Black Holes

Daniel Keliher, Devon Bray, Haley Estabrook Science 2B 10 April, 2010

Black holes are regions of space that nothing, not even light, can escape from. They are defined by the bounds of the horizon, and through that the singularity. The black hole itself has near zero volume and near infinite density and gravitational pull.

FORMATION The most common theory for how a Black hole forms is that a colossal celestial body such as a massive star (more than three times the size and density of out own sun) reaches the ends of its life. When it does so, it is speculated that under its own gravity it collapses in on itself. Leaving behind a compact mass of near infinite density. THE HORIZON The horizon is the center of the whole area of the black hole. The part where the strength of gravity is so high that not even light can escape. Once something crosses into the horizon it can not escape. The horizon is in a sense moving outward as fast as light. However in another sense it is a static “thing” in space. Nobody knows what the horizon would contain. But for the most part it is likely that the fabric of space, and spacetime itself is distorted. THE SINGULARITY The singularity of a black hole, is the black holes center. A point in space with zero volume and infinite density and thus the pull of gravity is infinitely strong. This is a point that scientists know very little about. But theory states that at this point the laws of physics break down and cease to function as we are accustom. At this point both space and time have an infinite curvature. Compacted and forced into the singularity both space a time, like the laws of physics, cease to exist as we know them. GRAVITY IN A BLACK HOLE
Black holes come about when a star or other celestial body of sufficient mass undergoes a gravitational collapse. In such an event the mass of an object would collapse and all of its mass would be condensed into a small area. This area, or curve in space, would have a massive gravitational pull. It is so strong that not even light can escape it. In fact nothing known to exist can escape. This has to do with the speed that things travel at. For example, the space shuttle has to reach a breakaway velocity in order to escape the gravity of the earth. The gravity of a black hole is so strong that nothing can travel at a sufficient speed to escape its gravitational pull.

Spaghettification is the process of being stretched in a black hole. In theory something would be stretched down to single particles. This happens because of gravity. The gravity at the top of the object is less than that of the gravity being exerted on the part closer to the black hole. This even happens on earth but the difference is unnoticeable. The gravity pulling on your head is less than that at your feet because your feet are closer to the mass of the earth where gravity is stronger. However a human body can not take being exerted like this. After a moment of being stretched a body would snap in two. Your torso would be one half, and you legs and hips another half. As what was left of you continued to fall both halves would bifurcate. You would divide exponentially until you were reduced to a string of unrecognizable particles.

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