Ap s¡ L¡$hy„ Ål¡f rls !

Aa te Kevu Jaher hit !

(k„ip¡^_pÐdL$ Al¡hpg)

dpÓ ìe[¼sNs D`ep¡N dpV¡$

ky`Zp£ gplufu
â\d Aph©rÑ
Ap¡NõV$ 2008 : âs 1,000

(NFFPFW)

A_¡

Aqv$rs Q„Qp_u
(Equations)

A_yhpv$L$ :

Äep¡rscpC v¡kpC

1

âõsys v$õsph¡S>_u dprlsu_p¡ D`ep¡N rb_ìephkpreL$ L¡$ S>_ÅN©rs_p
l¡sy dpV¡$ L$fhp Ap`_y„ õhpNs R>¡. öp¡s_p¡ Dëg¡M L$fhp rh_„su R>¡.

âL$piL$
EQUATIONS : Equitable Tourism Options
#415,2C-Cross, 4th Main, OMBR Layout, Banaswadi, Bangalore-560043
Ph : +91-80-25457607/25457659, Fax : +91-80-25457665
Email : info@equitabletourism.org Url : www.equitabletourism.org

dyÖL$
d^y `¡L¡$tS>N
L$pf¡gubpN hX$p¡v$fp 390 018

fl¡ R>¡. A_¡ Ap bpbs_u ÅZ L¡$ÞÖ kfL$pf¡ A¡râg 1996dp„ NyS>fps kfL$pf_¡
L$fu lsu. Apd L$fhp_¡ bv$g¡ NyS>fps kfL$pf buÅ„ h^y 10 Npdp¡_u S>du_p¡
k„`pqv$s L$fu_¡ Ly$g 16 Npddp„ âhpk_ dpV¡$ - îud„sp¡_u "fÅ_u dÅ'
dpZhp_u "S>ê$qfeps' `|fu L$fhp Ap rhõspfdp„ lp¡V¡$gp¡ A_¡ ìehõ\pAp¡
Ecu L$fhp_p L$pd¡ gpNu R>¡.

âõsph_p

Apòe®_u hps sp¡ A¡ R>¡ L¡$ Ap rhõspf A_yk|rQ-5_¡ A„sN®s Aphsp¡
lp¡C õ\pr_L$ õhfpÄe_u k„õ\pAp¡_u k„drs hNf KADA âpr^L$fZ_¡ S>du_
Ap`hp_p¡ r_Z®e g¡hpep¡ L¡$hu fus¡ ? b„^pfZ_p 73dp A_¡ 74dp ky^pfp
dyS>b Apqv$hpku rhõspfp¡_¡ k„`|Z® õhfpÄe_p Ar^L$pfp¡ Ap`hpdp„ Aph¡g
R>¡. L$pX$p_y„ Apep¡S>_ L$fu_¡ Ap kÑp Apqv$hpkuAp¡ `pk¡\u T|„V$hpC flu R>¡
s¡_u _p¢^ g¡hu OV¡$.

Ap`Z¡ Äepf¡ `Z fpÄe_p L$l¡hpsp rhL$pk_p âp¡S>¡¼V$p¡_u hps kp„cmuA¡
R>uA¡ Ðepf¡ OZu hpf s¡d_u hpsp¡dp„ Aphu S>CA¡ R>uA¡. Aphp kde¡ dpfu
kp¥ rdÓp¡_¡ rh_„rs R>¡ L¡$ Aphp "rhL$pk'_p âp¡S>¡¼V$p¡_u b_¡ s¡V$gu h^y
sV$õ\ dprlsu_p¡ Aæepk L$fuA¡. Ap _p_L$X$u `y[õsL$p "Ap s¡ L¡$hy„ Ål¡f
rls ?' L¡$hqX$ep rhõspf_p„ 16 Npd_p Apqv$hpkuAp¡_¡ \_pfp AÞepe_p¡
Aphp¡ A¡L$ Aæepk `|fp¡ `pX¡$ R>¡.
kfv$pf kfp¡hf X¡$d_u Ap`kp`k Qpgsp rhhpv$p¡\u NyS>fps_p gp¡L$p¡ h^s¡
Ap¡R>¡ A„i¡ dprlsNpf R>¡ S>. `y_h®k__p v$php sp¡ dÝeâv¡$i, dlpfpô²$ A_¡
NyS>fps_u ÓZ¡e kfL$pfp¡ L$f¡ R>¡ `f„sy, hkplsp¡dp„ S>CA¡ Ðepf¡ S> `y_h®rks
gp¡L$p¡_u dyíL¡$guAp¡_p¡ kpQp¡ ¿epg Aph¡. lÆ sp¡ AY$u gpM rhõ\pr`s gp¡L$p¡_p
`y_h®k__y„ L$pd `|fy„ \ey„ _\u Ðep„ NyS>fps_p L¡hqX$ep rhõspfdp„ A¡V$g¡ L¡$ kfv$pf
kfp¡hf b„^_p Apk`pk_p gp¡L$p¡ lÆ h^y rhõ\pr`s \pe s¡hp "âhpk_'_p
dlpge L¡$ âp¡S>¡¼V$_y„ Apep¡S>_ NyS>fps kfL$pf¡ lp\ ^ey¯ R>¡.
1961dp„ hX$p¡v$fp\u 90 qL$.du._p A„sf¡ Aph¡gp L¡$hqX$ep, hpOp¡qX$ep,
L$p¡W$u, gudX$u, _hpNpd A_¡ Np¡fp Npd_p gp¡L$p¡_p„ fl¡ZpL$p¡ s\p Ec¡gp
`pL$_p hmsf `¡V¡$ AX$^p-`X$^p `¥kp Q|L$hu_¡ s¡d_u S>du_p¡ Ap„QL$u g¡hpdp„
Aphu lsu. Ap Npdp¡_p gp¡L$p¡_p¡, s¡d_¡ "kfv$pf kfp¡hf X¡$d'_p AkfN°õs
NZhpdp„ Aph¡ s¡hu dp„NZu kp\¡_p¡, k„Oj® ApS>¡ `Z Qpgy R>¡. Mpgkp
L$ep® `R>u `Z Ap Npdp¡_u OZu S>du_p¡ L$p¡C`Z D`ep¡N hNf ApV$gp„
hjp£\u `X$u flu R>¡. k„kv$ue krdrs S.C.S.T. h¡ëa¡f s¡_p 59dp qf`p¡V®$dp„
õ`ô$`Z¡ S>Zph¡ R>¡ s¡ âdpZ¡ S>¡ l¡sy dpV¡$ S>du_ k„`pv$_ L$fhpdp„ Aphu
lp¡e s¡_¡ dpV¡$ D`ep¡Ndp„ _ g¡hpe sp¡ s¡ S>du_ d|m dprgL$_¡ `fs L$fhp_u
3

Ål¡f rls_p _pd¡ õ\pr_L$ õhfpÄe_u k„õ\pAp¡_p Ar^L$pfp¡ T|„V$hpC
füp R>¡ A¡V$gy„ S> _l], âhpk__¡ Ål¡f rls NZpe A¡ `Z A¡L$ Apòe®_u
OV$_p R>¡ ! Nd¡ s¡V$gu R|>V$ gC_¡ rhQpfuA¡ sp¡ `Z b„^_p r_dp®Z dpV¡$ g¡hpe¡gu
S>du_ L$p¡C Mp_Nu `¡Y$u_¡ lp¡V¡$g bp„^hp dpV$¡ A`pe s¡ sp¡ L$p¡C `Z hpv¡$
Ål¡f rls NZphu iL$pe s¡d _\u. s¡d R>sp„ Aphy„ N¡fL$p_|_u `Ngy„ cfhp_p¡
Cfpv$p¡ NyS>fps kfL$pf 2008_u kpg_p dÝedp„ Ål¡f L$fhp S>C flu R>¡.
2

âõsys `y[õsL$p b¢Ngp¡f[õ\s k„ip¡^_ A_¡ rldpes L$f_pfu k„õ\p B¼h¡iÞk
hsu L$fpe¡gu rhõs©s s`pk_p¡ Al¡hpg, S>¡ d|m A„N°¡Ædp„ lsp¡, s¡_p¡ A_yhpv$
R>¡. Ap k„ip¡^_pÐdL$ Al¡hpg ky`Zp£ gplufu A_¡ Aqv$rs Q„Qp_uA¡ dmu_¡
dpQ® 2007dp„ L¡$hqX$ep rhõspf_u Ås s`pk gC_¡ s¥epf L$ep£ R>¡. Ap A_yhpv$
ÅZusp rinZip÷u îu Äep¡rscpC v¡$kpCA¡ L$ep£ R>¡. S>¡ rhõspf_p gp¡L$p¡_p
Æh_ `f âõsys ep¡S>_p_u Akf \hp_u R>¡, s¡d_u ÅZL$pfu dpV¡$ Ap A_yhpv$
AÐe„s dlÒh_p¡ R>¡. L$pfZ L¡$ kfL$pf¡ sp¡ Ap rdÓp¡_¡ L$p¡C dprlsu `lp¢QpX$u
S> _\u !
kfL$pfp¡_u L$l¡hpsu rhL$pk_urs kpdpÞe Apqv$hpkuAp¡ dpV¡$ L¡$hu v$v®$_pL$
`yfhpf \pe R>¡ s¡ sfa A„Ngy ur_v£$i L$fhp_y„ dlÒh_y„ L$pd Ap `y[õsL$p L$f¡ R>¡.
- fp¡rls âÅ`rs
4

rhõspf_u Apk`pk Ecu L$fhp_p¡ âõsph R>¡. S>¡_p `qfZpd¡ L¡$hqX$ep_p rhõspfdp„
fl¡_pfp gp¡L$p¡ dpV¡$ sp¡ lh¡ b¡hX$p¡ dpf Mphp_p¡ vy$cp®Áe`|Z® âk„N Aphu `X$ép¡
R>¡. b„^_u rhfyÙ sp¡ v$peL$pAp¡\u k„Oj® Qgphu S> füp R>¡ Ðep„ Ap _hp¡ "Vy$fuTd'
_pd_p¡ vy$íd_ s¡d_u kpd¡ gX$hp dpV¡$ MX$p¡ L$fpC füp¡ R>¡.

Ål¡f rls_p _pd¡ Öp¡l !
_d®v$p_u MuZ D`f AÞepe_p¡ k`pV$p¡ kss S> Qpgsp¡ fl¡ R>¡. S>¡d
S>¡d kfv$pf kfp¡hf_p¡ b„^ 135 duV$f_u KQpCA¡ `lp¢Qhp ApNm h^u füp¡
R>¡ s¡d s¡d v$f¡L$ Qp¡dpk¡, hjp£hj® h^y _¡ h^y V¡$L$fuAp¡, Xy„$Nfp¡ A_¡ d¡v$p_u
c|rd_p rhõspfp¡, r_kN®v$Ñ e\ps\ fl¡gp„ S>„Ngp¡ A_¡ Npdp¡_p„ Npdp¡ X|$bdp„
S>C füp„ R>¡. Ap D`fp„s ep¡Áe `y_h®k_ L¡$ ep¡Áe hmsf hNf S>_kpdpÞe_p„
Ofp¡ s¡dS> M¡sfp¡ s¡d_p `L$h¡gp `pL$p¡ kp\¡ Xy$ bpX$pC füp„ R>¡. Ap vy$cp®Áecfu
hps L¡$hm kfv$pf kfp¡hf `|fsu S> kurds _\u. kdN° _d®v$p OpV$udp„ hk_pfp
kp¥ L$p¡C_p D`f Ap Adp_yju L$ô$ h¡W$hp_y„ \p¡`hpdp„ Apìey„ R>¡. Ap¡dL$pf¡ðf
b„^, dp_b„^, B[Þv$fp kpNf âep¡S>_p, bN} A_¡ dl¡ðf b„^ S>¡hp sdpd
b„^p¡ Aphp¡ S> kÐep_pi a¡gphu füp R>¡. gpMp¡ gp¡L$p¡_¡ dpÓ$ `p kv$u_p V|„$L$p
Npmpdp„ s¡d_p„ h„i`f„`fpNs fl¡ZpL$p¡ s¡dS> lÅfp¡ lÅfp¡ l¡¼V$f S>du_p¡ `f_p
`pL$p¡ Xy$bpX$u_¡ DÅX$u v¡$hpC füp„ R>¡. s¡_u rhfyÙ huk huk hfk\u rlçdsc¡f
V$½$f Ap`_pfp„ Ap„v$p¡g_p¡ QgphpC füp„ R>¡, î¡›$sd brgv$p_p¡ v¡$hpep„ R>¡. _d®v$p
S>m sL$fpf r_hp®Z V²$uåey_g_p Apv¡$ip¡, cpfs_u khp£ÃQ Av$pgs_p s¡dS>
lpCL$pV¡ $p_£ p lzL$dp¡ \hp R>sp„ `ÃQuk gpM\u h^y k„¿ep_p gp¡L$p,¡ S>¡dp„ dp¡V$u k„¿epdp„
sp¡ Apqv$hpkuAp¡ S> R>¡, s¡d_y„ `y_h®k_ L$fhp_y„ bpL$u lp¡hp R>sp„ s¡ sdpd Ap
"_d®v$p ApC' ¼epf¡ s¡d_¡ Xy$bpX$hp Aphu `lp¢Qi¡, s¡_u hpV$ Å¡C füp R>¡.
Ap _d®v$p MuZ_u âep¡S>_pdp„ 30 dlpb„^p¡, 135 dÝed L$np_p b„^p¡
A_¡ ÓZ lÅf _p_p b„^p¡ b„^pi¡. s¡dS> `„Qp¡s¡f lÅf qL$gp¡duV$f_u gp„bu
_l¡fp¡ fQphp_u R>¡. s¡d L$fu_¡ `p¡s¡ Äep„ BÃR>¡ Ðep„ _d®v$p _v$u_p„ `pZu dp¡L$ghp_p¡
Abpr^s Ar^L$pf fpÄe kfL$pf¡ lzL$d_pdp Üpfp d¡mhu gu^p¡ R>¡. Ap âep¡S>_p_p¡
MfX$p¡ 1979dp„ v$k v$k hfk_u QQp®Ap¡ \ep bpv$ fS|> L$fhpdp„ Apìep¡ lsp¡.
s¡ MfX$p dyS>b Ap kfv$pf kfp¡hf sp¡ _d®v$p _v$u Äep„ R>¡ëg¡ Afbu kdyÖdp„
kdpC Åe R>¡ s¡ õ\m¡ R>¡hV$_p b„^ sfuL¡$ âep¡Åep¡ R>¡. Ap b„^ A_¡ B[Þv$fp
kpNf Ap b¡ dlpL$pe b„^p¡ _d®v$p OpV$u_¡ O¡fu g¡hp ep¡Åep R>¡.

L¡$hm b„^ _l], Vy$fuTd `Z
L¡$hqX$ep rhõspfdp„ S> ip dpV¡$ ?

3

1961dp„ hX$p¡v$fp\u 90 qL$gp¡duV$f_p A„sf¡ Aph¡gp L¡$hqX$e$p A_¡ s¡_u
Apk`pk_p„ `p„Q Npd_p gp¡L$p_¡ ¡ riepmp_u hl¡gu khpf¡ O¡fu KOdp„\u syÃR>sp`|hL® $
Y„$Y$p¡mu_¡ S>NpX$hpdp„ Apìep. A¡L$ bygX$p¡Tf¡ Aphu_¡ L$p¡W$u Npddp„ gp¡L$p¡_p DNpX¡$gp
Ecp `pL$_¡ Dv¹$Ýhõs L$fhp_y„ iê$ S> L$fhp dp„Xey„. N°pdS>_p¡_¡ L$l¡hpdp„ Apìey„
L¡$ A¡L$ l¡gu`¡X$ b_phhp dpV¡$ Aphy„ L$fhy„ AphíeL$ R>¡ (lh¡ Ap "l¡gu`¡X$' hmu
iy„ ? s¡ A„N¡ kph AÅZ A¡hp gp¡L$p¡_¡ gpQpf b_phu v$C L$pd iê$ S> L$fu
v¡$hpey„). L$p„CL$ L$pNrmep„ ^ep¯ _¡ s¡_p D`f A„N|W$p `X$phu, kluAp¡ gC `pL$_u
_yL$kp_u_u cf`pC L$ep®_p _pd¡ L$l¡hpsy„ "hmsf' `Z Q|L$hu v$u^y„. A_¡ Ðepf
`R>u ÅÞeyApfu 1961_u kpgdp„ A¡L$ hl¡gu khpf¡ "A¡L$ dlpL$pe `nu' (!)
Aphu `lp¢Ãey„. s¡dp„ Ðepf_p cpfs_p hX$p â^p_ S>hplfgpg _l¡fy_¡ s¡ gC_¡
Apìey„ lsy„. A¡dZ¡ `l¡gp„ A¡L$ cpjZ L$ey¯; `R>u A¡L$ bV$_ v$bpìey„ S>¡\u
_v$u_u kpd¡ `pf dp¡V$p¡ ^X$pL$p¡ \ep¡. s¡Ap¡ sp¡ `pR>p S>sp füp. Ap S>¡ L$p„C
rhr^ \C s¡_u blz \p¡X$p gp¡L$p¡_¡ ÅZ \C L¡$ s¡Ap¡ kfv$pf kfp¡hf ep¡S>_p_y„
Dv¹$OpV$_ L$fu_¡ Nep.

lÆ Äepf¡ AY$u gpM rhõ\pr`s gp¡L$p¡_y„ `y_h®k__y„ L$pd `|fy„ \ey„ _\u
Ðepf¡ NyS>fps_p L¡$hqX$e$p rhõspfdp„ A¡V$g¡ L¡$ kfv$pf kfp¡hf b„^_u Apk`pk_p
rhõspf_p A¡\u `Z h^y gp¡L$p¡_¡ rhõ\pr`s L$fhp_y„ rhQpfpC füy„ R>¡ ! Ap
_hsf L$ë`_p "âhpk__u dlpL$pe âep¡S>_p' NyS>fps_p Np¥fh kdp_ NZpsp

Dv¹$OpV$_ rhr^ `pf `X$u A¡V$g¡ `R>u R> Npd -- L¡$hqX$ep, hpOp¡qX$ep,
L$p¡W$u, rgdX$u, _hpNpd A_¡ Np¡fp_p„ 950 Ly$Vy„$bp¡_u 1600 A¡L$f S>du_
NyS>fps kfL$pf¡ Mpgkp L$fu. Ap R>e¡ Npd_p gp¡L$p¡ sX$hu Års_p Apqv$hpkuAp¡
lsp. s¡d_¡ _p¡qV$k bÅhu_¡ S>Zphpey„ lsy„ L¡$ s¡d_u S>du_p¡ Ål¡f rls
dpV¡$ Mpgkp L$fhpdp„ Aph¡ R>¡ --- S>¡\u kfv$pf kfp¡hf dpV¡$_p¡ b„^ Al] bp„^u
iL$pe, A_¡ s¡d_¡ L$l¡hpey„ lsy„ L¡$ s¡d_¡ fp¡L$X$ hmsf Ap`hp D`fp„s b„^
rhõspfdp„ _p¡L$fuAp¡ Ap`hpdp„ Aphi¡. Ðepf `R>u 1961\u dp„X$u_¡ 1963
ky^u_p„ hjp£ v$fçep_ ârs A¡L$f_p ê$. 80 \u ê$. 250 S>¡V$gu _NÎe qL„$ds_p
v$f¡ s¡d_u S>du_p¡, bp„^g¡ p„ Ofp¡ A_¡ S>¡ L$pC„ lsy„ s¡ b^y„ S> Mpgkp L$fhpdp„ Apìey„
lsy.„ Apd R>sp„ h^pfp_p¡ AÞepe A¡ `Z L$fhpdp„ Apìep¡ L¡$ Ap gp¡L$p_¡ ¡ k|rQs

5

6

âep¡S>_p¡_p AkfN°õsp¡

(PAP)

\u "_d®v$p r_e„ÓZ âpr^L$fZ' (Ap A¡ Ar^L©$s v$asf R>¡ L¡$ S>¡_¡ b„^_p bp„^L$pd
A„N¡_p sdpd hluhV$u Ar^L$pfp¡ kp¢`pep R>¡)_p v$asfdp„ fp¡S>dv$pf `V$phpmp
sfuL¡$ L$pd kp¢`u_¡ s¡d_u S>du_ gC g¡hpdp„ Aphu R>¡. s¡d_¡ buÅ¡ L$p¡C hmsf_p¡
Ar^L$pf A`pep¡ _\u. Aphp 300 S>¡V$gp N°pdS>_p¡ R>¡ S>¡ k.k._. r_Nddp„
L$pd `f g¡hpep R>¡.

sfuL¡$ ¼epf¡e dpÞesp Ap`hpdp„ _p S> Aphu.

kfv$pf kfp¡hf ep¡S>_p dpV¡$ rhðb¢L¡$ gp¡_ Ap`hp A„N¡ `|h® s`pk L$fu_¡
gp¡_ d„S|>f L$fsp„ `l¡gp„ S>¡ Al¡hpg Apàep¡ s¡ Al¡hpgdp„ õ`ô$ S>Zphpey„
lsy„ L¡$ ""D`fp¡¼s R>e¡ Npd_p gp¡L$p¡, S>¡Ap¡ s¡d_p L$pedu hkhpV$_p Ar^L$pfp¡
Nydphu füp R>¡ s¡Ap¡_¡ kdN° ep¡S>_p\u S>¡ buÅ gp¡L$p¡ rhõ\pr`s \hp_p
R>¡ s¡Ap¡_p S>¡V$gp S> kdp_ hmsf_¡ `pÓ NZhp Å¡CA¡. `f„sy NyS>fps kfL$pf¡
dQL$ Ap`u _l].
ApMf¡ Äepf¡ dp¡k® L$rdV$u s¡dS> rhðb¢L¡$ 1992_u kpgdp„ v$bpZ
h^pey¯ Ðepf¡ NyS>fps kfL$pf_¡ Ap gp¡L$p¡_¡ hmsf Ap`hp_u afS> `X$u.
lh¡ s¡ hmsf_y„ ^p¡fZ ârs A¡L$f ê$. 12000_y„ W$fphpey„ Mfy„ `fsy„ dlÑd
hmsf ê$. 30,000/-\u h^y _l], cg¡ _¡ S>du_ ÓZ A¡L$f lp¡e L¡$ v$k
A¡L$f ! Ap âõsph_¡ 15 hj® husu Q|¼ep `R>u Äepf¡ S>du__u qL„$ds 5
NZp L$fsp„ `Z OZu h^u R>¡ s¡d R>sp„ hmsf_p¡ v$f bv$gpìep¡ _\u A_¡
e\phs¹ fpMhpdp„ Apìep¡ R>¡.
L¡$hqX$ep Npd_u Mpgkp gu^¡gu dp¡V$p cpN_u S>du__¡ kfv$pf kfp¡hf
_d®v$p r_Nd rgrdV¡$X$_p L$pd dpV¡$ L¡$hqX$ep âep¡S>_p L$p¡gp¡_u sfuL¡$ a¡fhhpdp„
Aphu. Å¡ L¡$ gp¡L$p¡ `pk¡\u Mpgkp L$fpe¡gu S>du_dp„_u h^sp Ap¡R>p âdpZdp„
rb_D`ep¡Nu S> flu. lh¡, R>e¡ Npd_p gp¡L$p¡A¡ sp¡ `l¡g¡\u S> kph _NÎe
NZpe s¡hy„ hmsf g¡hp¡_p¡ rhfp¡^ L$fu v$u^¡gp¡ R>¡. s¡dZ¡ sp¡, S>¡Ap¡ kfv$pf
kfp¡hf_¡ L$pfZ¡ X|$bdp„ Åe R>¡ s¡dS> S>¡Ap¡ s¡hp X|$b rhõspfdp„ fl¡sp„ lsp„
s¡ b^p_¡ S>¡ gpcp¡ A_¡ hmsf Apqv$ A`pe R>¡ s¡hp S> Ar^L$pfp¡ Ap`hp_p¡
`p¡sp_p¡ lL$ R>¡, s¡hu dp„NZu L$f¡gu R>¡. Aphy„ L$f_pfp„ S>¡ Ly$Vy„$bp¡ R>¡ s¡d_p D`f
sp¡ L$p_|_u L$pe®hplu L$fu F.I.R _p¢^pep L$pfZ, s¡dZ¡ hmsf g¡hp_p¡ rhfp¡^
L$ep£ lsp¡. hmu, hps sp¡ A¡hu `Z R>¡ L¡$ S>¡ L$p„C S>du_p¡ L$bS>¡ g¡hpC s¡
sdpd_¡ Ål¡f rls dpV¡$ g¡hpC s¡hy„ Ål¡f _lp¡sy„ L$ey¯. Ap âep¡S>_p l¡W$m_p
L$pd dpV¡$ L¡$ b„^_p bp„^L$pd dpV¡$ S>du_ Mpgkp L$fhpdp„ Aph¡ R>¡ s¡hy„ sp¡
OZpe_u S>du_ L$bS>¡ g¡su hMs¡ S>Zpìey„ _ lsy„. rQdp gpgy s¡d S> fpdp
X$pX$gp_¡ _d®v$p rS>ëgp_p Ål¡f bp„^L$pd MpspA¡ A¡hu _p¡qV$k Ap`u lsu L¡$
s¡d_u S>du_ D`f A¡L$ `¡V²$p¡g `„` L$fhp¡ R>¡ dpV¡$ s¡ Mpgkp L$fhu R>¡. buÅ
A¡L$ hpOp¡qX$ep_p cpC âcycpC_p qL$õkpdp„ A¡hy„ Np¡W$hu v¡$hpey„ L¡$ s¡d_¡ 1981
7

