This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Ward Jewell Wichita State University Power Systems Engineering Research Center (pserc.org)

PSERC

**Energy to lift a 5 pound weight 2 feet high:
**

2 ft x 5 lb = 10 ft-lb = 0.0000038 kWh = 0.0033 “calories”

(which are actually kcal)

**Value at 10.3 cents per kWh:
**

(average residential US price, summer 2006)

0.000039 cents

PSERC

Page 1

As dragline bucket lowers, motors generate, return electricity to source

PSERC

**Induction motor with no load
**

800 735.249 600

power (watts)

400

energy to motor 0 energy from motor

200

p ( t) 0

200

400

− 465.196 600 0 0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 t 0.01 0.012 0.014 0.016

0.018 0.017

time (seconds)

PSERC

Page 2

Induction motor

800 735.249 600

power (watts)

400

200

p ( t) 0

average power: 130 watts

200

400

− 465.196 600 0 0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 t 0.01 0.012 0.014 0.016 0.018 0.017

time (seconds)

PSERC

Incandescent lights

350 306.8 300

power (watts)

250

200

p ( t) 150

100

**average power: 150 watts
**

0 0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 t 0.01 0.012 0.014 0.016 0.018 0.017

50 0 0

0

time (seconds)

PSERC

Page 3

Incandescent Lights

PSERC

Induction motor with no load

PSERC

Page 4

**Lights and Motor
**

Power

Incandescent lights Induction motor with no load

Current 1.3 A 5.1 A

Voltage 118.0 V 117.7 V

0.15 kW 0.13 kW

PSERC

Why do the Volts and Amps matter?

PSERC

Page 5

**Motors and Resistance Heat: 100 MW
**

Customer voltage Resistance Heat Motors Power lost in wires

12.3 kV 11.7 kV

1.0 MW 2.3 MW

PSERC

Incandescent Lights

PSERC

Page 6

**Incandescent lights power:
**

Power = 118 V x 1.3 A = 153 W = 0.15 kW = power measured by meter

PSERC

Incandescent Lights

PSERC

Page 7

Induction motor with no load

PSERC

**Induction motor power:
**

117.7 V x 5.1 A = 600 W? = 0.6 kW? NOT the power measured by meter

PSERC

Page 8

Induction motor with no load

PSERC

**Define some new values:
**

Apparent power = volts x amps For the motor: 117.7 V x 5.1 A = 600 VA = 0.6 kVA VA: volt-ampere

PSERC

Page 9

**Define some new values:
**

Power Factor = Average (“real”) (kW) power Apparent (kVA) power For the motor: pf = 0.13 kW / 0.60 kVA pf = 0.22

PSERC

**reactive power = VI2 – average power2
**

2 2

( 0.60kVA) − ( 0.13kW) = 0.59 kVAR

0.58 kVAR

**VAR: volt-ampere reactive real power = 0.13 kW
**

PSERC

Page 10

reactive power = 0.58 kVAR

Appa rent p ower =

0.60 kVA

Define some new values: the power triangle for the motor:

Induction motor with no load

PSERC

**Lights and Motor
**

Real Reactive Apparent Power Current Voltage Power power power factor Incandescent lights Induction motor with no load 0.15 kW 0.13 kW 0 kVAR 0.15 kVA 1.0 1.3 A 118.0 V

0.58 kVAR

0.60 kVA

0.22

5.1 A

117.7 V

Note: the motor’s reactive power will stay near its no-load value of 0.58 kVAR as its load and real power (and thus apparent power and power factor) vary from no load to full load.

PSERC

Page 11

**Power factor and reactive power are indicators of
**

power losses in wires voltage drop between supply and load

PSERC

**Typical Power Factors
**

Induction motor Resistance heat Incandescent lights Fluorescent lights Battery Chargers Computers Variable Speed Motor Drives 0.7-0.8 1.0 1.0 0.6-1.0 0.6-1.0 0.5-1.0 0.5-1.0

PSERC

Page 12

Power factor: lagging or leading?

Most loads with lower power factor are inductive. Current lags voltage. Power factor is “lagging.”

PSERC

Induction motor with no load

voltage

current

3.6 ms

PSERC

Current lags voltage by about 3.6 milliseconds

Page 13

Another way to calculate power factor

16.7 ms

3.6 ms

**One 60 Hz cycle = 1/60 seconds = 16.7 ms
**

PSERC

**Another way to calculate power factor: “displacement” power factor
**

(3.6 ms / 16.7 ms) x 360 degrees = 77 degrees current lags voltage by 77 degrees cosine (77 degrees) = 0.22 power factor is 0.22 lagging pf = cos θ θ = angle between voltage and current

PSERC

Page 14

Incandescent lights

PSERC

Current and voltage are “in phase.”

