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You are on page 1of 25

and

Reactive Power

Ward Jewell

Wichita State University

Power Systems Engineering Research Center

(pserc.org)

PSERC

2 feet high:

2 ft x 5 lb = 10 ft-lb

= 0.0000038 kWh

= 0.0033 “calories”

(which are actually kcal)

(average residential US price, summer 2006)

0.000039 cents

PSERC

Page 1

As dragline bucket lowers, motors

generate, return electricity to source

PSERC

800

735.249

600

energy

to motor

power (watts)

400

200

p ( t)

0

0 energy

200

400

from

− 465.196

600

0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012 0.014 0.016 0.018

motor

0 t 0.017

time (seconds)

PSERC

Page 2

Induction motor

800

735.249

600

power (watts)

400

average

p ( t)

200

power:

0

200

130 watts

400

− 465.196

600

0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012 0.014 0.016 0.018

0 t 0.017

time (seconds)

PSERC

Incandescent lights

350

306.8

300

power (watts)

250

200

average

p ( t)

150 power:

100

150 watts

50

0

0

0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012 0.014 0.016 0.018 0

0 t 0.017

time (seconds)

PSERC

Page 3

Incandescent Lights

PSERC

PSERC

Page 4

Lights and Motor

lights

motor with

no load

PSERC

PSERC

Page 5

Motors and Resistance Heat:

100 MW

Motors 11.7 kV 2.3 MW

PSERC

Incandescent Lights

PSERC

Page 6

Incandescent lights power:

= 153 W

= 0.15 kW

= power measured by meter

PSERC

Incandescent Lights

PSERC

Page 7

Induction motor with no load

PSERC

117.7 V x 5.1 A

= 600 W?

= 0.6 kW?

NOT the power measured by meter

PSERC

Page 8

Induction motor with no load

PSERC

For the motor:

117.7 V x 5.1 A

= 600 VA

= 0.6 kVA

VA: volt-ampere

PSERC

Page 9

Define some new values:

Power Factor =

Average (“real”) (kW) power

Apparent (kVA) power

For the motor:

pf = 0.13 kW / 0.60 kVA

pf = 0.22

PSERC

reactive power = 0.58 kVAR

kVA

for the motor:

0.60=

reactive power =

ower

rent p

2 2

( 0.60kVA) − ( 0.13kW) = 0.59 kVAR

Appa

0.58 kVAR

VAR: volt-ampere reactive

real power = 0.13 kW

PSERC

Page 10

Induction motor with no load

PSERC

Real Reactive Apparent Power Current Voltage

Power power power factor

descent kW

lights

Induction 0.13 0.58 0.60 kVA 0.22 5.1 A 117.7 V

motor with kW kVAR

no load

no-load value of 0.58 kVAR as its load and real

power (and thus apparent power and power

factor) vary from no load to full load.

PSERC

Page 11

Power factor and reactive power

are indicators of

voltage drop between supply and load

PSERC

Induction motor 0.7-0.8

Computers 0.5-1.0

PSERC

Page 12

Power factor:

lagging or leading?

are inductive.

Current lags voltage.

Power factor is “lagging.”

PSERC

voltage current

3.6 ms

PSERC

Page 13

Another way to calculate power factor

16.7 ms

3.6 ms

PSERC

“displacement” power factor

current lags voltage by 77 degrees

cosine (77 degrees) = 0.22

power factor is 0.22 lagging

pf = cos θ

θ = angle between voltage and current

PSERC

Page 14

Incandescent lights

PSERC

Incandescent lights:

displacement power factor:

angle between voltage and current

= 0 degrees

pf = cos(0 degrees) = 1.0

pf = 0.15 kW / 0.15 kVA

pf = 1.0

PSERC

Page 15

If voltage and current are sinusoidal

displacement pf (DPF) = true pf (PF)

motor lights

PSERC

Correcting (increasing)

power factor

PSERC

Page 16

Capacitors to improve power factor:

capacitors release energy

when inductors consume

1.2

1

Capacitor 0.5

current iL( t)

0

ic ( t)

Inductor 0.5

current 1

− 1.2

0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012 0.014 0.016 0.018

0 t 0.017

PSERC

power factor correction capacitor

PSERC

Page 17

Induction motor with

power factor correction capacitor

power power power factor

Induction 0.13 0.58 0.60 0.22 5.1 A 117.7

motor kW kVAR kVA V

Induction 0.13 0.11 0.18 0.96 1.5 A 118.4

motor with kW kVAR kVA V

capacitors

PSERC

Wire losses:

motors with capacitors

Customer voltage Power lost in wires

factor correction

capacitor

PSERC

Page 18

Incandescent lights with

power factor correction capacitor

PSERC

power factor correction capacitor

power power power factor

Incan- 0.15 0 kVAR 0.15 kVA 1.0 1.3 A 118.0 V

descent kW

lights

Lights with 0.15 0.64 0.66 kVA 0.23 5.5 A 119.9 V

capacitors kW kVAR leading

PSERC

Page 19

Wire losses:

lights with capacitors

Resistance heat 13.0 kV 2.0 MW

with power factor

correction

capacitors

PSERC

Current leads voltage in a capacitor.

Too much capacitance causes low leading

power factor.

(just as bad as low lagging power factor)

Leading power factor causes high voltage

and increased wire losses.

Use the correct amount of capacitance.

(more is not better)

Switch capacitors off when motors are off

(just put capacitor on same switch as motor)

PSERC

Page 20

If voltage and current are sinusoidal

displacement pf = true pf

motor lights

PSERC

PC voltage and current

PSERC

Page 21

If waveform is not sinusoidal:

PC voltage and current

PSERC

Harmonic distortion

PSERC

Page 22

Low power factor caused by

harmonic distortion cannot be

corrected by capacitors

harmonic voltage, so average (real) power

in harmonics is almost zero.

pf = average power / apparent power

decreases

PSERC

computers

motor drives

battery chargers

rectifiers

induction heaters

arc furnaces

distorted current waveforms, the

harmonic currents must be filtered.

PSERC

Page 23

Capacitors can make

harmonic distortion worse:

Lights with power factor correction capacitor

in the presence of harmonic loads

PSERC

Summary

Induction motors and other inductive equipment load the electric

power system differently than incandescent lights and resistive

heaters

Power Factor and Reactive Power are indicators of power lost in

wires and reduced customer voltage

Low displacement power factor caused by induction motors (and

other inductive loads) can be corrected with power factor

correction capacitors

Power factor correction capacitors must be sized properly

Power factor correction capacitors cost much less than utility

power factor charges and will eliminate those charges

Power factor correction capacitors should be disconnected when

motors are disconnected

Low harmonic power factor is corrected with filters, not capacitors.

Capacitors may make it worse.

PSERC

Page 24

Ward Jewell

316.978.6340

ward.jewell@wichita.edu

pserc.org

(slides are posted under “presentations”)

PSERC

Page 25

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