4

L$d®iug g¡rML$p Afy„^su fp¡e¡ "d©NS>m' (THE GREATER COMMON
GOOD) _pd_p dlpr_b„^dp„ 1999_u kpgdp„ S>Zpìey„ R>¡ L¡$ ""L$bS>¡ L$fhpdp„
Aph¡gu dp¡V$p cpN_u S>du_p¡ L$p¡C `Z h`fpi hNf `X$sf `X$u fl¡gu R>¡.
R>sp„ kfL$pf s¡ S>du_p¡ d|m dprgL$p¡_¡ `pR>u Ap`hp_p¡ BÞL$pf L$fu flu R>¡.
"Å¡ ApS>_p¡ S>dp_p¡ L¡$hp¡ Apìep¡ R>¡ s¡ kdS>hy„ S> lp¡e sp¡ Åh L¡$hqX$ep
L$p¡gp¡_u ! vy$r_ep S>¡ qv$ipdp„ S>C flu R>¡ s¡_u NyfyQphu Ðep„ DOpX$u âpàs
R>¡.' Ðep„ A¡L$ v$¡hubl¡_ R>¡, S>¡Ap¡ lh¡ sp¡ rh^hp \C Q|¼ep„ R>¡. s¡d_u `pk¡\u
S>¡ 11 A¡L$f S>du_ g¡hpC s¡ lh¡ õhpdu_pfpeZ V²$õV$_¡ Ap`u v¡$hpC R>¡. s¡_p
A¡L$ M|Z¡ _p_L$X$p cpNdp„ D¼s V²$õV$ A¡L$ r_ipm Qgph¡ R>¡. V²$õV$ bpL$u_u
S>du_ M¡X¡$ R>¡. Ap b^y„ V²$õV¡$ _p„M¡gu spf_u hpX$dp„\u _¥fpíecfu Ap„M¡ v¡$hubl¡_¡
Å¡sp fl¡hp_p¡ hpfp¡ Apìep¡ R>¡. Npdgp¡L$p¡_¡ Mv¡$X$u _p„Mu_¡ Np¡fp Npd_u 200
A¡L$f S>du_ L$bS>¡ L$fu g¡hpC. A_¡ s¡_p D`f ãg¡V$p¡hpmp„ dL$p_p¡ bp„^hpdp„
Apìep„. A¡ dL$p_p¡ OZp„ hjp£ ky^u Mpgu `X$u füp„. ApMf¡ A¡ dL$p_p¡ b„^
bp„^hp dpV¡$ S>¡d_¡ L$p¡ÞV²¡$¼V$ A`pep¡ s¡ dp¡V$p L$p¡ÞV²$p¼V$f S>eâL$pi A¡kp¡rke¡V$¹k_¡
kfL$pf¡ cpX¡$ Apàep„ R>¡. Npdgp¡L$p¡_p L$l¡hp âdpZ¡, L„$`_uA¡ sp¡ ãg¡V$p¡ `¡V$pcpX|$sp¡_¡ ê$. 32,000_p cpX¡$ hp`fhp Apàep R>¡. (Ap S>eâL$pi A¡kp¡rke¡V¹$k
L„$`_u L¡$hm bp„^L$pd L$f_pfu N„Åhf L„$`_u S> _\u A¡ sp¡ "rkÙp\® L$p¡ÞV$u_¡ÞV$g'
A_¡ hk„s L$p¡ÞV$u_¡ÞV$g S>¡hu lp¡V¡$gp¡ qv$ëludp„ ^fph¡ R>¡ A_¡ s¡d_p dprgL$p¡_¡
L$l¡hpsp hpõsrhL$ fpô²$ r_dp®ZL$pd L$f_pfpAp¡ NZhpdp„ Apìep R>¡.)
L¡$hqX$ep_u vy$cp®Áe`|Z® L$\p_p¡ A„s Al] _\u. A¡ Npd_p gp¡L$p¡_p¡ k„Oj®
Æhsp¡ S> fMpep¡ R>¡.

lh¡ âh¡i : L¡$hqX$ep âhpk_ ep¡S>_p_p¡
hjp£ `l¡gp„ b„^ A„N¡_u âep¡S>_p dpV¡$_u L$p¡gp¡_u s¡dS> s¡ A„N¡_u hluhV$u
AphíeL$spAp¡ dpV¡$ 1500 A¡L$f_p¡ L$bÅ¡ kfL$pf¡ gu^p¡ Mfp¡ `f„sy s¡dp„_u 1400
A¡L$f S>du_ hZh`fpe¡gu `X$u flu. ApV$gu b^u S>du_ `X$sf flu s¡_p¡
8

R>¡. Ap kdS>Z`|h®L$_u c|rdL$p D`f S> NyS>fps âhpk__u 2003-2010_u
_urs OX$pC R>¡. s¡dp„ A¡L$ "rhðN°pd' kS>®hp_u ^pfZp R>¡. _d®v$p _v$u_p sV$
D`f s¡d S> rhõs©s _l¡fp¡_p L$p„W¡$ Sy>v¡$ Sy>v¡$ õ\m¡ A_¡L$ v¡$ip¡_p _d|_p s¥epf
L$fhpdp„ Aphi¡¸.'' A¡dp„ ApNm Dd¡fZ R>¡ L¡$, ""A¡_ApfApC (NRI) S>¡ b^p„
Sy>v$p Sy>v$p v¡$ip¡dp„\u Aphi¡ s¡d_¡ s¡d_p hs_ kdp_ hpsphfZ âpàs \sp„
Aphp„ _hp„ fQ¡gp„ õ\mp¡A¡ fl¡hp dmi¡ s¡\u s¡d_p d|m fl¡ZpL$ S>¡hy„ ApÐduespcey¯
hpsphfZ dmu S>i¡ !'' iu rhX„$b_p R>¡ L¡$ ^_hp_p¡_¡ A_¡ DÃQhN}e
kl¡gpZuAp¡_¡ s¡d_p Of S>¡hy„ ApÐdue hpsphfZ `|fy„ `pX$hp dpV¡$ S>¡ gp¡L$p¡_y„
h„i `f„`fpNs fl¡ZpL$_y„ õ\m R>¡ s¡d_u `pk¡\u s¡d_p„ Ofbpf R>u_hu gC
s¡d_¡ cp¡N¡ Ap kNhX$p¡ Ecu L$fhp_p¡ Cfpv$p¡ R>¡ !

D`ep¡N iu fus¡ L$fpe s¡ rhQpfdp„\u S> Ap âhpk_ ep¡S>_p Ecu L$fhp_u
hps_¡ Qpg_p dmu lp¡e s¡hp¡ k„ch R>¡. Apqv$hpkuAp¡_u 1400 A¡L$f S>du_
D`f ApS>¡ sp¡ k.k._.r_Nd Nh®`|h®L$ Ar^L$pf S>dphu b¡Wy„$ R>¡. s¡\u sp¡ Ðep„
âhpk_ ep¡S>_p_p¡ âõsph dyL$pep¡ R>¡. (s¡d_u "h¡bkpCV$' D`f s¡_¡ "`ep®hfZL¡$ÞÖu
âhpk_' A¡hy„ S>Zpìey„ R>¡) A¡ âep¡S>_p rhj¡ A¡d Ål¡f L$fhpdp„ Apìey„ R>¡
L¡$ ""b„^ Apk`pk_y„ S>¡ õ\m R>¡ s¡ S>fpe¡ _„v$hpep hNf_y„, r_kN£ kÄey¯ s¡hy„
A¡_p h¥ch`|Z® drldpkrls S>mhpe¡gy„ R>¡. s¡\u Ap âep¡S>_p_¡ `qfZpd¡ Ap
âpàs kd©qÙ D`fp„s Ðep„ _¥krN®L$ `pL®$, kyr_ep¡rS>s bpNp¡ li¡, S>„Ngdp„ fMX$hp
S>hp_p rhõspfp¡, _¥krN®L$ `Nr\epAp¡, `ep®hfZ A„N¡_y„ k„N°lõ\p_ hN¡f¡ A¡V$gp„
kyfçe fQhpdp„ Aphi¡ L¡$ Ðep„ Aph_pfp„ kl¡gpZuAp¡ s¡_p gpcp¡ g¡sp Alp¡cph\u
Arcc|s \i¡.
lL$uL$s sp¡ A¡hu ÅZhp dm¡ R>¡ L¡$ W¡$W$ 1990_p dÝedp„ A¡L$ kgplL$pf
A¡S>Þku_¡ v$gpgu Ap`hp_¡ ^p¡fZ¡ Ap âep¡S>_p OX$u L$pY$hp fp¡L$hpdp„ Aphu
lsu. A¡ hMs¡ sp¡ Ap âhpk_ ep¡S>_p L¡$hm L¡$hqX$ep L$p¡gp¡_u_p rhõspf
D`fp„s ApMu gp„bu L¡$_pg_p„ Qpf buÅ„ õ\mp¡A¡ `Z Mughhp_u NZsfu
L$fhpdp„ Aphu lsu. Ap ep¡S>_p_p Adg Üpfp kfv$pf kfp¡hf ep¡S>_p dpV¡$
_pZp„ Ecp„ L$fhp dpV¡$_u ^pfZp `Z lsu. A¡ dyØp¡ Äepf¡ _d®v$p bQph Ap„v$p¡g_
Üpfp khp£ÃQ Av$pgs kdn fS|> L$fhpdp„ Apìep¡ Ðepf¡ NyS>fps kfL$pf¡ k„`|Z®`Z¡
s¡_p¡ BÞL$pf L$ep£ R>¡.
rhrh^ âeÐ_p¡_u lpfdpmp Üpfp Ap `qfep¡S>_p_u hps afu Ecu L$fpsu
flu R>¡. k.k._. r_Nd_u h¡bkpCV$ - www.sardarsarovardam.org `f S>¡ fS|>Aps R>¡ s¡ sp¡ lpõepõ`v$ hpQ_ `|fy„ `pX$u v¡$ R>¡ : ""Ap `ep®hfZue
âhpk_ ep¡S>_p_u k„L$ë`_p sp¡ A¡L$ kl¡syL$ âhpk_u dp¡S> âpàs L$fphu Ap`hp_¡
rhQpfpC R>¡. Ap `ep®hfZ âhpk__p¡ dy¿e Tp¡L$ `ep®hfZ_u A¥rslprkL$
c|rdL$p A_¡ s¡_u k„õL©$rs kdÅe s¡ rhj¡_p¡ fl¡i¡. âpàs `ep®hfZ_p kpaëe_¡
S>fpe¡ _yL$kp_ _ `lp¢Q¡ s¡_y„ ApN°l`|h®L$ Ýep_ fpMhpdp„ Aphi¡. Ðep„_p d|m
fl¡hpkuAp¡_¡ r_kN®S>Þe k„`v$p_p¡ kpfp¡ gpc g¡hp D`fp„s Apr\®L$ D`pS>®__u
sL$p¡ `|fu `pX$hp_u `Z L$ë`_p fpMhpdp„ Aphu R>¡. L¡$hqX$epdp„ ApS>¡ `ep®hfZue
âhpk_ ep¡S>_p lp\ ^fpC R>¡ s¡ rQf„Æh k„õL©$rs _¡ h¥opr_L$ Y$b¡ `|fsp Apep¡S>_,
kyr_ròs hluhV$ Üpfp Mughhp_u NZsfu_¡ Ýep_dp„ fpMu_¡ L$fhpdp„ Aphu
9

5

k.k._.r_Nd_u fS|>Aps âdpZ¡ b„^_u _uQ¡_p¡ âhpl rhcpN sp¡
Arsky„v$f lmhu `p_Mf F>sy ^fphsy„ S>„Ng, smphp¡, Oprkep S>du_p¡, S>mâhplp¡
A_¡ V¡$L$fuAp¡ s¡d S> TfZpAp¡\u a¡gpe¡gp¡ rhõspf R>¡. Ðep„_u õ\mpL©$rs_p„
cp¥Np¡rgL$ gnZp¡ h¥rhÝe`|Z® gl¡fp¡ kdp_ R>¡. s¡ õ\m h_õ`rs_u A_¡L$rh^
ÅrsAp¡ s¡dS> S>„Ng_p„ `iyAp¡\u ìepàs R>¡. A_¡ s¡\u Ap_„v$âdp¡v$ A_¡ r_fp„scfu
Apfpdv$peu âh©rÑAp¡ dpV¡$ dp¡L$mpi âpàs L$fhp_y„ DÑd õ\m R>¡. Aphu `ep®hfZL¡$ÞÖu âhpk__u ep¡S>_p Mp_Nu kplk_p klep¡N\u Mughhp `pR>m qÜrh^
l¡sy R>¡. A¡L$, dy¿e âhpk_y„ õ\m sp¡ rhL$kphhy„ S> A_¡ kp\¡ kp\¡ Ap
dlpL$pe b„^ep¡S>_p rhj¡_u ìep`L$ kdS>Z `Z âpàs L$fphu Ap`hu. kdN°
âhpk_ ep¡S>_pdp„ lp¡V¡$gp¡, L$p¡V¡$Å¡, AÐepf¡ âpàs r_hpkõ\p_p¡ h^y KQu
L$np_p„ b_phhp„, L¡$ç`]N dpV¡$_p„ õ\mp¡, hmu Ap_„v$âdp¡v$ dpV¡$ hp¡V$f`pL®$,
Apfpdv¡$e `pL®$, h_õ`rs k„N°lpge, `ep®hfZ L¡$ÞÖu `pL®$, smph_p¡ rhL$pk,
`ep®hfZ `\p¡, Np¡ëa L$p¡k®, dygpL$psu L¡$ÞÖ, ep¡N L¡$ÞÖ, kcp-k„d¡g_ L¡$ÞÖ
Apqv$ Mughhp_y„ ^pfhpdp„ Apìey„ R>¡.
âQpf dpÝedp¡_p Al¡hpgp¡ dyS>b 2003_u kpg\u NyS>fps kfL$pf s¡dS>
r_Nd Üpfp Ap âhpk__u k„L$ë`_pdp„ S>¡ L$p¡C_¡ fk lp¡e s¡hp„ Mp_Nu kplkp¡_¡
AphL$pfhp dpV¡$_p âeÐ_p¡ iê$ L$fhpdp„ Apìep lsp. 2004_u kpgdp„ S>Nscf_p
d|X$u fp¡L$pZL$pfp¡_y„ S>¡ k„d¡g_ ep¡S>hpdp„ Apìey„ lsy„ s¡dp„ A¡L$ Ar^L©$s fS|>Aps
"cprh rhL$pk _l¡fp¡_y„ âhpk_'A¡ _pd¡ L$fhpdp„ Aphu lsu. r_Nd¡ A¡L$ AÞe
fS|>Aps ê$. 170 L$fp¡X$_p d|X$ufp¡L$pZ Üpfp "`ep®hfZ âhpk_' õ\m dpV¡$_u
`Z L$fu lsu.
10

_d®v$p X¡$d A_¡ s¡_p Apk`pk_p rhõspfdp„ âhpk_ âh©rÑAp¡ ep¡S>hp
A„N¡ NyS>fps kfL$pf¡ dÝeâv¡$i A_¡ dlpfpô²$_u kfL$pfp¡_¡ âõsph Apàep¡ lsp¡.
V$pBçk Ap¡a B[ÞX$e$p_p 2003_p 11du Ap¸¼V$p¡bf_p Al¡hpg dyS>b A¡L$
Ap„sffpÄe âhpk_ âõsph b¡ `X$p¡iu fpÄep¡_¡ NyS>fps kfL$pf¡ dp¡L$ëep¡ lsp¡.
dÝeâv¡$i_u kfL$pf¡ S>Zpìey„ lsy„ L¡$ s¡ A„N¡ s¡ kfL$pf¡ L$p¡C hp„^p¡ g¡hp`Ï„ R>¡
_l], Äepf¡ dlpfpô²$_u kfL$pf¡ S>Zpìey„ L¡$ Ap âep¡S>_pdp„ AphL$ MQ®dp„ kdp_
hl¢QZu_u ifs¡ s¡ AphL$pfu iL$pe. Ap rhõs©s S>mk„N°l S>¡ 150 qL$gp¡duV$f_p
rhõspfdp„ a¡gpe¡gp¡ R>¡ A_¡ S>¡_p S>m_u KX$pC 10 \u 100 duV$f S>¡V$gu
fl¡gu R>¡ A_¡ kf¡fpi A¡L$ qL$gp¡duV$f S>¡V$gu `lp¡mpC ^fph¡ R>¡ s¡hp S>mfpiudp„
sp¡ DÑd S>mAp^pqfs fdsNdsp¡, dp¡V$p S>lpÅ¡_p ¾y$T âhpkp¡, lp¡X$L$p„_u
kl¡gNpAp¡, Apk`pk_u V¡$L$fuAp¡ `f c°dZL$np¡ D`fp„s ApMu _d®v$pOpV$u_p
S>„Ng rhõspfdp„ `ep®hfZue âhpk_ Mughu iL$pe s¡d R>¡. h^pfpdp„ A¡
kdpQpfdp„ A¡ `Z Dd¡fhpdp„ Aph¡gy„ R>¡ L¡$ Ap âep¡S>_pdp„ A¡L$ rhi¡j gpc
`Z d¡mhu iL$pe s¡hp¡ R>¡. NyS>fps_p âhpkO¡gp gp¡L$p¡_¡ `X$p¡i_p„ b¡ v$pê$b„^u
dy¼s A¡hp„ fpÄep¡dp„ âhpk¡ S>hp\u dy¼s`Z¡ ifpb `uhp_u kfmsp `Z
d¡mhu Ap`u iL$i¡. kàV¡$çbf 2003dp„ vy$r_epcf_p ÅNrsL$ fp¡L$pZL$pfp¡ dpV$¡
ep¡Åe¡gp "hpBb°„V$ NyS>fps'_p k„d¡g_dp„ `Z Ap âõsph_p¡ Dëg¡M L$fhpdp„
Apìep¡ R>¡.
k.k. _d®v$p r_Nd Üpfp `ep®hfZ Apep¡S>_ A_¡ V¡$L$_p¡gp¡Æ L¡$ÞÖ
(CEPT)_¡ A¡L$ dpõV$f àgp_ b_phhp_y„ 2004dp„ kp¢`hpdp„ Aph¡gy„. CEPTA¡
ArNepf A„Np¡ 170 L$fp¡X$ ê$r`ep_p MQ£ s¥epf L$fhp_p¡ âõsph d|¼ep¡ lsp¡.
r_Nd_p _peb d¡_¡S>f îu d_uj hdp®ÆA¡ ApN°l`|h®L$ S>Zpìey„ lsy„ L¡$
""L$p¡C`Z bÅfy rbëX$fp¡ Aphu_¡ aph¡ s¡hp„ bp„^L$pdp¡ Apqv$ Ecp„ L$f¡ s¡hy„
_ \hp v¡$hp dpV¡$ Ad¡ Ap rhL$pkep¡S>_p_y„ Apep¡S>_ L$fpìey„ R>¡. CEPT
Üpfp S>¡ Apep¡S>_ A`pey„ R>¡ s¡_y„ Qyõs`Z¡ `pg_ L$fphhp_p¡ ApN°l Ap
rhõspf_p rhL$pk dpV¡$ fpMhpdp„ Aphi¡. (13du kàV¡$çbf 2004_p TOI_p¡
Al¡hpg)
""L¡$hqX$ep, AphsuL$pg_u vy$r_ep_y„ âhpk_ õ\m'' _pd_u `y[õsL$p
r_Nd¡ âNV$ L$f¡gu R>¡. s¡dp„ ArNepf¡ ArNepf A„Np¡_u rhNs s¡dS> s¡dp„
h`fphpdp„ Aph_pf rhõspf A_¡ MQ® A„N¡_u _p¢^ `|Z®ê$`¡ Ap`¡gu R>¡.
11

¾$d âep¡S>__p„ A„Np¡

rhõspf
d|X$ufp¡L$pZ
(l¡¼V$fdp„) ârs v$i gpM
k„crhs

1.
2.
3.
4.

hp¡V$f`pL®$ A_¡ lp¡V¡$gp¡
Np¡ëaL$p¡k® A_¡ lp¡V¡$gp¡
hp¡V$f`pL®$, Np¡ëaL$p¡k®, A_¡ lp¡V¡$gp¡
h_õ`rs bpN; b„NguAp¡;
L¡$ç`]N dpV¡$ d¡v$p_
5. `ep®hfZ`pL®$, b„NguAp¡ A_¡
afhp_p õ\m¡ `N\uAp¡
6. `ep®hfZ`pL®$ A_¡ b„NguAp¡
7. b„NguAp¡, hÞe `iyAp¡ dpV¡$
kyfrns rhõspf A_¡ L¡$ç`]N
s¡dS> `N\uAp¡
8. bp¡V$]N dpV¡$_p Ap¡hpfp
9. ×íe õ\p_L$p¡; k|ep®õs v$i®_ õ\p_
10. dygpL$psu L¡$ÞÖ
11 leps lp¡V¡$gp¡_u õsf ky^pfZp
6

35
80
110
20

100
300
400
40

40

50

20
70

40
700

3

3
3
10
40

1259 Qp¡.duV$f
7700 Qp¡.duV$f

Np„^u_Nf [õ\s r_Nd_p dy¿epgedp„\u Ap A„N¡_u dprlsu `y[õsL$p
Mfuv$_pf k„crhs fp¡L$pZL$pfp¡_¡ ÓZ qv$hk_u L¡$hqX$ep b„^ rhõspf_u dygpL$ps
dpV¡$ gC S>hpdp„ Apìep lsp (27du Ap¡NõV$ 2004_p C[ÞX$e_ A¡¼kâ¡k).
Ap âhpk_p `qfZpd¡ Mp_Nu fp¡L$pZL$pfp¡dp„ ApL$j®Z Ecy„ \ey„ A¡hp¡ AZkpf
âpàs \pe R>¡. dy„bC_p i¡fbÅf_p v$asf_¡ BSEL - INFRA STRUCTURE
REALITY LTD. _pd_u L„$`_uA¡ S>¡ L$pdp¡ lp\ D`f g¡hp_u ÅZL$pfu `|fu
`pX$u s¡dp„ S>Zpìey„ lsy„ L¡$, ""NyS>fps_p L¡$hqX$ep rhõspfdp„ 2500 A¡L$fdp„
a¡gpe¡gp rhõspfdp„ A¡L$ õhN® kdp_ ep¡S>_pdp„ fp¡L$pZ L$fhp_p¡ rhQpf L$f¡gp¡
R>¡. Ap âep¡S>_p Üpfp Vy$fuTd_u kNhX$ A_¡ s¡ Üpfp kl¡gpZuAp¡_u L$ë`_p
dyS>b_u sdpd A`¡npAp¡ `|fu `pX$hp_p¡ l¡sy R>¡. s¡dp„ M¡su, d„qv$f, Apfp¡Áe
L¡$ÞÖ, f¡õV$p¡fp„, qX$õL$p¡ S>¡hu âh©rÑAp¡ dpV¡$_u kyrh^pAp¡ D`fp„s fl¡ZpL$_p„
s¡dS> bÅf dpV¡$_p„ k„Ly$gp¡ rhL$kphhp_p¡ kdph¡i L$fhpdp„ Apìep¡ R>¡. Ap
12

âep¡S>_pdp„ Aphpkue ipmpAp¡, Ap„sffpô²$ue Aphpku ipmp, lp¡V¡$gp¡, fukp¡V$p£,
¼gbp¡, Ly$Vy„$bp¡ dpV¡$_p Ap_„v$ âdp¡v$_p„ L¡$ÞÖp¡, h_õ`rs DÛp_, hp¡V$f`pL®$, õ`p¡V®$k¹_u
kyrh^p Apqv$ `Z `|fp„ `pX$hp_u NZsfu fpMhpdp„ Aphu R>¡. Ap kdN° âep¡S>_p
sb½$phpf Mughhp ^pfuA¡ R>uA¡. ( dy„bC õV$p¡L$ A¡¼kQ¢S> : BSEL dpmMpL$ue
hpõsrhL$ s p Ap^pqfs [BSEINF] by kf k¡ Þ vy $ bpky . http//content :
icicidirect.com/pickofweek.asp?id=246

BÁgp„X$dp„ fl¡sp A¡L$ Apâhpku cpCA¡ "smph afs¡_u V²¡$_ kl¡gNpl'
iê$ L$fhpdp„ fk R>¡ A¡d S>Zpìey„ R>¡. Ap kl¡gNpl Üpfp s¡dZ¡ A¡d `Z
fS|>Aps L$fu R>¡ L¡$ ""L¡$hqX$ep_u Qp¡sfa S>¡ lqfepmy„ hpsphfZ âpàs R>¡ s¡
rhõspf_¡ afsu V²¡$__u kaf L$fphhp_y„ Np¡W$hu v¡$hpi¡. (TOI_p¡ 11du ÅÞeyApfu
2005_p¡ Al¡hpg) îu fpS>¡_ `V¡$g S>¡Ap¡ lpg g„X$__p qL„$Ákbfu rhõspfdp„
fl¡ R>¡ s¡dZ¡ A¡hp¡ âõsph Apàep¡ R>¡ L¡$, ""L¡$hqX$ep rhõspfdp„ 22 qL$.du._u
f¡g gpC_ kÆ®_¡ lmhp âhpk_u kNhX$ Ecu L$fu iL$pe s¡d R>¡. Ap dpV¡$
cpfs[õ\s b¡ âhpk_ L„$`_uAp¡, îu_p\ V²$ph¡ëk A_¡ rihd¹ V²$ph¡ëk s¡d_¡
klpec|s \C iL$i¡. Apd, Ðep„ lp¡V¡$gp¡, cp¡S>_pgep¡ A_¡ hpl_ìehlpf_u,
A¡V$g¡ L¡$ kl¡gNpl dpV¡$_u sdpd h¥rðL$ L$np_u kNhX$p¡ Mughu v¡$hp dpV¡$_p
kdS|>su L$fpfp¡ d¢ NyS>fps kfL$pf kp\¡ L$fu gu^p R>¡. Ap ep¡S>_p dpV¡$ kfL$pf
Ad_¡ 50 hj®_p `V¡$ S>du_ Ap`¡ s¡hu A`¡np R>¡.'' lh¡, hpõsrhL$ [õ\rs
A¡ R>¡ L¡$ Ðep„_u S>du_ 35 hj® dpV¡$ S> `V¡$ Ap`u iL$pe s¡d R>¡. s¡hp `V¡$
Ap`¡gu S>du_ `f_p ìehlpfdp„ d_p¡f„S>_ L$f A_¡ h¡QpZh¡fp¡ bÞ_¡dp„\u dy[¼s
Ap`u iL$pe s¡d R>¡. îu `V¡$g_u ^pfZp R>¡ L¡$ s¡Ap¡ v$i hj®_p kdeNpmpdp„
Ap V²¡$_ A„N¡_u ep¡S>_p s¥epf L$fu v$C iL$i¡.
D`f S>¡ Lp„C dprlsu âpàs \C R>¡ s¡_u ApMu L$ë`_pdp„ L$p¡CL$ dp¡V$p¡
a¡fbv$g rhQpfpC füp¡ lp¡e s¡hp¡ A„v$pS> L$fhp¡ `X¡$ s¡d R>¡. Ap A„N¡ _uQ¡_p
dyØp Ýep_ `f gCA¡. âhpk_ A„N¡_p c|s`|h® A¡¼Tu¼eyV$uh A¡[ÞS>r_ef îu
Apf. hu. NÄS>f¡ A¡d S>Zpìey„ L¡$ ""âhpk_ A„N¡_p¡ dpõV$f àgp_ sp¡ hX$p¡v$fp
il¡fu rhL$pk r_Nd s¡dS> Np„^u_Nf_p il¡fu rhL$pk_p dy¿e Ar^L$pfuîu_p
b¡Q Üpfp s¥epf L$fhpdp„ Apìep¡ R>¡. lh¡ s¡ ep¡S>_p dpV¡$ hX$p¡v$fp il¡fu rhL$pk
r_Nd A_¡ s¡_p A¡[ÞS>r_efp¡ Üpfp A¡L$ ApMfu dykØp¡ s¥epf L$fhpdp„ Apìep¡
R>¡. Ap dykØp¡ ep¡S>_p_p¡ Adg L$f_pfu dy¿e L$Q¡fu kdn fS|> L$fhpdp„ Apìep¡
R>¡ S>¡_¡ hl¡gu sL¡$ d„S|>f L$fu v¡$hpdp„ Aph_pf R>¡. Äepf¡ buÆ sfa Ap ep¡S>_p
13

7

A_¡ dpõV$f àgp_ A„N¡ L$p¡C a¡fapf L$fhpdp„ Apìep¡ R>¡ L¡$ L¡$d s¡ A„N¡ r_Nd¡
fQ¡gu âhpk_ dpV¡$_u _hu krdrs_p DÃQ Ar^L$pfuAp¡ dp¡Y¡$ spmp„ dpfu_¡
b¡W$p R>¡. s¡Ap¡ _ sp¡ Ål¡f lfpÆ rhj¡, L¡$ _ sp¡ ep¡S>_p rhL$kphhpdp„ fk
^fph_pfu ìe[¼sAp¡_p„ _pdp¡ Ap`hp A„N¡ dprlsu `|fu `pX$hp dp„N¡ R>¡.
AÐepf¡ sp¡ A„rsd [õ\rs Ap âhpk_ k„L$ë`_p_u iu R>¡ s¡ ÅZhy„ A¡V$gp
dpV¡$ i¼e füy„ _\u L$pfZ L¡$ Ap rhje_u dprlsu Ål¡f S>_sp_u ÅZL$pfu
blpf_u NZphu v¡$hpdp„ Aphu R>¡.
il¡fu rhL$pk_u _p¢^Zu A_¡ rhL$pk_urs A„N¡_p Ar^L$pfu L¡$ S>¡Ap¡
L¡$hqX$ep âhpk_ dpõV$f àgp__p k„ep¡S>L$ `Z R>¡ s¡hp Ar^L$pfu îu `u.hu.L¡$.
fpd¡ðf¡ S>¡ dpõV$f àgp_ fS|> L$ep£ R>¡ s¡ r_Nd_¡ bsphhp s¥epf A¡V$gp dpV¡$
_\u L$¡$ s¡d_y„ L$l¡hy„ R>¡ L¡$, ""s¡d Ål¡f L$fhp\u Ad¡ S>¡ ifs\u Ap N°plL$
kp\¡ b„^pep R>uA¡ s¡_p¡ c„N \pe s¡d R>¡.'' îu fpd¡ðf_p L$l¡hp dyS>b r_Nd¡
Adpfu `pk¡ S>¡ A`¡np L$fu R>¡ s¡ sp¡ Ap âep¡S>_p_p rhõspf_¡ kp¦v$e®cey¯h©„v$ph_ NpX®$_ (dpekp¡f_p S>¡hy„) s¥epf L$fhp `|fsu S> hps R>¡. s¡\u Ad¡
ApMu ep¡S>_p rhrh^ `pkpAp¡_¡ Ýep_dp„ fpMu_¡ OX$u R>¡. S>¡dp„ S>du__p¡ âL$pf,
S>du_ âpàs \hp A„N¡_u i¼epi¼esp, S>mõsf, Apr\®L$ AphíeL$spAp¡ A_¡
hluhV$u âñp¡ Ap b^p Apepdp¡ A„N¡ S>¡ L$v$dp¡ cfhp„ `X¡$ s¡ Ýep_dp„ gC_¡
fS|>Aps L$fu R>¡. s¡ õ\m `f_u S>du__u A_yL|$msp_p¡ k„v$c® Ýep_dp„ fpMu_¡
Ðep„ L$fhp A„N¡_p„ bp„^L$pdp¡ rhj¡ dpN®v$i®_ Apàey„ R>¡. Ðep„_u S>du_ sp¡ b^u
r_Nd_p L$bÅdp„ R>¡ s¡\u Mp_Nu kplk¡ Ål¡f kplk kp\¡ k„ey¼s fus¡ c¡Np
dmu_¡ S> Ap âhpk_ âep¡S>_p Mughhu Å¡CA¡ s¡d k|Qìey„ R>¡. Ap âep¡S>_p
(CEPT Üpfp) A¡hu fus¡ OX$u R>¡ L¡$ S>¡ S>du_p¡dp„ L$p¡C rhhpv$ _\u Ðep„ S>
Mughhu A_¡ R> Npdp¡_u S>¡ S>du_ A„N¡_u L$p_|_u [õ\rs R>¡ s¡_¡ nrs _
`lp¢QpX$hu. DÛp¡Np¡ A„N¡ S>¡ âpàs kdS>Z R>¡ s¡_¡ _hsf ×rô$\u Å¡hp_p¡ Ad¡
âeÐ_ L$ep£ R>¡. s¡\u s¡ ep¡S>_pdp„ awgp¡_u M¡su Mughhu, h_`¡v$pip¡ dpV¡$
A_yL|$mspAp¡ Ecu L$fhu, Ap D`fp„s hÞe âpZuAp¡ dpV¡$ AcepfÎe, frns
S>„Ngp¡_u ÅmhZu, s„byAp¡ A_¡ L¡$ç` dpV¡$_p„ õ\mp¡_p¡ fMfMph \pe s¡hu
rhL$pkâq¾$ep_u Ad¡ sfa¡Z L$f¡gu R>¡. Å¡ r_kN® _ kQhpe sp¡ Ap âhpk__u
hps_¡ c|gu S>hu. A_¡ s¡dp„\u `¥kp L$dphp_u hps_p¡ `Z A„s S> NZhp¡.''
Aphp iåv$p¡ kp\¡ îu fpd¡ðf¡ kdp`_ L$ey¯ lsy„. Ap CEPT A¡S>Þku_p¡ blz
rhõs©s rhL$pk ep¡S>_p L$fhp_p¡ A_¡ L¡$hm A¡L$ L$p¡ÞV²¡$¼V Üpfp L$pd `pf `pX$hp
14

_p„Mhpdp„ Apìep¡ ? ip L$pfZp¡kf 27 _h¡çbf 2006_¡ qv$hk¡ âep¡S>_p A„N¡_p
V¡$ÞX$fp¡ (bp¡guAp¡) Mp¡ghp_u âq¾$ep âpf„c L$fhp_p¡ qv$hk afu afu V$pmhpdp„
Aphu füp¡ R>¡ ?

rhj¡ rhfp¡^ lsp¡. Ap ApMp dpõV$f àgp_dp„ A¡L$ r_Nfp_u krdrs fpMhp_p¡
`Z âõsph L$fhpdp„ Apìep¡ lsp¡. Ap àgp_dp„ A¡\ue dlÒh_p¡ dyØp¡ sp¡ A¡
`Z lsp¡ L¡$ kdN° k„fQ_pdp„ lh¡ `R>u S>¡ L$p„C L$fhpdp„ Aph¡ s¡dp„ õ\pr_L$
N°pdS>_p¡_¡ kp\¡ g¡hp_u hps `Z kdphhpdp„ Aphu lsu. hmu, CEPT A¡S>ÞV$p¡A¡
ep¡S>_p_¡ Adgdp„ gphhp dpV¡$ Ap A„N¡ kfL$pfu Ål¡f_pdp Üpfp A¡L$ Mpk
Ar^L©$s rhL$pk âpr^L$fZ fQhp_u cgpdZ L$fu lsu.

S>¡ S>du_p¡ Ål¡f rls dpV¡$ Mpgkp L$fhpdp„ Aphu R>¡ s¡ S>du_p¡ r_Nd L$ep
Ar^L$pf\u Mp_Nu kplkL$pfp¡_¡ bp¡gu bp¡ghp_¡/L$pÞ¡ V²$¡¼V$ g¡hp_¡ Apd„Óu iL¡$ ? L¡$
`R>u r_Nd¡ Ap L$p_|_u b„^__y„ Dëg„O_ L$fhp dpV¡$ L$pC¡ âey[¼s ip¡^u L$pY$u R>¡ ?

Ap dykØp¡ fS|> L$ep® `R>u CEPT A¡S>ÞV$p¡A¡ b¡ A¡L$ b¡W$L$p¡ r_Nd
kp\¡ L$fu lsu. r_Nd_u Ar^L©$s ìe[¼sAp¡_¡ îu fpd¡ðf¡ A¡d S>Zpìey„ lsy„
L¡$ lh¡ `R>u Ap ep¡S>_p A„N¡ S>¡ L$p„C rhQpfZp L¡$ r_Z®ep¡ \pe s¡ A„N¡
s¡Ap¡_¡ ÅZL$pfu Ap`sp fl¡hu S>¡\u Ap dpõV$f àgp_ d„S|>f \pe A_¡ s¡_p¡
Adg L$fhp_u blpgu dm¡ Ðepf¡ s¡Ap¡_¡ Aphsu S>hpbv$pfuAp¡ `pf `pX$hp_¡
ep¡Áe `Ngp„ gC iL¡$. Ap rhje rhj¡ CEPT _u kp\¡ b¡ hj® \ep„ `Z
L$p¡C hps S>ZphpC _\u.
Ap A„N¡ r_Nd_p AÝen îu `u. L¡$. gplufu_p¡ Arcâpe ÅZhp âeÐ_
L$ep£ Ðepf¡ L¡$hqX$ep_u L$\p_¡ s¡dZ¡ Sy>v$p¡ S> hmp„L$ Apàep¡. Ap CEPT_¡ sp¡
A¡L$ dykØp¡ OX$hp_y„ kp¢`hpdp„ Apìey„ lsy„. s¡d_p„ k|Q_p¡ L¡$ âõsph õhuL$pfhp
L¡$ _l] s¡_p¡ r_Z®e r_Nd L$fi¡.$ "Ad¡ sp¡ lh¡ s¡dZ¡ (CEPT) A¡ dykØpdp„
S>¡ k|Q_p¡ Apàep„ R>¡ A_¡ V$uà`ZuAp¡ L$fu R>¡ s¡_¡ Ýep_dp„ gC_¡ S> ApNm
h^u füp R>uA¡. lh¡ A¡ dpõV$f àgp__¡ hX$p¡v$fp s¡dS> Np„^u_Nf_p il¡fu
rhL$pk Apep¡S>L$p¡ R>¡hV$_y„ õhê$` Ap`u füp R>¡.
Ap âep¡S>_p_y„ gÿe L¡$hqX$ep s¡d S> s¡_u Apk`pk_p rhõspf_p¡ kdN°
rhL$pk L$fphhp_y„ R>¡. hmu, s¡ rhL$pk gp¡L$-cpNuv$pfu\u `Z L$fhp_u NZsfu
R>¡ A¡hy„ îu gl¡fu_y„ L$l¡hy„ lsy„. Ap âep¡S>_p knd li¡, kgpds li¡, Apfpdv¡$eu
li¡ A_¡ i¥nrZL$ L$np_u li¡. ""Al] S>¡ kl¡gpZuAp¡ Aphi¡ s¡Ap¡ OZu
_hu ÅZL$pfuAp¡ s¡dS> d^yfu epv$Npf õd©rsAp¡ gC_¡ `pR>p„ afi¡.'' v$f hj£
Ap kfv$pf kfp¡hf b„^ rhõspf_u dygpL$ps g¡hp Ap¡R>pdp„ Ap¡R>p v$p¡Y$ gpM
gp¡L$p¡ Aphsp lp¡e R>¡, s¡ S> Ap âep¡S>_p dpV¡$_u Apr\®L$ kamsp_p¡ Ap^pf
R>¡ (2004_u dprlsu_p Ap^pf¡).
îu gl¡fu_p Ap r_h¡v$__¡ L$pfZ¡ OZp b^p âñp¡ `|R>hp S>¡hp \pe
R>¡. `¡gp CEPT A¡ L$f¡gp àgp__y„ iy„ \ey„ ? iy„ s¡ àgp_ L$Qfp_u V$p¡`gudp„
15

Al] L¡$hqX$ep A„N¡_p„ h^y flõep¡ Myëgp„ `X¡$ R>¡.

L¡$hqX$ep rhõspf âpr^L$fZ

8

A¡ hps_u ÅZL$pfu OZp \p¡X$p gp¡L$p¡_¡ \e¡gu R>¡ L¡$ NyS>fps fpÄe_p
ipk__p„ A„Np¡ il¡fu rhL$pk A_¡ il¡fu fl¡ZpL$ rhcpN_p ¾$dp„L$ GH/V/112,
2005/VDA-112004-8027-V qv$_p„L$ 29-1-2005_p Ål¡f_pdp\u L¡$hqX$ep
rhõspf âpr^L$fZ_u õ\p`_p L$fhpdp„ Aphu R>¡. Ap L$pX$p (KADA) âpr^L$fZ_¡
r_Nd_¡ lõsL$ S>¡ S>du_p¡ d|L$hpdp„ Aphu R>¡ s¡ S>du_p¡ A„N¡ D`fp¡¼s Ål¡f_pdp
AÞhe¡ hluhV$ L$fhp_p¡ s¡dS> ghpv$u L$fhp_p¡ Ar^L$pf kp¢`hpdp„ Apìep¡ R>¡.
27du qX$k¡çbf 2006_p buÅ Ål¡f_pdp dyS>b "L$pX$p'_p kæep¡ _½$u L$fhp_p¡
Ar^L$pf r_Nd_¡ kp¢`hpdp„ Apìep¡ A_¡ s¡d L$fu_¡ "L$pX$p' D`f r_Nd_p¡ L$pb|
Åmhhp_y„ Np¡W$hu v¡$hpey„. Ap A„N¡_p Ål¡f_pdp ¾$d : GH/V/324, 2006/
VDA-112004-8027-V\u _h kæep¡_u r_dZ|L$ L$fu A_¡ r_Nd_p AÝen_¡
s¡_p âdyM sfuL¡$ _udhpdp„ Apìep. krdrs_p AÝen rkhpe_p kæep¡dp„ â^p_
il¡frhL$pk âep¡S>L$, hluhV$u r_epdL$, NyS>fps âhpk_ L$p¡`p£f¡i__p L$rdí_f,
kfv$pf kfp¡hf `y_h®k_ L$Q¡fu, _d®v$p rS>ëgp_p `„Qpes âdyM, rgdX$u A_¡
Np¡fp Npd_p `„Qpes âdyMp¡, A_y` v$h¡, Adv$phpv$ A_¡ L¡$hqX$ep L$p¡gp¡_u_p
hluhV$v$pf Ap b^pe_u kæep¡ sfuL¡$ _udZ|L$ L$fhpdp„ Aphu R>¡. Aphu k„fQ_p
L$fu_¡ "L$pX$p'_¡ S>¡ S>du_p¡ D`f Ar^L$pf kp¢`pe s¡ S>du_p¡ A„N¡ Mpgkp L$f¡gu
Ål¡f rls_u S>du_p¡ rhj¡ S>¡ rhhpv$ Ecp¡ \C$ iL¡$ s¡ v$bphu v¡$hp_p¡ M¡g
Np¡W$ìep¡ lp¡e s¡d kdÅe R>¡. L$pfZ "L$pX$p'_p âdyM sfuL¡$ sp¡ r_Nd_p AÝen_¡
_udhpdp„ Apìep R>¡, S>¡\u D¼s S>du_p¡ `f_p¡ r_Nd_p¡ Ar^L$pf e\phs¹ kQhpep¡
R>¡ s¡d `Z NZu g$C iL$pe s¡d R>¡.
lh¡ ÅÞeyApfu 2005dp„ "L$pX$p'_u õ\p`_p L$fu A¡V$g¡ L¡$hqX$ep,
16

hpOp¡qX$ep, rgdX$u, L$p¡W$u Npd_p gp¡L$p¡_u S>du_p¡ s¡d S> fl¡ZpL$p¡ Mpgkp L$fhp_u
^dL$uAp¡ afu iê$ L$fu v¡$hpC. A_¡ Npdgp¡L$p¡_¡ S>Zpìey„ L¡$ S>¡ L$p„C hmsf (_Æhy„
õsp¡ !) Ap`hpdp„ Aph¡ R>¡ s¡ gC_¡ Al]\u S>sp„ flp¡, _l] sp¡ sd_¡ bmS>bfu\u
DM¡X$u_¡ cNpX$u v¡$hpdp„ Aphi¡. _V$hfcpC cpCÆ sX$hu A_¡ Q„vy$cpC dN_cpC
sX$hu b¡ OfdprgL$p¡_p„ L¡hqX$ep[õ\s Ofp¡ 5du d¡ 2005_¡ qv$hk¡ ^p¡m¡ v$lpX¡$
bygX$p¡Tf\u Dv¹$Ýhõs L$fhpdp„ Apìep„. Ap S>¡ dL$p_p¡ sp¡X$u `pX$hpdp„ Apìep„
Ðep„ A¡hu vy$L$p_p¡ lsu Äep„ kfv$pf kfp¡hf âep¡S>_pdp„ L$pd L$f_pfp Ar^L$pfuAp¡
s¡dS> dS|>fp¡_¡ M`dp„ Aph¡ s¡hu hõsyAp¡ Apqv$ h¡Qpsp„ lsp„. A¡ vy$L$p_p¡ îu
_V$hfcpC_u S>du_ D`f b„^pe¡gu lsu. D`f S>Zph¡g bÞ_¡ ìe[¼sAp¡ L¡$hqX$ep_p
d|m hs_uAp¡ R>¡. s¡d_p D`f 1961_u kpgdp„ _p¡qV$k bÅhu_¡ s¡d_p Ecp
`pL$ kp\¡ S>du_p¡ Mpgkp L$fhpdp„ Aphu lsu.
r_Nd_p AÝen s¡d S> hluhV$u r_epdL$ îu `u. L¡$. gl¡fu_p S>Zpìep
dyS>b, "" "L$pX$p' ep¡S>_p_p rhõspfdp„ _d®v$p _v$u_p S>dZp L$p„W$p_p„ ArNepf
Npdp¡ A_¡ X$pbp L$p„W$p_p„ `p„Q Npdp¡ kdphhp_p„ R>¡.'' s¡d_u A¡hu kdS>Z
R>¡ L¡$ r_Nd_u S>hpbv$pfu Ap AkfN°õs kp¡m Npd_p gp¡L$p¡_¡ dpmMpNs
ìehõ\p s¡d S> fp¡S>Npf_u sL$p¡ `|fu `pX$hp_u lp¡C s¡ S>hpbv$pfu "L$pX$p' fQhp\u
`|fu L$fu iL$pi¡ L$pfZ, Ðep„ âhpk_ âep¡S>_p r_^p®fu R>¡. r_Nd_u kdS>Z
dyS>b A¡râg 2008dp„ "L$pX$p'_u rhr^hs¹ õ\p`_p L$fhpdp„ Aph_pf R>¡. fpÄe
kfL$pf_p il¡fu rhL$pk âpr^L$fZ¡ ê$. 25 gpM Ap Npdp¡_p¡ kh£ L$fhp dpV¡$ r_Nd_¡
Apàep R>¡. îu gplufuA¡ Dd¡e¯y lsy„ L¡$, ""k|rQs rhõspf kl¡gpZuAp¡ dpV¡$ OZp¡
ApL$j®L$ b_u S> Q|¼ep¡ R>¡ L$pfZ, ldZp„ Adpfp _ÆL$ Aph¡gy„ fpS>`u`mp
il¡f âpv¡$riL$ qaëdp¡_p i|V$]N dpV¡$ OÏ„ ApL$j®L$ b_u Q|¼ey„ R>¡ !''
Apd R>sp„ îu gl¡fuA¡ S>Zpìey„ L¡$ ss:`|fsy„ sp¡ bp¡guAp¡ bp¡gphhp_p¡
L$pe®¾$d fp¡L$hpdp„ Apìep¡ R>¡. Å¡ L¡$ A¡hy„ `Z Dd¡fhp s¡Ap¡ Dsphmp \ep L¡$
2007_u kpg_p A„s ky^udp„ b^y„ e\pep¡Áe `pf `pX$u v¡$hpdp„ Aphi¡. A¡
`Z Mfy„ L¡$ AÝenîuA¡ S>¡ k„crhs Mp_Nu kplkp¡ S>¡ rhL$pkâq¾$ep dpV¡$
`k„v$Nu `pdu Q|¼ep R>¡ s¡d_p„ _pdp¡ Ap`hp õ`óV$ _L$pf cÎep¡ lsp¡. L¡$hqX$ep
Npd gp¡L$p¡dp„ sp¡ Apd R>sp„ Myëg¡Apd L$l¡hpsy„ lsy„ L¡$ dy„bC[õ\s BSEL bp„^L$pd
L„$`_u Apdp„ Å¡X$pC R>¡. s¡ L„$`_u Üpfp L¡$hqX$ep_¡ hX$p¡v$fp kp\¡ Å¡X$_pfp dy¿e
dpN® D`f A¡L$ h¥chu lp¡V¡$g bp„^hp_y„ Qpgy L$fu `Z v¡$hpey„ R>¡, S>¡_y„ _pd
"_d®v$p r_lpf' fMpey„ R>¡.
17

"_d®v$p r_lpf'$
Ly$g S>du_ rhõspf 6,03,000 Qp¡. awV$
b¡ sb½$p_p rhL$pk_y„ Apep¡S>_ : ìep`pf- ^„^p A_¡ r_hpk.
ìep`pqfL$ rhcpNdp„ vy$L$p_p¡, Ap_„v$âdp¡v$ A„N¡_u ìehõ\pAp¡ A_¡
f¡õV$p¡fp„ kdphpi¡. kdN° ep¡S>_p_p¡ MQ® : ê$. 25 L$fp¡X$_p¡.
k„v$c® "L¡$hqX$ep_p Apqv$hpku rhõspf_¡ il¡fu f„N' ÅÞeyApfu 2008_y„ "B[ÞX$e_
A¡nâ¡k' http//www.expressindia.com/latest.news/kevadias-tribalarea-to-get-urban-colours/260664/

ep¡S>_p Üpfp AphL$ = ê$. 50 L$fp¡X$
âpf„c : S|>_ 2006 A_¡ `|Z® S|>_ 2007

9

Adpfu L„$`_uA¡ Ðep„, sdpd kyrh^pAp¡ ^fphsp fl¡ZpL$_p
A¡`pV®$d¡ÞV$, KQu L$np_u A_¡ hmu qL$apes ^p¡fZ_u lp¡V¡$gp¡, r_hpk
A„N¡_u ìehõ\pAp¡, R|>V$L$ h¡QpZ_u A_¡ MpZu`uZu_u kNhX$p¡,
Ap_„v$âdp¡v$_p„ kp^_p¡ hN¡f¡ Np¡W$hhp_y„ Apep¡S>_ L$fu v$u^y„ R>¡. Ap
kNhX$p¡dp„ A¡hu hpsp¡ `Z Dd¡fhp_u NZsfu R>¡ L¡$ S>¡\u Ðep„_u
"c|rd'_¡ A_yL|$m A¡hp„ cp¡S>_pgep¡, BÞX$p¡f fds_p„ r_es õ\p_p¡,
sfZLy„$X$, ìepepdipmp, q¾$X$p„NZp¡, lõsL$mp dpV¡$_y„ bÅf, õ\pr_L$
`f„`fpey¼s kp^_p¡ - QuS>hõsy_u vy$L$p_p¡, dp¡V$f NpX$uAp¡_u ÅmhZu_p
`pL®$, X$ui A¡ÞV¡$_p, BÐepqv$ A_¡L$ S>ê$qfepsp¡ `|fu `pX$hp_y„ Np¡W$hhpdp„
Aphi¡.
BSEL :

L„$`_u_p¡ Ly$g hluhV$/ìep`pf :-

L$„`_u dpmMpNs kyrh^pAp¡ r_dp®Z L$f_pfu A¡L$
`¡Y$u R>¡. (BSENIF) d„Nmhpf a¡b°yApfu 12du 2008_u kp„S>¡ 17.12
cpfsue õV$p.V$pCd dy S >b îu k¡ Þ vy $ bky http://
BSEL

content.icicidirect.com/pickofweek.asp?id=246
BSEL

dpmMpNs kyrh^pAp¡ r_dp®Z L$f_pfu `¡Y$u_¡ 1995_u kpgdp„
"b¡g kpD\ kplk rgrdV¡$X$' sfuL¡$ õ\p`hpdp„ Aphu lsu. `R>u
18

s¡ `¡Y$u_y„ _pd 1998_u kpgdp„ BSEL BÞap¡d£i_ rkõV$uçk sfuL¡$
a¡fhu_¡ rhrh^ âL$pf_u IT k¡hpAp¡ Ap`_pfu b_phhpdp„ Aphu
lsu. `R>u 2003_p Ap¡NõV$ dpkdp„ s¡_¡ afu ANpD_y„ _pd BSEL
Ap`u_¡, dpmMpNs kyrh^pAp¡ r_dp®Z L$f_pfu Ål¡f L$fu_¡ Ap
dpmMpNs L$pdp¡ rhL$kphhp dpV¡$_p DØ¡ihpmu b_phu v¡$hpdp„ Aphu.
cpfs kfL$pf_u Dv$pfuL$fZ_u _urs_p `qfZpd¡ dy¼sbÅf_u hpsp¡
Üpfp dpmMpNs rhL$pk L$fhp_u hpsp¡_¡ bm dþey„. s¡dp„ (`¥kp)
fp¡L$pZL$pfp¡ Å¡X$pC_¡ `p¡sp_p¡ apmp¡ Ap`u _hu rhL$pk A„N¡_u _urs
Üpfp gpcp¡ g¡hp ApL$jp®ep. Apd BSEL `¡Y$uA¡ Ap dpmMpNs
rhL$pk_¡ `p¡sp_u ìep`pfu âh©rÑ sfuL¡$ Np¡W$hu v$u^p¡.

kdphhpdp„ Apìey„ R>¡. Ap âL$pf_p„ A_¡L$rh^ ApL$j®Zp¡ Ecp„
L$fhp_y„ S>¡ Qgphpey„ R>¡ s¡ Üpfp 2005-2006_p Npmpdp„ L„$`_u_¡
OZu dlÒh_u sL$p¡ âpàs \i¡ s¡hu ^pfZp R>¡ L$pfZ L¡$, s¡d
L$fhp\u Ap A¡L$ rhriô$ L$np_u dpmMpNs kyrh^pAp¡ r_dp®Z
L$f_pfu `¡Y$u sfuL¡$ âõ\pr`s \hp_¡ ApNm h^u S>i¡.
18du S|>_ 2006_p qv$hk¡ BSEL dpmMpNs `¡Y$u_¡ L¡$hqX$ep Npd_u
lv$dp„_u 6 l¡¼V$f S>du_, "_d®v$p r_lpf' _pd_u bpv$iplu Apfpdv¡$eu
lp¡V¡$g r_dp®Z L$fhp dpV¡$ Ap`u v¡$hpdp„ Aphu. 1 L$fp¡X$ _¡ Óuk gpM
ê$r`ep `¡V¡$ 30 hj®_p `V¡$ Ap S>du_ A`pC. Ðepf `R>u s¡ S>du__p¡
L$bÅ¡ d¡mhhp dpV¡$ L¡$hqX$ep L$p¡gp¡_u_p hluhV$u Ar^L$pfuîu A¡L$ dp¡V$p
`p¡guk_p v$m_¡ gC_¡ Ðep„_p„ AX$^p¡ X$T_ r_hpku Apqv$hpku Ly$Vy„$bp¡_¡
S>bfS>õsu\u lV$phhp_¡ Aphu `lp¢Ãep S>¡\u s¡ S>du_ `f lp¡V¡$g_y„ bp„^L$pd
iê$ L$fu iL$pe. N°pdS>_p¡A¡ rhfp¡^ L$ep£ A_¡ s¡d_u kp\¡ Apk`pk_p
N°pdS>_p¡ `Z Å¡X$pep. Aph¡gp Ar^L$pfuAp¡_¡ âk„N_u N„cufsp kdÅC
A_¡ v¡$Mpey„ L¡$ L$pev$p¡ _¡ ìehõ\p_p dp¡V$p âñp¡ Ecp \C iL¡$ s¡d R>¡
s¡\u h^y `Ngp„ sp¡ _ cep¯ `f„sy L$l¡sp Nep L¡$ Ap gp¡L$p¡A¡ S>du__p¡
L$bÅ¡ kh¡mp Ås¡ S> Ap`u v¡$hp¡ rlsphl W$$fi¡ L$pfZ L¡$ s¡d_u S>du_p¡
sp¡ ¼epf_ue¡ Mpgkp L$ f u v¡ $ h pe¡ g u S> R>¡ .

s¡d_p Apep¡S>_ l¡W$m_u dy¿e âep¡S>_pAp¡
V¡$L$_p¡gp¡Æ `pL®$ hpiu, dy„bC (dlpfpô²$)
Ap„sffpô²$ue BÞap¡d£i_ V¡$L$_p¡. `pL®$, hpiu, _hu dy„bC
(dlpfpô²$)
BSEL

L¡$hqX$ep âp¡S>¡¼V$ NyS>fps *
`pdrbQ `¡f¡X$pCT, _¡fyg Np¡ëa L$p¡k®, _hu dy„bC. (dlpfpô²$)
* r_Nd s¡dS> NyS>fps kfL$pf Üpfp Ål¡f L$fpe¡gp V¡$ÞX$f Üpfp
X¡$d `R>u_p _v$u_p sV¡$ Aphsu 1400 l¡¼V$f S>du_ ÅNrsL$ L$np_u
âhpk_ kyrh^pAp¡ Ecu L$fhp dpV¡$ Ap¡NõV$$ 2004_u kpgdp„ fS|>
L$fhpdp„ Aphu A_¡ s¡ dpV¡$ fk ^fph_pfAp¡_¡ (EOI) dp„NZuAp¡
d|L$hp_y„ k|Qhhpdp„ Apìey„.
s¡hp¡ A`¡rns rhL$pk L$fu Ap`hp_u S>hpbv$pfu g¡hp dpV¡$_u
AfÆ BSEL `¡Y$uA¡ L$fu R>¡. Ap A„N¡_u dprlsu `y[õsL$p fS|>
\C A_¡ r_Nd¡ kL$pfpÐdL$ ârscph Apàep¡ A¡V$g¡ Ap V¡$ÞX$f
fS|> L$fhp_u âq¾$ep V|„$L$dp„ iê$ \hp_y„ kpd¡ Apìey„. Apd, L¡$hqX$ep
(NyS>fps)dp„ r_Nd¡ s¡dS> NyS>fps kfL$pf¡ S>¡ âep¡S>_p âõsys
L$fu R>¡ s¡dp„ DÐkpl`|h®L$ Å¡X$php_p¡ ApN°l ^ep£ R>¡. D¼s âep¡S>_pdp„
r_hpku ipmpAp¡, Ap„sffpô²$ue L$np_u r_hpku ipmpAp¡, lp¡V¡$gp¡,
fukp¡V®$, L$gb lpDk, Ap_„v$âdp¡v$_p„ L¡$ÞÖp¡, h_õ`rsS>s_ bpNp¡,
S>mM¡ g L| $ v $ (Water) L¡ $ Þ Öp¡ Apqv$ âh© r ÑAp¡ r_dp® Z L$ f hp_y „

Ap S>¡ S>du_p¡ L$bS>¡ g¡¡hp_u NZsfu R>¡ s¡ S>du_p¡ sb½$phpf kfL$pf_p
D`ep¡N dpV¡$ lõsNs L$fhpdp„ Aphu lsu. Ðep„ A¡L$ Ap¥Ûp¡rNL$ spgud L¡$ÞÖ
õ\p`hp, A¡L$ dÝed L$np_u kfL$pfu ipmp R>pÓpge krls_u L$fhp, kfL$pfu
L$d®QpfuAp¡_p fl¡ZpL$_p„ dL$p_p¡ A_¡ M¡su dpV¡$ D`ep¡Ndp„ g¡hp_u lsu. lh¡,
DÛp¡N spgud L¡$ÞÖ, ipmp A_¡ L$d®QpfuAp¡_p r_hpkp¡ dpV¡$_p„ dL$p_p¡ sp¡X$u
`pX$u_¡ bp„^L$pd iê$$ L$fhpdp„ Apìey„. s¡d L$fhp S>sp„ ip„rsgpgcpC_y„ Of A_¡
s¡_¡ afsu S>du_ Ap õ\m_p O¡fphpdp„ k`X$pC Nep„. s¡Ap¡ lÆ Ðep„ S> fl¡
R>¡. BSEL `¡Y$uA¡ s¡d_¡ A¡L$ Of bp„^u Ap`hp_y„ hQ_ Apàey„ R>¡. `f„sy N°pdS>_p¡
L„$`_u_¡ S>¡ S>du_p¡ g¡hu R>¡ s¡ Ap`u v¡$hp s¥epf _\u. ApS>qv$_ ky^u s¡ A„N¡_p¡
rhfp¡^ Qpgy S> füp¡ R>¡. Ap Al¡hpg fS|> L$fuA¡ R>uA¡ Ðepf¡ `Z N°pdS>_p¡_p
D`hpk Ap bpbs¡ Qpgu S> füp R>¡, `f„sy kÑp^uip¡ Ap rhfp¡^_¡ v$pv$ Ap`hp
dp„Nsp _\u.

19

20

10

b„^pfZ¡ Ap`¡gp Ar^L$pfp¡_¡ fyMkv

Npddp„ fp¡S>bfp¡S>_u S>¡ `qf[õ\rs Ecu \pe s¡ dyS>b N°pdkcp_¡ r_Z®e
L$fhp_p¡ Ar^L$pf Ap`hpdp„ Apìep¡ R>¡. Apd, kÑp_y„ rhL¡$ÞÖuL$fZ L$fu_¡ PESA
Üpfp õ\pr_L$ fus-qfhpÅ¡_¡ Ap^pqfs r_Z®ep¡ L$fhp_u A_¡ ghpv$u kdp^p_p¡
d¡mhhp_u s¡d S> Ðep„_p _¥krN®L$ öp¡sp¡ A_¡ kpdprS>L$ `f„`fpAp¡_¡ Åmhhp_p
Ar^L$pfp¡ N°pdkcp_¡ kp¢`hp_u âq¾$ep Ecu L$fu v¡$hpdp„ Aphu R>¡. Al]
A¡ L$l¡hy„ `Z AphíeL$ \pe R>¡ L¡$ cpfs õhs„Ó \ep `R>u ApV$gp âcphipmu
iåv$p¡dp„ N°pdkdpS>_¡ õ\pr_L$ fusqfhpÅ¡ A_¡ âpàs _¥krN®L$ öp¡sp¡ s¡dS>
s¡d_u `f„`fpNs âZpguAp¡_¡ Åmhhp dpV¡$_p¡ L$pev$p¡ Ap `l¡gp„ OX$pep¡
_lp¡sp¡.

õ\pr_L$ õhfpS>_u k„õ\pAp¡_p Ar^L$pfp¡_¡ ÅL$pfp¡, âpàs
[õ\rs e\phs¹ fpMhpdp„\u dy[¼s
k_ 2006dp„ L¡$hqX$ep âpr^L$fZ A[õsÐhdp„ Apìey„. `f„sy L¡$hqX$ep
L$p¡gp¡_u sp¡ NyS>fps fpÄe_p `„Qpesu fpS> L$pev$p l¡W$m 1991dp„ S> `„Qpes
^pfp_p r_ed_ l¡W$m Aphu NC lsu.
1997_u kpgdp„ S>¡ Ar^L©$s Ål¡fps L$fu_¡ _d®v$p rS>ëgp¡ fQhpdp„
Apìep¡, s¡ _d®v$p rS>ëgp¡ fQhp dpV¡$ cê$Q s¡dS> buÅ rS>ëgpAp¡_p¡ L¡$V$gp¡L$
rlõkp¡ g¡hpdp„ Apìep¡ lsp¡. _p„v$p¡v$ spgyL$p¡ S>¡ cê$Q rS>ëgp_y„ A„N lsy„,
s¡ _d®v$p rS>ëgp_y„ A„N bÞey„. L¡$hqX$ep L$p¡gp¡_u sp¡ _p„v$p¡v$ spgyL$pdp„ Aphu
R>¡ s¡\u s¡ `Z _d®v$p rS>ëgp_p A„Nc|s rhõspf_p¡ cpN S> \ep¡. _p„v$p¡v$
spgyL$p¡ sp¡ cpfs_p b„^pfZ_u A_yk|rQ-5 (`p„Q)_p Ar^r_ed l¡W$m
Ål¡f L$fu v¡$hpep¡ lsp¡. s¡ Ar^r_edp_ykpf L¡$hqX$ep L$p¡gp¡_u_p¡ rhõspf
`Z L$gd-5_p Ar^L$pf n¡Ódp„ S> NZhp¡ AphíeL$ \pe. A_¡ s¡\u `„Qpes
fpS> A„N¡_p 1996_p¡ ^pfp¡ PESA (Extension & Scheduled Area)
s¡_¡ `Z gpNy `X¡$ R>¡.
cpfs_p b„^pfZ_u Ap A_yk|rQ-5dp„ dyL$ff L$fpep dyS>b s¡dp„
_p¢^Zu \e¡gp r_ròs rhõspfp¡dp„ fl¡_pfp Apqv$hpkuAp¡_¡ õhr_rZ®s fpÄe
cp¡Nhhp_p¡ Ar^L$pf kyfrns L$fhpdp„ Apìep¡ R>¡. s¡ A_yk|rQ-5 \u PESA
Üpfp Apqv$hpkuAp¡_¡ `p¡sp_p n¡Óue rhõspf_p D`f_p Ar^L$pfp¡ s¡d S>
s¡ rhõspf_p rhL$pk A„N¡_p sdpd ep¡Áe gpN¡ s¡ r_Z®e L$fhp_p¡ Ar^L$pf
Ap`¡ R>¡. hmu, s¡ L$gd dyS>b s¡ rhõspfdp„ L$p¡C rb_Apqv$hpku_¡ L¡$
L$p¡C L$p¡`p£f¡i_ `¡Y$u_¡ S>du_ Ap`hp D`f ârsb„^ L$fhpdp„ Apìep¡ R>¡.
cpfs_p b„^pfZ_p 73dp ky^pfp dyS>b Apqv$hpkuAp¡_¡ k„`|Z® õhfpÄe_p
Ar^L$pfp¡ Ap`u_¡ rhL$pk L$fhp_u s¡dS> Agpev$u hluhV$u kÑp `p¡sp_p
rhõspfp¡dp„ cp¡Nhhp dpV$¡ Ap`u v¡$hpC R>¡. Ap PESA ^pfp¡ S>¡ 1996dp„
`kpf L$fhpdp„ Apìep¡ s¡ Üpfp dyL$ff L$f¡g rhõspfp¡_¡ s¡_u D`f Ar^L$pfp¡
cp¡Nhhp_y„ âõ\pr`s \e¡gy„ R>¡.
Apd,

PESA

A¡L$ kh®N°plu s¡dS> h^y kÑpv¡$eu L$pev$p¡ R>¡, S>¡_p Üpfp
21

Apd, PESA Üpfp N°pdkcp_¡ S>¡ kÑp Ap`hpdp„ Aphu R>¡ s¡ AÞhe¡
kpdprS>L$ A_¡ Apr\®L$ rhL$pk A„N¡_u d„S|>fu Ap`hp_p¡ Ar^L$pf A`pep¡ R>¡.
s¡dS> Nfubu v|$f L$fhp_p¡, N°pd `„Qpes_p„ _pZp„_p¡ D`ep¡N s¡d S> kpd|rlL$
öp¡sp¡ A_¡ rdgL$sp¡_u ÅmhZu, S>„Ng_p Np¥Z DÐ`pv$_ `f_p Ar^L$pfkrls
A_¡ N°pdS>du_ Mpgkp L$fhp A„N¡_p sdpd r_Z®ep¡ N°pdkcp_¡ Apr^_ d|L$hpdp„
Apìep R>¡. L¡$V$gp„L$ fpÄep¡A¡ s¡ Ar^L$pfp¡ N°pdkcp_¡ Apàep R>¡, S>¡ õ\peu
krdrs fQu_¡ hp`fhp_y„ Np¡W$hhpdp„ Apìey„ R>¡, s¡d L$fu_¡ A¡hp¡ _d|_p¡ Ecp¡
L$ep£ R>¡ L¡$ PESA_p Adg dpV¡$ s¡_y„ A_yL$fZ AÞeÓ \pe.

11

cpfs kfL$pf_p dprlsu Mpsp_u 2000_u kpg_u Ål¡fps dyS>b
Ap `„Qpes Ar^L$pf_y„ rhõs©suL$fZ A_¡ dyL$ff L$f¡gp rhõspfp¡dp„ PESA_p¡
L$pev$p¡ 24du qX$k¡çbf 1996_p qv$hk\u gpNy `pX$u v¡$hpep¡ R>¡. S>¡dp„ ApW$
fpÄep¡_p„ Apqv$hpku n¡Óp¡dp„ Ap ^pfp¡ Adgu L$fhp_y„ Np¡W$ìey„ R>¡. s¡ ApW$
fpÄep¡ A¡V$g¡ Ap„^°âv¡$i, rblpf, NyS>fps, rldpQg âv¡$i, dlpfpô²$, dÝeâv¡$i,
Ap¡qfõkp A_¡ fpS>õ\p__p rhõspfp¡ s¡dp„ NZhpdp„ Apìep R>¡. Apd L$fhp_p¡
l¡sy Apqv$hpkuAp¡ `p¡sp_p cprh D`f k„`|Z® r_b¯^ Ar^L$pf cp¡Nh¡
A_¡ s¡d_u `f„`fpAp¡ A_¡ âpàs _¥krN®L$ k„kp^_p¡_u B[ÃR>s ÅmhZu
L$f¡ s¡hp¡ R>¡. 23du qX$k¡çbf 1997 ky^udp„ D`fp¡¼s fpÄep¡_¡ s¡ A„N¡_p¡
L$pev$p¡ `kpf L$fhp_u S>hpbv$pfu kp¢`u v¡$hpC lsu. rblpf rkhpe_p„ sdpd
fpÄep¡dp„ PESAdp„ k|Qhpe¡gp Ar^L$pfp¡ Adgdp„ d|L$hp dpV¡$ L$pev$pAp¡
`kpf L$fhpdp„ Apìep R>¡.
Apd, PESA_p Ar^L$pfp¡ NyS>fps fpÄedp„ 1998 \u NyS>fps `„Qpes^pfp¡
22

`kpf \sp„_u kp\¡ Adgdp„ Aphu Nep R>¡. A_¡ Ap `„Qpes^pfp¡ kps rS>ëgp_p
33 spgyL$pdp„ Aph¡gp„ 5055 Npdp¡_¡ gpNy `pX$hpdp„ Apìep¡ R>¡.

Ar^L©$s kÑp_u D`fhV$
`¡kp (PESA) Üpfp âpàs õ\pr_L$ õhfpÄe_u k„õ\pAp¡_u b„^pfZue
kÑp_¡ L¡$hqX$ep rhL$pk âpr^L$fZ (KADA)_¡ sbv$ug L$fu_¡ kp¢`pdZu.

NyS>fps `„Qpes ^pfp dyS>b N°pdkcp_¡ S>¡ Abpr^s Ar^L$pfp¡ kp¢`pep R>¡
s¡dp„ _uQ¡_p_p¡ kdph¡i \pe R>¡.
0

Npd_p rhL$pk dpV¡$_u âep¡S>_p L¡$ L$pe®¾$d_¡ d„S|>f L$fhp_p¡ Ar^L$pf

0

Nfubu r_d|®g__p L$pe®¾$d dpV¡$ ìe[¼sAp¡_u `k„v$Nu, s¡ A„N¡_p L$pe®¾$dp¡
ep¡S>hp_p¡ Ar^L$pf

0

`„Qpes¡ S>¡ MQ® L$ep£ lp¡e s¡ A„N¡_y„ âdpZ`Ó `p¡s¡ S> Ap`u iL¡$ s¡hp¡
Ar^L$pf

Adpfu tQsp_p dy¿e dyØpAp¡ _uQ¡ dyS>b R>¡ :
0

cpfs_p fprô²$e b„^pfZ_p 73 A_¡ 74dp ky^pfp dyS>b S>¡ kÑp õ\pr_L$
õhfpÄe_u k„õ\pAp¡_¡ kp¢`hpdp„ Aphu R>¡ s¡ Lp$X$p (KADA)A¡ T|„V$hu
gu^u R>¡. A¡ kÑp NyS>fps fpÄe_p `„Qpes^pfp (PESA)\u `Z âpàs
rhõspfdp„ gpNy `X$pC lsu. R>sp„ Apd \ey„ R>¡. Adpfp¡ kÐeip¡^L$
s`pk_p¡ Al¡hpg, S>¡ D`f fS|> L$ep£ R>¡ s¡ D`f\u args \pe R>¡ L¡$
1998_p¡ NyS>fps_p¡ `„Qpes ^pfp¡ `Z L$p¡fpZ¡ d|L$u_¡ s¡dS> 1993_p¡
fpÄe_p¡ `„Qpes ^pfp¡ S>¡ Al] âpàs rhõspfdp„ r_^p®qfs ky^pfp
krls gpNy `pX$hpdp„ Apìep¡ lsp¡, s¡_u b^u S> L$gdp¡ "LpX$p'_p
rhõspfdp„ _pL$pd b_phu v$¡hpC R>¡. L$pX$p_p¡ dy¿e DØ¡i sp¡ A¡L$
âhpk_ L¡$ÞÖu rhL$pk-dpmMpNs a¡fapfp¡, ìep`pf A_¡ d|X$ufp¡L$pZ
Üpfp L$fphhp_p¡ R>¡.

0

Apd, A¡hp _d|_p_p¡ âQpf L$fhp_u Ap hps R>¡ L¡$ gp¡L$p¡_p„ L$pedu
fl¡ZpL$ õ\mp¡_¡ âhpk__p„ ^pdp¡dp„ a¡fhu v$C iL$pe.