Incandescent lights:

displacement power factor: angle between voltage and current = 0 degrees pf = cos(0 degrees) = 1.0 true power factor: pf = 0.15 kW / 0.15 kVA pf = 1.0

PSERC

Page 15

If voltage and current are sinusoidal displacement pf (DPF) = true pf (PF)

motor

lights

PSERC

Correcting (increasing) power factor

PSERC

Page 16

**Capacitors to improve power factor: capacitors release energy when inductors consume
**

1.2 1

Capacitor current Inductor current

0.5

iL( t) 0 ic ( t)

0.5

1 − 1.2 0 0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 t 0.01 0.012 0.014 0.016 0.018 0.017

PSERC

Induction motor with power factor correction capacitor

PSERC

Page 17

**Induction motor with power factor correction capacitor
**

Real Reactive Apparent power power power Induction motor Induction motor with capacitors Power factor Current Voltage

0.13 kW 0.13 kW

0.58 kVAR 0.11 kVAR

0.60 kVA 0.18 kVA

0.22 0.96

5.1 A 1.5 A

117.7 V 118.4 V

PSERC

**Wire losses: motors with capacitors
**

Customer voltage Motors Motors with power factor correction capacitor 11.7 kV 12.3 kV Power lost in wires 2.3 MW 1.0 MW

PSERC

Page 18

Incandescent lights with power factor correction capacitor

PSERC

**Incandescent lights with power factor correction capacitor
**

Real Reactive Apparent power power power 0.15 0 kVAR 0.15 kVA kW 0.15 kW 0.64 kVAR 0.66 kVA Power factor 1.0 Current Voltage 1.3 A 118.0 V

Incandescent lights Lights with capacitors

0.23 leading

5.5 A

119.9 V

PSERC

Page 19

**Wire losses: lights with capacitors
**

Customer voltage Resistance heat Resistance heat with power factor correction capacitors Power lost in wires

12.3 kV 13.0 kV

1.0 MW 2.0 MW

PSERC

**Leading power factor
**

Current leads voltage in a capacitor. Too much capacitance causes low leading power factor.

(just as bad as low lagging power factor)

Leading power factor causes high voltage and increased wire losses. Use the correct amount of capacitance.

(more is not better)

**Switch capacitors off when motors are off
**

(just put capacitor on same switch as motor)

PSERC

Page 20

If voltage and current are sinusoidal displacement pf = true pf

motor

PSERC

lights

If waveform is not sinusoidal: PC voltage and current

PSERC

Page 21

If waveform is not sinusoidal: PC voltage and current

PSERC

Harmonic distortion

PSERC

Page 22

**Low power factor caused by harmonic distortion cannot be corrected by capacitors
**

Harmonic currents are not accompanied by harmonic voltage, so average (real) power in harmonics is almost zero. pf = average power / apparent power decreases

PSERC

**Common harmonic loads
**

computers motor drives battery chargers rectifiers induction heaters arc furnaces

To correct low power factor caused by distorted current waveforms, the harmonic currents must be filtered.

PSERC

Page 23

Lights with power factor correction capacitor

Capacitors can make harmonic distortion worse:

PSERC

This is rare, but should be considered in the presence of harmonic loads

Summary

Induction motors and other inductive equipment load the electric power system differently than incandescent lights and resistive heaters Power Factor and Reactive Power are indicators of power lost in wires and reduced customer voltage Low displacement power factor caused by induction motors (and other inductive loads) can be corrected with power factor correction capacitors Power factor correction capacitors must be sized properly Power factor correction capacitors cost much less than utility power factor charges and will eliminate those charges Power factor correction capacitors should be disconnected when motors are disconnected Low harmonic power factor is corrected with filters, not capacitors. Capacitors may make it worse.

PSERC

Page 24

**Ward Jewell 316.978.6340 ward.jewell@wichita.edu pserc.org
**

(slides are posted under “presentations”)

PSERC

Page 25

- Generator Hydrogen Gas System Diagram
- Skin Response Meter
- DC to DC Conversion
- micro controller
- micro controller
- Finger Print
- Touch Screen Sensor Matheen
- Solar Cells
- ZIGBEE
- Induction Generator
- 8051
- ZigBee
- zigbee
- zigbee
- eeprom
- Reactive Power Compensation Using Capacitor Banks
- Reactive Power Compensation Using Capacitor Banks
- cement add
- deccan cement
- Broadband 123
- Broadband
- Shunt Capacitor Bank Protection Guide
- Shunt capacitor
- Reactive Power Compensation
- Reactive)

- Power Factor Improvement for Three phase Induction motor using PSoC 3 (Programmable System on Chip)by International Journal for Scientific Research and Development
- Banerjee Pf Correction20080427by Oscar Alejandro Garcia Benitez
- Power Factor Improvementby Maqsood Ahmad
- Banerjee Pf Correction20080427by Ronald H Santos

- Jewell Powerfactor Westar-Energy Oct2006
- Pages From ABB Power Factor Correction and Harmonic Filtering in Electrical Plants
- Power Factor Correction Guide
- PFC_Rev E
- Power factor
- Tech Notes-PFC Benefits
- New Microsoft Office PowerPoint Presentation - Copy
- Power Factor - Energy Management Series
- KVAR EXPLAINATION
- Power Factor Basics
- Powerfactor Correction
- Power Factor Correction
- kali
- Pf Correction20080427
- Calculation of Kvar
- SA02607001E[1]
- Power Factor Basics
- How To Apply Capacitors To Low Voltage Power Systems.
- Reactive Power Management
- Power Factor How Effects Bill
- Power Factor Improvement for Three phase Induction motor using PSoC 3 (Programmable System on Chip)
- Banerjee Pf Correction20080427
- Power Factor Improvement
- Banerjee Pf Correction20080427
- a
- PF Improvement on DG Sets
- 26C93d01
- city and guilds advanced diploma Project Soofi
- Capacitor Chargeman
- Best Book for Capacitor Bank.pdf
- jewell_powerfactor

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd