourist
lar¿ely on account of the lon¿er duration of the visit.
uue to the shorter duration of their tour, domestic
tourists are often concentrated in the Port 8lair
area and do not spread out to other islands like
the international tourists (Andaman and hicobar
Administration, zooç).
4.2 Tourism Policy of the
Islands
The vision statement of the A&h Administration is
contextualised in the followin¿ statement:
"The limited scope for industrial activity on the
islands coupled with the decline in the wood-based
industry pursuant to the 5upreme Court iud¿ement
dated May ,, zooz has led to tourism bein¿ identiñed
as a thrust sector for economic development,
revenue and employment ¿eneration on the islands.
Keepin¿ in view the fra¿ile ecolo¿y and limited
carryin¿ capacity of the islands, the obiective of the
Andaman and hicobar administration is to strive for
sustainable tourism"
6
.
Therefore, the tourism vision is: ".to develop the
Andaman and hicobar lslands as an upmarket island
destination for eco-tourists throu¿h environmentally
sustainable development of infrastructure without
disturbin¿ the natural eco-system with the obiective
of ¿eneratin¿ revenue, creatin¿ more employment
opportunities and syner¿ise the socio-economic
development of the islands." For the detailed note of
the tourism vision (refer to annexure z). For brevity's
sake, the priority areas have not been included here.
The thrust however is on privatisation, inducin¿
private sector investment, openin¿ up more areas
in the islands for tourism and puttin¿ up lar¿e-scale
infrastructure to facilitate tourism activities and
tourist movements in the lslands.
A number of master plans exist for the lslands and
amon¿ all these, the Ministry of Tourism (0ol) - wT0
- uhuP plan has been retained by the vision for
implementation. lt is to be kept in mind that this report
is frau¿ht with controversies and many concerns have
been raised by civil society or¿anisations from lndia
and the 5outh Asian re¿ion re¿ardin¿ various aspects
of the plan. A detailed analytical critique is provided
in followin¿ sections of this chapter.
The tourism vision, if not anythin¿ else, is only rhetoric
on sustainable ecotourism with little substance to
back it up. 0n the contrary, the vision seeks to relax
CkZ and other environmental ¿uidelines for proiects
on the coast and obtain clearances for tourism
proiects on forest lands.
6
http:]]www.and.nic.in]policy.pdf
4.3 Tourism Policy in the
Andamans and the Tsunami
For many years prior to the tsunami, it was hoped that
tourism would be a thrust area for development in
the lslands. lt can be said therefore with reasonable
certainty that prior to the tsunami, tourism was on
a steady rise in the Andamans and the re¿ion was
poised to re¿ister an increased infow of tourists in
zoou-zooç as well.
There are no reliable or precise estimates of the
dama¿e caused by the uecember zoou tsunami
to tourism in the Andaman lslands. Althou¿h not
exhaustive or comprehensive, data from ¿overnment
sources ¿ives pointers towards the possible extent of
impact based solely on comparison of tourist arrival
ñ¿ures.
0ther references to the impact of the disaster on
tourism reveal that much of the loss to the local
tourism industry came from the cancellation of
bookin¿s made by forei¿n tourists rather than physical
loss of infrastructure or facilities on the island itself.
¸ç
Tra¿ically, the only consolation for the local tourism
industry was the lar¿e number of scientists, h00s,
relief workers and senior ¿overnment ofñcials who
visited the Andamans after the disaster struck. Even
in the absence of accurate data, the tsunami has
undoubtedly adversely impacted the local tourism
industry that has increased economic hardship
for communities dependent on tourism. The more
worrisome aspect in the post-tsunami context is
the non-acknowled¿ement of the link between the
disaster and the vulnerability of the island's tourism
economy.
4.4 Tourism Policy in the
Andamans: A Desperate
Need for Change in the
Light of the Tsunami
Experience
The Tourism Policy for the Andaman and hicobar lslands
is a rather simplistic document servin¿ very little
of its purpose of providin¿ ¿uideline and principles
for implementation. The one-pa¿e document simply
states its vision to develop the lslands: ´.os o quolitv
Jcstinoticn fcr ccc-tcurists thrcugh cnvircnmcntollv
sustoinoblc Jcvclcpmcnt cf infrostructurc withcut
Jisturbing thc noturol ccc-svstcm with thc cbjcctivc
cf gcncroting rcvcnuc, crcoting mcrc cmplcvmcnt
cppcrtunitics onJ svncrgics onJ sccic-cccncmic
Jcvclcpmcnt cf thc islonJ' (A&h Administration,
Tourism Policy, zoo¸). Much of the ambitious plans
and proiects for tourism in the Andamans have been
throu¿h a plethora of commissioned master plans
prepared by a varied host of research institutes and
interested parties, the details of which are ¿iven in
the followin¿ section.
All the master plans do a thorou¿h iob of identifyin¿
areas within the lslands for potential ecotourism
development, proiect ideas and need for stren¿thenin¿
tourism infrastructure in the re¿ion. Rowever, neither
the policy nor any of the plans have addressed the
issues arisin¿ for tourism on the lslands in the event
of adversities like natural disasters and possible ways
of copin¿ with them. This inapplicability of several
tourism development ideas in the context of disaster-
prone small islands can be elucidated with the
example of tourism's dependency on the air transport
industry. ln the various tourism development plans
for the Andamans, a repeated point of si¿niñcance
has been on the need to improve air connectivity
to the islands and improvin¿ facilities at the Port
8lair airport. 5ome of the ideas for improvin¿ air
infrastructure are:
1. Providin¿ international status to the Port 8lair
airport, commissionin¿ additional airports in the
lslands and providin¿ inter-island helicopter, sea-
air services (8ack¿round hote on uevelopmental
Activities in the Andaman and hicobar lslands,
vol. 1 of the Parliamentary 5tandin¿ Committee
on Rome Affairs).
z. ueclarin¿ Port 8lair as an international airport
and transfer of the operations of the airport to
the Airport Authority of lndia. (At present the
operation are with the defence authorities in
lieu of difñculties experienced in operatin¿
fi¿hts beyond the afternoon and due to want of
clearance from the Air Trafñc Control).
¸. 0penin¿ of additional civilian airports in the
Andaman and hicobar uistricts for landin¿ of
national and international fi¿hts as well as for
operation of helicopter services and small planes
for inter-island transportation.
lf implemented successfully, the above plan mi¿ht
boost the tourist economy by improvin¿ accessibility
to the lslands by easin¿, simplifyin¿ and speedin¿
up travel arran¿ements. Experiences from across the
world have shown that on the contrary, a "boostin¿"
of the tourism industry by over-connectivity and
reliance on forei¿n airlines has in fact deepened
the tourism crisis durin¿ natural disasters and
contributed to the rapid downfall of economies
dependent on tourism.
The above example only illustrates the need
for tourism development in the Andamans to
be conscious of its increased vulnerability to
externalities like disasters, which may obliterate the
tourism economy if not developed sensitively and
sensibly. kepeated experiences in the Caribbean
have now led ¿overnments to incorporate elements
of disaster-preparedness and miti¿ation of adverse
impacts on local economies. The most important of
these has been the realisation that because of its
hi¿h vulnerability to be impacted by internal (political
instability and security issues, outbreak of diseases
like 5Ak5) and external factors (terrorist attacks,
recession in source countries, natural disasters),
tourism sheuId net be the seIe mainstay industry
for any economy, even more so for small island
countries. 0ther important recommendations have
been related to stren¿thenin¿ the insurance net for
local investors and entrepreneurs to enable speedy
recovery after a disaster.
unfortunately, the ¿overnment in Andamans has
not reco¿nised or addressed any of these important
aspects of tourism development in the pre or post-
tsunami context. 0n the contrary, the focus seems to
¸6
be on implementin¿ the already unsuitable plans and
revivin¿ the sector by focusin¿ on brin¿in¿ in a lar¿e
number of tourists.
4.5 A Basket Full of
Tourism Master Plans for
the Islands
ln the last decade, at least six documents were
prepared to lay down the framework of tourism
development in the lslands. Apart from these, the
uepartment of Environment and Forests has been
¿iven the mandate to identify potential ecotourism
spots in the Andamans, which are incorporated in
the divisional workin¿ plans of horth, Middle and
5outh Andamans for the period between zoo¸ and
zo1¸ (see followin¿ sections for more details).
The various studies and master plans are:
1. 1¤8,: Proposal for the uevelopment of Tourism
in the Andaman, hicobar and Lakshadweep
lslands,.
z. 1¤¤u: uraft Perspective Master Plan for Tourism
uevelopment in Andaman lslands8.
¸. 1¤¤6: Ministry of Tourism (MoT), 0overnment
of lndia in association with the world Tourism
0r¿anization (wT0) had undertaken a proiect
with united hations uevelopment Pro¿ramme
(uhuP) fundin¿ for developin¿ a lon¿-term
strate¿ic Master Plan to enable environmentally
sustainable tourism in Andaman lslands.
u. zooo (0ct): hEEkl, Carryin¿ Capacity 8ased
uevelopmental Plannin¿ for lmplementation of
Master Tourism Plan in the Andaman lslands¤.
ç. zooz (May): Perspective Plan for Tourism
uevelopment in the Andaman and hicobar
lslands, Ministry of Tourism & Culture
- uepartment of Tourism, 0ovt. of lndia in
,
The study was undertaken by a workin¿ ¿roup appointed by the lsland uevelopment Authority (luA). The workin¿ ¿roup was headed by Mr. komi Khosla,
a well known urban desi¿ner and architect, with representation from the MoEF, Ministry of Tourism (MoT), the Plannin¿ Commission, uepartment of 0cean
uevelopment, the lsland uevelopment Authority (luA), individual scientists and the Lieutenant 0overnor of Andaman and hicobar. The study took a planned
environmental approach to tourism development. All the proposals were based on carryin¿ capacity analysis of the islands, with due focus on benefits of
tourism ¿oin¿ to local inhabitants. The study recommended that all the tourism developments of future should be in coherence of environmental and socio
economic characteristics of the lsland and therefore avoid any replication of urban development and entertainment of the "mainland".
8
This was a paper prepared by a former 5ecretary of luA, responsible for tourism. The focus of this paper was on massive infrastructure development,
includin¿ air and water transport infrastructure. urawin¿ from the criticism earlier plan received, this study made an attempt to discuss investments in
lslands, and role of the private sector in tourism development. This study talks at len¿th on improvin¿ the investment climate in the lslands, by revisin¿ CkZ
norms, introducin¿ new zonin¿ re¿ulations, buildin¿ by laws and inters departmental cooperation.
Post 1¤¤1, 0overnment of lndia drafted hew Economic Policy and thereafter economy witnessed a ¿radual process of liberalisation and ¿lobalisation. The
report done in 1¤¤u is very much in coherence with the liberalisation a¿enda of 0overnment. The ¿roups and or¿anisations havin¿ a pro-liberal stand
appreciated the report's recommendations. 0n the other hand the report does not incorporate sections on environmental dama¿es, re¿ulatory framework
and protectin¿ the interests of local inhabitants of the lslands.
¤
0n the advice of the Ministry of Environment and Forests, the uhuP commissioned the hational Environmental En¿ineerin¿ kesearch lnstitute (hEEkl) to
undertake a carryin¿ capacity based study incorporatin¿ the assessment of maximum tourism that can be sustained by the lslands, before recommendations
in the Master Plan were to be implemented.

1o
Andaman Express, "Con¿ress uemands to ueclare tourism as industry for Andaman", 1z lune zoou, Port 8lair.
11
source: Parliamentary 5tandin¿ Committee on Rome Affairs, "8ack¿round hote on uevelopmental Activities in the Andaman and hicobar lslands", vol. 1,
lune zooç.
consultation with M]s A. F. Fer¿uson & Co.,
Mana¿ement Consultancy uivision.
6. zooç (lune): 8ack¿round hote on uevelopmental
Activities in the Andaman and hicobar lslands,
vol. 1 of the Parliamentary 5tandin¿ Committee
on Rome Affairs.
,. zooç (Au¿ust): draft 5tate uevelopment keport -
Chapter 11: Tourism in the Andaman and hicobar
lslands prepared by Mr. Mukesh Anand, hational
lnstitute of Public Finance and Policy, hew uelhi.
8efore the tsunami, the islands were tar¿eted ".as
special focus area to develop the tourism sector to
create more and more employment and to place them
on the world Tourism Map"
1o
. After the tsunami, the
situation does not seem to have chan¿ed, rather there
seems to be a sense of ur¿ency to accomplish what
was planned prior to it. ln the presence of numerous
master plans and outlays, the tourism vision has
identiñed the MoT-wT0-uhuP master plan. For this
reason, we have presented a detailed critique of
the MoT-wT0-uhuP master plan in the followin¿
section.
The 8ack¿round hote on uevelopmental Activities
in the Andaman and hicobar lslands, vol. 1 of the
Parliamentary 5tandin¿ Committee on Rome Affairs
has detailed out the development activities and
prescribed ñnancial outlays for the same. There is
too much of money bein¿ spent on infrastructure and
it is hi¿hly capital intensive: to the tune of nearly 1z
crores
11
. The study team observed that construction
of road to the waterfall in Rut 8ay, Little Andaman has
already be¿un; the hote su¿¿ests this under scheme
ll - creation, maintenance of tourism infrastructure,
pointin¿ to a possibility that this may be implemented
on priority. (kefer annexure ¸ for detailed notes).
ln the short-term obiectives, the hote lays heavy
¸,
emphasis on transportation to and between the
lslands to facilitate tourist movements. These
include improvin¿ air and water transport, related
infrastructure like marinas for dockin¿ lar¿e cruise
ships, procurement of water sport equipment, water
sport complexes, a ¿olf course at Port 8lair, audio-
visual and electronic display equipments, and
procurement of tourist submarines.
ln the medium term, the hote hi¿hli¿hts: (i) increased
connectivity-throu¿h domestic and international
fi¿hts both re¿ular and chartered, providin¿
international status to the Port 8lair airport,
commissionin¿ additional airports in the lslands and
providin¿ inter-island helicopter sea-air services; (ii)
introduction of faster transportation like hovercrafts,
catamarans, luxury boats and yachts; (iii) private
sector led accommodation facilities, shoppin¿ malls,
multiplexes and amusement parks, fyovers; (iv) water
sports, scuba divin¿, cable car, tourist submarines
and a han¿in¿ brid¿e; and (v) promote ecotourism,
facilitatin¿ visa procurement and lon¿ term kestricted
Area Permits.
4.6 Development Strategy
for Environmentally
Sustainable Tourism in the
Andamans (1997)
The Ministry of Tourism (MoT), 0overnment of lndia
in association with the world Tourism 0r¿anization
(wT0) had undertaken a proiect with the united
hations uevelopment Pro¿ramme (uhuP) fundin¿ for
developin¿ lon¿-term strate¿ic Master Plan to enable
environmentally sustainable tourism in Andaman
lslands.
The plan document has been divided into followin¿
volumes:
1) volume 1: Tourism 5tructure Plan for the
Andamans
z) volume z: Action and uevelopment Pro¿ramme
¸) volume ¸: 8asic 5tudies and Analyses
lt is interestin¿ to note that unlike other plans,
which usually start from analysis and then ¿oes to
proposal, action plan and recommendations, in this
the order of presentation has been reversed. volume
¸, which is the last volume, ¿ives the detail analysis
of plans, environmental le¿islations, socio economic
proñle and analysis of tourist attractions. volume 1
and volume z contain actual recommendations and
action plans on spatial plannin¿ and institutional
arran¿ements.
ln the analysis of the existin¿ scenario (volume ¸),
the document has ¿iven adequate analysis of socio
cultural characteristics, historical developments,
economic proñle and tourism potentials of the lslands.
Economic review, analysis of tourist attractions and
market prospects of tourism in the Andaman lslands
have ¿ot a special emphasis in the report. The market
potential and tourism promotion has been compared
with other lsland destinations such as Mauritius,
Maldives, 5eychelles and other 5outh East Asian and
Paciñc locations. The possible "tourism products",
(such as scuba divin¿, yachtin¿, port ñshin¿,
boat cruises and ¿eneral water sport) for makin¿
Andaman on par with other lsland destinations are
also su¿¿ested. lmprovement of infrastructure and
investment climate has been reco¿nised as conditions
for realisin¿ the potential of the lslands. The plan
talks about environmental assets of the island as
possible products to attract "hi¿h value, low volume,
internationally competitive tourism"
uespite such in-depth analyses of market potential,
tourist attractions and economy of the lsland, it is
strikin¿ that none of the chapters have been devoted
to analyse the existin¿ environmental capacities and
threats of the lslands. There is a small section on
Threats to the Environment, however for a plan, that
calls itself "Environmentally 5ustainable", the analysis
is not adequate. Even this analysis does not reco¿nise
the fact that tourism has far reachin¿ impact on the
fra¿ile ecosystems of the lslands. Environmental
assessments in one of the plans outline that since,
most of the forested lands in the Andaman are isolated
from human habitation, the tourism development
in other areas will not affect the forest ecosystem of
the lslands. This analysis is not in accordance with
the 5hekhar 5in¿h Committee's ñndin¿s and other
studies on forests of the Andaman, which reveal that
biodiversity of Andaman is endan¿ered and there are
serious threats to it.
The plan states: "Althou¿h some pressures from
encroachment by a¿ricultural holdin¿s have taken
place in selected locations, notably alon¿ the
Andaman Trunk koad, many forested areas are isolated
from human habitation and economic activities and
these are unlikely to cause si¿niñcant de¿radation of
forests."
volume 1 talks about maior spatial plannin¿ and
zonin¿ recommendations. The spatial development
strate¿y has basically attempted the development
of tourism in various zones. The concept of havin¿
such strate¿y is to have phased development in
the islands, whereby most important "marketable
attractions" ¿et developed in the ñrst place. The Plan
mentions that such a spatial strate¿y ñnally leads to a
¸8
competitive tourism development and almost all the
areas of lslands are brou¿ht under tourism phase by
phase.
The different zones' strate¿y simply talks about
how to improve the access to the zones, what are
the products, and unique attractions that each of
the zones could potentially offer the tourists. There
is complete ne¿li¿ence of the fact that indi¿enous
people inhabit these small islands and there is a
need to safe¿uard their lifestyles and aspirations.
Environmental considerations have been completely
i¿nored. lnstead the plan takes the position that CkZ
is one of the maior constraints in the development
of competitive international tourism, and states in
this context: "The innumerable restrictions on entry,
movement and development must be relaxed or
completely removed."
The plan is based on a very ¿eneral understandin¿
of the economic and social impacts. lt assumes
that employment ¿eneration will be a maior beneñt,
estimated the number of iobs at u,uoo, however it
fails ¿ive details on the forms employment and the
beneñciaries!
0n social implications the plan skims the surface. lt
assumes that since the population in the lslands is
of mostly of settlers, there prevails a cosmopolitan
culture and therefore the local population will have
no problem with forei¿n tourists. ln the event of
problems, the plan su¿¿ests that the solution is
to conduct awareness campai¿ns with the local
residents. The plan is silent on orientin¿ tourists
on environmental and socially sensitive tourism or
havin¿ any code of conduct for tourists.
volume z of the plan basically deals with the policy
issues and proposed institutional arran¿ement for
tourism development. The plan proposes followin¿
for removal or relaxation of institutional constraints:
1. keduction of the coastal development prohibition
zone from zoo m to ¸o m behind the RTL in areas
scheduled for tourism development
z. ue-reservation of forest land in similar areas.
¸. kemoval of restrictions on the internal movement
of forei¿ners and abolition of police entry permits
for forei¿ners.
u. 5impliñcation of procedures for entry into forests
or protected areas.
The other institutional arran¿ement championed by
the plan is private sector participation. 0n an overall
basis, what the plan really lacks is sensitivity towards
indi¿enous people; local inhabitants and above
all the fra¿ile ecosystem (refer annexure u). with
the thrust on relaxin¿ all the re¿ulations (includin¿
the CkZ), to make Andamans a friendly destination
for international tourists, the recommendations
stron¿ly promote neo-liberal economic ideolo¿ies,
which cannot be the basis of a broader policy
directive for the lslands. 5econdly, the rationale of
spatial plannin¿ and zonin¿ is not clear. keference to
buildin¿ by laws, CkZ, ,¸rd and ,uth Constitutional
Amendments and other important environmental
le¿islations are not made in spatial plannin¿.
The Tourism vision of the Andaman and hicobar
lslands, which was formulated in May zooz, spells out
ecotourism and creatin¿ beneñts to local people as
one of the obiectives. The preservation of natural and
cultural herita¿e of the lslands and socio-economic
development has been tar¿eted. The vision document
outlines the implementation of the plans prepared by
Ministry of Tourism - wT0 and supported by uhuP as
one of the policy measures to be taken. ln a scenario
where number of policies, plans and le¿islations
exist, and there is a lack of cohesiveness amon¿
them, implementation of any of these without ¿ettin¿
validation from ¿round realities is not an appropriate
way to address the issues of the tourism sector.
There have also been su¿¿estions of linkin¿ tourism
in Andamans with the tourism circuits of Thailand. A
tie-up with Phuket has occurred and forei¿n tourists
are expected to trickle in throu¿h this route. There
is fear across various stakeholders and civil society
¿roups that such development would further affect
the sustainability aspects of Andamans and would
make it more vulnerable (see section below).
5ome of the plans have also considered environmental
carryin¿ capacity as the ¿uidin¿ factor for tourism
development, and these are based on rules, norms
and standards made at different levels and applied
to the local area. There is a lack of sensitivity towards
indi¿enous tribes who have already been exposed to
exploitation by the tourists and now are on the ver¿e
of extinction.
4.7 In Addition to Master
Plans
The Ministry of Tourism had announced an
enhancement of private investment from ks. ç crore
to ks. 1oo crore in zoou to build super resorts and
luxurious hotels in both the island ¿roups of the
Andaman and hicobar lslands and Lakshadweep
1z
;
ten islands were identiñed in Andamans includin¿
Ravelock and horth Passa¿e. The uirectorate of
¸¤
lnformation, Publicity and Tourism, the nodal a¿ency
for tourism in the lslands, had also proposed a
new ecotourism circuit at 8aratan¿ in hovember
zoou

. The then Lt. 0overnor ur. Kapse had earlier
inau¿urated eco-huts at Mount Rarriet hational Park
for 'eco-tourists" in luly zoou
1u
.
As mentioned earlier, the uepartment of Environment
& Forests has also embarked on mission to open
up as many islands for ecotourism as possible. The
details of the ecotourism activities are mentioned
in the divisional workin¿ plans approved by the
5upreme Court

.
lnterestin¿ly, and not to be left behind in the tourism
race, the Fisheries uivision of the lndian Council of
A¿ricultural kesearch has also recommended to the
Andaman and hicobar Administration to develop
Port 8lair as a maior ¿ame ñshin¿ destination in
consultation with the tourism department (lCAk
zooç). Apart from the above, the most si¿niñcant
and controversial plan has been to link Port 8lair
with Phuket - the twinnin¿ of the cities a¿reement.
1z
http:]]www.newindpress.com]hewsltems.asp!lu=lERzoouo6oç1uz6
u6&Pa¿e=R&Title=Top+5tories&Topic=o& "5uper resorts planned in
Andaman & hicobar, Lakshadweep" 6 lune zoou.

Andaman & hicobar Administration, uirectorate of lP&T, "hew Eco-Tourism
Circuit at 8aratan¿" - press release, Port 8lair, u hov zoou.
1u
The uaily Tele¿ram, "Lt. 0overnor inau¿urates eco-huts at Mount Rarriet",
Port 8lair, 18 luly zoou.

The various islands are:
1. horth Andamans
hote: this workin¿ plan was in draft sta¿e at the time of study (i.e. 5eptember
zooç) and is not yet approved by the 5upreme Court
a. 5addle Peak
b. koss lsland
c. Kalipur beach (photo)
d. Kalpon¿ hydro power proiect
e. kamna¿ar beach
f. Karmatan¿ beach
¿. kay Rill
h. Curlew lsland
i. lnterview lsland
i. 5ound lsland
k. 5tewart lsland
4.8 The Twinning of Cities
Agreement – Fraught with
Controversies
uiscussions between the two parties - the Port 8lair
Municipal Council and Phuket Province of Thailand -
had commenced in zoo¸ when a hi¿h level dele¿ation
from Phuket had visited Port 8lair. This was in
reciprocation to the visit of the dele¿ation from the
Andaman Chamber of Commerce and lndustry that
had led 116 members to Phuket in hovember zoo¸.
The a¿reement between the Port 8lair Municipal
Council and Phuket Province of Thailand was ñnally
si¿ned on z¤th lune, zooç at Phuket. This a¿reement
is under the ¿uidelines of the Ministry of urban
uevelopment for twinnin¿ of cities for the promotion
of better understandin¿ and exchan¿e of useful
information. Tourism promotion is only one aspect of
the a¿reement
16
.
The twinnin¿ of Phuket and Port 8lair will have
devastatin¿ effects on the Andaman archipela¿o.
while fosterin¿ tourism, steppin¿ up trade and
commerce, promotin¿ education and culture seem
reasonable for both countries, there are several lon¿-
term ecolo¿ical, economic and cultural implications
that need to be evaluated before embarkin¿ on such
a proiect.
Accordin¿ to 5amir Acharya, 5ecretary of the 5ociety
for Andaman and hicobar Ecolo¿y (5AhE), "The idea
of Phuket as a model for tourism on the Andaman
lslands is fri¿htenin¿. Phuket used to have excellent
coral reefs, pristine forests and was en¿a¿ed in
subsistence a¿riculture and ñsheries before the
trans-national companies came and 'developed' the
island." Mr. Acharya adds, "we do want development
of tourism in the islands, but it should not be
mindless. lt should not result in a complete waste of
our natural resources"
1,
.
lt has already been seen that Phuket has lost much
of its natural riches and resources to the unplanned
and unre¿ulated tourism industry. "A survey by
hational 0eo¿raphic Traveller ma¿azine found that
Phuket is "¿ettin¿ u¿ly" as a travel destination.
Phuket was third from the bottom out of 11ç popular
destinations worldwide. kesort owners in Phuket
have run out of beach to build on, and have run into
opposition in buildin¿ artiñcial islands as resorts. All
the more reason for them to salivate at the beautiful
Andamans", writes Madhushree Mukheriee
18
.
l. hariyal balu
z. Middle Andamans
a. Lon¿ lsland
b. 0uitar lsland
c. Cuthbert 8ay
d. Merk bay
e. 8arren lsland (with a live volcano)
¸. 5outh Andamans
a. kutland
b. wandoor
c. Chidiya tapu
d. Mount Rarriet
e. 5hoal bay
f. Constance 8ay
16
The uaily Tele¿rams, Twinnin¿ of cities a¿reement between Phuket & Port
8lair, Port 8lair, lune zoou.
1,
hoble, Tanaz K. TERELKA, "After tsunami, the Andamans brace for tourist
invasion", hew uelhi, Au¿ust zooç. http:]]www.tehelka.com]story_
main1u.asp!filename=heo¤o¸oçAfter_tsunami.asp
18
Mukheriee, Madhushree on email to andamanicobarQyahoo¿roups.
co.in z luly zoou.
uo
The important lesson that is learnt from the tsunami
is to protect natural barriers and ecosystems that will
ensure inte¿rity of the coastline. The twinnin¿ of cities
plan only means usherin¿ in lar¿e scale infrastructure
and constructions like roads, ietties, airstrips, hotels,
resorts, etc. and this will have immense pressures on
the natural resources of the re¿ion. The inter-island
trafñc that will be caused by lar¿e ships frequentin¿
the re¿ion and resultant emissions and pollution will
spell disaster for the fra¿ile and endemic marine life
in the re¿ion, endan¿erin¿ dolphins, reefs and ñsh,
and contaminatin¿ the waters. lt should also be kept
in mind that the islanders are stru¿¿lin¿ for their
own survival. Potable water is in short supply on
the islands and increasin¿ tourist numbers will add
immensely to the pressure.
There are social implications, which include narcotics
and human trafñckin¿ that will strip the islands of its
riches. The added fear is that the twinnin¿ plan will
"turn the islands from an idyllic tropical backwater
into a sex tourism hotspot". "Presently, tourism in
Thailand |is| heavily dependent on the sex industry.
Most of the tourists visitin¿ Phuket are sin¿le
white males and if, after |establishin¿ links| the
Andaman and hicobar Administration is plannin¿
to brin¿ those tourists here, we will deñnitely need
thousands of professional sex workers very soon,"
said 5amir Acharya, 5ecretary of 5AhE. 5ubhasis
kay, 0eneral 5ecretary of Realthy Environment by
Less Pollution (RELP), another h00, alle¿ed that
women from Myanmar are re¿ularly smu¿¿led in and
sold to sex trade operators in Thailand. "we certainly
do not want this type of tourism industry here in Port
8lair," he added

.
There is the added concern that "forei¿n businessmen
investin¿ in a bi¿ way will take the lion's share of
proñts out of the islands. The Andaman's resources-
its beauty, freshwater, beaches, corals, forests-will
be used up or dama¿ed, for very little actual return.
Local, controlled tourism efforts will probably yield
¿reater dividends in the lon¿ run"
zo
.
As Mr. Acharya points out "The twinnin¿ may have
some positive outcomes in terms of settin¿ up
ioint processes towards developin¿ capabilities
for waste mana¿ement and water harvestin¿ for
both islands. The Andaman administration owes it
to the archipela¿o's residents to work on a priority
basis toward buildin¿ these capabilities, while also
explorin¿ models of tourism appropriate to the
island ecosystem and with demonstrated lon¿-term
beneñts for its inhabitants" (Acharya et al. zooç
z1
).
Mr. Acharya also pointed to these issues in a national
consultation on state of lndian tourism held in
8an¿alore in luly zooç.


The Phuket 0azette, "Andaman h00s slam plans for Phuket links", z, 5eptember zoo¸.

zo
Mukheriee, Madhushree on email to andamanicobarQyahoo¿roups.co.in z luly zoou.

z1
5amir Acharya et al, luly zooç, letter to Ms. 5onia 0andhi, Chairperson, hational Advisory Council, see also 5AhE newsletter, 0ctober zoo¸,
and www.sanctuaryasia.or¿]
4.9 Current tourism
related problems in
Andamans
The ability of the fra¿ile ecosystem of these islands to
withstand the impact of tourism is limited. Apart from
disturbance to the forests, there is also disturbance to
the marine and coastal ecosystems, especially to the
coral reefs. This is evident in the case of the wandoor
hational Park (in the two islands open to tourists,
lolly 8uoy and kedskin), where the coral reefs have
been almost completely destroyed. There is also the
problem of water availability, disposal of ¿arba¿e,
¿eneration of electricity and the construction of other
infrastructure. Also, since the food and other ¿oods
sold in the lslands are imported form the mainland
(and the ¿overnment pays a hefty subsidy for their
transportation to the lslands), it is unlikely that the
expenditure by the tourists for ¿oods and services
in the islands, would result in any net beneñt to the
economy. ln fact, tourists comin¿ by ship are often a
net drain on the economy, as the ¿overnment subsidy
on each passen¿er ticket is also very hi¿h (5hekar
5in¿h Committee keport, zooz).
unre¿ulated and lar¿e scale tourism destroys the very
resources, which create the tourism opportunities in
the ñrst place. These impacts of tourism ¿et further
ma¿niñed in the case of fra¿ile ecosystems such
as coral reefs and man¿roves. The environmental,
social, cultural and economic impacts, thou¿h visible
are often very difñcult to quantify due to the complex
and lon¿ term nature of these impacts.
A study done on Ravelock lslands states: "Ravelock
lsland is a ¿ood example of minimal tourism
development and a¿ricultural production which,
nonetheless, appear likely to have a si¿niñcant
impact on marine and terrestrial ecosystems. These
types of impacts are likely to be vastly multiplied as
tourism pressure increases and as permit controls
are loosened (Fried and Anex zoou)."
u1
£nvirenmentaI impacts
A few environmental problems observed durin¿ the
course of this study associated with tourism currently
in Andamans are:
· Location of tourism infrastructure very close to the
RTL; in some cases it is within a few metres
· Extraction of material from the beach, especially
sand, shells and corals for construction and
landscapin¿
· Permanent structures like the ¿overnment-
owned uolphin 8each kesort at Ravelock that
probably have been created by clearin¿ forests
and fattenin¿ sand dunes, leadin¿ to habitat
fra¿mentation and de¿radation
· uestruction of man¿roves forest resultin¿ in severe
beach erosion and sedimentation that would
choke the coral reefs
· Construction of sea walls leadin¿ to severe erosion
in and around the area
· Proliferation of non-biode¿radable wastes like
plastics; there seems to be nil sensitivity on this
particular issue in the Administration and the
public in ¿eneral
· Contamination by sewa¿e and sanitary wastes
because of disposal systems bein¿ close to shore.
· Possible impact on ñsh and crustacean populations
due to increased catch for tourism consumption
· lmpacts of divin¿ activities due to anchorin¿ on
corals and breaka¿e of corals due to tramplin¿ by
divers.
with respect to tourism in protected areas of the
Andaman lslands, there is a problem of the lack
of adequate monitorin¿ of tourist activities and
behaviour in protected areas, as was noted by the
study team. At least in the case of 5mith and koss
lslands that this study team visited, there were no
¿uides or ¿uards at the beach to monitor tourist
activities or to ensure their safety.
5ecie-cuIturaI impacts
Forei¿n tourists are known for movin¿ around in
scanty clothin¿; introduce and display a very forei¿n
way of life to the local population. ln Ravelock, the
local people have already raised concerns over the
display of skin by forei¿n tourists. ln a discussion
with the women in Ravelock, the study team elicited
from them that they don't allow their children to
move on the beach durin¿ the tourism season. 5uch
self imposed re¿ulations alienate the local people
from their own surroundin¿s. The local panchayat
member had also requested the resort owners to
advise tourists from ¿oin¿ around the beach, and the
villa¿e, scantily clad but this has not stopped so far.
This was reported to the study team durin¿ their ñeld
visit in Au¿ zooç.
For a typical pattern that this kind of tourism brin¿s in
is local populations aspirin¿ for the kind of standards
of livin¿ that forei¿n tourists symbolise. This causes
shifts in local consumption patterns towards products
preferred by tourists; usually western products.
4.10 Future Trends in
Tourism Development in
the Islands
As per the tourism plan of the Administration (Ahl
zooç), for the future development of the tourism sector,
the emphasis is on construction and development of
infrastructure and investments for the beautiñcation
of the environment and the mana¿ement of beaches.
The activities listed to be taken up in future include the
buildin¿ of roads to several tourist spots in wilderness
areas includin¿ to the waterfall at Little Andaman,
construction of fast food centres and other amenities
and repairs of sea walls. A ¿reat deal of emphasis is
¿iven to the development of capital intensive water
sports. There seems to be no concern for the potential
environmental impacts of these plans and activities
barrin¿ a passin¿ mention to ecotourism. There is
also no mention of development of human resources
and trainin¿ of local people so that they may ¿enerate
livelihoods from these activities.
There is a sceptical approach towards policies and
re¿ulations for environmental protection in the
chapter on Tourism of the 5tate uevelopment keport.
lt states, "The strin¿ent environmental, forest and
CkZ re¿ulations may inhibit any development purely
as a policy inducement or policy constraint. There is
thus a need to take another look these re¿ulations
based on widely accepted international practices."
Ahl Administration zooç c).
The proposed tourism plans for the islands and
the revised CkZ notiñcation in which the huZ has
been reduced to çom for tourism promotion and
development, coupled with the lack of appropriate
and adequate buildin¿ norms and the existin¿
levels of stress on natural ecosystems, increase the
vulnerability of the human and natural communities
of the lslands. lf these plans are realised, they could
also pose increased risks to tourists.
uz
4.11 Local Tourism
Entrepreneurship in the
Islands: The case of
Havelock Island
Ravelock was one of the ñrst islands that were
developed for tourism durin¿ mid ¤os. The
international tourists who come to Ravelock are
mostly from lsrael. 0ermans, ltalians, lapanese,
Americans and Croats also frequent the island and
these tourists are mostly divers. uomestic tourists
who stay for lon¿ durations are usually an elite crowd.
The island however ¿ets numerous day visitors, the
statistics of which is not easy to ¿enerate.
All the beach resorts are locally owned either by
people from Ravelock lsland itself or from Port 8lair.
The resorts that are operational between 5ettlement
ho. 1 and 5ettlement ho. ç are:
1. M5 kesorts (next to the ietty)
z. 8ay view lnn
¸. Rappy kesorts
u. Amazon 8each kesort
ç. Eco villa
6. Café del Mar
,. Pristine 8each kesort
8. 5unrise Trust Complex
¤. 0rient Le¿end kesort
1o. The wild 0rchid
11. uolphin kesorts (0ovt. 0wned)
1z. 5ilver 5ands
The owner of Eco villa has also constructed 1o cotta¿es
and 1o huts called 0reen Leaves kesort at Kalapathar.
Apart from these resorts, there are facilities for
tented accommodation created by the uepartment of
Environment and Forests (uoEF)at kadhana¿ar 8each.
A private resort, lun¿le kesort owned by 8arefoot
Airtours Pvt. Ltd. is also located here.
0n Ravelock lsland, it was observed that all the
resorts are located close to the beach, and probably
within uom on an avera¿e. uiscussions with all
resort owners and mana¿ers revealed that none of
the resorts have clearances from the uoEF or the
kevenue uepartment. lt was reported in one of the
interviews that only one resort, 5unrise, was ¿iven a
commercial certiñcate from the kevenue uepartment.
This is a peculiar problem as apparently there are no
clearance mechanisms in place
zz
.
This observation is obviously on the lack of clarity on
clearance mechanisms. As this is revenue land, the
onus of providin¿ clearances and to look into matters
of CkZ violations would rest with the uistrict Collector.
0n the contrary, the responsibility is laid on the resort
owners and they are left to themselves to ñ¿ure out
the application and clearance mechanisms for their
enterprises. The non-implementation of CkZ hardly
becomes a matter of concern for the respective
authorities.
Most of the resorts are made of local material like
bamboo, cane and thatch, except for Rappy kesorts
and 5ilver 5ands, which are made of cement. lt was
also observed and documented that sand from the
beach was bein¿ used for construction, includin¿ coral
shin¿les and shells bein¿ used to line pathways. A
detailed study on clearance mechanisms and natural
resource use by the tourism industry would be
imperative prior to any future development plans.
All the resorts employ local people for the various
operations. uurin¿ the tourist season, cooks are
brou¿ht in from states as far away as Rimachal
Pradesh. The reason behind it is that Rimachal
Pradesh ¿ets a lar¿e number of lsraeli tourists and the
cooks there have mastered the art of lsraeli cuisine
and hence they are brou¿ht to Ravelock durin¿ the
tourist season (0ctober to February)

.
Contrary to the tourism vision, which aims at low-
volume hi¿h-end tourists, the local entrepreneurs
want backpackers to be encoura¿ed. These tourists,
they said, stay for about a month and this is beneñcial
to the resorts. The issue that the backpackers face
is obtainin¿ permits. The Administration usually
issues a permit for zo-zç days when they are
actually eli¿ible for uç days. when they approach
the authorities for extension, they are sometimes
harassed. The resort owners were of the opinion
that the backpackers should be ¿iven three month
permits. ln personal interviewers conducted with the
resort owners durin¿ this study team's ñeld visit, all
of them were of the opinion that the low end tourists
demand very less infrastructure; they are happy
with thatched huts and all require are clean beds,
toilets and simple food. They usually lie around the
beach readin¿ books when they are not swimmin¿,
snorkellin¿ or divin¿
zu
.
The Administration has been a¿¿ressively promotin¿
tourism after the tsunami and the thrust is on brin¿in¿
in 'low volume hi¿h end' tourists to the Andamans,
as is also evident from what the numerous tourism
master plans have stated. Ri¿h end tourism warrants
hi¿h end infrastructure, which would be hi¿hly
resource intensive in character. Can the lslands,
already stressed under numerous impactin¿ factors
and a bur¿eonin¿ settler population, support such
a proñle of tourism is a crucial aspect that has not
been touched upon, leave alone seemed to have
been thou¿ht of by the Administration. lnstead all
zz
Pers. Comm. with 5amir Acharya, Au¿ zooç.


Pers. Comm. Mr. 5aian, Eco villa, z, Au¿ust zooç.

zu
Pers. Comm. Mr. Alex Francis lesuraian, Pristine 8each kesort, z, Au¿ust zooç.

environmental concerns seemed to have been thrown
to the winds.
The hi¿h-end tourism infrastructure and private sector
investment that the Administration has planned will,
apart from lar¿e scale ecolo¿ical dama¿e, usher in
a different proñle of tourists. Apart from creatin¿
conficts with local entrepreneurs over business
operations and resource use, the tourism envisioned
by the Administration will displace them and affect
livelihoods of local people that depend on current
low scale tourism that happens in Ravelock.
The current form of tourism development envisa¿ed
for the lslands is unsustainable because it seeks
to lower the threshold of the coastal development
prohibition zone from zoom to çom behind the RTL
in areas scheduled for tourism development; de-
reservin¿ forest lands in similar areas. This is a¿ainst
the order of the 5upreme Court in zooz which has
directed that tourism should be low impact and
sensitive to the ecolo¿ical context of the lslands.
As per the recommendations of tourism master
plans, like the Minstry of Tourism (0ol) -wT0 - uhuP,
simpliñcation of procedures for entry into forests or
protected areas is refected in the workin¿ plans of
the uept. of Environment & Forests that has identiñed
about uo islands for 'ecotourism' development.
ln the presence of numerous master plans and
development notes, there is concern about why so
many in the ñrst place, and secondly why the tourism
vision has only identiñed the uhuP-wT0 master
plan prepared in 1¤¤6 as the ¿uideline for tourism
development. Ras this been done on the basis
of scientiñc analysis and participatory processes
is an area of serious concern. The apathy of the
Administration is evident from the fact that such a
statement has been included in the tourism vision
for the lslands. Probably there is no instance so far
of a ¿overnment policy directive openly statin¿ that
a non-¿overnment a¿ency's recommendation has
been made the basis of its action: that too re¿ardin¿
the implementation of a resource intensive industry,
with a proven track record of colossal environmental
impacts, in a sensitive and vulnerable ecosystem
like Andaman lslands. hever do ¿overnment policies
accept a document outside ¿overnment and state it
in the policy itself. lt is equally appallin¿ that there
seems to be no voice of concern from any quarter
of the Administration on such processes, leadin¿ to
raise a question on what the process of approval of
such master plans is, and monitorin¿.
uu
RECOMMENDATIONS
COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT
1. lurisdiction - 0ne of the limitations of the CkZ
notiñcation is that it does not re¿ulate anythin¿
beyond the coastal re¿ulation zones. while
the CZMP could address some of the activities
beyond the çoom or zoom area on the basis
that althou¿h they may be outside the CkZ,
they potentially impact the CkZ, the effective
re¿ulation of the ¿amut of activities that have the
potential to impact the coast can only be achieved
if other laws ¿overnin¿ development proiects,
urbanisation and economic ¿rowth incorporate
these concerns. Many port related activities
and other off shore activities are therefore not
adequately re¿ulated. There is a critical need to
examine these laws and determine the chan¿es
that are needed in them so that these concerns
may be addressed.
Actions needed:
1.1. Extend the iurisdiction of CkZ to include the
inter-tidal area in all zones
1.z. ur¿ent need to extend the CkZ seaward after
detailed study to ascertain the area for impact
from land based activities
Action by: MoEF
z. At present no speciñc ElA procedures and
¿uidelines for proiect clearance are mandated in
the schemes of the CkZ.
The present procedures for environmental
clearance are not laid down in the notiñcation. lt
is not known if a standard procedure has evolved
throu¿h practice. Therefore it is impossible to
know if existin¿ procedures are coherent or
adequate in assessin¿ potential impacts of
proposed proiects.
z.1. Action needed: uetailed proiect clearance
¿uidelines need to be ¿iven in the CkZ notiñcation
complimented by ElA procedures for all proiect
clearances
Action by: the hCZMA and A&hCZMA
¸. Ambi¿uity - hone of the amendments have
sou¿ht to clarify some of the other ambi¿uities
and uncertainties such as the deñnition of 'local
inhabitants', 'traditional ri¿hts and customary
uses'.
The MoEF has still not issued a consolidated
¿azetted notiñcation incorporatin¿ all the
chan¿es to the ori¿inal notiñcation makin¿
the interpretation of the various clauses a real
challen¿e
¸.1. Action needed: ueñnition of local inhabitants
and 'traditional ri¿hts and customary uses' to be
deñned and identiñed in the context of the CkZ
notiñcation.
Action by: Civil 5ociety and 0overnment in
consultation with local coastal communities
u. For the effective implementation of the CkZ
notiñcation, the identiñcation of the new RTL
and the remappin¿ of the CkZ is critical. This
needs to be undertaken ur¿ently so that all
reconstruction efforts could also be taken up as
per CkZ re¿ulations. The new maps ¿enerated
will need to be made available to all the local
administrative bodies that are char¿ed with the
responsibility of implementin¿ the notiñcation.
uemarcation of the CkZ - The RTL and LTL are to
be demarcated only by authorities desi¿nated
by the Central 0overnment but the 0overnment
of lndia is still in the process of arrivin¿ at a
common methodolo¿y for RTL]LTL demarcation.
ln none of the states has the RTL demarcation
exercise been completed at the ¿round level.
Actions needed:
u.1. uemarcation of the RTL and the LTL needs to be
done at the earliest
u.z. The new maps and plans should also be widely
distributed and made available at important
ofñces for public examinations at all times and
also posted on the ofñcial websites.
Action by: MoEF, hCZMA and A&hCZMA
ç. The central and state level processes of ¿rantin¿
clearance to proiects proposed in CkZ areas,
needs to be clearly understood throu¿h several
case studies of cleared proiects coverin¿
various sectors and activities. Followin¿ this,
a detailed critique of the process should be
developed for the MoEF, which will hi¿hli¿ht its
stren¿ths, weaknesses and recommendations
to enhance effectiveness of the process as per
lCZM obiectives. 0ood practices that are part of
clearance processes under the ElA notiñcation
and other laws could be incorporated into the
CkZ clearance process. As in the case of the ElA
notiñcation, the CkZ notiñcation should have
one or more schedules that clearly list the kinds
of proiects mandatin¿ clearance from state or
central ¿overnment a¿encies.
Action needed:
ç.1. ln order to understand the true status of
implementation of the CkZ notiñcation until now,
detailed studies askin¿ the followin¿ questions
will need to be undertaken:
a. Row many of the development activities on
the coast have been established le¿itimately
followin¿ all due le¿al re¿ulatory procedures!

b. Row many of the le¿ally established units comply
with the conditions imposed on them!
c. Row many units have been established without
followin¿ all the environmental re¿ulatory
procedures!
Action by: Peoples Movements and hetworks,
Civil 5ociety 0r¿anizations in consultation with
the A&hCZMA.
ç.z. A&hCZMA suo moto needs to remove the
ambi¿uity in its functionin¿ by brin¿in¿ into the
public realm and disclosin¿ practices they use to
¿ive clearances for proiects
6. ln order to prevent any further encroachments
and rampant immi¿ration, the Administration
should re¿ulate the entry of people to the islands
by havin¿ the lslands declared as an lnner Line
Area and by imposin¿ relevant restrictions under
5ection ¸ and other provisions of the Environment
(Protection) Act of 1¤86.
ln addition, entry to the more vulnerable
and forested areas of the lslands should be
restricted. 0nce this re¿ulation is in position, the
administration should in a time bound manner
issue identity cards to all the residents so that
there is no ¿ap in the period of identiñcation and
issuance of lu cards.
This recommendation of the 5hekhar 5in¿h
committee report which resulted in the 5C
orderin¿ that lu cards must be issued within
six months of the order must be supported and
its implementation demanded at all levels of
plannin¿ and decision makin¿ on issues of the
lslands. This is the sin¿le step that will ensure
that problems of the islands can be maintained at
a mana¿eable level rather than ¿o completely out
of control.
6.1. Action needed: The lnner Line Permit process
needs to be put in place at the earliest.
Action by: Ahl Administration.
,. The recently concluded process to draft the
hational 8iodiversity 5trate¿y and Action
Plan (h85AP) also resulted in the draftin¿ of a
8iodiversity 5trate¿y and Action Plan (85AP)
for the lslands. The document takes a detailed
look at the causes for loss of ecosystems and
recommends several steps for the conservation of
these ecosystems. lt also prioritises some actions
to be taken up ur¿ently. These recommendations
and action plans need to be supported and their
implementation by relevant a¿encies needs to be
advocated for by civil society ¿roups.
8. 5everal sectoral studies need to be undertaken
to assess if the le¿al machinery in place is
effective enou¿h to address concerns re¿ardin¿
development of the islands. Two future studies of
immediate si¿niñcance are described:
a. A study will need to be undertaken to identify
if the existin¿ buildin¿ norms are effective
enou¿h to protect the island's populations and
natural resources. lf not, it will be necessary to
study the best practices followed in other island
ecosystems and advocate for necessary chan¿es
in our re¿ulations and their implementation.
The new hational 8uildin¿ Code zooç has for the
ñrst time laid down codes for non-en¿ineered
buildin¿s includin¿ stabilised mud construction,
buildin¿s in stone and brick and bamboo
structures. The section on non-en¿ineered
buildin¿s lays down standards for innovation,
technolo¿y and practice in the use of material.
Performance-appraisal certiñcates have also
been extended to non-en¿ineered construction
processes. The hational 8uildin¿ Code zooç was
a response to the scale and ma¿nitude of natural
disasters such as earthquakes, cyclones and
landslides that have been experienced in recent
years. The maximum impacts of these disasters
have always been on non-en¿ineered structures.
ln the Andaman lslands where about ,z.1% of
houses are semi permanent or temporary (Census
zoo1), lar¿ely comprisin¿ non-en¿ineered
buildin¿s, the implementation of these standards
is imperative.
b. lt would be useful to commission a detailed study
of the Panchayat and Municipal re¿ulations on
land use and buildin¿ to understand the extent to
which environmental considerations are built into
them. lf the clauses are found to be inadequate
or confictin¿ with environmental considerations,
then appropriate chan¿es to these re¿ulations
and correspondin¿ implementation mechanisms
need to be recommended.
¤. All the plans bein¿ drawn up for the
reconstruction of dwellin¿ units and
infrastructure need to be reviewed on the basis
of whether they are in keepin¿ with the CkZ
notiñcation and the existin¿ buildin¿ norms.
1o. lt is important to take up education and
awareness buildin¿ pro¿rammes amon¿
implementin¿ and monitorin¿ a¿encies and civil
society ¿roups and citizens about the importance
of re¿ulations such as the CkZ and their role in
protectin¿ the coastal environment and local
communities. The 5hekhar 5in¿h committee
report had recommended that "All ofñcers of the
administration, includin¿ forest ofñcers, should
under¿o an orientation trainin¿ of at least ñve
days, every three years, to acquaint themselves
with the ecolo¿ical characteristics of the lslands
and the options available for their economic
development in an environmentally and socially
u6
sustainable manner. 0fñcers bein¿ posted from
the mainland to these islands should be so
oriented within three months of their postin¿"
11. lt is unacceptable that the CkZ notiñcation
was amended to allow tourism proiects in
some identiñed areas beyond çom of the RTL
when the earlier limit was zoom. Althou¿h the
amendment states that this reduction is based
on the lCZMP study, it is important to note that
the study was neither complete nor had it been
discussed with stakeholders in the islands before
this amendment was made. This amendment
therefore should be revoked and if the su¿¿estion
to allow for tourism proiects within ço-zoom
of RTL remains. Then the su¿¿estion needs to
be viewed on the basis of the lessons from the
tsunami affected tourist areas and the proneness
of coastal areas to disasters which make tourists
vulnerable. A decision should be taken on the
su¿¿estion only after these discussions and
considerations are ¿iven due thou¿ht.
11.1. Action needed: The amendment to allow
tourism proiects beyond çom of RTL should be
revoked.
Action by: MoEF
1z. kecommendations for the introduction and
use of simple and effective and appropriate
technolo¿ies, made time and a¿ain by
researchers, scientiñc institutions and h00s,
such as compulsory rain water harvestin¿ in
municipal areas, a ¿radual shift to or¿anic
farmin¿ and research to ñnd practical and low
cost desi¿n and material options for construction
need to be supported.
1¸. 8esides the factors mentioned above,
inadequate disaster mana¿ement plannin¿ and
lack of natural hazard insurance for buildin¿s
increase the vulnerability of coastal communities.
ln the aftermath of the recent tsunami, the
ur¿ency of these policies has come to li¿ht and
this need to be addressed without any further
delay.
TOURISM
1u. All existin¿ tourism master plans and documents
should be shelved and the form of tourism that
would be sustainable for the islands needs to
be reconsidered based on current contexts and
developments, throu¿h participative processes.
A notiñcation to this effect should be brou¿ht out
for public information.
Action by: uept. of lnformation, Publicity &
Tourism, A&h Administration.
1ç. Tourism cannot be made the mainstay of the
economy but it needs to be linked to other
sectors.
16. Tourism development should be in accordance
with the order of the 5upreme Court, based on
the recommendations of the 5hekhar 5in¿h
Committee report, which emphasised on a low
permanent infrastructure based approach to
tourism.
1,. hew areas should not be opened for tourism,
includin¿ for ecotourism, unless proper impact
assessment studies have been undertaken
and made available for public scrutiny and
intervention.
18. Current local tourism enterprise in Ravelock and
heil needs to be re¿ularized and supported.
1¤. The master plans have also recommended
removal of restrictions on the internal movement
of forei¿ners and abolition of police entry permits
for forei¿ners.
They also recommend openin¿ up hicobar lslands
for tourism development and linkin¿ with 5outh
East Asian tourism destinations for tourism
promotion. This has resulted in the linkin¿ up of
Port 8lair with Phuket for tourism.
Actions needed:
1¤.1. hicobar lslands should not be opened for
tourism.
1¤.z. The lnner Line Permit process needs to be put
in place at the earliest.
1¤.¸. The Phuket - Port 8lair tourism linkin¿ plans
need to be terminated.
u,
ANNEXURE 1
Andaman & Nicobar Islands
The Andaman and hicobar lslands is the lar¿est
archipela¿o in the 8ay of 8en¿al. Ali¿ned in a north-
south direction, they comprise ç,z islands, islets
and rocks con¿re¿ated into two maior ¿roups-the
Andaman and the hicobar ¿roups. The Andaman
¿roup, which is located closer to Myanmar, consists
of çço islands, islets and rocks and covers a land
area of 6uo8 km
z
. This ¿roup includes lar¿e islands
such as the Middle Andaman, horth Andaman, 5outh
Andaman, 8aratan¿ and Little Andaman. The hicobar
¿roup consists of zz islands havin¿ a total land area
of 18u1 km
z
. 0reat hicobar (the southernmost island
of the hicobar chain) is the lar¿est island (1ouç km
z
).
The total area of the Andaman and hicobar islands is
8zu¤ kmz and the total len¿th of islands' coastline
is about 1¤6z km, accountin¿ for about one fourth of
the total coastline of lndia.
The total population of the Andaman and hicobar
islands is ¸,ç6,1çz as per the zoo1 census. The
mi¿rant and settler population of the lslands
comprise about ¤1.,o% of the total population. ln the
Andaman 0roup, the mi¿rant and settler population
comprises ¤¤% of the population and in hicobar
lslands they comprise ¸6.8ç%. The main occupations
of the people in the islands include a¿riculture,
animal husbandry, ñshin¿, forestry and plantations,
construction, transport and trade.
1
www.andaman.nic.in
z
Article ¸66 of lndian Constitution defines 5cheduled Tribes as "such tribes or tribal communities or part of or ¿roups within such tribes or tribal
communities as are deemed under Article ¸uz to be 5cheduled Tribes for the purposes of this Constitution". Article ¸uz specifies that: "(1) The President
may with respect to any 5tate of union Territory, and where it is a 5tate, after consultation with the 0overnor, by public notification specify the tribes or
tribal communities or parts of or ¿roups within tribes or tribal communities which shall for the purposes of this Constitution be deemed to be 5cheduled
Tribes in relation to that 5tate of union Territory, as the case may be".
The indi¿enous ¿roups are ethnically different tribal
communities (5cheduled Tribes
z
) inhabitin¿ the
scattered islands of both ¿roups. Today they comprise
a very small percenta¿e of the population (about
8.¸o% as per the zoo1 census). Their population
has declined considerably over the last 1ço years.
ln all, there are six abori¿inal tribes in the Andaman
and hicobar lslands, the two Mon¿oloid ¿roups, the
hicobarese and the 5hompen and inhabit the hicobar
lslands and the remainin¿ four he¿rito ¿roups,
namely, the 0reat Andamanese, the 0n¿e, the larawa
and the 5entinelese and live separate islands in the
Andaman ¿roup.
The hicobarese come under the cate¿ory of the
advanced ¿roup while the remainin¿ ñve are
cate¿orised as primitive. The hicobarese practice
horticulture by raisin¿ coconut plantations and yams.
They raise pi¿s and undertake ñshin¿. The 5hompen
of the 0reat hicobar and the other primitive ¿roups
in the Andaman ¿roup are mainly hunter-¿atherers.
5ome populations of the larawa, the 5entinelese and
the 0reat Andamanese are hostile to outsiders and
do not permit landin¿s on their islands.
u8
1.1 Geology, Topography
and Hydrology
0eolo¿ically, the islands are emer¿ent peaks of
a submer¿ed mountain chain extendin¿ from the
Eastern Rimalaya to 5umatra. Topo¿raphically, the
Andaman lslands are characterised by low ran¿e
of hills and narrow valleys, except in the coastal
stretches. The ran¿es are ali¿ned in a north-south
direction, but several spurs and rid¿es run off
the main ran¿es in all directions. The slopes are
moderate to steep, ra¿¿ed and prone to erosion. Flat
lands are comparatively scarce and conñned to some
of the lar¿er valleys. The hi¿hest point in all the areas
is "5addle Peak" on horth Andaman lsland. lt is at
an elevation of about 8oom above mean sea level.
The islands in the hicobar ¿roup are lar¿ely fat and
¿ently undulatin¿. Mount Thullier (on 0reat hicobar
lsland) with an elevation of 6uz m is the hi¿hest peak
the hicobar ¿roup of islands.
There is no maior perennial fresh water river in
these islands except Kalpon¿ in horth Andaman,
and Alexendra, ua¿mar and 0alathea rivers in 0reat
hicobar. There are several rainfed streams that
dry up durin¿ the summer. The coastline of these
islands is wavy with lar¿e number of bays, la¿oons
and serpentine creeks, and extends to 1¤6z km. At
several places tidal creeks penetrate far inside the
land and form outlets for fresh water streams.
1.2 Climate and Soil
The Andaman and hicobar archipela¿o is situated in
the equatorial belt and experiences tropical, warm,
moist and equable climate that is ¿reatly infuenced
by the sea. The temperature ran¿es from 18° C to
¸ç° C. The proximity of the sea and the abundant
rainfall prevents extremes of heat and these islands
experience both the northeast and the southwest
monsoons. The southwest monsoon commences
durin¿ April]May and is accompanied by hi¿h winds
with heavy downpours from lune to 5eptember.
The northeast monsoon usually commences durin¿
0ctober and the rains continue throu¿h to uecember.
The avera¿e annual rainfall ran¿es from ¸,ooo to
¸,çoo mm and humidity varies from 66% to 8ç%.
ln some years the islands experience rains durin¿
all the months of the year. Cyclones occur durin¿
the monsoons, accompanied by very stron¿ winds,
particularly durin¿ May and hovember and in some
years durin¿ mid April. under normal conditions, the
wind speed is fairly constant (ç knots per hour) but
durin¿ cyclonic weather it may ¿o as hi¿h as 1zo to
1¸o knots per hour.
The soil cover is rather thin, varyin¿ from zm to çm.
The coastal fats have an admixture of sand, silty
clay and alluvial material with ñne fra¿ments of coral
lime. The soil is, in ¿eneral, mild to moderately acidic
with hi¿h humus on top.
1.3 Landuse Pattern
The Andaman and hicobar lslands are dominated by
forests, which comprise about 8,% of the total land
area. The wwF eco-re¿ion classiñcation divides these
forests as the Andaman lslands kain forests (lMo1o1)
and the hicobar lslands kain forests (lMo1¸¸)
¸
. The
main cate¿ories of natural ve¿etation of the Andaman
and hicobar islands are the coastal and man¿rove
forests and the interior ever¿reen and deciduous
forests. The area under different land use is ¿iven in
Table u.
¸
http:]]www.worldwildlife.or¿] - Terrestrial Eco ke¿ions · lndo-Malay · Tropical and 5ubtropical Moist 8roadleaf Forests ·Andaman lslands rain forests
(lMo1o1)] hicobar lslands rain forests (lMo1¸¸).

Table 4
Land use patterns in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Land Use Andaman Nicobar
Andaman
and Nicobar
(combined)

Area (km
z
) % of total area Area (km
z
)
% of total
area
Area (km
z
) % of total area
Forests (le¿ally notiñed)
keserved z¤z8.,6 z¤z8.,6
Protected z6¤¤.86 1çuz.o, uzu1.¤¸
Total (le¿ally notiñed) ç6z8.6z 8,.8u 1çuz.o, 8¸.,6 ,1,o.6¤ 86.¤¸
Total Forest cover ( F5l 50F 1¤¤¤ report)
uense( ·uo% crown density) u86u 16ç1 6ç1ç
0pen ( ·uo% crown density) ¤o ¸ç 1zç
Man¿rove Forests ¤z¤ ¸, ¤66 11.,1
Total ( F5l ) ç88¸ ¤1.81 1,z¸ ¤¸.ç¤ ,6o6 ¤z.z1
hon-Forest land (Lar¿ely kevenue Land) Excludin¿ le¿ally notiñed forests
Total hon-Forest ,,¤.¸8 1z.16 z¤8.¤¸ 16.zu 1o,8.¸1 1¸.o,
urban 16.6u o.z6 o.oo o.oo 16.6u o.zo
kural 6¸¤1.¸6 ¤¤.,u 18u1.oo 1oo.oo 8z¸z.¸6 ¤¤.8o
Total land area 6uo8 1oo.oo 18u1 1oo.oo 8zu¤ 1oo.oo
5ource: Forest 5tatistics 1¤¤¤, Andaman and hicobar lslands, uepartment of Environment and forests and 8asic 5tatistics, zooz-zoo¸,
uirectorate of Economics and 5tatistics, Andaman and hicobar Administration, Port 8lair (www.forest.and.nic.in)
The remainin¿ 1¸% of land is lar¿ely revenue land
and is used for human settlements, a¿riculture and
other anthropo¿enic activities. Most of the revenue
land is alon¿ coastal areas where the settlements
are concentrated. The entire rural and revenue
areas are under CkZ lv (Coastal ke¿ulation Zone-
cate¿ory lv), except a very small area under CkZ ll. ho
development is permissible within zoo m of the hi¿h
tide line in CkZ lv areas (A h u E & F zoo1). 0f the 1¸%
of revenue land only z1% is under intense cultivation
and another 11% is classiñed as fallow land and
cultivable wasteland, plantation crops cover uç% of
the revenue land (5irus 1¤¤¤, AhET zoo¸). The total
urban are is 16.6u kmz. lt is worthwhile to mention
that most of the human settlements and various
anthropo¿enic activities are mostly concentrated on
or towards the eastern coast than on the western.
kemedial measures re¿ardin¿ conservation should
take this fact in to consideration (wwF 1¤¤,).
1.4 Ecosystems – Typology,
Status and Threats
0iven below are brief descriptions of the various eco-
systems present in the islands
1.4.a. Inland forest ecosystem
The inland forest eco-system is characterised by the
ever¿reen and semi-deciduous ve¿etation types.
ve¿etation of these islands has been classiñed into
the followin¿ twelve forest types by Champion and
5eth (1¤68). Rowever, these forest types are not
distinctly demarcated and they imperceptibly mer¿e
into one another and form an intimate mixture
u
.
1. 0iant ever¿reen forests (1A]C1)
z. Andaman tropical ever¿reen forests(1A]Cz)
¸. 5outhern hilltop ever¿reen forests(1A]C¸)
u. Andaman semi-ever¿reen forests(zA]C1)
ç. Andaman moist deciduous forests(¸A]C1)
6. Andaman secondary moist deciduous forests(¸A]
C1]z51)
,. Littoral forests(uA]L1)
8. Man¿rove (Tidal swamp)forests(u8]T5z)
¤. 8rackish water mixed forests (u8]T5u)
1o. 5ub mountain hill valley swamp forests (uC]F5z)
11. Cane brakes (1]E1)
1z. wet bamboo brakes (l]Ez)
0f the above, ¤ types exceptin¿ the Man¿rove,
Littoral and 8rackish water mixed forests, form part
u
www.forest.and.nic.in , Andaman and hicobar lslands, uepartment of Environment and forests.
ço
of the inland forest eco-system.
The lslands still have approximately 86% of ori¿inal
forest cover left, and probably another 1o-zo% has
been de¿raded by human activities. (MacArthur and
wilson 1¤6, as quoted by AhET zoo¸).
1.4.b. Mangrove ecosystem
Man¿roves are salt-tolerant forest ecosystems found
mainly in tropical and sub-tropical inter-tidal re¿ions
of the world. The importance of man¿roves cannot
be overstated. They support a ¿reat diversity of life
forms, provide rich feedin¿ and nurturin¿ ¿rounds
for many marine species form different tropic levels,
includin¿ many commercial ñsh and crustaceans.
They also play the important role of sediment
repositories, contribute to stabilisin¿ shorelines and
buffer a¿ainst storm sur¿es.
The man¿rove forests of the islands occupy ¤66 kmz
ç

of the total land area of the islands (or about 11.,1%
of the total land area). These also account for one
ñfth of the country's total man¿roves.
ln the Andaman district, area under man¿roves is ¤z¤
kmz, while in hicobar district man¿roves occupy ¸,
kmz. Man¿roves occurrin¿ in these islands are mostly
frin¿in¿ the creeks, backwaters and muddy shores.
Alon¿ the creeks, the width ran¿es from o.ç km to 1
k m. ln certain places, this salt tolerant community
is found on rock shores subiected to tidal action and
re¿ular deposits of mud. Luxuriant man¿roves can
be seen in 5hoal 8ay (5outh Andaman), Yerrata letty
in kan¿at (Middle Andamans) and in Austin Creek
(Mayabunder)
6
.
There are ç8 man¿rove species found in the islands.
These include khizophora mucronata, k. candelaria,
8ru¿uiera coniu¿ata, 8. parvifora, Avicennia
sp., Xylocarpus sp., Ceriop ta¿al, 5onneratia sp.,
Lumnitzera sp., Kandelia kandel, and Acanthus
ilicifolius.
Approximately zç¸ species of ñsh, u1o species of
polychaetes, and ç¸ species of meiofauna have been
reported to be associated with the man¿rove forests
in these islands. lt is clear that any de¿radation of
coastal ecosystems such as coral reefs and man¿roves
will have an adverse impact not only on the unique
biodiversity of fra¿ile coastal ecosystems but also on
ç
5ource: F5l 50F 1¤¤¤ report.
The hational 8iodiversity 5trate¿y Action Plan for Andaman and hicobar lslands states: "The estimated area of man¿roves in 1¤ç, in the islands was about
1zoo kmz. Another estimate done in 1¤86]1¤8, usin¿ LAh5AT ima¿ery estimated a total of ,,, kmz for Ahl of which z8, kmz is for the hicobars. F5l
estimates in1¤¤¤ reported ¤66 kmz. ln spite of the discrepancy between the last two fi¿ures, it is clear that man¿roves have declined by at least zo% over
the last uo years. Rowever, in the last 1o years there has been an increase, with the latest estimate bein¿ 1o1z kmz (8alakrishnan 1¤¤8)".
6
www.forest.and.nic.in, Andaman and hicobar lslands, uepartment of Environment and forests

coastal ñsheries and tourism, which is becomin¿ the
mainstay of the island's economy.
Extraction of man¿roves for commercial purposes was
stopped in 1¤8¤ in the islands and most these areas
have re¿enerated to their ori¿inal form (Andrews zooo
c). Rowever, there are encroachments in some of the
areas in horth, Middle and 5outh Andamans. There
is also some de¿radation due to fuel wood and pole
extraction. kecently, there is also a demand to hand
over man¿rove areas for shrimp farmin¿, a move that
will have harmful environmental consequences as it
has in 5outh East Asia and 5outh America. There is
also a demand for handin¿ over areas for fattenin¿ of
mud crabs (AhET zoo¸).
1.4.c. Coastal ecosystem
Littoral forests and brackish water mixed forests
comprise the coastal forest ecosystems. The Littoral
forests occur all round the coast wherever a fair width
of sandy beach occurs. Manilkara littoralis is the most
characteristic species of this type in these islands.
0ther species include 5caveola frutescens, Ribiscus
tiliaceus, Morinda citrifolia, Terminalia catappa,
Pandanus tectorius, etc.
The 8rackish water mixed forests are considered to
be the ñnest development of tidal forests and may
form closed forest of ¸ç m hei¿ht. These are found
in lar¿er deltas and creeks alon¿ the outer periphery
and at places where salt water mixes with fresh water.
The maior species here include Reriteria littoralis,
8arrin¿tonia racemosa, 8. asiatica, 8rownlowia
lanceolata, hypa fruticans, Phoenix paludosa, etc.

1.4.d. Marine and coral reef
ecosystem
The coastline of the lslands is 1, ¤6z km and around
¸ç, ooo km¹ of continental shelf that provides
potential ñshin¿ ¿rounds. The zoo miles of Exclusive
Economic Zone (EEZ), around the lsland ¿roup, is vast
and covers a sea area of o. 6 million kmz, which is
about ¸o% of the EEZ of lndia. The marine habitats
are quite varied and vast and diverse fauna ran¿e
from microscopic plankton to whales. Amon¿st
marine animals, the a number of ¿roups are very
important. About ,o species of spon¿es are reported
from the Andaman waters and two species are known
to be endemic. 0ver zoo species of corals have been
recorded (AhET zoo¸, wwF 1¤¤,).
ç1
The Andaman and hicobar lslands have the last
pristine reefs in the lndian 0cean re¿ion, and are
emer¿in¿ as one of the most important coral reef
sites in the world. Coral reefs stretch over an area
of 11,ooo kmz in the Andamans while the hicobars
have z,,oo kmz under coral reefs. The lslands have
frin¿in¿ reefs on east coast and a lon¿ barrier reef
(¸zo km) alon¿ the west. The reefs are poorly known
scientiñcally but may prove to be the most diverse in
lndia and the best preserved. 5o far ¸¤ ¿enera with
more than zoo species of corals have been recorded
(of the ,6 ¿enera and ¸uz species found in lndia). The
reefs in the islands stand out when considered vis-à-
vis other areas in the re¿ion:
1. 11, 5pecies in the 0ulf of Mannar and Palk 8ay,
lndia
z. 1¸u 5pecies (6ç ¿enera) in 5ri Lanka
¸. 6o 5pecies (¸o ¿enera) from the Mer¿ui Archipela¿o
in Myanmar.
Currently, coral reefs have become ¿lobally threatened
due to various environmental and climatic factors
alon¿ with ¿reater use of their resources both directly
(e.¿. over ñshin¿) and indirectly (e.¿. tourism). All
scleractinian corals and some associated reef fauna
such as sea cucumbers and ¿iant ¿roupers have
been brou¿ht under the purview of the wild Life
(Protection) Act (wLPA), 1¤,z under 5chedule l. hine
species of molluscs have also been placed in various
5chedules of wLPA, 1¤,z.
The coral reefs of the islands are under various
de¿rees of threat such as siltation, sand minin¿,
a¿ricultural runoff and dama¿e due to ñshin¿ and
tourism activities. These are apart from ¿lobal climatic
factors such as the rise in sea surface temperatures.
The collection of shells and sea cucumbers for
commercial purposes has led to their drastic decline.
while they are protected now, the uepartment of
Environment and Forests has not been ¿iven the
additional resources necessary to enforce the ban on
their collection.
1.4.E. Marine and coral reef
ecosystem
Freshwater wetland ecosystems of the islands
have at least two restricted ran¿e endemic bird
species: the Andaman Crake and Andaman Teal
(Andrews and whitaker 1¤¤u; viiayan, 1¤¤6 a,b;
viiayan and 5ankaran zooo). These ecosystems are
also important nestin¿ habitats for the saltwater
1.4.f. Agricultural ecosystems
The land that was brou¿ht under a¿riculture by 1¤81
was 1u, ¤ç¸ ha and by end of 1¤¤z the land under hi¿h-
yieldin¿ varieties of rice was 1z, ooo ha. Currently over
ç¸, ¸1ç ha and is under cultivation, of this z,, 8¤o ha
are under coconut and areca nut plantations. This area
is decreasin¿ due to urbanisation, industrialisation
and the intrusion of seawater.
1.5 Biodiversity and
Endemism
7

,
http:]]www.worldwildlife.or¿] - Terrestrial Eco ke¿ions · lndo-Malay · Tropical and 5ubtropical Moist 8roadleaf Forests ·Andaman lslands rain forests
(lMo1o1)] hicobar lslands rain forests (lMo1¸¸).
8
uialo¿ue April-lune, zoo¸, volume u ho. u, Conservin¿ the 8iodiversity in Andaman and hicobar lslands, ur. vasumathi 5ankar, Astha 8harati.
The Andaman and hicobar lslands harbour some
of the richest and unique biodiversity in the world.
The lslands are an internationally acknowled¿ed
hot spot for biodiversity, with over ¸,ççz species of
fowerin¿ plants (with zz¸ endemic species), ç,1oo
species of animals (1oo freshwater, z,8u, terrestrial,
ço¸ endemic) and u,ço8 marine species (of which
zzo are endemic), çz species of mammals (with ¸¸
endemics), zuu species of birds (¤6 endemics) and
111 species of amphibians and reptiles (66 endemic)
(uas 1¤¤u, 1¤¤,a, 1¤¤¤; Andrews zoo1). The islands
also have a reported 1¤, species of corals, with about
8o% of the maximum coral diversity found anywhere
in the world. This makes them the richest coral reefs
in the lndian 0cean and an area of ¿lobal si¿niñcance
(Turner et al. zoo1, vousden zoo1, quoted in Andrews
and 5ankaran zooz)
8
.
crocodile. A lar¿e number of bat species also occur in
this re¿ion, many of which are endemic. The swampy
areas in lowland ever¿reen forests have been almost
totally destroyed by conversion to a¿riculture, with
the only substantial tracts remainin¿ in 8aratan¿
and Little Andaman lslands, and the larawa keserve
off the west coast of 5outh and Middle Andaman
islands (Andrews and whitaker 1¤¤u; Andrews,
1¤¤¤, zooo-b, c, zoo1, zooz). Little Andaman lsland
has wetland ecosystems found no were else in the
lslands, these include lon¿ stretches of freshwater
streams, open saline marshes, peat bo¿s and lar¿e
tracts of freshwater ¿rassy marshes (Andrews zooo
b; Andrews and 5ankaran zooz, AhET zoo¸).
0pen swamps have been drained in a number of
places, makin¿ these habitats increasin¿ly rare.
uemarcatin¿ and protectin¿ these becomes a priority
task. There are also si¿niñcant wetlands in revenue
areas that need protection. Areas exist in Chouldhari,
8amboo Flat, 5ippi¿hat, wandoor, 8aratan¿,
Mayabunder and horth Andaman lsland.
çz
1.6 Flora of the Andaman
and Nicobar Islands
Floristically, the Andamans have much more in common
with northeast lndia, Myanmar, and Thailand than
with the hicobars, which have afñnities with Malaysia
and lndonesia. ln fact, the Andamans and hicobars
share only z8 percent of an¿iosperm species with
the hicobars (kao 1¤¤6). The ¿enera uipterocarpus
and Pterocarpus are common in the Andamans but
are absent from the hicobars. 0tanthera, Astronia,
Cyrtandra, 5temonurus, 8entinckia, khopaloblaste,
and 5patho¿lottis all occur in the hicobars but not in
the Andamans (8alakrishnan 1¤8¤; kao 1¤¤6).
The isolation of the hicobar lslands kain Forests
|lMo1¸¸| has ¿iven rise to endemic plant and animal
species. The rain forests are in ¿ood shape and are
afforded a hi¿h level of protection, but the future
biodiversity of the ecore¿ion is not yet secure. The
hicobars are more similar to 5umatra and Malaysia
botanically than to 8urma, Thailand, or even the
Andamans. The hicobars contain more than ç8o
fowerin¿ plant species.
kepresentin¿ ,oo ¿enera and belon¿in¿ to 1uo
families, about 1u% of the an¿iosperm species are
endemic to the islands. Amon¿ the non-endemic
an¿iosperms about uo% are not found on mainland
lndia, but have only extra-lndian distribution in 5outh
East Asia. (kao 1¤¤6).
1.7 Fauna of the Andaman
and Nicobar Islands
The lslands harbour a ran¿e of ecosystems from coral
reefs, man¿roves, sandy beaches to dense forest
covered hill slopes and ¿rasslands. The recorded
marine biodiversity includes 1zoo species of ñsh, ¸ço
species of echinoderms (sea animals like starñshes,
sea urchins, etc.), 1ooo species of molluscs
(invertebrate sea animals enclosed in shells such
as snails shell ñsh and octopuses) and many more
species of lower life forms (Ahl F&E zoo1).
0verall, ¤% of the fauna is endemic. uo% of the
zuu species and subspecies of birds are endemic.
Mammal endemism is 6o% (ç8 of mammals have
been recorded). The lslands supports a si¿niñcant
diversity of reptiles and amphibians alon¿ a hi¿h
level of endemism. Currently , amphibians and 16
reptile species are endemic to the Andamans and
z amphibians and 1ç reptiles are endemic to the
hicobars. (uas 1¤¤u, 1¤¤¤; Andrews and whitaker
1¤¤8; Andrews zoo1; Andrews and 5ankaran zooz).
The butterfy diversity and endemism is also very
hi¿h, of the z1u species and z¸6 subspecies in 116
¿enera, over ço% are endemic (Khatri 1¤¤¸).
1.8 Threats to
Biodiversity and Endemism
This endemism is due to the isolation from mainland
Asia (uas 1¤¤¤). Thus, considerin¿ the size and area of
the islands, loss of habitat leadin¿ to extinctions will
have far ¿reater consequences in terms of the loss of
¿enetic diversity than comparable areas elsewhere. A
rou¿h calculation usin¿ island bio¿eo¿raphy theory
indicates that with the area of forest down to 86% of
what it used to be, about u. ç% of species may have
been lost.
lntroduced species are a problem in the Andamans.
Typical island introductions such as rats, do¿s, and
cats may be harmin¿ the endemic Andaman crake
(kallina cannin¿i) (5tattersñeld et al. 1¤¤8). 5potted
deer (Axis axis) are now widespread throu¿hout the
Andamans, as is the African ¿iant snail (Achatina
fulica). Elephants (Elephas maximus) have been
introduced to lnterview lsland and horth Andaman.
ln the hicobar islands, habitat conversion poses the
¿reatest threat to the ecore¿ion. Abori¿inal peoples
have inhabited the hicobars for at least z,ooo years
and are estimated to have converted about 1o percent
of the forest cover in that time. 5ettlement pro¿rams
brou¿ht mainlanders to the hicobars startin¿ in
the late 1¤6os; they now make up ¸6 percent of
the population. ln the past twenty-ñve years alone,
u percent of the hicobars' ori¿inal forest cover has
been lost to mainlanders. The settlement pro¿ram no
lon¿er exists, but the hicobars are still at a critical
iuncture where decisions about how to control
development and conserve its resources must be
made. There are proposals to make the hicobars a
maior tourist destination, make 0reat hicobar a free
trade port, and increase the military presence on the
islands. koad development and cash crop promotion
(particularly rubber and cashews) are also future
threats. wildlife exploitation threatens the edible-
nest swiftlet in the hicobars, the hicobar me¿apode,
crocodiles, and sea turtles (5ankaran 1¤¤,; uas
1¤¤¤).
1.9 National Parks and
Wildlife Sanctuarie
9
¤
www.forest.and.nic.in , Andaman and hicobar lslands , uepartment of Environment and forests
There are ¤ hational Parks in the Andaman and
hicobar islands of which , are in the Andaman lslands
and z are in hicobar lslands. The combined area of
ç¸
the hational Parks is 11ç¸.¤u km
z
. The total area for
the Andamans is 61,.,o km
z
and for the hicobars it
is ç¸6.zu km
z
. clarify these include marine areas.
Table ç summarises the area covered by different
Table 5
The distribution of National Parks in the Andaman and Nicobar islands
S.
No.
Name of National
Park
District/Division Area (km
2
) check these
areas
1. Mahatma 0andhi Marine hational
Park
Andaman z81.ç
z. Middle 8utton -do- zç6.1uz
¸. Mount Rarriet Andaman ¸z.ç¸6
u. horth 8utton -do- o.uu
ç. kani lhansi Marine hational Park -do- o.uu
6. 5addle Peak -do- o.o¸
,. 5outh 8utton -do- u6.6z
8. Campbell 8ay hational Park hicobar uz6.z¸
¤. 0alathea hational Park -do- 11o
Total 11ç¸.¤¸8
1.10 The Great Nicobar
Biosphere Reserve
10