0

S>¡ kdN° Apep¡S>__u qv$ip lsu s¡ bv$gu_¡ LpX$p_¡ dlÒh Ap`hp_y„
R>¡. (S>¡ kdN° Apep¡S>_ s¥epf \e„y lsy„ s¡ Üpfp õ\pr_L$ õhfpÄe_u
k„õ\pAp¡ Üpfp L$f¡gp Apep¡S>__¡ 1998_p `„Qpes ^pfp l¡W$m Ar^L©$s
L$fpey„ lsy„) s¡_p õ\p_¡ A¡L$ b©lv¹$ Apep¡S>_ l¡W$m âhpk_ A„N¡_u
rhL$pkâq¾$ep_¡ âp^pÞe Ap`u_¡ A_¡ rhriô$ kNhX$p¡ `|fu `pX$u_¡ âhpk_L¡$ÞÖu L$pdp¡ Mughhp_y„ âep¡Åey„ R>¡.

rhL$pkL$pdp¡ dpV¡$ S>du_p¡ Mpgkp L$fhp A„N¡_p r_Z®ep¡ bpbs spgyL$p
`„Qpes_¡ Ar^L$pfp¡ A`pep R>¡. L$p¡C `Z ìep`L$ rhL$pk_y„ Apep¡S>_ L$fhy„
lp¡e sp¡ spgyL$p `„Qpes_¡ Ap bpbsp¡ A„N¡ Ar_hpe®`Z¡ `|R>hp_y„ AphíeL$
NZhpdp„ Apìey„ R>¡. Ap bpbsp¡ _uQ¡ dyS>b R>¡ :
0
0

rhL$pk_u `qfep¡S>_p dpV¡$ spgyL$pdp„ L$p¡C `Z âL$pf_u S>du_ k„`pv$_
L$fsp„ `l¡gp„.
Aphu `qfep¡S>_p _¡ L$pfZ¡ ES>X$_pfp gp¡L$p¡_p `y_h®k_ bpbs¡.

Ap D`fp„s, Ap qL$õkpdp„ "kdsp'_p¡ QyL$pv$p¡ `Z gpNy `X¡$ R>¡. Ap„^°âv¡$idp„
L$pd L$fsu "kdsp' k„õ\pA¡ Ap„^°âv¡$i kfL$pf kpd¡ Apqv$hpkuAp¡_u S>du_
Mp_Nu L„$`_u_¡ MpZL$pd dpV¡$ guT `f Ap`hp bv$g L¡$k L$f¡gp¡ A_¡ "kdsp'
k„õ\p_u Æs \e¡gu. Sy>gpC 1997dp„ kyâud L$p¡V£$ Ap`¡gp Ap A¥rslprkL$
QyL$pv$pdp„ L$l¡hpdp„ Apìey„ R>¡ L¡$ ""kfL$pf `Z A¡L$ "ìe[¼s' R>¡. A_¡ s¡\u Apqv$hpku
rhõspfdp„ Mp_Nu L„$`_uAp¡_¡ kfL$pf¡ Ap`¡gu guT fv$ \e¡gu NZhpdp„ Aph¡.
v¡$i_p 8 L$fp¡X$ Apqv$hpkuAp¡ dpV¡$ Ap QyL$pv$p¡ OZp„ S> dlÒh_p„ Apr\®L$ s¡d
S> kp„õL©$rsL$ `qfZpdp¡ ^fph_pfp¡ lp¡C s¡_y„ ApNhy„ dlÒh R>¡. lh¡, Al] Ap`Zp
qL$õkpdp„ `Z k.k._. r_Nd L$pev$p_u ê$A¡ sp¡ A¡L$ ìe[¼s S> NZpe A_¡
s¡\u s¡ L¡$hqX$ep_p A_yk|rQ-5 l¡W$m Aphsp rhõspf_u S>du_p¡ Mp_Nu L„$`_uAp¡_¡
Vy$qfTd dpV¡$ Ap`u iL¡$ _l].
23

12

Ap ârhr^\u õ\pr_L$ õhfpÄe_u k„õ\pAp¡ s¡dS> s¡d_p Q|„V$pe¡gp
ârsr_r^Ap¡ S>¡d_¡ b„^pfZue Apv¡$i L¡$ kÑp_p rhL¡$ÞÖuL$fZ Üpfp Aphu
kÑpAp¡_p¡ Ar^L$pf Ap`pep¡ lsp¡ s¡ hps_¡ Mp¡V$L$phu_¡ `pV$p D`f\u Dspfu
v¡$hpdp„ Aphu R>¡. Apd, Ap cp¥Np¡rgL$ rhõspf_p Ar^L$pfp¡ M|„Qhu g¡hpdp„
Apìep R>¡. L$pfZ L¡$ NyS>fps kfL$pf_u ×rô$A¡ Ap rhõspf âhpk_ DÛp¡N
rhL$kphhp\u h^y _apL$pfL$ b_phu v¡$hpi¡. Apòe® `pdu S>hpe s¡hp b¡
24

A¥rslprkL$ L$v$dp¡ cfhp sfa_p âeÐ_p¡\u Ahmu S> qv$ip_y„ Ap L$v$d NZhy„
`X¡$ s¡d R>¡.

dlÒh_p dyØp Apdp„ k„L$mpe¡gp R>¡. `l¡gu hps A¡ R>¡ L¡$ kÑp_y„ rhL¡$ÞÖuL$fZ
L$fhpdp„ Apìey„ R>¡ L$pfZ S>m A_¡ S>du_ D`f (S>¡ bÞ_¡ r_kN®v$Ñ kp^_p¡_p¡
âhpk_ DÛp¡N_¡ Ar_hpe® Ap^pf R>¡) L$bÅ¡ L$fu g¡hpep¡ R>¡ s¡d S> kp\p¡kp\
kdN° rhL$pk_u âq¾$epdp„ Aphsp„ A„Np¡_¡ bv$g¡ âhpk__¡ âp^pÞe Ap`u_¡
Ap rhõspf_p L$kbp A_¡ il¡fp¡ A„N¡_p L$p_|_\u S>¡ âq¾$ep lp\ ^fpC lsu
s¡_p¡ R>¡v$ DX$pX$u_¡ L¡$hm âhpk_L¡$ÞÖu rhL$pk awg¡apg¡ A¡d Np¡W$hu v$u^y„ -- Ap A¡hp¡ _d|_p¡ R>¡ S>¡ õ\pr_L$ gp¡L$p¡_¡ D`L$pfL$ _ \C iL¡$. Apd L$fu_¡
L$pX$p âpr^LfZ_¡ õ\pr_L$ rhL$pk_p A`¡rns kpdpÞe dyØpAp¡_¡ v$bphu v¡$hp_p¡
Ar^L$pf Ap`u v¡$hpep¡ R>¡.

Ap\u S> khpg Ecp¡ \pe R>¡ L¡$
fpÄe_p Apep¡S>_ d„X$m_¡ fpÄecfdp„ L$ep„ L$ep„ _¥krN®L$ kp^_p¡ âpàs
R>¡ s¡_p¡ ¼epk d¡mhhp_p¡ R>¡. Å¡ L$p¡C rhõspfdp„ L$p¡C A_phíeL$ kp^_
D`gå^ _\u sp¡ s¡ OV$ v|$f L$fhp_p D`pep¡ L$fhp_p R>¡. Aphy„ L$fu_¡ fpÄe_p
sdpd rhõspfp¡_p¡ kdsp¡g rhL$pk \pe s¡hy„ Apep¡S>_ L$fhp_p¡ R>¡. A¡ `Z
lL$uL$s R>¡ L¡$ fpô²$_p b„^pfZ dyS>b kÑp_p¡ A_¡ Aphp Apep¡S>_dp„ `Z
rhL¡$ÞÖuL$fZ_p¡ Apv¡$i Ap`hpdp„ Apìep¡ R>¡. Aphp Apv¡$i_u rhfyÙ S>C_¡
L$p¡C n¡Ó_p ep¡Áe rhL$pk_¡ Ýep_dp„ gu^p hNf L$p¡C nrs`|Z® Apep¡S>_ fpÄe_y„
Apep¡S>_ d„X$m \p¡`u iL¡$ Mfy„ ? S>¡ kpdpÞes: ^pf¡gy„ Apep¡S>_ S>¡_¡ õ\pr_L$
Npdp¡ _¡ il¡fp¡A¡ Apep¡S>_ ^pfp dyS>b ìeh[õ\s r_ê$`Z L$ey¯ lp¡e s¡ âq¾$ep_¡
R>p„X$u_¡ A¡hy„ Np¡W$h¡ L¡$ âhpk__u sfa¡Z L$fu s¡_¡ rhriô$ kNhX$p¡ Ap`u_¡
âhpk_L¡$ÞÖu Apep¡S>_ OykpX$u v$C âhpk_ Mugh¡ --- s¡hp¡ _d|_p¡ õ\pr_L$
âÅ_¡ _ sp¡ D`ep¡Nu L¡$ gpcv$peu R>¡ bëL¡$, s¡ kpsÐe`|Z® Qpgu iL¡$ s¡d
`Z _\u.
Aphp¡ õ\pr_L$ gp¡L$cpNuv$pfuhpmu k„õ\pAp¡_p Ar^L$pfp¡ L$p¡C rhL$pk
dpV¡$ L$ë`¡gp âpr^L$fZ_¡ kp¢`u v¡$hp_p¡ Ap S>¡ âOps Qpgu füp¡ R>¡ s¡ sp¡ Äepf¡
Ap`Zp¡ v¡$i Nygpd lsp¡ Ðepf¡ s¡ hMs_p kÑp^pfuAp¡_u S>¡ kdS>Z lsu
L¡$ kfL$pf (dpbp`)_¡ S> õ\pr_L$ âÅ L$fsp„ h^y kpfu kdS>Zp¡ âpàs R>¡,
s¡ kdS>Zp¡ afu gpv$hp_p¡ âeÐ_ S> R>¡. Aphy„ L$fu_¡ âÅ_p rls_¡ _pd¡ õ\pr_L$
gp¡L$ipluey¼s k„õ\pAp¡_p Ar^L$pfp¡ T|„V$hu g¡hp_p¡ rkgrkgp¡ füp¡ R>¡. d|m
S>¡ kÑp_y„ rhL¡$ÞÖuL$fZ L$fsp„ flu_¡ õ\pr_L$ âÅ_¡ h^y ApÐdr_c®f L$fhp_p„
25

13

dp¡V¡$cpN¡ Äepf¡ âhpk__u ep¡S>_p Ål¡f L$fhpdp„ Aph¡ R>¡ Ðepf¡ A¡hy„
fS|> L$fhpdp„ Aph¡ R>¡ L¡$ k|rQs âep¡S>_p sp¡ r_d®m, r_kN®ey¼s lqfepmp Æh__y„
Ûp¡sL$ b_u fl¡ s¡ dpV¡$ âep¡S>hpdp„ Aphu R>¡. `f„sy lL$uL$s sp¡ K^u S> lp¡e
R>¡ A_¡ s¡_y„ hpõsrhL$ op_ sp¡ OÏ„ S> Ap¡Ry>„ dp¡V$p cpN_p_¡ lp¡e R>¡. Aphu
âhpk_ ep¡S>_pAp¡_¡ `qfZpd¡ õ\pr_L$ gp¡L$p¡_p Ar^L$pfp¡_p¡ cp¡N g¡hpdp„ Aph¡
R>¡ A_¡ s¡d_u fp¡Æfp¡V$u T|„V$hu g¡hp_p¡ ku^p¡ L¡$ ApX$L$sfp¡ âeÐ_ \sp¡ lp¡e
R>¡. hmu, õ\pr_L$ gp¡L$p¡_y„ kpdprS>L$ Æh_ Dv¹$Ýhõs L$fu_¡ s¡d_¡ rhõ\pr`s
b_phu v¡$hp_y„ S> `qfZpd Ap âhpk_ ep¡S>_p_¡ L$pfZ¡ \pe R>¡. Ap âhpk_
ep¡S>_p Üpfp d|m fl¡hpkuAp¡_¡ sN¡X$u d|L$u_¡, s¡d_p h„i`f„`fpNs ^„^pAp¡\u
lp„L$u L$pY$u - S>¡d L¡$ dpR>udpfu L$f_pfpAp¡_¡ s¡d_p l„d¡i_p fl¡ZpL$\u L$pY$u_¡
- `R>u ""`ep®hfZue âhpk_ ep¡S>_p'' S>¡dp„ kdyÖsV$u âhpk_, AcepfÎe
âhpk_, kplk âhpk_ S>¡hp„ _pdp¡\u _hpÆ_¡ gp¡L$dpÓ_¡ R>¡sfhpdp„ Aph¡
R>¡. Np¡fpC-1 d_p¡fudp„ k¡T (SEZ -- rhriô$ Apr\®L$ rhL$pk rhõspf) Üpfp
S>¡ âhpk_ s¡dS> Ap_„v$âdp¡v$ dpV¡$ rhL$kphhp_u NZsfu L$fu R>¡ s¡ sp¡ A¡L$
lÅf l¡¼V$f S>du_ M|„Qhu g¡hp dpV¡$ fS|> L$fhpdp„ Apìep¡ R>¡. qv$ëludp„ k„OfpÄep¡_p¡
(Commonwealth) S>gkp¡ \hp_p¡ R>¡ s¡ dpV¡$ 250 A¡L$f S>du__u S>ê$f R>¡.
A_¡ lqfepZp_¡ "X$uT_ug¡ÞX$' Ecy„ L$fhp dpV¡$ NyfNp„hdp„ blz ìep`L$ âdpZdp„
S>du_p¡ Mpgkp L$fhp_p¡ Cfpv$p¡ \ep¡ R>¡, Å¡ L¡$ L¡$V$gu S>du_ g¡hpi¡ s¡_p Ar^L©$s
Ap„L$X$p Ål¡f _\u L$fhpdp„ Apìep. L$põep (A¡ õ\m Äep„ byÙ cNhp_¡ Æh__p
A„rsd qv$hkp¡ Npþep lsp) Ly$iu_Nfdp„ cNhp_ byÙ_u âQ„X$ d|rs® õ\p`u_¡
Ðep„ A¡L$ rhõs©s âhpk_ ep¡S>_p, 700 Ly$Vy„$bp¡_¡ rhõ\pr`s L$fu_¡ 600 A¡L$f
M¡su_¡ gpeL$ D`ep¡Nu S>du_ Mpgkp L$fu_¡ L$fp¡X$p¡ X$p¡gfp¡_p¡ MQ® L$fu_¡, fQhp_p¡
Bfpv$p¡ L$fhpdp„ Apìep¡ R>¡. Ap âL$pf_u S> O¡gR>p\u kfv$pf kfp¡hf _d®v$p r_Nd¡
`ep®hfZue âhpk_ ep¡S>_p OX$u R>¡. hps sp¡ A¡ R>¡ L¡$ âhpk_ DÛp¡Ndp„
S>¡ s¡Æ Aphu R>¡ s¡_p¡ gpc g¡hp_¡ _pd¡ `ep®hfZ_¡ ky×Y$ L$fhp_u hps d|L$u
R>¡. bpL$u, Ap R>¡ sp¡ D`f S>Zph¡gu ep¡S>_pAp¡ S>¡hu c°pdL$ S>. k|rQs `ep®hfZue
ep¡S>_p Üpfp b„^_u _ÆL$_p„ Npdp¡_p lÆ h^y gp¡L$p¡_¡ rhõ\pr`s L$fhp_y„ S>
`qfZpd Aphi¡.
0

iy„ Npd_u kpd|rlL$ c|rd D`f_p¡ L$bÅ¡ A_¡ s¡ S>du__p h`fpi_p¡
26

Ar^L$pf, s¡d S> âpàs r_kN®v$Ñ D`g[å^Ap¡_p¡ D`ep¡N, s¡d_p kpdprS>L$
A_¡ kp„õL©$rsL$ Æh_ `f `X$_pfu Akfp¡ D`fp„s Ap sdpd rhõ\pr`s
\_pfp„ Ly$Vy„$bp¡_¡ buSy>„ b^y„ S>¡ L$p„C Nydphhy„ `X$i¡, s¡_p¡ `|f¡`|fp¡ A„v$pS>
d¡mhhpdp„ Apìep¡ R>¡ ?
0

hpõshdp„, Aphu âep¡S>_p_¡ `qfZpd¡ `ep®hfZue A_¡ kpdprS>L$ Akfp¡
iu iu \i¡ s¡_p¡ Aæepk sp¡ âep¡S>_p_¡ Adgdp„ d|L$sp `l¡gp„ S>
L$fhp¡ Å¡CA¡.

0

rhrh^ rhjep¡_p r_óZpsp¡_y„ A¡L$ õhs„Ó S|>\ fQu_¡ Aphu `ep®hfZue
A_¡ kpdprS>L$ Akfp¡_u Qp¡L$kpC`|h®L$_u NZsfu L$fphhu Å¡CA¡.

0

Aphp s`pkS|>\dp„ õ\pr_L$ âÅ_p ârsr_r^Ap¡_¡ kpd¡g L$fhp AphíeL$
NZphp Å¡CA¡.

0

`ep®hfZue A_¡ kpdprS>L$ Akfp¡_u NZsfu S> _l] bëL¡$, s¡_u
L$pmÆ g¡hp_y„ Apep¡S>_ S>ê$fu R>¡ A_¡ Å¡ S>du_p¡ k„`pv$_ L$fsp„
`l¡gp„ A¡d õ`ô$ \pe L¡$ k|rQs âep¡S>_p s¡dS> s¡_¡ gNsu AÞe
ep¡S>_p_¡ L$pfZ¡ kpdprS>L$ Akfp¡ rh`fus \i¡, sp¡ ep¡S>_p AV$L$phu
v¡$hu Å¡CA¡.

2000_u kpgdp„ fpô²$ue `y_h®k_ A_¡ âõ\p`__u _urs A„N¡_p¡
MfX$p¡, s¡d S> spS>¡sfdp„ 2006_u kpgdp„ `y_h®k_ A_¡ âõ\p`__p L$pev$p_p¡
dykØp¡ fS|> \ep¡ R>¡ s¡ bÞ_¡ rhj¡ EQUATION (C¼h¡i_) k„õ\pA¡ OZu
dlÒh_u V$uL$pAp¡ L$fu R>¡. s¡dp„_u dy¿e V$uL$p A¡ R>¡ L¡$ â^p_`Z¡ S>¡ Akfp¡
ku^u L¡$ ApX$L$sfu Aphp âL$ë`p¡dp„ \pe R>¡ s¡ Ýep_dp„ g¡hpsu _\u. v$pMgp
sfuL¡$ Np¡Apdp„ `„QspfL$ lp¡V¡$gp¡ s¡dS> fukp¡V$p£ A[õsÐhdp„ Apìep„ R>¡.
(v$f¡L$ fukp¡V£$ kdyÖ sV$_u huk A¡L$f S>du_ L$bS>¡ gu^u R>¡) bp¡Npdp¡V$p¡
buQ fukp¡V$®, lp¡guX¡$ C_ buQ fukp¡V®$, dp¡bp¡f sV¡$ gugp `¡g¡k A_¡ spS>
ApNyX$p fukp¡V®$, L$pgp_NyV¡$ sV¡$ A_¡ Aphp„ A_¡L$ fukp¡V$p£ kdyÖ sV¡$ fQpC
Q|¼ep„ R>¡. s¡dp„ spS> ApNyX$p fukp¡V®$ kl¡gpZuAp¡ dpV¡$ kp¥\u h^y ApL$j®Z_y„
L¡$ÞÖ b_u Q|¼ey„ R>¡. Ap fukp¡V®$ rhL$kphhp s¡Z¡ gNcN 73 A¡L$f S>du_
L$pgp_NyV¡$ kdyÖ sV$_u L$bS>¡ L$f¡gu R>¡. Ap fukp¡V$p£ rhL$kphhp\u, cg¡
blz dp¡V$u k„¿ep_p gp¡L$p¡_y„ rhõ\p`_ \ey„ _p lp¡e, `f„sy S>_kpdpÞe_¡
kdyÖsV$_p¡ l„d¡i dyS>b_p D`ep¡N L$fhp D`f fyL$phV$p¡ Aphu NC R>¡. A_¡
27

s¡d_p Æh_ep`_ dpV¡$_p ìehkpep¡ D`f Akf \e¡gu R>¡. _p_p„ T|„`X$p„
^fph_pfp A_¡ dpR>udpfu L$fu_¡ Æh_pfu L$p¡dp¡ s¡ b^pe_¡ Ap rhL$pk_p
L$pe®¾$dp¡ _X$sfê$` bÞep R>¡. cpfs kfL$pf_u fprô²$e kgplL$pf krdrsA¡
S>¡ hps ApN°l`|h®L$ Ýep_ `f d|L$u R>¡ s¡dp„ A¡ õ`ô$ L$l¡hpey„ R>¡ L¡$ Aphu
ep¡S>_pAp¡_¡ L$pfZ¡ L¡$hm gp¡L$p¡_p„ Ofbpf_y„ rhõ\p`_ S> _\u \sy„ `f„sy
s¡d_p Æh_ep`_ A_¡ kpdprS>L$ s¡dS> kp„õL©$rsL$ hpfkp-hpsphfZ_¡
Dv¹$Ýhõs L$fhpdp„ Ap rhL$pk-ep¡S>_pAp¡ L$pfZc|s \pe R>¡.

dkdp¡V$u Mp_Nu L„$`_uAp¡_y„ "âhpk_'
Ål¡f rls_y„ L$pd bÞey„ !!
S>¡ S>du_p¡ kfv$pf kfp¡hf `qfep¡S>_p dpV¡$ k„`pqv$s L$fhpdp„ Aphu lsu,
s¡ S>du_p¡ BSEL S>¡hu Mp_Nu kplk_u `¡Y$u_¡ L$bÅdp„ Ap`u v¡$hu A¡ sp¡
d|m fS|>Aps\u rh`fus A¡hu OV$_p sfuL¡$ S> _p¢^hu `X¡$ s¡d R>¡. Nd¡ s¡V$gu
R|>V$ gC_¡ rhQpfuA¡ sp¡ `Z b„^_p r_dp®Z dpV¡$ g¡hpe¡gu S>du_ L$p¡C Mp_Nu
`¡Y$u_¡ lp¡V¡$g bp„^hp dpV¡$ A`pe s¡ sp¡ L$p¡C `Z hpv¡$ Ål¡f rls NZphu iL$pe
s¡d _\u. s¡d R>sp„ s¡ lp¡V¡$g dpV¡$ Ap`u v¡$hpC R>¡. iy„ âhpk_ DÛp¡N L$p¡C
`Z NZsfuA¡ Ål¡f rls_y„ dp_u iL$pe ?

14

Ap `l¡gp„ `Z L¡$hqX$epdp„ S>¡ S>du_p¡ h`fpep hNf `X$sf flu s¡hu
S>du_p¡ NyS>fps kfL$pf¡ Sy>v$u Sy>v$u k„õ\pAp¡_¡, R|>V$ gC_¡ Ap`u sp¡ v$u^u S>
R>¡. S>¡d L¡$ õhpdu_pfpeZ V²$õV$_¡ (gNcN 10 A¡L$f L¡$hqX$ep Npdsm_u S>du_),
i|g`pZ¡ðf d„qv$f V²$õV$_¡ (Np¡fp Npd_u gNcN v$k A¡L$f S>du_), S>„Ng Mpsp_¡
(40 A¡L$f _hpNpd_u S>du_). A¡ S>du_ D`f fpÄe_p kyfnp `p¡gukv$m_p¡
L¡$ç` s¡dS> s¡_y„ v$asf `Z õ\`pC Q|¼ep„ R>¡. Ap sØ_ N¡fL$pev¡$kf `Ngp„
R>¡. s¡\u S> Ap A„N¡ Npdgp¡L$p¡A¡ sL$fpf r_hpfZ âpr^L$fZ GRA (Adv$phpv$)
kdn 2000_u kpgdp„ aqfepv$ _p¢^phu lsu A_¡ Ap fus¡ AÞe s¡f L$pdp¡dp„
S>du_p¡ apmhhp bpbs¡ fp¡L$ gNphhp dpV¡$ âpr^L$fZ `pk¡\u lzL$d d¡mìep¡
lsp¡. s¡ lzL$d dyS>b S>¡ 200 A¡L$f k„`pqv$s \e¡gu S>du_ hZh`fpe¡gu
R>¡ s¡_¡ AÞeÓ hp`fhp rhfyÙ GRAA¡ r_Z®e Ap`u_¡ kfL$pf_¡ e\phs¹
[õ\rs fpMhp_p¡ Apv¡$i Apàep¡ lsp¡. Ap D`fp„s Ap sL$fpf r_hpfZ âpr^L$fZ¡
Npdgp¡L$p¡_¡ A¡hy„ hQ_ Apàey„ lsy„ L¡$ r_Nd s¡d S> kfv$pf kfp¡hf `y_h®k_
28

k„õ\p_¡ Ap R>e¡ Npd_p gp¡L$p¡_p `y_h®k__p AdguL$fZ dpV¡$ A¡L$ ep¡S>_p
àgp_ b_phhp dpV¡$ afS> `pX$i¡. s¡d R>sp„ s¡dp„_y„ L$iy„ S> \ey„ _\u. EgV$p_y„
Ap âhpk_ ep¡S>_p dpV$¡ `X$sf fl¡gu S>du_p¡ Ap`u v¡$hp_u hps QgphpC
flu R>¡. Ap_¡ L$p¡C fus¡ Ål¡f rls NZu iL$pe s¡d _\u. ApMu hps_¡
a¡fhu_¡ sp¡mpC flu R>¡.

Ål¡f rls_¡ _pd¡ k„`pv$_ L$f¡gu S>du_p¡ Mp_Nu `¡Y$u, kplk_¡, rhL$pkL$pfp¡_¡
âhpk_ _urs_p _pd¡ Ap`u v¡$hp_y„ N¡fL$p_|_u `Ngy„ cfhp_p¡ Cfpv$p¡ NyS>fps
kfL$pf 2008_u kpg_p dÝedp„ Ål¡f L$fhp S>C flu R>¡. kfL$pf âõsph A¡hp¡
L$fhp dp„N¡ R>¡ L¡$ Vy$fuTd_u ep¡S>_pAp¡_¡ dpV¡$ S>du_ k„`pv$_ L$fhp_y„ kl¡gy„ b_¡,
S>¡\u kfL$pf_¡ S>¡ dy[¼s `X$sf S>du_p¡ DÛp¡Np¡_¡ Ap`hp_¡ dpV¡$ âpàs R>¡ s¡
lp¡V¡$gp¡, f¡õV$p¡fp„, A¡`pV$®d¡ÞV$hpmu lp¡V¡$gp¡ Apqv$_y„ r_dp®Z L$fphhpdp„ kfmsp
\pe. Ap D`fp„s `X$sf S> _l], Mp_Nu S>du_p¡ `Z S>du_ k„`pv$_ ^pfp
l¡W$m Mpgkp L$fu_¡ rhrh^ âhpk_ âep¡S>_p Üpfp L$pev$p\u _p¢^pe¡gu L„$`_uAp¡_¡
Ap`u v$C iL$pe.

Ap\u S> Aphp qL$õkpAp¡ S>¡hp buÅ qL$õkpAp¡_¡ Ap^pf¡ A¡ S>ê$qfeps
õ`ô$ S> Ecfu Aph¡ R>¡ L¡$ "Ål¡f rls' L$p¡_¡ L$l¡hy„ s¡_¡ A„N¡_u Qp¡¿Mu ìep¿ep
L$fhu S>ê$fu R>¡. s¡ ìep¿ep A¡hu lp¡hu Å¡CA¡ L¡$ S>¡dp„ L$p¡C R>V$L$bpfu _p fl¡
A_¡ d_OX„$s A¡hp„ A\®OV$_ L$fu_¡ s¡_p¡ vy$fy`ep¡N L$fhp dpV¡$ L$p¡C AhL$pi
_p fl¡. AÐepf_u [õ\rs A¡hu R>¡ L¡$ (Ål¡f rls dpV¡$ S>du_ k„`pv$_ L$fhp
dpV¡$ 1894_p L$pev$p dyS>b A_¡ âõsprhs 2007_p¡ S>du_ k„`pv$_ L$fhp
A„N¡_p¡ dykØp¡ A_¡ `y_h®k_ A_¡ âõ\p`__p¡ 2000_u kpg_p¡ L$pev$p¡) Ap_p
Ap^pf¡ kfL$pfp¡_¡ OZu dy¼s A¡hu R|>V$p¡ (L¡$ R>V$L$ bpfuAp¡ ?) S>du_ k„`pv$_
L$fhp dpV¡$ âpàs \e¡gu R>¡. s¡\u S>¡ S>¡ L$p¡dp¡-gp¡L$p¡_¡-Aphp„ Mp¡V$p„ A\®OV$_p¡_¡
L$pfZ¡ vy$N®d cpf Tughp¡ `X$ép¡ R>¡ A_¡ rhõ\pr`s \hy„ `X$éy„ R>¡, s¡ b^pe_u
gp„bp kde\u dp„NZu R>¡ L¡$ Ap "Ål¡f rls'_u Qp¡¿Mp iåv$p¡dp„ ìep¿ep
L$fu v¡$hu Å¡CA¡.

îu bu. Æ. hN}k, S>¡Ap¡ dlpL$pe b„^p¡_p `p½$p kd\®L$ R>¡ A¡hp
hN}kÆA¡ S|>_ 2006dp„ _d®v$p rhõ\p`_ A_¡ Apqv$hpkuAp¡ A„N¡ ìep¿ep_dp„
L$l¡gy„, ""b„^ \hp_¡ L$pfZ¡ Apqv$hpkuAp¡_u S>¡ Apr\®L$ Akdp_spdp„ h^pfp¡
\ep¡ R>¡, Mpk L$fu_¡ cug gp¡L$p¡ S>¡Ap¡ b„^_u D`fhpkdp„ fl¡ R>¡ s¡d_¡ kfL$pf¡
rhL$pk dpV¡$_u ep¡Áe ep¡S>_pAp¡ L$fu_¡ S>¡ S>du_p¡ Mpgkp L$fu R>¡ s¡dp„_p cpNp¡
s¡d_¡ Ap`u v¡$hp_y„ Np¡W$hhy„ Å¡CA¡'' (8du S|>_ 2006 IANS). `f„sy NyS>fps
kfL$pf L¡$ r_Nd s¡hy„ L$fhp_y„ rhQpfsu _\u.

A_y k | r Qs Års A_¡ A_y k | r Qs S>_Års_p L$ëepZ A„ N ¡ _ u
`pgp®d¡ÞV$fu L$rdV$uA¡ s¡_p 59 (Ap¡NZkpW$)dp Al¡hpgdp„ ""dÝeâv¡$i_u
rhL$pk âep¡S>_pAp¡_¡ `qfZpd¡ S>¡ Apqv$hpkuAp¡_¡ rhõ\pr`s L$fhpdp„ Apìep
R>¡ s¡d_¡ S>¡ Apqv$hpkuAp¡ `pk¡\u S>du_ afrS>eps`Z¡ k„`pqv$s L$fhpdp„
Aphu R>¡ A_¡ S>¡ hZh`fpe¡gu flu R>¡ s¡ S>du_p¡ Mpgkp L$f_pf Ar^L©$s
hluhV$ L$f_pfu k„õ\pA¡ S>¡ Apqv$hpkuAp¡ d|m S>du_^pfL$p¡ lp¡e s¡d_¡
`fs L$fhu Å¡CA¡'' A¡hu õ`ô$ cgpdZ L$f¡gu R>¡.

kÞdp__ue S>õV$uk v$pDv$ (r_h©Ñ), S>¡dZ¡ NyS>fps kfL$pf¡ õ\p`¡gu
`y_h®k__u hkplsp¡_u dygpL$ps gu^p `R>u s¡Ap¡A¡ rhõ\pr`sp¡ kdn L$üy„
lsy„ L¡$ ""õh¡ÃR>p\u L¡$ v$bpZ\u rhõ\p`_ L$fhy„ `X¡$ Ðepf¡ rhõ\p`__p¡ O¡fp¡
ApOps \pe S> A¡ sp¡ kh®dpÞe kdS>Z R>¡. `f„sy Ap _d®v$p ep¡S>_p_¡ `qfZpd¡
S>¡d_¡ rhõ\pr`s \hy„ `X$éy„ R>¡ s¡d_u sp¡ A[Á_`funp S> \e¡gu R>¡. `R>u
A¡hu S>du_p¡ kfv$pf kfp¡hf dpV¡$ L¡$ _l¡fp¡ dpV¡$ L¡$ L$p¡gp¡_u_p r_dp®Z dpV¡$
Mpgkp L$fhpdp„ Aphu lp¡e s¡ b^p„edp„ L$p¡C rhõ\pr`s A¡ gpNZu\u dy¼s
_\u L¡$ s¡d_¡ R>¡sfhpdp„ Apìep„ R>¡, g|„V$u g¡hpdp„ Apìep„ R>¡ _¡ A`dpr_s
L$fhpdp„ Apìep„ R>¡. S>¡ _hu hkplsp¡ Ecu L$fhpdp„ Aphu R>¡ Ðep„ Aph_Åh_
dpV¡$_p fõsp, _m Üpfp `pZu_u hps sp¡ c|gu S> Åh; huS>mu, r_ipm
L¡$ lp¡[õ`V$g, S>¡hu âp\rdL$ AphíeL$spAp¡\u e¡ s¡d_¡ h„rQs fpMhpdp„ Apìep„
R>¡. S>¡ ApR>u`psmu S>du_p¡ s¡d_¡ apmhhpdp„ Aphu R>¡ s¡dp„ A¡ hps_y„
`Z Ýep_ fpMhpdp„ _\u Apìey„ L¡$ S>du_p¡ L¡$hp õsf_u R>¡. A_¡ Ap gp¡L$p¡
Äepf¡ S>„Ng_u _ÆL$ fl¡sp„ lsp„ Ðepf¡ s¡d_u _p_u dp¡V$u S>ê$qfepsp¡, r_kN®v$Ñ

29

30

fprô²$e kgplL$pf krdrs (cpfs kfL$pf_u)A¡ `y_h®k_ A_¡ `y_:âõ\p`_
A„N¡_p¡ S>¡ Al¡hpg s¥epf L$ep£ s¡dp„ Ål¡f rls A_¡ Ål¡f DØ¡i\u L$fhp_p„
kfL$pfu L$pdp¡ rhj¡ ìep¿ep L$fu A_¡ s¡ ìep¿ep_p„ b^p„ `pkpAp¡_u kdS>Zp¡
Ap`hp dpV¡$_u r_ròs gpC_ v$p¡fu Ap`u L$pfZ L¡$ Ap Ål¡f rls-DØ¡i A„N¡_p„
A\®OV$_p¡_p¡ D`ep¡N L¡$hm "rhõ\p`_' L$fhp_u âq¾$ep_¡ L$pev¡$kf_u NZhp
dpV¡$ S> g¡hpsp¡ füp¡ R>¡.

15

kp^_p¡ kl¡S>¡ d¡mhu iL$sp„ lsp„ s¡ lh¡ L¡$hu fus¡ d¡mhu iL$i¡ s¡_u L$p¡C
L$pmÆ g¡hpdp„ Aphu _\u.''

s¡d_u ApipAp¡ D`f `pZu afu hþey„ R>¡, Ðepf¡, s¡Ap¡ d|m âep¡S>_p\u
AkfN°õs \ep R>¡ s¡hp¡ õhuL$pf \pe s¡hu hps rkÙ L$fhp_¡ Ap N°pdS>_p¡
BÃR>¡ R>¡, s¡d S> S>¡ âdpZ¡ X|$bdp„ S>_pfpAp¡_¡ S>¡ Ås_y„ hmsf A`pey„ s¡hy„
hmsf kfL$pf Ap`¡ s¡d BÃR>¡ R>¡. ApS>_y„ L¡$hqX$ep blz S>gv$u\u _pdi¡j
\C S>hp_y„ R>¡. gudX$u L¡$ Np¡fp, l„kpbl¡_ L¡$ ip„rscpC, ^dp® L¡$ grgspb¡_
L¡$ _pftkNcpC b^p„e, sdpd Agp¡` \C S>i¡. Al] sp¡ li¡ L¡$hm cìev$i®_
dpV¡$_p `p¡BÞV$¹k 1, 2, 3; L¡$ smphp¡, 2, 3, 4, Np¡ëa fdhp dpV¡$_y„ rhipm
d¡v$p_, L¡$ hp¡V$f`pL®$ A_¡ AgbÑ, `¡gy„ Apqv$hpku k„õL©$rs_y„ k„N°lpge A_¡
`¡gp¡ A\®lu_ b„^. Ap b^y„ Apqv$hpkuAp¡_y„ õ\p_ g¡i¡ !

dp.S>õV$uk v$pDv¡$ h^ydp„ _p¢Ýey„ lsy„ L¡$ ""h^pf¡ Aõhõ\ L$f_pfu hps
sp¡ Ap sfR>p¡X$pe¡gp gp¡L$p¡ A_¡ s¡d_y„ kd\®_ L$f_pfp gp¡L$p¡ D`f S>¡ v$d__p¡
L$p¡fX$p¡ thÈep¡ R>¡ s¡ R>¡. Aphp rhfp¡^ L$f_pfp_¡ dpV¡$ S>¡ âq¾$ep A`_phpC R>¡
A_¡ S>¡ `Ngp„ cfhpdp„ Apìep„ R>¡ s\p Qp¡L$u `l¡fp_u L$X$L$pC\u dp„X$u_¡ k„`|Z®
Ny„X$pNufu ky^u_u L$pe®hplu_p¡ S>¡ Apifp¡ g¡hpep¡ R>¡, s¡ ApOpsS>_L$ R>¡. Aphp
rhõ\pr`sp¡_¡ Nd¡ Ðepf¡ AV$L$dp„ g¡hpdp„ Aph¡ R>¡. A¡d_p„ Ofp¡ D`f Adp_hue
fus¡ Ap¾$dZ L$fhpdp„ Aph¡ R>¡. s¡d_p„ bpmL$p¡ A_¡ ÷uAp¡_¡ ÅZ¡ Qp¡f lp¡e
s¡ fus¡ ^L¡$gu L$pY$hpdp„ Aph¡ R>¡. bkdp„ gC S>C v|$f_p kyv|$f_p„ õ\mp¡¡A¡
gC S>C ¼ep„e S>„Ngdp„ L¡$ Ahphfp õ\m¡ a¢L$u v¡$hpdp„ Aph¡ R>¡.... Ap b^y„
S>, rbgLy$g NZsfu`|h®L$_u L$pe®hplu L$fu_¡ rhfp¡^ L$f_pfpAp¡_¡ v$bphu v¡$hp
_¡ Ap sfR>p¡X$pe¡gp s¡dS> s¡d_¡ klp_yc|rs v$ip®h_pfpAp¡_u bp¡gsu S> b„^
L$fhp dpV¡$ `p¡s¡ S>¡ kÑp ^fph¡ R>¡ s¡ fpnku`Zp_p `fQp_¡ V$L$phhp_p¡ âeÐ_
L$fhpdp„ Aphu füp¡ R>¡ (NyS>fps_p rhõ\pr`sp¡_u `qf[õ\rs - cpfsue
S>_ kdpS>_p V²$uåey_g_p¡ `ep®hfZue A_¡ dp_h Ar^L$pf Al¡hpg - 6Ì$p¡
Al¡hpg; 1994, dy„bC).
L¡$rhX$ep, Np¡fp, rgdX$u, hpOp¡qX$ep, _hpNpd A_¡ L$p¡W$u, Ap R>e¡ Npdp¡
ApS>¡ k„`|Z®`Z¡ _¡õs_pb|v$ \C Nep„ R>¡. Ap N°pdS>_p¡A¡ s¡d_u gX$s Qpgy
fpMu R>¡ Mfu. `f„sy s¡d_u spL$ps A_¡ k„L$ë`i[¼s OV$u füp„ R>¡. _d®v$p
bQph Ap„v$p¡g__p¡ L¡$hqX$ep Npd_p¡ S> L$d®iug eyhp_ qv¡$_¡i OZu NdNu_u
A_¡ gpNZu`|h®L$ L$l¡ R>¡, ""fp¡S> fp¡S> L$p¡C _¡ L$p¡C blpf\u Aphu_¡ Ap
âhpk_ ep¡S>_p_p¡ gpc DW$phu füp R>¡. Adpfu b^u S>du_p¡ sp¡ S>su S>
flu R>¡. Adpf¡ dpV¡$ Al] _cphhp_¡ dpV¡$ L$p¡C kp^_ L¡$ ìehkpe âpàs
_\u. Adpfu `pk¡ d|X$u L„C S> _\u. Ap blpf\u Aphsp ìep`pfuAp¡_u
õ`^p®dp„ L$p¡C fus¡ Esfu iL$uA¡ s¡d _\u. Ad_¡ _p_u vy$L$p_ Mp¡ghp_p¡
Ar^L$pf `Z âpàs _\u.'' Apd, kfv$pf kfp¡hf_p b„^¡ R>¡¡ëgp„ 47 hj®dp„
S>¡ rkÙ _\u L$ey¯ s¡ Ap âhpk_ ep¡S>_p_u b|„Nu `p¡L$pfu_¡ 900 Apqv$hpku
Ly$Vy„$bp¡_¡ s¡d_p h„i`f„`fpNs õ\mp¡A¡\u lp„L$u L$pY$hp_y„ L$pd Ap`Zu kfL$pf
`pf `pX$u flu R>¡.
31

16

32

`qfriô$ 1
âhpk_ A„N¡_p S>¡ dyØpAp¡ b„^pfZ_p 73dp A_¡ 74dp ky^pfp Üpfp
âhpk_ DÛp¡N_u S>ê$qfepsp¡ s¡d S> `„Qpesp¡ A_¡ çeyr_rk`prgV$uAp¡_p Ar^L$pfp¡
A_¡ S>hpbv$pfuAp¡ A„N¡ L$fhpdp„ Aph¡gu õ`ô$spAp¡_p¡ Apg¡M :
Ap sdpd Ar^L$pfp¡ A_¡ S>hpbv$pfuAp¡ A_yk|rQ X1 (Schedule
S>¡ `„Qpesp¡_u kÑp A_¡ Ar^L$pf rhj¡ R>¡.) A_¡ A_yk|rQ X11th (Schedule
S>¡ çeyr_rk`prgV$u_u kÑp A_¡ Ar^L$pfp¡ rhi¡ R>¡) s¡ bÞ_¡ b„^pfZdp„
S>¡ fus¡ Apd¡S> L$fhpdp„ Apìep R>¡, s¡ dyS>b _uQ¡_p¡ L$p¡W$p¡ s¥epf L$fhpdp„
Apìep¡ R>¡.$ $
`„Qpesp¡ A_¡
çeyr_rk`prgV$uAp¡_p
Ar^L$pfp¡ s¡dS> kÑpAp¡
S>du_ ky^pfZp, S>du_p¡_u
hl¢QZu/apmhZu_p
ky^pfp_p¡ Adg (X1dp„
Schedule _u epv$u
dyS>b) S>du_p¡_p¡ ep¡Áe
h`fpi, A_¡ dL$p_p¡_u
_p¢^Zu L¡$ il¡fuL$fZ
A„N¡ (X11dp Schedule)_u
epv$u dyS>b$
il¡fu h_rhcpN,
`ep®hfZ_y„ k„fnZ
(ScXII âdpZ¡) S>du_
A¡L$ÓuL$fZ A_¡ S>du_
^p¡hpZ Apqv$ kpd¡
k„fnZ Schedule XI
âdpZ¡
L$pC¡ rhL$pk_p L$pd dpV¡$ Å¡
S>du_ k„`pv$_ L$fhu lp¡e
sp¡ S>¡ rhõspfp¡ D`f
âdpZ¡_u epv$udp„ kdprhô$

âhpk_ DÛp¡N_u
AphíeL$spAp¡
lp¡V$gp¡, gp¡Å¡, fukp¡V®$,
sfZLy„$X$p¡, L¡$rk_p¡,
Np¡ëaL$p¡k® Apqv$ dpV¡$
S>du__u AphíeL$sp

_p¢^

S>¡ S>du_p¡ `„Qpes L¡$
çeyr_rk`prgV$u_u
lv$_u A„v$f Aphsu
lp¡e s¡ dpV¡$ Ap õ\pr_L
õhfpÄe_u k„õ\pAp¡_u
d„S|>fu\u âhpk_
dpV¡$ Ap`u iL$pe. S>¡d_¡
Ar^L$pf lp¡e s¡ Ap`¡.

17
r_kN®v$Ñ kp^_p¡_p¡
h`fpi

lp¡V¡$gp¡, gp¡Å¡, fukp¡V®$,
sfZLy„$X$p¡, L¡$rk_p¡,
Np¡ëaL$p¡k® hN¡f¡ A_¡
âhpk_ k„b„r^s
33

âpàs r_kN®v$Ñ kp^_p¡
S>¡ `„Qpes_u L¡$
çeyr_._u _ÆL$dp„ lp¡hp\u
s¡_p D`ep¡N_p¡ klS>
Ar^L$pf âpàs R>¡. s¡\u
s¡ Ðep„_p gp¡L$p¡_p¡
Ar^L$pf b_¡ R>¡.
õ\pr_L$ k„õ\pAp¡_u
d„S|>fu d¡mhhu
S>ê$fu R>¡.

lp¡e s¡_¡ N°pdkcp L¡$
`„Qpes_u d„S|>fu Üpfp
Aphp rhL$pk_u S>¡ gp¡L$p_¡ ¡
Akf \hp_u R>¡ s¡d_p
`y_h®k_ A_¡ âõ\p__p¡
r_Z®e L$fhp_p¡ fl¡i¡.
(S>¡\u Ap dyL$ff L$fg¡ p
Apqv$hpku rhõspf_p
Apqv$hpku gp¡L$p¡_¡ AÞe
L$p¡C Ar^L$pf ^fphsu
lõsu_¡ Aphp S>du__p
D`ep¡N A„N_¡ p Ars
dlÒh_p rhje¡ A_¡
S>du_\u sfR>p¡X$pC S>hp
A„N¡ L$p„C L$f¡ s¡_u hpV$
Å¡hp_u _ fl¡. b„^pfZ
Üpfp A_¡ `¡kp Üpfp S>
`qfÃR>¡v$dp„ Ar^L$pfp¡ R>¡
s¡ AÞhe¡)
_p_u tkQpC, `pZu_p¡
hluhV$, S>möph n¡Ó
(watershed)_p¡
rhL$pk (Sch X âdpZ¡)
Ofh`fpi, ìep`pf
dpV¡$ A_¡ DÛp¡Np¡_¡
Ap`hp A„N¡
(Sch XII âdpZ¡)
(`¡kp_p Ar^r_ed
dyS>b) _p_p-dp¡V$p
`pZu_p öp¡sp¡_p¡ hluhV$
A_¡ Apep¡S>_ L$fhp_p¡
Ar^L$pf
Of h`fpi, ìep`pf
A_¡ DÛp¡N dpV¡$

âep¡S>_p dpV¡$ S>du_p¡_u
AphíeL$sp

lp¡V¡$g DÛp¡N, sfZLy„$X$,
Np¡ëaL$p¡k® A_¡ lp¡V$¡gp¡
s¡dS> fukp¡V$®dp„ Aph_pfp
kl¡gpZuAp¡_u l„d¡i_u
S>ê$qfepsp¡ dpV¡$ `pZu_u
AphíeL$sp R>¡.

õ\pr_L$ k„õ\pAp¡_u
d„S>| fu g¡hu S>ê$fu R>¡.

r_erds `pZu dm¡ s¡
õ\pr_L$ k„õ\pAp¡_u
dpV¡$ _v$uAp¡, smphp¡
d„S>| fu g¡hu S>ê$fu R>¡.
A_¡ TfZpAp¡ `f Ap^pf

lp¡V$¡ gdp„ rhrh^ S>ê$qfepsp¡ `„Qpes_u d„S|>fu_p¡
(_lphp, `uhp_p `pZu_u; `fhp_p¡ d¡mhhp¡
34

`pZu_p¡ D`ep¡N
(Sch XII)dyS>b_p¡
Ar^L$pf
fõspAp¡, Nf_pmp, `ygp¡,
`pZu `f_p¡ bp¡V$p¡
Apqv$_p¡ ìehlpf S>¡hu
S>ê$qfepsp¡_¡ kpdprS>L$
s¡dS> Apr\®L$
rhL$pk_u ×rô$A¡ Ar^L$pf
(bÞ_¡ Sch.âdpZ¡)

L$`X$p„ ^p¡hp_u; sfhp_u;
õhÃR>sp A„N¡_u) dpV¡$
`pZu Å¡Csy„ lp¡e R>¡.
Vy$fuTd_u Ap sp¡ dpmMpNs
S>ê$qfeps R>¡ L$pfZ L¡$
ep¡Áe Apfp¡Áe_u ìehõ\p,
õhpõÕe fnp; L$Qfp_p
r_L$pg_u ìehõ\p; bmsZ,
r_erds `pZu_p¡ âhpl;
NV$f, bÅf, d¡mp Apqv$
dpV¡$_u AphíeL$sp
S>„Ng_u ApX$k„`rÑ A_¡ kl¡gpZuAp¡ dpV¡$
L$pd¡ _u kd©qÙ_u (kpd|rlL$ S>„Ngdp„ lfhp-afhp_u
k„kp^_p¡_u) ÅmhZu R|>V$; S>„Ng dÝe¡ fukp¡V®$
fQhp_u R|>V$, S>„Ng_p„
âpZuAp¡_p v$i_® A_¡ Myëgu
S>Áepdp„ ApN âNV$phu
(lp¡mu) dpZhp_u R|>V$
N°pduZ huS>muL$fZ,
sdpd fõs¡ huS>mu_p
huS>mu h`fpi_u
v$u$hpAp¡, bk õV$p¡` `f
hl¢QZu krls
kl¡gpZuAp¡_u sdpd
kNhX$p¡_p õ\m¡
(Sch XI dyS>b)
Ål¡f fõsp D`f_u
huS>mu_p¡ M`.
gpCV$; bk-õV$p¡` A_¡
âkp^_ õ\mp¡A¡ (XII)
O_ L$Qfp_p¡ r_L$pg
kgpds A_¡ kyep¡Áe
L$Qfp_u ìehõ\p_u
S>ê$qfeps
Apfp¡Áe; A_¡ õhpõÕe NV$fp¡_u kyìehõ\p
kyfnp-lp¡[õ`V$gp¡,
AphíeL$; ANd-Q¡su_u
v$hpMp_p„ A_¡ Apfp¡Áe Apfp¡Áe ìehõ\p;
L¡$ÞÖp¡ (Sch XI)l¡W$m
Q¡`u fp¡Np¡\u bQph;
A_¡ Ål¡f Apfp¡Áe
v$hpAp¡_p¡ R>„V$L$ph
35

AphíeL$ R>¡.

s¡dS> õhpõÕe kyfnp
(Sch XII) l¡W$m
kp„õL©$rsL$ âh©rÑAp¡
(Sch XIl¡W$m)
A_¡ i¥nrZL$; kp¥Þv$e®_¡
gNsp A_¡
kp„õL©$rsL$ rhL$pk

`„Qpes_u d„S|>fu_p¡
`fhp_p¡ d¡mhhp¡
AphíeL$ R>¡.