The 0reat hicobar lsland is the southern most island
of Andaman and hicobar archipela¿o and also the
southernmost part of lndia. lt lies between 6°uç' h
and ,°1ç' h and ¤¸°¸8' E and ¤¸°çç' E, and is about
u8z km south of Port 8lair. The area is the home
of one of the most primitive tribes of lndia viz., the
5hompen. This area is also the habitat of one of the
most endan¿ered species viz., Me¿apode as well as
the edible-nest swiftlet (Collocalia fucipha¿a). The
total ¿eo¿raphic area of this island is about 1ouu
kmz. The island presents a varied natural panorama
as it is covered with vir¿in lush ever¿reen dense
tropical forests extendin¿ from seacoast to the top of
the hills. An area of 88ç kmz of this island has been
constituted as the 0reat hicobar 8iosphere keserve
in lanuary 1¤8¤ for preservin¿ biolo¿ical diversity.
1o
www.forest.and.nic.in, Andaman and hicobar lslands, uepartment of
Environment and Forests.
national parks in the re¿ion. ln all there are ¤6
wildlife 5anctuaries in the islands havin¿ a total area
of u66.z18 km
z
.
çu
ANNEXURE 2
TOURISM VISION
ANDAMAN AND NICOBAR
ADMINISTRATION
5ource: http:]]www.and.nic.in]policy.pdf
Background
The limited scope for lndustrial activity in the lslands
coupled with the decline in the wood based industry
pursuant to the 5upreme Court iud¿ment dated
,.ç.zooz has led to tourism bein¿ identiñed as a
thrust sector for economic development, revenue and
employment ¿eneration in the islands. Keepin¿ in
view the fra¿ile ecolo¿y and limited carryin¿ capacity
of the islands, the obiective of A & h Administration
is to strike for sustainable tourism.
The objectives
· To address the ¿rowin¿ unemployment problem by
placin¿ thrust on promotion of tourism
· Total revenue ¿eneration bein¿ ks.8u crores only (zoo1-
zooz) the future has to be planned with the obiective
of hi¿her revenue ¿eneration.
· Promotin¿ concepts of eco-tourism
· To encoura¿e private sector in tourism
· To harmonise ecolo¿y & tourism for the beneñt of the
people of the islands
VISION STATEMENT
To develop Andaman and hicobar lslands as an up
market island destination for eco-tourists throu¿h
environmentally sustainable development of
infrastructure without disturbin¿ the natural eco-
system with the obiective of ¿eneratin¿ revenue
creatin¿ more employment opportunities and
syner¿ise socio-economic development of the
islands.
Vision targets
· lncrease the earnin¿ from tourism sector
· Achieve the ¿oal of hi¿h value low volume eco-tourist
infow.
· Create employment opportunities for at least 1ooo
persons every year.
· lmprove the status]quality of exitin¿ hotels, tour
operators and restaurants to the standards set by
0ovt. of lndia and uT Administration.
· uiscoura¿e un-approved tourism business etc.
· To create awareness and tourism consciousness amon¿
the islanders, specially stakeholders
· Creation of adequate infrastructure in close co-
ordination with concerned departments to ensure that
tourism is sustained by an excellent foundation.
· Preserve the herita¿e and cultural traits of the islands
and enable the development of rural societies.
· 5ustainable development of different island
destinations
· Preserve the natural eco-system as a treasure
Tourism Policy
The policies and ¿uidelines of 0overnment of lndia
form the basis to promote tourism in Andaman and
hicobar lslands.
The Administration is focusin¿ on the followin¿
issues: -
· Promotion of hi¿h value low volume eco-friendly and
environmentally sustainable tourism.
· undertakin¿ tourism activities, which are not harmful
to the eco-system
· To implement the master plan proposed by uhuP]wT0
report for sustainable development of tourism in
Andamans.
· Playin¿ the role of a facilitator and encoura¿in¿
private sector investment in development of tourism
infrastructure.
· 0radual privatization of mana¿ement of existin¿
tourism infrastructure
· uevelopment of new tourism activities]products
· Marketin¿ A& h lslands as tourist destination at
national and international level
Action Plan
Priorities for 2003-2007
· lmplementation of uhuP]wT0 recommendations
· Facilitate landin¿ of international fi¿hts at Port 8lair
· Attract private investment for development of hi¿h
quality eco-tourist resorts and water sports]scuba
dive centres]¿ame ñshin¿ centres.
· 0btain relaxation in Coastal ke¿ulation Zone (CkZ) and
environmental ¿uidelines.
· 0btain environmental clearance for proiects on forest
land.
· Easen kestricted Area Permit (kAP) rules or facilitate
lon¿ term kAP for forei¿n investors.
· 0pen more islands for tourism
· 5ound and Li¿ht show at viper lsland
· utilization of Exhibition complex for other promotional
fairs and events
· Assume the role of facilitator and lease out the built
up infrastructure of the uirectorate for professional
mana¿ement by private sector
· More thrust to marketin¿ - by startin¿ proper
advertisement campai¿n with the help of empanelled
professional advertisin¿ a¿encies
· Participate in more international exhibition]buyer
seller meet
· 0r¿anise more travel marts in the Andamans with wider
& sponsored participation.
· ueñne the tourism policy of the islands and ¿ive wide
publicity to the same.
· Formulate Tourist Trade ke¿ulation for the islands and
çç
introduce re¿istration system for all tourism related
activities.
· Create a data bank of tourism related activities
· lntroduce hi¿h quality inter islands tourist cruise
vessels (initially in 0overnment sector).
· 0penin¿ of more 5anctuaries] hational Park for
promotin¿ eco-tourism or nature tourism
· Trainin¿ for hospitality staff in 0overnment as well as
private sector
· Awareness pro¿ramme for islanders
· Promote eco-friendly practices in tourism sector
· lnitial steps for introduction of tourism in hicobar
¿roup of islands
· Planned development of capital area
· 5tudy for inte¿rated development of Ravelock and heil
lslands
· lncentives for introducin¿ water harvestin¿, solid]
liquid waste mana¿ement systems, captive power
¿eneration, recyclin¿ waste water and adoptin¿ eco-
friendly practices
· lncentives for usin¿ non-conventional ener¿y sources
· lntroduce eco-friendly practices and awards
· Promotin¿ environment friendly buildin¿ ¿uidelines
· Popularize Monsoon Tourism
· Make lsland Tourism Festival more attractive by
diversifyin¿ pro¿rammes
· Promote face lift to Port 8lair by addin¿ ¿reenery
(continuin¿ pro¿ramme)
· Periodical market research by professional a¿encies
to identify the tar¿et ¿roup]market (continuin¿
pro¿ramme)
· uevelopment of way side amenities
· Attract private airlines and charter fi¿hts specially
from 5.E.Asia
· 0et one ¿olf course-cum-resort developed in private
sector at Port 8lair
· uevelop infrastructure for tourism in hicobar ¿roup
with the help of Tribal Council]5ociety
· Floatin¿ Cotta¿es on creeks at Mayabunder area,
Elphinston Rarbour (kan¿at) area
· 0et at least ¸ hi¿h quality resorts developed in private
sector (horth Passa¿e lsland, Lon¿ lsland & 5mith
lsland).
Priorities for 2008-2012
· 0et one convention centre developed in private sector
· uevelop state of the art Marina with facilities for yachts
at Port 8lair
· uevelop facilities for a terminal for cruise liners at Port
8lair
· More focused, marketin¿ aimed at tar¿et ¿roups
· Carry out study by hi¿hly professional a¿encies,
preferably by uhuP as a continuation to their earlier
study to assess the status of tourism sector and to
evolve strate¿ies for future.
· lnte¿rated uevelopment of Little Andaman lsland
· uedicated medium ran¿e cruise vessel for plyin¿ in
Andaman and hicobar lslands
· Terminals for cruise liners]yachts at all popular islands
from ui¿lipur to Campbell 8ay
· wave surñn¿ facilities at 8utler 8ay
· Construction of eco-friendly semi-permanent ietties at
popular destinations
· undertake separate (island speciñc) studies
for inte¿rated development of different island
destinations
· uevelopment of tourism infrastructure in 8aratan¿
lsland
· water sports complex at Ravelock
· Full fed¿ed tourist facilitation centre for bookin¿ of
accommodation, inter islands tickets at Port 8lair
· Multiplex and facilities for evenin¿ recreation at Port
8lair
· ueclarin¿ no-plastic zones
· Professionalisin¿ the entire functions of uirectorate of
Tourism (Continuin¿ pro¿ramme)
· lntroduction of Realth kesorts
· Popularize Andamans as a destination for business
meetin¿s]conference etc.
· lntroduce insurance cover to tourists
· ueploy life¿uards at all beaches
· lntroduction of helitourism
· Establish unit of lnstitute of Rotel Mana¿ement
and Caterin¿ Technolo¿y (Ministry of Tourism) in
Andamans.
Priorities for 2013-2017
· lnte¿rated uevelopment of hicobar ¿roup of islands
· 0lass bottom submarine in Mahatma 0andhi Marine
hational Park
· uolphinarium at Chidyatapu
· Cable car
· 5tate of the art adventure water sports complex at Port
8lair
· lnte¿rated development of kutland lsland
· Multi entry]exit points instead of one (Port 8lair) at
various places
· water theme park at 0andhi Park.
Priorities for 2018-2022
· lnte¿rated uevelopment of Campbell 8ay
· 5ea world (under sea aquarium) at Chidyatapu
· water sports complex at Mayabunder
· water sports complex at ui¿lipur.
Priorities for 2023-2027
· Periodical studies by professional a¿encies to assess
the performance of the tourism sector to ñnd the
stren¿ths and weaknesses and to evolve strate¿ies
for future. (continuin¿ pro¿ramme)
· Airstrips at Ravelock, Lon¿ lsland, ui¿lipur and Little
Andaman
· lnter island sea plane services.
ç6
ANNEXURE 3
BACKGROUND NOTE
ON DEVELOPMENTAL
ACTIVITIES IN THE
ANDAMAN AND NICOBAR
ISLANDS
1
1. Tourism: A Vision for
the Andaman and Nicobar
Islands
There is a limited scope for promotion of industrial
activities in the islands, due to the non -availability
of local raw materials, skilled manpower and ready
markets. The wood based industry, which was
providin¿ some direct and indirect employment is also
on the decline due to environmental considerations.
Considerin¿ the natural and vir¿in beauty of the
lslands, economic development and employment
¿eneration in the islands by way of development of
tourism can chan¿e the economic scenario in the
islands and brin¿ about si¿niñcant
chan¿es in the livin¿ standards of the local
population.
The islands are endowed with vast tropical rain
forests, beautiful beaches, meanderin¿ creeks,
lush fora, rare fauna, rich marine life and corals.
The islands also have historical sites such as the
Cellular lail where a number of freedom ñ¿hters were
incarcerated durin¿ the stru¿¿le for independence.
The un-explored Andaman and hicobar lslands
virtually represents the ñnal frontier of tourism.
ln view of the fra¿ile ecolo¿y and limited carryin¿
capacity of the islands, the Andaman and hicobar
Administration is endeavourin¿ to strike a healthy
balance between zealous over-protection and callous
over-exploitation with the obiective of a harmonious
conver¿ence of the environment with tourism. Table
6 outlines the outlay and expenditure on tourism
durin¿ the ¤th Five Year Plan.
Table 6
Outlay and expenditure for tourism during 9th Five Year plan
Period Outlay (in lakhs
of rupees)
Expenditure (in
lakhs of rupees)
% Achievement
Annual Plan 1¤¤,-1¤¤8 6ço ç8z.,¸ 8¤.6ç
Annual plan 1¤¤8-1¤¤¤ ,oo ,,ç.¸6 11o.,6
Annual plan 1¤¤¤-zooo 6ço 666.¸u 1oz.ç1
Annual plan zooo-zoo1 68u 68z.z, ¤¤.,u
Annual plan zoo1-zooz ,zz.61 ,1¸.uu 1o¤.8¤
1
5ource: Parliamentary 5tandin¿ Committee on Rome Affairs, "8ack¿round hote on uevelopmental Activities in the Andaman and hicobar lslands", vol. 1,
lune zooç.
ç,
2. Scrutiny of the 9th
Five Year Plan Schemes
The ¤th Five year plan in Tourism 5ector had 8
schemes:
1. Construction of tourism accommodation
z. Publicity and propa¿ation of tourism
¸. uevelopment of recreational tourism and water
sports
u. uevelopment of tourism spots
ç. 5tren¿thenin¿ of the uirectorate of Tourism
6. 5ettin¿ up of a marine aquarium ]dolphinarium
,. Establish an Andaman and hicobar Tourism
uevelopment Authority
8. Ancillary services in the Tourism industry and
settin¿ up of a new polytechnic.
After scrutiny and review, the workin¿ 0roup decided
to drop scheme numbers 6, , and 8. The workin¿
0roup felt that in case it is decided to establish
a dolphinarium, etc. they can be covered under
scheme no.¸. 5imilarly, scheme no.8 is not required
as the hospitality sector courses are bein¿ run by the
0overnment Polytechnic as well as the lawaharlal
hehru kaikeeya Mahavidyalya. lt was also felt that
there is no need to establish a separate Tourism
uevelopment Authority in the islands at present.
2.1 Objectives of the 10th Five
Year Plan
Promotion of eco-friendly and environmentally
sustainable tourism.
1. Facilitate and encoura¿e private sector investment
in various sectors like development of hi¿h
quality resorts, introduction of hi¿h speed boats,
adventure water sports, etc.
z. Continuin¿ to simultaneously concentrate on the
development of new tourism activities ]products
¸. Marketin¿ the lslands as an eco-tourism
destination
The followin¿ are the schemes selected under the
1oth Five Year Plan
1. Construction of tourist accommodation
z. Propa¿ation and publicity for tourism
¸. uevelopment of recreational tourism and water
sports.
u. uevelopment of tourism spots.
ç. 5tren¿thenin¿ the uirectorate of Tourism
6. lncentives to the tourism industry
,. Faster inter islands transport service for tourists
0n the basis of the zero based bud¿et, schemes
6 and , have been omitted as the uepartment of
lndustries had formulated the same schemes.
Further, schemes ¸ and u have been mer¿ed with
scheme z and re-named accordin¿ly.
The schemes are:
1. 5tren¿thenin¿ the uirectorate of Tourism
z. Creation and maintenance of tourism
infrastructure
¸. Tourism promotional activities
u. 5tren¿thenin¿ and maintainin¿ tourism
accommodation
Table 7
Outlay and expenditure for tourism during the 10th Five Year plan
Period Outlay (in lakhs
of rupees)
Expenditure (in
lakhs of rupees)
% Achievement
zooz-zoo¸ ,ço.oo ,¤u.6¸ 1oç.¤ç
zoo¸-zoou 6oo.oo 6u¤.oo 1o8.16
zoou-zooç 6¸,.oo ç8u.¸ç ¤1.,¸
zooç-zoo6 8zz.oo - -
ç8
2.2 Schemes Under the Five Year
Plans
5cheme Ne. I:
5tren¿thenin¿ of the uirectorate of Tourism
This 5cheme broadly provides for plannin¿ and
administration of tourism activities as well as
development of human resource by providin¿ trainin¿
to be imparted by experts for various skills related to
tourism. This scheme also provides for preparation
and updatin¿ statistical information on tourism. An
amount of ks. u¸ lakhs has been proposed for the
purpose.
5cheme Ne. II:
Creation and maintenance of tourism infrastructure
The scheme also envisa¿es the up¿radation and
modernisation of existin¿ infrastructure. To provide
entertainment and to attract tourists to various
locations, the development and beautiñcation
of various tourists' spots is imperative. For this,
the construction of roads, additional amenities,
restoration of monuments, creation and up¿radation
of infrastructure of civil, electrical facilities, etc.
is undertaken. The maintenance of beaches and
environmental improvement activities are also
undertaken. Further, other entertainment activities
like water sports are provided. This scheme also
provides for undertakin¿ and creatin¿ new activities
like a ¿olf course, ¿lass bottom boat, sound and
li¿ht show, etc. An amount of ks. z88.oo lakhs has
been proposed. There would be direct and indirect
employment ¿eneration for about çooo persons by
this scheme.
5ome of the activities to be undertaken are:
1. Construction of a road to the waterfall at Little
Andaman
z. uevelopments of roads near tourist spots
¸. 5ettin¿ up of a sound and li¿ht show at viper
lsland, construction of a toilet block, construction
of a fast food centre, renovation of the sea wall,
construction of a Type 1 quarter for the watch and
ward staff, construction of a pathway, etc.
u. kestoration of the koss lsland monuments and
the repair of dama¿e sea walls, etc.
ç. uevelopment of the Rumfre¿uni Memorial
6. uevelopment of way side amenities
,. up ¿radation of infrastructure for the water sports
complex at ui¿lipur
8. kepair and maintenance of existin¿ water sports
complex at Aberdeen
5cheme Ne. III:
Tourism promotional activities
For the promotion of tourism, publicity and marketin¿
activities are required. Andaman Tourism is to start
various schemes to attract low to hi¿h end tourists
from lndia as well as abroad. This is a popular eco
tourism destination and in order to inform potential
tourists re¿ardin¿ the pros and cons of various
destinations, information dissemination and publicity
is undertaken by means of visual and print media, as
well as or¿anisin¿ road shows. Advertisements and
write ups are ¿iven to various newspapers, ma¿azine
etc. The uepartment also or¿anises the lsland Tourism
Festival at Port 8lair and also participles in the lndia
lnternational Trade Fair at Pra¿athi Maidan. The
uepartment maintains tourist information bureaus at
uelhi , Chennai and Kolkatta, Port 8lair airport and at
the uirectorate of lnformation, Publicity and Tourism.
Tourist information in the form of booklets and
brochures prepared by the department are provided
to the tourists. Tourist vehicles are purchased
and maintained by the uepartment. An amount of
ks.¸16.oo lakhs has been proposed for this purpose.
5cheme Ne. Iv:
5tren¿thenin¿ and maintainin¿ tourist
accommodation
For the convenience of tourists, accommodation and
infrastructure facilities are required. The department
has constructed tourist ¿uest houses at Port 8lair,
Ravelock, heil lsland, kan¿at, Mayabunder and
ui¿lipur. These ¿uest houses are also provided with
electricity and water connections, ¿enerator sets,
telephone lines, kitchens, other furnishin¿ and
housekeepin¿
facilities. The uepartment undertakes the creation
of ¿uest houses, as well as the maintenance and
recruitment of staff for these establishments. The
uepartment is also explorin¿ the possibilities of a
tourist boat house .About çooo persons would be
employed directly or indirectly by this scheme. An
amount of ks.1,ç.oo lakhs has been proposed for this
purpose.
ç¤
2.3 Sub-sector: Information and
Publicity
The publicity department informs the citizens
of activities, schemes and pro¿rammes of the
¿overnment. The information is disseminated
throu¿h visual and print media, and the screenin¿
of various ñlms and photo shows are or¿anised at
various locations in the lslands. Television and uish
Antennae are also provided in remote areas for easy
access to information. 8ooks, periodicals and iournals
are also provided at various news and information
centres. Moreover, the residents of the Andaman and
hicobar lslands are also taken on educational tours
for 8harat uharshan with a view to familiarise them
about self-employment and economic activities bein¿
undertaken by various institutions, h00, etc. on the
mainland.
Table 8
Outlay and expenditure for publicity during the 9th Five Year plan
Period Outlay (in lakhs
of rupees)
Expenditure (in
lakhs of rupees)
% Achievement
Annual Plan 1¤¤,-1¤¤8 ¤z.ooo 11¤.z6o 1z¤.6¸
Annual plan 1¤¤8-1¤¤¤ 1o¸.ooo 1o¸.,6o 1oo.,¸
Annual plan 1¤¤¤-zooo ,ç.ooo 6,.¤ço ¤o.6o
Annual plan zooo-zoo1 66.ooo 6¸.¤,o ¤6.¤zo
Annual plan zoo1-zooz ,ç.ooo ,1.ç¸o ¤ç.¸,o
ln order to promote the information and publicity
activities of the ¿overnment, various activities
are undertaken like or¿anisin¿ ñlm festivals, the
purchase and maintenance of televisions and video
cassette and uvu players, multi media proiectors,
books and periodicals, iournals, the creation and
maintenance of art units, ñlm proiects, printin¿
of calendars and diaries, participation in the lndia
lnternational Trade Fair, hew uelhi and participation
in the kepublic functions and so on. The outlay and
expenditure for information dissemination and
publicity durin¿ the ¤th Five Year Plan is summarised
in Table 8.
uurin¿ the 1oth plan an outlay of k5. ¸¸o lakhs
has been earmarked. The followin¿ schemes were
proposed in the 1oth Five Year plan under the
information and publicity sector:
1. uissemination of information.
z. uevelopment of audio-visual and other publicity
material.
¸. 0r¿anisation of the 8harat uarshan tour
u. 5tren¿thenin¿ of the lnformation and Publicity
win¿.
ç. lma¿e buildin¿ of the Andaman and hicobar
lslands at national and international level throu¿h
various media.
0n the basis of the zero based bud¿et durin¿ zoou-
oç schemes 1, ¸ and ç were mer¿ed with scheme ¸
and renamed accordin¿ly. Theses scheme are:
1. 5tren¿thenin¿ of the lnformation and Publicity
win¿.
z. Creation and maintenance of publicity
infrastructure]equipment.
¸. lnformation on promotional activities.
Table 9
Outlay and expenditure for publicity during the 10th Five Year plan
Period Outlay (in lakhs
of rupees)
Expenditure (in
lakhs of rupees)
% Achievement
zooz-zoo¸ 6,.oo 6u.ço ¤6.z6%
zoo¸-zoou 6o.oo 68.,u 11u.ç6%
zoou-zooç 68.,u 66.oz 1o1%
zooç-zoo6 66.oz - -
6o
3. Impact of the Tsunami
0n z6th uecember, zoou, a massive earthquake
measurin¿ ¤.¸ on the kichter scale, was recorded
in the lndian 0cean, in a re¿ion very close to the
lslands. The earthquake (which is believed to be
the second lar¿est recorded quake in history) was
followed by a killer tsunami, which unleashed havoc
and devastation causin¿ hu¿e dama¿es to life and
property in the lslands. Estimated of dama¿es
to tourism properties, assets and infrastructure
of the Andaman and hicobar Administration are
summarised in Table 1o.
Table 10
Financial estimates of loss of tourism properties and infrastructure as
a result of the earthquake and tsunami of 26th December 2004 in the
Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Sl.
No.
Name of Islands/ Assets Approximate
Cost (in lakhs of
rupees)
1.
horth & Middle Andaman
a. Turtle kesorts, ui¿lipur
b. Rawksbill hest, kan¿at
u.oo
1.oo
z. 5outh Andaman
a. kepair of uirectorate of lP & T 8uildin¿
b. kepair of Andaman Teal Rouse at Port 8lair
c. kepair of Rawksbill hest, heil lsland
d. uolphin kesort, Ravelock (Construction of sea wall, reconstruction
of footpath and 6o m compound wall)
1ç.oo
u.oo
u.oo
zç.oo
¸.
Machinery and Equipment
a. uolophin kesort, Ravelock
b. 0andhi Park, Port 8lair
c. Addition, replacement, maintenance, up
¿radation of rides of Amusement Park , Port 8lair
d. Procurement]maintenance and operation of boasts, out board
motors, water scooter, iet ski, and other sportin¿ equipments at
Andaman water 5ports Complex, Port 8lair
e. 5ound and li¿ht show at viper lsland
f. Film unit, uirectorate of lP & T.
ç.oo
ç.oo
u,.oo
8,.ço
6o.oo
u.oo
Total z61.ço
Tourism, which was the lifeline of the lsland's
economy has been adversely affected by the disaster.
0n z6th uecember uooo tourists were at the various
tourist destinations in the islands. They were all
airlifted within u days to the mainland. 8ut the scars
of the disaster continue to remain in the minds of
the national and international tourists, and as such
tourist arrivals have dipped to rock bottom levels.
This has led to mea¿re business for travel a¿ents,
tour operators and hotels in the lslands, which in turn
is affectin¿ livelihoods. The Andaman water sports
Complex owned by the uirectorate of lnformation,
Publicity and Tourism of the Andaman and hicobar
Administration has been destroyed alon¿ with the
boatin¿ facilities. 0ne of the prime tourist attractions,
the lolly 8uoy lsland has been devastated by the
waves and is now closed for tourism. The road
leadin¿ to the famous beach of port 8lair - the
Corbyn's Cove beach is in a dilapidated condition
and is awaitin¿ repair. All the ¿uest houses owned by
the uirectorate of lnformation, Publicity and Tourism
61
have developed cracks and requires ur¿ent overhaul.
The private sector has also reported dama¿e to the
tourism property and assets as well as revenue loss.
ln addition to the above mentioned material affects
of the Tsunami, the adverse publicity ¿enerated by
the ne¿ative media reports in television channels
and print media has created a fear psychosis amon¿
the potential tourists, as a result of which they are
avoidin¿ visits to the lslands. The tourist infow for
the last ñve years and the post tsunami period is
summarised in Table 11.
Table 11
Tourist inflow into the Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the past five
years and in the months following the tsunami
The Andamans was the only place where not a sin¿le
tourist was reported to have died or iniured due to
the earthquake and the tsunami. Most of the tourist
destinations of the islands were not affected by
the killer waves and therefore are safe for tourism.
Rowever, infrastructure such as ietties, roads,
shippin¿ services, communication links and aviation
services were dama¿ed which in turn affected the
tourism business. Rence the Administration needs
support for reconstruction.
Year Domestic tourists Foreign tourists Total
zooo 81u¸z u68u 86116
zoo1 8ç866 çzu¤ ¤111ç
zooz ¤o6z¤ u,o, ¤ç¸¸6
zoo¸ ¤¸8¤¤ uz81 ¤818o
zoou 1oçoou uç,8 1o¤ç8z
Year Domestic tourists Foreign tourists Total
lan-ou 1zu¤8 811 1¸¸o¤
lan-oç 1166 16¤ 1¸¸ç
Feb-ou 1116, 8uu 1zo11
Feb-oç 11zz 1¤1 1¸1¸
comparision of pre and Post Tsunami tourist traffic
4 Strategy for Tourism
Development Post-Tsunami
4.1 Short-term objectives
About 1 lakh tourists visit the Andamans every
year. More than ¤ç% tourists are lndian, and the
remainin¿ are forei¿ners. After the earthquake and
tsunami of z6th uecember, zoou, the arrival of
tourist has dropped. Tourism was one of the maior
sectors contributin¿ to the economy of the islands
and was responsible for employment ¿eneration
on a lar¿e-scale. For the revival and promotion
of tourism, a list of demands for developmental
assistance have been taken up with the 0overnment
of lndia, throu¿h the Plannin¿ uepartment of the
Andaman and hicobar Administration. These are:
1. Creation of marinas at Port 8lair, Mayabunder,
ui¿lipur and in the hicobar uistrict to facilitate
the berthin¿ of lar¿e cruise liners and lar¿e ships
for promotion of tourism and also for undertakin¿
research and scientiñc work.
z. lntroduction of two cruise liners from Chennai
Kolkatta to Port 8lair.
¸. lntroduction of four ships exclusively for tourists
form Chennai, Kolkatta and vishakapatnam to
port 8lair with three-ñve star facilities.
u. Ten helicopters for transportation of tourists
between different islands.
ç. Four sea planes for transportation of tourists
between different islands.
6. Five hovercrafts for transportation of tourists
between different islands.
,. Four catamarans for transportation of tourist
between different lslands.
8. Ten hi¿h-speed luxury ships (¸ç knots) havin¿
three-ñve star quality service for transportation
of tourists between different islands.
¤. Four mechanised yachts for hi¿h end tourist for
6z
inter island or pleasure transportation.
1o. Creation of water sport complexes at Port 8lair,
Ravelock lsland and Mayabunder, ui¿lipur and
Little Andaman alon¿ with stora¿e facilities,
chan¿in¿ rooms, etc. Additional facilities like
eatin¿ ioints and shoppin¿ facilities can be
included.
11. water sportin¿ boats, equipments and
accessories that are required include:
(a) Four speed boats - zço Rp.
(b) Four speed boats - 1zo Rp.
(c) Four speed boats - ¤o Rp.
(d) Four speed boats - ,o Rp.
(e) Four speed boats - uoRp.
(f) 5ix speed boats -zç Rp.
(¿) 5ix ¿lass bottom boats - zç Rp.
(h) Ei¿ht water scooters - 1ç Rp.
(i) Ten iet skis
(i) Ten 0emini 8oats
(k) Ten sail boats
(l) Twenty wind surñn¿ boards
(m) Five wave surñn¿ boards
(n) Twenty ñve water skis with accessories
(o) Four para sails with accessories
(p) 5eventy life buoys
(q) Rundred lifeiackets
(r) 0ne hundred and twenty ñve oars
(s) Four swamp boats (air boats )
(t) Ten dive boats
(u) Twenty scuba divin¿ sets with accessories
(v) Four underwater still cameras
(w) Four open video cameras
(x) Four open ferry boats
(y) Four iet boats
(z) 5ix pilot boats
(aa) Twenty sittin¿ tubes
(bb) Twenty banana rides
(cc) Rundred hi¿h quality snorkels
(dd) Five infatable ietties
(ee) Fifty infatable ietties
(ff) Twenty infatable boats of 1o Rp.
(¿¿) En static vRF]uRF wireless sets.
(hh) Forty vRF]uRF wireless Randsets
(ii) Ten water cycles - sin¿le
(ii) Ten water cycles - double
1z. Luxury tents for campin¿ at island destinations
(ço).
1¸. vlP tents for campin¿ at islands destinations.
1u. 5un loun¿ers (ço) and bathrobes (1ço).
1ç. Rammocks (ço).
16. Fifty beach umbrellas with tables, chairs and
accessories.
1,. Musical fountain at Port 8lair and ui¿lipur.
18. 0olf course at Port 8lair.
1¤. Two multiplexes with shoppin¿ malls and
amusement parks at Port 8lair and ui¿lipur.
zo. Five static balloons.
z1. Ei¿ht plasma]proiection televisions.
zz. 5ix hi¿h quality di¿ital cameras of 8.1 Me¿a
pixels with 1o X zoom for photo¿raphs for tourism
promotions.
z¸. 5ix optical cameras (Ri¿h end).
zu. Two di¿ital video cameras (Ri¿h end).
zç. Four plasma display panels.
z6. Cable Car connection at Port 8lair.
z,. Four tourist submarines.
z8. Production of two hi¿h quality tourism
promotion ñlms by professional a¿encies.
z¤. Media campai¿n by the 0overnment of lndia,
Ministry of Tourism for promotion of Andaman
tourism.
¸o. Free space in the lndia pavilion for tourism
exhibitions abroad alon¿ with free travel,
lod¿in¿, boardin¿ and transportation of ofñcers
of the Andaman Tourism department.
¸1. 5cientiñc waste disposals at various units.
4.2 Medium-term objectives
i) lntroduction of direct fi¿hts from uelhi, Mumbai,
Cochin and other important destinations of the
country to Port 8lair. (At present fi¿hts to Port
8lair operate from Kolkata and Chennai only).
ii) lntroduction of fi¿hts by various airlines to port
8lair such as 5ahara, Air ueccan, Kin¿ñsher, etc.
and also private chartered fi¿hts. (At present
only lndian Airlines and let Airways operate ñ¿hts
to Port 8lair).
iii) lntroduction of competitive and attractive airfares
by various airlines (includin¿ Apex, 5uper Apex,
Metro Apex fares). (Most of the tourist decisions
to travel to various destinations in the country
and abroad are primarily determined by low
airfares).
iv) lntroduction of fi¿hts to Port 8lair by
international airlines.
v) lntroduction of international charted Fli¿hts to
Port 8lair. (Charted fi¿hts occasionally do arrive
at Port 8lair. This requires to be promoted).
vi) ueclarin¿ Port 8lair Airport as an international
airport.
vii) Transfer of the operations of the airport to
the Airport Authority of lndia. (At present the
operation are with the defence authorities.
uifñculties are experienced in operatin¿ fi¿hts
beyond the afternoon due to want of clearance
from the Air Trafñc Control. Rowever, the air force

does operate its fi¿hts in the afternoon).
viii) 0penin¿ of additional civilian airports in the
Andaman as well as hicobar uistricts for landin¿
of national and international fi¿hts as well as for
operation of helicopter services and small planes
for inter island transportation.
ix) lntroduction and promotion of sea planes for
national and international transportation.
x) lntroduction of helicopter services, small planes
and sea planes by the ¿overnment as well as by
the private sector for inter island transportation
of tourists.
4.2.2 Issues related to connecting
Port Blair by sea
i) Creation of marinas at port 8lair, Mayabunder,
ui¿lipur and in the hicobar uistrict to facilitate
the berthin¿ of lar¿e cruise liners, lar¿e ships for
promotion of tourism and also for undertakin¿
research and scientiñc work.
ii) Providin¿ more number of quality ietties, with
quality tourist facilities like eatin¿ ioints,
shoppin¿ facilities, waitin¿ terminals]halls etc.
in 5outh Andaman, Middle Andaman , horth
Andamans and the hicobar uistrict.
iii) lntroduction of hi¿h quality ships with lar¿e ,
medium and small capacities, cruise liners and
catamarans for transportation of tourists from the
mainland as well as other countries.
iv) lntroduction of online bookin¿ facilities for ship
tickets from maior cities of the country as is
available in the case of the railways.
v) lntroduction of hovercrafts, catamarans, luxury
boats and yachts for faster transportation of
tourists between various tourist locations in the
Andaman and hicobar lslands.
4.2.3 Tourist accommodation and
infrastructure
i) Promotion of quality resorts, hotels and
restaurants preferably by the private sector.
For this purpose, more islands havin¿ tourism
attractions need to be opened for investment
by the private sector. koad and wayside tourist
amenities like chan¿in¿ rooms, toilets, eatin¿
ioints, motels and rest rooms need to be
introduced by way of the build-operate-maintain
concept by the private sector. where the private
sector is not forthcomin¿, 0overnment of lndia,
Andaman and hicobar Administration, lTuC
or other public sector undertakin¿s could be
4.2.4 Important tourist attractions
i) lntroduction and promotion of quality water
sportin¿ activities includin¿ adventure water
sportin¿. For this, water sportin¿ complexes need
to provided at various islands which are havin¿
tourist potential. 0uality boats, equipment and
material for water sportin¿ activities also need
to be provided. 0ualiñed manpower, life ¿uards
etc. is required. lntroduction of sailboats, wind
surñn¿, wave surñn¿, para sailin¿, speed boats,
iet skiin¿, water skiin¿ , ¿lass bottom boats,
0eminis, static balloons, etc. are some of the
possibilities.
ii) Promotion of scuba divin¿ and snorkellin¿
activities.
iii) lntroduction of cable car.
iv) Tourism submarine.
v) Feasibility of creatin¿ a han¿in¿ brid¿e as tourist
attraction.
4.2.5 Other Matters
i) Promotion of the Andaman as eco-tourist
destinations at the national as well a
international level by the Ministry of Tourism,
0ovt. of lndia in various media.
ii) Production of hi¿h quality ñlms and Cus on the
Andaman's tourism potential by a¿encies of the
Ministry of Tourism, 0ovt. of lndia.
iii) Free travel, lod¿in¿, boardin¿ facilities for
participation in the lndia pavilion in international
exhibitions to the ofñcers of Andaman Tourism.
iv) Easy tourism visa facilities.
v) Facilities of lon¿ term kestricted Area permits for
persons associated with the tourism sector.
6u
involved.
ii) lntroduction of shoppin¿ multiplexes and
entertainment and amusement parks.
iii) Creation of quality fy-overs.
iv) lntroduction of quality road transportation
vehicles by private or 0ovt. sector. Eco- Friendly
modes of transportation like solar powered
vehicles, electricity operated vehicles, etc. can
also be considered.
A comparison of two
Sustainable Tourism
Development Plans for
Andaman & Nicobar
Islands
ANNEXURE 4

SL
No.
Parameters of
Sustainable
Plans
Sustainable Tourism
Development Plans for
Andaman and Nicobar
Islands ( UNDP, WTO)
Perspective Plan for
Tourism in Andaman
and Nicobar Islands (
A.F. Ferguson and Co)
1 Analysis of Existin¿
Environmental and
5ocio economic
characteristics
A keview of policies, plans
and studies
wT0 uhuP plan has captured most of
the previous plans and studies done
for tourism development in Andamans
There is substantial analysis
of environmental policies and
le¿islations of lndia as applicable to
the lslands
hot much analysis of previous policies
and plans has been made.
8 Economic keview of
lslands
Plan makes an attempt to analyse
different sectors of economy. Rowever
¸ chapters have been devoted entirely
to the discussion on tourism, other
sectors] livelihood options ( esp
ñshin¿, a¿riculture, forestry ) do not
¿et much attention .
Andaman's tourism potential
compared with Maldives, 5eychelles
and Mauritius
5ubstantial details on contribution of
sectors have been provided keference
to small island economies has also
been provided.
5ubstantial discussion has ¿one into
outlinin¿ tourism potentials of the
lslands.
Assessment of lnfrastructure: water,
power, transportation ¿et an important
place in the report.
C 5ocio Cultural analysis At len¿th discussion on historical and
cultural herita¿e, however concern
to indi¿enous people completely
bypassed
ho socio cultural impact of
tourism has been assessed with
the assumption that Andman is a
cosmopolitan place havin¿ most of
the mi¿rant population
Focus is more on population ¿rowth
and other demo¿raphic details.
uiscussion on cultural aspects, inter
community dynamics and concern of
indi¿enous people is not adequate.
Althou¿h plan reco¿nises isolation of .
u Environmental Analysis keport reco¿nises some threats
to environment however very little
analyses has ¿one to this. ln fact
report also ne¿ates any serious
environmental de¿radation caused by
tourism in Andamans.
Analysis of environmental le¿islation
has been done. ln addition assessment
of air environment, water environment,
forests, man¿roves and coral in
lslands has also been done. 8asic
infrastructure bottlenecks and fra¿ile
ecosystems considered as weakness
for tourism development

z. 5patial uevelopment
5trate¿y
Plan attempts zonin¿ without any
stron¿ environmental, social or
economic rationale to it. lnstead
zonal classiñcation is based on
attractiveness of the beaches, coral
reefs, cultural herita¿e and national
parks. This attractiveness is also
deñned from a very subiective point
of view.
ho speciñc spatial development
strate¿y su¿¿ested, thou¿h there
is at len¿th discussion on tourism
potentials of different islands and
places. The plan however also talks
about entry point and movement
analysis of the various tourism
potential areas.
¸. Market uevelopment Ample attention has ¿one into this.
A¿¿ressive promotion su¿¿ested in
Europe, America and 5outh East Asian
markets specially in 5in¿apore and
Thailand. Emphasis is on Ri¿h value
tourism
ho adequate analysis on this
u. Tourist facilities and
Accommodation
Plan su¿¿ests buildin¿ of resorts
in hilly and forested areas closer to
the sea. humber of such resorts not
mentioned, thou¿h bed capacity
su¿¿ested is between 8o to zoo.
water sports, forest camps are other
maior proposals.
kole of private sector in developin¿
facilities has been emphasized
ç. Transportation Facilities A¿¿ressive plans for Airport
extension, modernization, openin¿
of new terminals and inter island air
transportation.
Plan also su¿¿ests extension of
services to Ron¿ Kon¿, Phuket,
Kualalampur and 5in¿apore . Port
facilities, ferry services ad road
transportation are other su¿¿estions
ho adequate analysis on this
6. Ruman kesource
uevelopment
Employment ratios are calculated,
without any emphasis on local
employment ¿eneration
Plan reco¿nises that existin¿ people
do not have skill and sophistication to
handle " forei¿n tourists". Therefore,
su¿¿ests to open Rotel Mana¿ement
lnstitute
lnadequate analysis in this context
,. Environmental strate¿y Carryin¿ capacity analysis refects uço
beds] hectare of beach. uispersin¿
the tourist throu¿hout the islands
and brin¿in¿ more areas into tourism
has been core strate¿y to protect the
environment.
Plan refects the concerns to protect
the environment. Rowever no clear
strate¿y has emer¿ed.
8. lnstitutional and Policy
Matters
CkZ considered as critical constraint,
which precludes the effective
development of the most important
tourism asset. Private sector
participation and tax concessions.
Endin¿ of re¿ulatory and bureaucratic
procedures
5trin¿ent environmental le¿islations,
tribal protection, limited access,
security restriction and re¿ulatory
measures considered as constraints of
tourism development.
0reater emphasis is laid on Private
sector participation. The rationale for
PPP is to promote hi¿h value tourism.
PPP case studies of China, Thailand,
Kerala and Karnataka are hi¿hli¿hted
66
6,
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The 0round 8eneath the waves: Post-tsunami
lmpact Assessment of wildlife and their Rabitats
in lndia, volume z: The lslands, Conservation
Action 5eries zooço¤ou.
u6. 5ekhsaria, P. zooç. Comments on the draft 5tate
uevelopment keport, zooç. Pankai 5ekhsaria,
Kalpavriksh.
u,. 5irur. R.R. 1¤¤¤. A kapid 5ocio-Economic
Assessment of Threats to the Coastal Environment
and Their koot Causes in Andaman and hicobar.
00l]uhuP]0EF PuF 8 Proiect Mana¿ement of
Coral keef Ecosystem of Andaman and hicobar
lslands. ,ç pa¿es.
u8. 5ridhar, A. zooç. 5tatement on the CkZ
hotiñcation and Post Tsunami kehabilitation in
Tamil hadu (Final kevised uraft for keview) March
zooç, ATkEE-uhuP.
u¤. 5tattersñeld, A.l., M.l. Corsby, A.l. Lon¿, and u.C.
we¿e. 1¤¤8. 0lobal uirectory of Endemic 8ird
Areas. Cambrid¿e, uK: 8irdlife lnternational.
ço. world wildlife Fund (wwF). 1¤¤,. The Coral keef
Ecosystem of the Andaman and hicobar lslands:
Problems and Prospects and the world wide Fund
For hature - lndia lnitiatives for its Conservation
by Krishna Kumar (8iodiversity Rotspots
Conservation Pro¿ramme (Andaman and hicobar
lslands se¿ment) wwF-lndia, hew uelhi - Paper
presented at the ke¿ional workshop on the
Conservation and 5ustainable Mana¿ement of
Coral keefs, uecember 1¤¤,.
Website References
1. www.andaman.nic.in - 0fñcial website of the
Andaman and hicobar Administration, referred
for ¿eneral introduction and various statistics.
z. www.fao.or¿, The Coral keef Ecosystem of the
Andaman and hicobar lslands : Problems and
Prospects and the world wide Fund For hature
- lndia lnitiatives for its Conservation by Krishna
Kumar (8iodiversity Rotspots Conservation
Pro¿ramme (Andaman and hicobar lslands
se¿ment) wwF-lndia, hew uelhi - Paper presented
at the ke¿ional workshop on the Conservation
and 5ustainable Mana¿ement of Coral keefs,
uecember 1¤¤, ,
¸. www.ourplanet.com, 5mall lslands, Measurin¿
vulnerability, Lino 8ri¿u¿lio,1¤¤¤
u. www.eeri.or¿ , Learnin¿ from Earthquakes, The
0reat 5umatra Earthquake and lndian 0cean
Tsunami of uecember z6, zoou , lndian lnstitute
of Technolo¿y, Kanpur , EEkl 5pecial Earthquake
keport, April zooç.
ç. http:]]www.worldwildlife.or¿]- Terrestrial Eco
ke¿ions · lndo-Malay · Tropical and 5ubtropical
Moist 8roadleaf Forests ·Andaman lslands rain
forests (lMo1o1)] hicobar lslands rain forests
(lMo1¸¸)
6. http:]]www.andaman.or¿]book] Fried 5. and Anex
k. A brief assessment of the potential impact of
proposed re¿ulatory chan¿es for the Andaman
and hicobar lslands, zoou
,. www.envfor.nic.in, MoEF Annual report zoo¸-zoou,
Chapter u - Environmental lmpact Assessment
8. http:]]www.envfor.nic.in]le¿is]le¿is.html for
Coastal ke¿ulation Zone hotiñcation, 1¤¤¤ and
subsequent amendments
¤. www.forest.and.nic.in, uepartment of
Environment and Forests, Andaman and hicobar
Administration
1o. www.asthabharati.or¿]uia_Apro¸ Conservin¿ the
8iodiversity in Andaman and hicobar lslands, ur.
vasumathi 5ankar, Astha 8harati., uialo¿ue April
- lune, zoo¸, volume u ho. u,
11. http:]]www.nipfp.or¿.in]seminarñle]5ul] uraft
5tate uevelopment keport of Andaman and
hicobar lslands, zooç, hational lnstitute of Public
Finance and Policy
,o
plates
Plate 1
1 of about çço of Andaman islands
Plate 2
Tropical forests, wandoor
Plate 3
Man¿rove forests, ui¿lipur, h. Andamans
,1
Plate 4
kamna¿ar beach, h. Andamans
Plate 5
Exposed coral reefs near 5mith & koss
lslands, h. Andamans
Plate 6
Exposed coral reefs near 5mith & koss
lslands, h. Andamans
,z
Plate 7
Fishin¿ activities, ui¿lipur, h. Andamans
Plate 8
Rabitations close to sea, Mayabunder,
Middle Andamans
Plate 9
uevelopment activities, Mayabunder,
Middle Andamans

Plate 10
Tourism infrastructure, Middle Andamans
Plate 11
Compound wall of uolphin kesort,
Ravelock lsland in close proximity to the
tidal area.
Plate 12
5tones, corals and shells bein¿ used to
pave paths in a beach resort in Ravelock
lsland
,u
Plate 13
koad construction in Ravelock lsland;
note sedimentation. 5uch activities kill
corals by chokin¿ them with sediments
Plate 14
Tourism infrastructure at kadhana¿ar
beach, Ravelock lsland
Plate 15
5ea water enterin¿ ietty at Port 8lair durin¿
hi¿h tide because of land submer¿ence
after earthquake of z6 uec'oç

Plate 16
Construction of dykes south of Port 8lair
to control entry of sea water
Plate 17
0uarryin¿ of mud south of Port 8lair
probably for buildin¿ dykes
Plate 18
Tsunami relief houses constructed near
5teward¿uni