`„Qpes_p¡ `fhp_p¡
d¡mhhp¡ AphíeL$ R>¡.

`„Qpes_p¡ `fhp_p¡
d¡mhhp¡ AphíeL$ R>¡.

18

âhpk_ DÛp¡N çeyr_. Ap
ìehõ\pAp¡ `|fu `pX¡
s¡hu A`¡np fpM¡ R>¡.
âhpk_ DÛp¡N çeyr_.
A\hp `„Qpesp¡ Aphu
k¡hpAp¡ `|fu `pX¡$ s¡hu
A`¡np fpM¡ R>¡.

d|m hpguAp¡ A_¡
`„Qpes/çeyr_.
NyfyAp¡_p d¡mp; DÐkhp¡; Ap `|fp `pX¡$
A_¡ k¡hp kp„õL©$rsL$ L$pe®¾$dp¡ s¡hu A`¡np fpM¡ R>¡.
s¡dS> kfL$k _¡ Bsf
Ap_„v$ âdp¡v$_u ìehõ\p

_bmp hNp£_y„ L$ëepZ
Mpk L$fu_¡ A_yk|rQs
ÅrsAp¡ s¡d S>
A_yk|rQs S>_ÅrsAp¡_„y

âhpk_ DÛp¡N_¡
Apdp„ L$p¡C S>ê$qfeps
_\u s¡d S> L$pC¡ fus¡
fk ^fphsp¡ _\u. Ap
DÛp¡Ndp„ L$p¡C kyfnpcep£
ìehlpf L¡$ L$pe®¾$d
õhuL$pep£ _\u. dy¿eÐh¡
S>_ÅrsAp¡_p¡ D`ep¡N
ìep`pfuL$fZ L$fu apev$p¡
DW$phhp dpV¡$ L$f¡ R>¡.

drlgpAp¡ A_¡
bpmrhL$pk

L$pC¡ N„cuf rhQpf âhpk_
DÛp¡N_¡ âpàs _\u.

il¡fu ìehõ\p kdp_
bNuQp, fds-Nds_p„
õ\mp¡ Apqv$ (Sch XII)
l¡W$m kpd|rlL$ k„kp^_p¡_u
ÅmhZu

Ål¡f fõspAp¡ hp`f¡ S>
R>¡. fõsp `f_u gpCV$p¡_p¡
gpc g¡ R>¡. A_¡ `pL®$_p¡
âhpk_ dpV¡$ M` R>¡.

Ap kp^_p¡_u ÅmhZu
`„Qpesp¡ A_¡ çeyr_. L$f¡
s¡hu A`¡np fpM¡ R>¡.

bÅfp¡ A_¡ d¡mpAp¡

õ\pr_L$ lpV$p¡ (frhhpfue
L¡$ kápldp„ A¡L$ qv$hk
Äepf¡ Np¡W$hsp lp¡e)
dpR>gp„ dpV¡$_„y bÅf;
amawg, ipL$cpÆ, õ\pr_L$
lõsDÛp¡N, Of¡Zp„,
dp¡su Apqv$ v¡$MpX$p
dpV¡$ AphíeL$ NZ¡ R>¡.

`„Qpesp¡ Ap_u ìehõ\p
A_¡ ÅmhZu L$f¡ s¡hu
A`¡np R>¡. õ\pr_L$
gp¡L$p¡_¡ Apdp„ Apr\®L$
gpc _l]hs¹ dmsp¡
`yfhpf \e¡gp¡ R>¡.

36

Ap rhjedp„ âhpk_
DÛp¡N k„`|Z®
Dv$pku_ R>¡.

D`f_p L$p¡W$pdp„ 73 A_¡ 74dp b„^pfZue ky^pfp dyS>b `„Qpesp¡ A_¡
çeyr_rk`prgV$uAp¡_¡ Ar^L$pfp¡ A`pep R>¡ s¡ `l¡gp Mp_pdp„ v$ip®hpep R>¡. A_¡
A¡L$ kfMpdZu_p¡ Aæepk fS|> L$ep£ R>¡. Ap L$p¡W$p\u A¡ sp¡ õ`ô$ S> \pe
R>¡ L¡$ Ap âhpk_ DÛp¡N `„Qpesp¡ A_¡ çeyr_rk`prgV$u_p„ k„kp^_p¡_p¡ D`ep¡N
L$fhp dpV¡$ s¡d_p D`f S> Ap^pf fpM¡ R>¡. Ap\u S> A¡ dlÒh_y„ \pe R>¡
L¡$ âhpk__p¡ S>¡ L$p¡C L$pe®¾$d ep¡Åe s¡_u `„Qpesp¡ A_¡ çeyr_rk`prgV$uAp¡_¡
ÅZ L$fhu AphíeL$ R>¡. õ\pr_L$ r_kN®v$Ñ kp^_p¡_p¡ rhõs©s D`ep¡N S>¡ âhpk_
DÛp¡N L$fhp dp„N¡ R>¡ A_¡ S>¡_¡ dpV¡$ s¡_u A`¡np/Ap^pf `„Qpesp¡ A_¡ _Nf`prgL$pAp¡ R>¡ s¡d_¡ S>¡ dep®v$pdp„ Aphp¡ rhL$pk L$fhp_u R|>V$ Ap`u iL$pe s¡_¡
Ýep_dp„ gC_¡ S> d„S|>fu Ap`hp_y„ Np¡W$hhy„ Å¡CA¡.
A¡hu v$gug OZu hpf fS|> L$fpsu lp¡e R>¡ L¡$ (dy¿eÐh¡ S>¡ gp¡L$p¡ rhL¡$ÞÖuL$fZ_p¡
rhfp¡^ L$f_pfp R>¡ s¡d_u A¡hu v$gug \su lp¡e R>¡ L¡$) b„^pfZ_p 73dp A_¡
74dp ky^pfp _¡ ArNepf A_¡ bpfdp_u dy½$ff _p¢^p¡_¡ kp\¡ fpMu_¡ Å¡CA¡
sp¡ `„Qpesp¡_¡ ìephlpqfL$ Ar^L$pf õ`ô$ \sp¡ _\u. Ap _p¢^p¡ L¡$hm rhL$pk_p„
A„Np¡_y„ hZ®_ L$f¡ R>¡. õ\pr_L$ õhfpÄe_u k„õ\pAp¡_¡ Apr\®L$ rhL$pkdp„ A_¡
kpdprS>L$ Þepe_u bpbsdp„ cpN cS>hhp_p¡ lp¡C iL¡$ Mfp¡.
Apd R>sp„ 73dp A_¡ 74dp ky^pfp_p MfX$p_p DØ¡ip¡dp„ S>¡ L$lh¡ pey„ R>¡
s¡ Ýep_ `f g¡h„y S>ê$fu R>¡. `pep_p gp„bp Npmp_p A_ychp¡_p Ap^pf¡ A_¡ Apep¡S>_
A„N_¡ p ep¡Áe b„^pfZue dp`v„$X$p¡ s¥epf L$fhp_u ×rô$A¡ õ\pr_L$ õhfpÄe_u k„õ\pAp¡_¡
S>¡ kÑp A_¡ kpdÕe® Ap`hp_u S>ê$f Ýep_ `f g¡hpdp„ Aphu R>¡ s¡_u `|rs®
L$fhp dpV¡$ Ap ky^pfpAp¡ L$fhpdp„ Apìep R>¡. s¡\u Ap dyØpAp¡ L$p_|_u Ar^L$pfp¡
A_¡ S>hpbv$pfuAp¡ b_¡ R>¡, s¡_u D`¡np L$fu iL$pe _l]. fpÄe kfL$pfp¡_¡ A¡
b„^_L$sp® R>¡ L¡$ S>¡ s¡ fpÄe_p `„Qpes^pfp A_ykpf õ\pr_L$ kfL$pfp¡_¡ S>¡ Ar^L$pfp¡_u
_p¢^Zu L$fhpdp„ Aphu R>¡ s¡ v$fL¡ $ fpÄe¡ Adgdp„ d|L$hu Å¡CA¡. S>¡\u S>¡ s¡ rhõspf_y„
Apep¡S>_ õ\pr_L$ gp¡L$p_¡ u BÃR>pAp¡_¡ Ýep_dp„ fpMu_¡ L$fpe.
õ\pr_L$ õhfpÄe_u k„õ\pAp¡_¡ S>¡ õ\p_ b„^pfZ Üpfp Ap`hpdp„
Apìey„ R>¡ s¡ Å¡sp„ Ap v¡$idp„ Ap^yr_L$ kyipk_ r_dp®Z L$fhp_¡ ¾$p„rsL$pfu
`qfhs®__u i¼esp âpàs R>¡. A¡ epv$ fpMhy„ `Z S>ê$fu R>¡ L¡$ s¡dp„ L¡$hm
ipk_ L$fhpdp„ cpNuv$pfu L$fhp_p¡ S> khpg _\u. `Z S>¡ Nfub R>¡, R>¡hpX$p_p
L$fu v¡$hpep R>¡, S>¡d_¡ v$bphu v¡$hpdp„ Apìep R>¡ A_¡ S>¡d_¡ AgN `pX$u
A`dpr_s L$fpC füp R>¡ s¡d_¡ `Z kp„cmhp AphíeL$ R>¡. Ap A¡L$ fpS>L$ue
ki[¼sL$fZ_u Mpsfu Ap`_pfy„ `Ngy„ R>¡.
37

`qfriô$ 2
NyS>fps fpÄedp„ PESA_p¡ L$pev$p¡
bp¡¼k _„. 2.1 NyS>fpsdp„ Apqv$hpku rhõspfp¡
¾$d
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

rS>ëgp¡
kpbfL$p„W$p
`„Qdlpg
hX$p¡v$fp
cê$Q
kyfs

6.
7.

hgkpX$
X$pN„

spgyL$p
M¡X$b°ûp, rhS>e_Nf, rcgp¡X$p, d¡OfS>.
v$plp¡v$, Tpgp¡v$, k„sfpd`yf, rgdM¡X$p, v¡$hNY$bpqfep.
R>p¡V$pDv¡$`yf, _khpX$u, rsgL$hpX$p, S>¡s`yf.
X¡$qX$ep`pX$p, kpNbpfp, hprgep, _p„v$p¡v$, TOqX$ep.
kp¡_NY$, DÃR>g, ìepfp, hpgp¡X$, r_Tf, dp„X$hu, dlzhp,
dp„Nfp¡m, bpfX$p¡gu.
hp„kv$p, ^fd`yf, rQMgu, `pfX$u, DdfNpd.
Aplhp.

_p¢^ : NyS>fps `„Qpes ky^pfp ^pfp-1998_u õ\pr_L$ rhõspf_u
ìep¿ep L¡$ÞÖ_p "`¡kp' A_ykpf_u S> R>¡. Ap õ\pr_L$ rhõspf S> Npd b_¡
R>¡, `Z s¡d R>sp„ s¡_u kÑphpf Ål¡fps_y„ L$pd fpÄe`pg `f R>p¡X$hpdp„
Apìey„ R>¡.
19

L¡$ÞÖ_p "`¡kp'_p `pep_p rkÙp„sp¡ A_ykpf Ap`Zp fpÄe¡ lh¡ L$pev$p
Üpfp A¡ õhuL$pey¯ R>¡ L¡$ N°pdkcp ApV$gu bpbsp¡_y„ S>s_ A_¡ fnZ L$fhp
dpV¡$_p„ `Ngp„ g¡hp_p¡ âepk L$fi¡ :
0 Ap`Zu `f„`fpAp¡ s\p fusqfhpÅ¡. 0 Ap`Zu kp„õL©$rs Ap¡mM.
0 Ap`Zp„ kpdyv$preL$ k„kp^_p¡. 0 rhhpv$ r_hpfZ_u `f„`fpNs `Ùrs.
_p¢^ : L¡$ÞÖue "`¡kp' D`fp¡¼s bpbsp¡_p S>s_ A_¡ fnZ dpV¡$_u N°pdkcp_u kndsp_u hps L$f¡ R>¡. Ap`Zp fpÄe_p¡ L$pev$p¡ Ap "kndsp' iåv$_p¡
Dëg¡M L$fsp¡ _\u. A¡_p¡ A\® A¡ R>¡ L¡$ N°pdkcp A¡d L$fhp_p¡ âepk L$fi¡.
Ap`Zu kÑpAp¡ ! `Z s¡_p¡ D`ep¡N Ap`Z¡ L¡$hu fus¡ L$fuiy„ ?
N°pdkcp A_¡ ep¡Áe õsf_u `„Qpes_¡ S>¡ kÑpAp¡ L¡$ÞÖdp„ Ap`hpdp„
Aphu R>¡ s¡_u epv$u bp¡¼kdp„ Ap`hpdp„ Aphu R>¡. A¡dp„_u L¡$V$guL$ kÑpAp¡
dpÓ N°pdkcp_¡ S> R>¡ A_¡ L¡$V$guL$ dpÓ ep¡Áe õsf_u `„Qpesp¡_¡ R>¡ A_¡
38

L¡$V$guL$ kÑpAp¡ b„_¡_¡ R>¡. A¡ _p¢^hp ep¡Áe R>¡ L¡$ NyS>fpsdp„ N°pdkcp
s\p ep¡Áe õsf_u `„Qpes_¡ S>¡ R> kÑpAp¡ k„ey¼s fus¡ Ap`hpdp„ Aphu
R>¡ s¡d_u N¡flpS>fu R>¡. lh¡ Ap`Z¡ A¡ Å¡CA¡ L¡$ NyS>fpsdp„ õ\pr_L$ kfL$pf_p„
rhrh^ õsfp¡ hÃQ¡ kÑp_u hl¢QZu L¡$hu fus¡ L$fhpdp„ Aphu R>¡.

10. Npd_p bÅf_y„ k„Qpg_

kÑp

L¡$ÞÖ_p¡
PESA L$pev$p¡

NyS>fps fpÄe_p¡
PESA L$pev$p¡

1.

rhL$pkgnu `qfep¡S>_pAp¡ dpV¡$
S>du_ k„`pv$_ s¡dS> s¡_p L$pfZ¡
Akf `pdsp AkfN°õs gp¡L$p¡_y„
`y_h®k_

N°pdkcp L¡$ ep¡Áe
õsf_u `„Qpes

spgyL$p `„Qpes

2.

- Np¥Z M_uÅ¡ dpV¡$ MpZL$pd_p
cpX$p`Ë$p L¡$ `fhp_p Ap`hp dpV¡$
cgpdZ L$fhu.
- lfpÆ Üpfp Np¥Z M_uÅ¡_p
D`ep¡N dpV¡$ fpls Ap`hu

N°pdkcp L¡$ ep¡Áe
õsf_u `„Qpes

L$pev$p¡ Ap rhi¡
L$iy„ L$l¡sp¡ _\u.

3.

gOy S>mpiep¡_y„ Apep¡S>_ A_¡
k„Qpg_

ep¡Áe õsf_u
`„Qpes

N°pd `„Qpes

4.

_ipb„^u_p¡ Adg, dpv$L$ Öìep¡_p
h¡QpZ A_¡ h`fpi `f r_ed_
A_¡ A„Ly$i

N°pdkcp A_¡
ep¡Áe õsf_u
`„Qpes

N°pd `„Qpes

20

5.

Np¥Z h_`¡v$pip¡_u dprgL$u

''

''

6.

r^fpZ `f A„Ly$i

''

''

7.

kpdprS>L$ n¡Ó_u k„õ\pAp¡ A_¡
L$d®QpfuAp¡ `f A„Ly$i

''

''

8.

Apqv$hpku `¡V$p ep¡S>_p krls_u
õ\pr_L$ ep¡S>_pAp¡ A_¡ k„kp^_p¡
`f A„Ly$i

''

spgyL$p `„Qpes

9.

S>du_\u AgNph fp¡L$hp¡

''

rS>ëgp `„Qpes

39

-

N°pd `„Qpes

N°pd `„Qpes

12. Nfubu r_hpfZ s¡d S> AÞe
L$pe®¾$dp¡ dpV¡$_p gpcp\}Ap¡_u
`k„v$Nu_y„ L$pd

''

''

13. `„Qpes Üpfp Adgdp„ gphhpdp„
Aphsp L$pe®¾$dp¡ s¡d S> `qfep¡S>_pAp¡ dpV¡$_p„ a„X$ s¡d S>
Apep¡S>_ dpV¡$ kqV®$qaL¡$V$ Ap`hp

''

''

11. kpdprS>L$ A_¡ Apr\®L$ rhL$pk
dpV¡$_u rhL$pkgnu `qfep¡S>_pAp¡_¡
d„S>| fu

L¡$ÞÖ A_¡ fpÄe_p L$pev$pA¡ Ap`¡gu kÑp_u kfMpdZu L$fsy„ L$p¡ô$L$ :
¾$d

''

Al] A¡ _p¢^hy„ S>ê$fu R>¡ L¡$ NyS>fps_p `„QpesufpS> ^pfp 1993dp„ blz
õ`ô$ fus¡ S>Zphhpdp„ Apìey„ R>¡ L¡$ ApMp fpÄedp„ `„Qhj}e ep¡S>_p A„sN®s
Aphsu A\hp/A_¡ buÆ `qfep¡S>_pAp¡ S>¡hu L¡$ fp¡X$ b_phhp, `pZu `yfhW$p
hN¡f¡ bpbsp¡ A„N¡_p„ Apep¡S>_ s¡d S> AdguL$fZ_u kÑp fpÄe `pk¡ S>
fl¡i¡. s¡hu S> fus¡ L$p¡C`Z rS>ëgpdp„ L$p¡C`Z L$pe®¾$d L¡$ `qfep¡S>_p A„N¡_u
sdpd kÑp fpÄe `pk¡ fl¡ A¡hu `Z Å¡NhpC R>¡. Aphu `qfep¡S>_pAp¡_¡
L$pfZ¡ S>¡ rhõspfp¡dp„ õ\pr_L$ gp¡L$p¡_p Æh_ `f Akf \hp_u R>¡, A_¡
Mpk L$fu_¡ S>¡ rhõspfp¡ A_yk|rQ-5dp„ Aph¡ R>¡ s¡ rhõspfp¡_u N°pdkcp_u
kgpl/ds Ap A„N¡ fpÄekfL$pf g¡i¡ s¡hu L$p¡C õ`ô$sp Ap L$pev$pdp„
L$fhpdp„ Aphu _\u.
`„Qpesu fpS> `Ùrsdp„ A_¡ s¡dp„ `Z Mpk L$fu_¡ PESA L$pev$p_p
AdguL$fZ A„N¡ NyS>fps kfL$pf_u BÃR>p s¡d S> v$p_s L¡$V$gu Qp¡¿Mu R>¡ s¡
D`f_u rhNsp¡\u Ap`Z¡ kdÆ iL$uA¡ R>uA¡. NyS>fpsdp„ `„Qpesu fpS>_u
k„õ\pAp¡_¡ Apr\®L$ s¡dS> hluhV$u kÑpAp¡ Ap`hpdp„ Aphu _\u A¡hy„ L¡$V$gpL$
kdpgp¡QL$p¡_y„ dp_hy„ R>¡. D.v$p. Apfp¡ÁeMpsp_y„ dp_hy„ R>¡ L¡$ s¡_p L$pd_y„ r_funZ
s¡dS> ìehõ\p_u ÅmhZu_u S>hpbv$pfu `„Qpesp¡_¡ kp¢`hu Å¡CA¡ _l]. NyS>fps
fpÄedp„ hjp£\u `„Qpesu fpS> k„õ\pAp¡ A[õsÐhdp„ Aph¡gu lp¡hp R>sp„ `„Qpes_p
kæep¡ A_¡ kfL$pfu Ar^L$pfuAp¡ hÃQ¡ L$pd s¡d S> klL$pf_p¡ k¡sy b„^php_p¡
lSy> bpL$u S> R>¡.
40

lh¡ âñ A¡ Ecp¡ \pe R>¡ L¡$ Aphu `qf[õ\rsdp„, Äepf¡ rhõspf
rhL$pk âpr^L$fZ_u õ\p`_p L$fhpdp„ Aph¡ Ðepf¡ PESA gpNy `X¡$ R>¡ s¡hp
rhõspfp¡dp„ õ\pr_L$ õhfpÄe_u k„õ\pAp¡_p L$pev$pL$ue Ar^L$pfp¡, S>hpbv$pfuAp¡
s¡d S> L$pdL$pS>_y„ iy„ \i¡ ?

`qfriô$ 3
NyS>fps `„Qpes ky^pfp ^pfp¡, 1998
(1998_p¡ ^pfp¡ _„. 5)

Qp¡dpkpdp„ awV$u _uL$msp rbgpX$u_p V$p¡`_u S>¡d v¡$icfdp„ Aphu rhL$pk
âpr^L$fZ k„õ\pAp¡ Ecu L$fhpdp„ Aphu flu R>¡. Mpk L$fu_¡ Äep„ dpmMpL$ue
rhL$pk s¡dS> âhpk__u bpbs R>¡ s¡hp rhõspfp¡dp„ S>¡ Qpgu füy„ R>¡ s¡ `f\u
A¡hy„ S> L$lu iL$pe L¡$ b^u S> kÑpAp¡, L$pdL$pS> s¡d S> Ap rhõspf A„N¡_p
r_Z®e_p b^p Ar^L$pfp¡ Aphu k„õ\pAp¡_¡ kp¢`u v¡$hpi¡. PESA gpNy `X¡$ R>¡
s¡hp rhõspfp¡dp„ N°pdkcp krls_u õ\pr_L$ õhfpÄe_u k„õ\pAp¡ `p¡sp_y„ A[õsÐh
S> Nydphu b¡ki¡. A¡L$ L$d®iug¡ L$üy„ R>¡ s¡ âdpZ¡ kpQ¡ S> `„Qpesp¡ A¡ "õhfpÄe_u
k„õ\pAp¡' R>¡ A¡V$gy„ S> _l], gp¡L$iplu_u kp¥\u dlÒh_u k„õ\pAp¡ s¡d S>
kp^_p¡ R>¡. gp¡L$iplu_u Ap k„õ\pAp¡_p¡ `pep¡ _bmp¡ A_¡ A\® hNf_p¡ li¡
sp¡ s¡ v¡$i_u gp¡L$iplu_¡ _bmu s¡d S> kÒhlu_ b_phu v¡$i¡. Al] A¡ `Z
_p¢^hy„ Å¡CA¡ L¡$ k„kp^_p¡ D`f kÑp s¡d S> s¡_¡ A„N¡_p¡ r_Z®e gp¡L$p¡_p¡ _
fl¡sp„ s¡ L¡$[ÞÖs b_u Åe R>¡, s¡_y„ `Z Ap jX$¹e„Ó R>¡.

NyS>fps `„Qpes ^pfp¡-1993dp„ h^y ky^pfp L$fhp_p¡ ^pfp¡. cpfs_p
âÅkÑpL$_p 49dp hj®dp„ Ap L$pev$p¡ L$fhpdp„ Aph¡ R>¡.

Apr\®L$ s¡d S> kpdprS>L$ rhL$pk dpV¡$ âhpk_ A¡ A¡L$ blz dlÒh_y„
kp^_ dp_hpdp„ Aph¡ R>¡. `f„sy, A_ych L„$CL$ Sy>v$p¡ S> R>¡. âhpk_\u õ\pr_L$
gp¡L$p¡_u S>ê$qfepsp¡, ApL$p„npAp¡ L¡$ rhL$pk \sp¡ cpÁe¡ S> Å¡hp dm¡ R>¡. D.v$p.
L¡$fm_p h¡çbp_pX$ rhõspfdp„ âhpk_ DÛp¡N_p¡ iê$Apsdp„ gp¡L$p¡A¡ DÐkpl\u
õhuL$pf L$f¡gp¡. `f„sy, S>¡dS>¡d kde hussp¡ Nep¡ s¡ds¡d õ\pr_L$ gp¡L$p¡ D`f
Ap DÛp¡N_y„ v$bpZ h^sy„ s¡dZ¡ A_ycìey„. h¡çbp_pX$dp„ S>du__u qL„$dsp¡ M|b
S> h^u NC, s¡d_p dpR>gu `L$X$hp_p s¡d S> R>u`gp„ c¡Np„ L$fhp_p rhõspfp¡dp„
s¡Ap¡ R|>V$\u S>C iL$sp _ lsp, L$pfZ L¡$ A¡ rhõspfp¡dp„ dÃR>udpfu_u S>Áep
lh¡ kl¡gpZuAp¡ dpV¡$_u "õ`uX$bp¡V$', dp¡V$fbp¡V$ A_¡ lpDkbp¡V¡$ gC gu^u lsu.
A¡V$gy„ S> _l], Ap âh©rÑAp¡_¡ `qfZpd¡ dpR>udpfp¡_u Åmp¡ s|V$u S>hu hN¡f¡
b_php¡ `Z h^sp Nep. âhpk__¡ L$pfZ¡ S>¡ fp¡S>Npfu_u sL$p¡ Ecu \C s¡dp„
dp¡V$p¡ _ap¡ d¡mh_pfp ^„^p õ\pr_L$ gp¡L$p¡_¡ _ dmsp„ blpf_p gp¡L$p¡_¡ S> dþep.
õ\pr_L$ gp¡L$p¡_¡ cpN¡ sp¡ Apìey„ L$p¡ÞV²¡$¼V$ dS|>f b_hp_y„ !

3.

1.

(1) Ap ^pfp¡ NyS>fps `„Qpes (ky^pfp) ^pfp¡ -1998 L$l¡hpi¡.

2.

NyS>fps `„Qpes ^pfp-1993dp„ L$gd-278 `R>u Ap dyS>b_u L$gdp¡
Dd¡fhpdp„ Aphu R>¡ :
278 A : Ap ^pfp¡ cpfs_p b„^pfZ_u L$gd-244_u `¡V$p L$gd (1)dp„
S>Zphpe¡gp fpÄe_p A_yk|rQs rhõspfp¡_¡ A_yk|rQ-4dp„ r_qv®$ô$
ky^pfp_¡ A^u_ flu_¡ gpNy `X$i¡.
278 A A : A_yk|rQ-5dp„ r_qv®$ô$ L$pev$pAp¡ fpÄe_p A_yk|rQs
rhõspfp¡_¡ gpNy `pX$hp A¡ A_yk|rQ_u L$p¡gd-3dp„ r_qv®$ô$ bpbs dyS>b
ky^pfhpdp„ Aph¡ R>¡.
dy¿e L$pev$pdp„ A_yk|rQ-2 `R>u _uQ¡ dyS>b_u A_yk|rQAp¡ Dd¡fhpdp„
Aphi¡ :

A_yk|rQ 4
21

(Sy>Ap¡ L$gd 278-L$)
(S>¡ a¡fapfp¡_¡ A^u_ flu_¡ Ap Ar^r_ed, fpÄe_p A_yk|rQs rhõspfp¡_¡
gpNy `X$i¡ s¡ a¡fapfp¡)
1.

L$gd 2dp„, M„X$(19) `R>u, _uQ¡_p¡ M„X$ v$pMg L$fhp¡ :
""(19-L$)'' ""A_yk|rQs rhõspfp¡'' A¡V$g¡ cpfs_p k„rh^p__u L$gd
244_p M„X$ (1)dp„ Dëg¡M¡g ""fpÄe_p A_yk|rQs rhõspfp¡.''

2.

L$gd-4_¡ bv$g¡, _uQ¡_u L$gd d|L$hu :
N°pdkcp :
4 (1) Ap Ar^r_ed\u A\hp s¡ l¡W$m Å¡NhpC L$fu lp¡e s¡hp„ L$pep£
L$fhp dpV¡$ Npd dpV¡$ A¡L$ N°pdkcp lp¡hu Å¡Ci¡.

41

42

(Ap L$gddp„ NyS>fps kfL$pf_p sp. 23-11-2001_p _p¡qV$qaL¡$i_
Üpfp S>¡ ky^pfp¡ L$fhpdp„ Apìep¡ R>¡ s¡_p L$pfZ¡ Apqv$hpku n¡Ó_u S>¡ N°pd`„Qpesp¡dp„ Apqv$hpku hksu 25 V$L$p A\hp s¡\u h^pf¡ li¡ Ðep„ S>
Apqv$hpkuAp¡_u A_pds b¡W$L$p¡ Ly$g k„¿ep_p AX$^p L$fsp„ Ap¡R>u _rl
lp¡ e .)

(2) N°pdkcp, s¡ Npd_p dsv$pf rhcpNp¡_p dsv$pfp¡_u epv$udp„
S>¡d_p„ _pdp¡ kdprhô$ L$ep¯ lp¡e s¡hu ìe[¼sAp¡_u b_i¡.
(3) N°pdkcp _uQ¡_p„ h^pfp_p„ L$pep®¡ L$fi¡ :
L$. N°pdkcpA¡ Npd_p fl¡hpkuAp¡_u âZpguAp¡ A_¡ qfhpÅ¡,
s¡d_u kp„õL©$rsL$ Ap¡mM, kpd|rlL$ kp^_p¡ A_¡ sL$fpf_u
`sphV$_u ê$qY$Ns fus kpQhu fpMhp_p¡ A_¡ Åmhhp_p¡
âeÐ_ L$fhp¡.

5.

""(1-L$) kdN° õ\pr_L$ rhõspf, L$p¡C `Z A_yk|rQs rhõspfp¡_p¡ b_¡gp¡
lp¡e s¡hu spgyL$p `„Qpes_u bpbsdp„, M„X$ (1) l¡W$m A_yk|rQs Apqv$ Års
dpV¡$ A_pds fpM¡gu b¡W$L$p¡_u k„¿ep A¡hu fus¡ h^pfhu Å¡Ci¡ L¡$, S>¡\u L$fu_¡
Aphu k„¿ep spgyL$p `„Qpesdp„_u b¡W$L$p¡_u Ly$g k„¿ep_p AX$^p L$fsp„ Ap¡R>u
\pe _rl.''

M. N°pdkcpA¡1. kpdprS>L$ A_¡ Apr\®L$ rhL$pk dpV¡$_u ep¡S>_pAp¡, L$pe®¾$dp¡
A_¡ `qfep¡S>_pAp¡_p¡ N°pd`„Qpes Adg lp\ ^f¡ s¡ `l¡gp„,
A¡hu ep¡S>_pAp¡, L$pe®¾$dp¡ A_¡ `qfep¡S>_pAp¡ d„S|>f L$fhu
Å¡Ci¡.

6.

2. Npddp„ Nfubur_hpfZ A_¡ buÅ L$pe®¾$dp¡ l¡W$m rlspr^L$pfu
sfuL¡$ ìe[¼sAp¡_u Ap¡mM A\hp `k„v$Nu dpV¡$ s¡ S>hpbv$pf
fl¡i¡.
3.

L$gd-7dp„, `¡V$p-L$gd-(1)dp„ _uQ¡_p¡ `f„sy "L$' Dd¡fhp¡ :

""`f„sy A_yk|rQs rhõspfp¡dp„_p¡ õ\pr_L$ rhõspf_p k„b„^dp„ cgpdZ
L$fsu hMs¡, A¡hu Mpsfu L$fhu Å¡Ci¡ L¡$ s¡ õ\pr_L$ rhõspf kpdpÞe fus¡
fl¡hpku A\hp fl¡hpkuAp¡_p kd|l A\hp _p_p„ Npd A\hp _p_p„ Npdp¡_p
kd|l_p¡ b_¡gp¡ R>¡ A_¡ âZpguAp¡ A_¡ qfhpÅ¡ A_ykpf `p¡sp_p L$pdL$pS>_u
ìehõ\p L$f¡ R>¡.''
4.

L$gd-9dp„, `¡V$p-L$gd (5)dp„, M„X$ (L$)dp„ `¡V$p-M„X$ (1) `R>u, _uQ¡_p¡
`¡V$p-M„X$ v$pMg L$fhp¡ :

""(1-L$) kdN° õ\pr_L$ rhõspf, L$p¡C `Z A_yk|qQs rhõspfp¡_p¡ b_¡gp¡
lp¡e s¡hu N°pd`„Qpes_u bpbsdp„, `¡V$p-M„X$ (1) l¡W$m A_yk|rQs Apqv$
ÅrsAp¡ dpV¡$ A_pds fpM¡gu b¡W$L$p¡_u k„¿ep A¡hu fus¡ h^pfhu Å¡Ci¡ L¡$
S>¡\u L$fu_¡ Aphu k„¿ep N°pd `„Qpesdp„_u b¡W$L$p¡_u Ly$g k„¿ep_p AX$^p L$fsp„
Ap¡R>u \pe _rl.''
43

L$gd 10dp„, `¡V$p-L$gd (5)dp„ M„X$ (L$)dp„ `¡V$p-M„X$ (1) `R>u,
_uQ¡_p¡ `¡V$p-M„X$ v$pMg L$fhp¡ :

22

L$gd 11dp„, `¡V$p-L$gd (5)dp„, M„X$ (L$)dp„ `¡V$p-M„X$ (1) `R>u,
_uQ¡_p¡ `¡V$p-M„X$ v$pMg L$fhp¡ :

""(1-L$) kdN° õ\pr_L$ rhõspf, L$p¡C `Z A_yk|rQs rhõspfp¡_p¡ b_¡g
lp¡e s¡hu rS>ëgp `„Qpes_u bpbsdp„, M„X$ (1) l¡W$m A_yk|rQs Apqv$
ÅrsAp¡ dpV¡$ A_pds fpM¡gu b¡W$L$p¡_u k„¿ep A¡hu fus¡ h^pfhu Å¡Ci¡
L¡$ S>¡\u L$fu_¡ Aphu k„¿ep, rS>ëgp `„Qpesdp„_u b¡W$L$p¡dp„_u Ly$g k„¿ep_p
AX$^p L$fsp„ Ap¡R>u \pe _rl.''
7.

L$gd 11 `R>u, _uQ¡_u L$gd v$pMg L$fhu :
A_yk|rQs Apqv$ Års_p kæep¡ r_ey¼s L$fhp bpbs :

""11-L$. L$p¡C L$pfZp¡kf, Q|„V$Zudp„ spgyL$p `„Qpes A\hp rS>ëgp
`„Qpesdp„ A_yk|rQs Apqv$ Års_p¡ L$p¡C kæe Q|„V$pe _rl sp¡, fpÄe kfL$pf,
Q|„V$php dpV¡$ ep¡Áe lp¡e s¡hu A_yk|rQs Apqv$ Års_p kæep¡dp„\u s¡ `„Qpesdp„
Q|„V$pe¡gp Ly$g kæep¡_p A¡L$ v$ip„i L$fsp„ h^¡ _rl s¡V$gu k„¿ep_p kæep¡
r_ey¼s L$fu iL$i¡.''
8.

L$gd 51dp„, `¡V$p-L$gd (2)dp„, :

(1) M„X$ (L$)_¡ bv$g¡, _uQ¡_p¡ dS>L|$f d|L$hp¡ 44

""(L$) fpÄe_u Npd `„Qpesp¡_p kf`„Q_p lp¡Øp, A_yk|rQs Apqv$ ÅrsAp¡
dpV¡$ fpÄe kfL$pf¡ A_pds fpMhp Å¡Ci¡.''

`„Qpes, S>¡_p¡ kdN° õ\pr_L$ rhõspf A_yk|rQs rhõspfp¡_p¡ b_¡gp¡ lp¡e.
(2) M„X$ (M)dp„,

õ`ô$uL$fZ : Ap M„X$_p l¡syAp¡ dpV¡$, "Npd `„Qpes' A¡V$g¡ Npd `„Qpes,
S>¡_p¡ kdN° õ\pr_L$ rhõspf A_yk|rQs rhõspfp¡_p¡ b_¡gp¡ lp¡e.

(L$) `¡V$p-M„X$ (1)dp„, ""A_¡'' iåv$ L$du L$fhp¡;
(M) `¡V$p-M„X$ (2) L$du L$fhp¡.

(2) M„X$ (M)dp„,

11. L$gd 108dp„ `¡V$p-L$gd (4) `R>u, _uQ¡_u `¡V$p-L$gd Dd¡fhu :

(L$) `¡V$p-M„X$ (1)dp„, ""A_¡'' iåv$ L$du L$fhp¡;

""(5) (L$) Ap Ar^r_ed_p l¡syAp¡ dpV¡$, s¡ Npd_u lL|$dsdp„ Aph¡g
lp¡e s¡hp (fpô²$ue D`h_p¡ A\hp AcepfÎep¡_p rhõspfdp„\u dmu
Aph¡g lp¡e s¡ rkhpe_p) h_ rhõspfdp„\u dmu Aph¡g Np¥Z h_`¡v$pi
Npd `„Qpesdp„ r_rls \i¡.''

(M) `¡V$p-M„X$ (2) L$du L$fhp¡.
(Ap L$gddp„ NyS>fps kfL$pf_p sp. 23-11-2001_p _p¡qV$qaL¡$i_ Üpfp S>¡
ky^pfp¡ L$fhpdp„ Apìep¡ R>¡ s¡_p L$pfZ¡ S>¡ N°pd `„Qpesdp„ rb_Apqv$hpkuAp¡_u
hksu_p 75 V$L$p L¡$ h^pf¡ li¡ s¡ N°pd `„Qpesdp„ kf`„Q_p¡ lp¡Øp¡ Apqv$hpkuAp¡
dpV¡$ A_pds fMpi¡ _rl.
9.

(M) Np¥Z h_`¡v$pi_u h¡QpZ E`S>, Npd_p a„X$dp„ cfhu Å¡Ci¡ A_¡
s¡ s¡_p¡ cpN b_i¡.

L$gd 63dp„, `¡V$p-L$gd (2)dp„,

(N) M„X$ (L$)dp„_p L$p¡C `Z dS>L|$f_p¡ A\®, M„X$ (L$)dp„ Dëg¡M¡g
h_rhõspf_u S>du_ A_¡ s¡_p `f_p„ TpX$ A_¡ R>p¡X$ N°pd `„Qpesdp„
r_rls \pe R>¡, s¡hp¡ L$fu iL$i¡ _rl.

(1) M„X$ (L$)_¡ bv$g¡, _uQ¡_p¡ dS>Ly$f d|L$hp¡.
""(L$) fpÄe_u sdpd spgyL$p `„Qpes_p âdyM_p sdpd lp¡Øp, A_yk|rQs
Apqv$ÅrsAp¡ dpV¡$ fpÄe kfL$pf¡ A_pds fpMhp¡ Å¡Ci¡.''
õ`ô$uL$fZ : Ap M„X$_p l¡syAp¡ dpV¡$, "spgyL$p `„Qpes' A¡V$g¡ spgyL$p `„Qpes,
S>¡_p¡ kdN° õ\pr_L$ rhõspf A_yk|rQs rhõspfp¡_p¡ b_¡gp¡ lp¡e.
(2) M„X$ (M)dp„,
(L$) `¡V$p-M„X$ (1)dp„, ""A_¡'' iåv$ L$du L$fhp¡;
(M) `¡V$p-M„X$ (2) L$du L$fhp¡.
10. L$gd 77dp„, `¡V$p-L$gd (2)dp„,
(1) M„X$ (L$)_¡ bv$g¡, _uQ¡_p¡ dS>Ly$f d|L$hp¡.
""(L$) fpÄe_u sdpd rS>ëgp `„Qpes_p âdyM_p lp¡Øp, A_yk|rQs
Apqv$ÅrsAp¡ dpV¡$ fpÄe kfL$pf¡ A_pds fpMhp Å¡Ci¡.''

õ`ô$uL$fZ :
Ap `¡V$p-L$gd l¡syAp¡ dpV$¡,
23

""Np¥Z h_`¡v$pi'' A¡ iåv$âep¡N_p¡ A\®, NyS>fps Np¥Z h_`¡v$pi ìep`pf
fpô²$ueL$fZ Ar^r_ed, 1979_u L$gd 2_p M„X$ (9)dp„ s¡_p¡ S>¡ A\®
Apàep¡ R>¡ s¡ S> \i¡.
12. L$gd 112dp„ `¡V$p-L$gd (1) `R>u, _uQ¡_u `¡V$p-L$gd v$pMg L$fhu:
""(1-L$) `„Qpes¡, L$gd 4_u `¡V$p-L$gd (3)_p M„X$ (M)_p `¡V$pM„X$ (1)dp„ Dëg¡M¡g ep¡S>_pAp¡, L$pe®¾$dp¡ A_¡ `qfep¡S>_pAp¡ dpV¡$, `„Qpes
Üpfp a„X$_p D`ep¡N dpV¡$_y„ âdpZ`Ó N°pdkcp `pk¡\u d¡mhhy„ Å¡Ci¡.''
13. L$gd 132 `R>u, _uQ¡_u L$gd Dd¡fhu :

õ`ô$uL$fZ : Ap M„X$_p l¡syAp¡ dpV¡$, "rS>ëgp `„Qpes' A¡V$g¡ rS>ëgp

S>du_ k„`pv$_ A_¡ Akf `pd¡g ìe[¼sAp¡_p `y_h®khpV$ `l¡gp„ spgyL$p
`„Qpes kp\¡ rhQpf-rhr_de L$fhp bpbs :

45

46

(1) dy„bC S>du_ dl¡k|g Ar^r_ed, 1879 (V|„$L$dp„ g¡ÞX$ f¡hÞey L$p¡X$)_u
L$gd 73 L$L$dp„ ky^pfp¡ L$fu_¡ L$p¡C Apqv$hpku_u S>du_ buÅ L$p¡C_¡
sbv$ug L$fhu lp¡e sp¡ s¡Z¡ L$g¡¼V$f_u `|h®d„S|>fu d¡mhhp_¡ bv$g¡
S>¡ s¡ Apqv$hpku n¡Ó_u rS>ëgp `„Qpes_u `|h®d„S|>fu d¡mhhu Å¡Ci¡,
A¡hu Å¡NhpC L$fpC R>¡.

""132-L$. spgyL$p `„Qpes kp\¡ (L$) L$pC¡ `Z rhL$pk `qfep¡S>_p dpV¡$ spgyL$pdp„ Aph¡gu L$pC¡ `Z S>du__y,„
S>du_ k„`pv$_ Ar^r_ed, 1894 l¡W$m k„`pv$_ L$fsp„ `l¡gp„,
(M) Aphu `qfep¡S>_p\u Akf `pd¡gu ìe[¼sAp¡_p `y_:õ\p`_ A\hp
`y_h®khpV$ L$fsp„ `l¡gp„; rhQpf-rhr_de L$fhp¡ Å¡Ci¡.''

(2) dy„bC _pZp„_u ^uf^pf L$f_pfpAp¡ bpbs_p¡ Ar^r_ed, 1946_u
ky^pf¡gu L$gd 17-4 AÞhe¡ L$p¡C `Z _pZp„_u ^uf^pf L$f_pf,
A_yk|rQs rhõspfdp„ fl¡sp A_yk|rQs Apqv$Års_p L$p¡C Ckd_¡
s¡ Npd_u N°pd `„Qpes_u `|h®d„S|>fu rkhpe L„$C`Z _pZp„ ^ufu
iL$i¡ _rl, A¡hu Å¡NhpC L$fhpdp„ Aphu R>¡.

14. A_yk|rQ 1dp„,
(1) _p¢ ^ 1dp„ , `¡ V $ p -_p¢ ^ (V$ ) `R>u, _uQ¡ _ u _hu `¡ V $ p -_p¢ ^
Dd¡fhu :
""(V$-L$) L¡$au `v$p\p£_p h¡QpZ A_¡ h`fpi D`f ârsb„^ d|L$hp
A_¡ s¡_y„ r_ed_ A\hp r_e„ÓZ L$fhp bpbs.''
(2) _p¢^ 7dp„ `¡V$p-_p¡¢^) (X$) `R>u, _uQ¡_u _hu `¡V$p-_p¢^ Dd¡fhu.
""(X$-1) S>mk„õ\pAp¡_y„ Apep¡S>_ A_¡ ìehõ\p`_ bpbs.''
(3) _p¢^ 10 `R>u, _uQ¡_u _p¢^ Dd¡fhu :
""11. kpdprS>L$ n¡Ó_p L$pe®¾$ddp„, sdpd kpdprS>L$ n¡Óp¡dp„_u
k„õ\pAp¡ A_¡ L$d®QpfuAp¡ D`f r_e„ÓZ L$fhp_u kÑp bpbs.''
15. A_yk|rQ 2dp„, cpN 1dp„, _p¢^ 5dp„ `¡V$p-_p¢^ (O) `R>u, _uQ¡_u
_hu `¡V$p-_p¢^ Dd¡fhu :
""(Q) õ\pr_L$ ep¡S>_pAp¡ A_¡ Apqv$ Års `¡Vp-ep¡S>_pAp¡ krls Aphu
ep¡S>_pAp¡_p„ kp^_p¡ D`f r_e„ÓZ.''

24

spgyL$p `„Qpes_u afÅ¡ bpbs_u L$gd 130 l¡W$m_u A_yk|rQ-2dp„
_uQ¡_u afS> Dd¡fhpdp„ Aphu R>¡. õ\pr_L$ ep¡S>_pAp¡ A_¡ Apqv$Års `¡V$pe¡pS>_pAp¡ krls Aphu ep¡S>_pAp¡_p„ kp^_p¡ D`f r_e„ÓZ.
D`f_u Å¡NhpCAp¡ `„Qpes ^pfp_u L$gd 278-L$ l¡W$m_u R>¡.
_uQ¡_u Å¡NhpCAp¡ `„Qpes ^pfpdp„ _hu Dd¡f¡gu L$gd-278-L$L$ AÞhe¡
R>¡. Ap L$gd\u A_k|rQ-5dp„ _uQ¡_p b¡ Ar^r_edp¡dp„ âÐe¡L$_u A¡L$ L$gd
ky^pfhpdp„ Aphu R>¡. s¡_u V|„$L$u rhNsp¡ _uQ¡ dyS>b R>¡.
47

48

TITLE : 2

TITLE : 3

B¼h¡iÞk
A„N¡ \p¡Xy„$L$
âõsys `y[õsL$pdp„ Ap`¡g rhõs©s s`pk_p¡ Al¡hpg ky`Zp£
gplufu

(NFFPFW National Forum of Forest People

A_¡ Aqv$rs Q„Qp_u (Equations)A¡
k„ip¡^_ L$fu_¡ s¥epf L$ep£ R>¡. dpQ® 2007dp„ s¡dZ¡ L¡$hqX$ep
s¡d S> hX$p¡v$fp_u dygpL$ps gu^p `R>u Ap Al¡hpg s¥epf L$ep£
lsp¡. s¡d_p Al¡hpgdp„ Dd¡fZ A_¡ AÞe klpe A_Þep
v$pkNyàsp (Equations)A¡ L$fu R>¡.

and Forest Workers)

A¡ k„ i p¡ ^ _ L$f_pfu A_¡ rldpes
(ADVOCACY) s¡dS> k„Oj® L$f_pfu k„õ\p R>¡. dy¿eÐh¡ s¡_y„
L$pd âhpk_ A„N¡_u `qfep¡S>_pAp¡\u õ\pr_L$ gp¡L$p¡_p Ar^L$pfp¡
`f \su Akfp¡ s¡d S> s¡d_p gpcpgpc A„N¡_u dprlsu âpàs
L$fhp_„y R>¡. B¼h¡iÞk_p v$i®_ âdpZ¡$ âhpk_ ep¡S>_p A¡hu lp¡e
L¡$ S>¡dp„ L$p¡C_y„e¡ ip¡jZ _ \pe s¡d S> âhpk__p gpc A_¡ sL$p¡
kp¥_¡ kdp_ê$`¡ âpàs lp¡e s\p> s¡_¡ gNsp b^p r_Z®ep¡ gp¡L$iplu
`Ùrs\u g¡hpe.
EQUATIONS

25

âp[às õ\p_ :
(1) fp¡rls âÅ`rs
37, `ÓL$pf L$p¡gp¡_u, sp„v$mÅ fp¡X$, hX$p¡v$fp-390 020.
(2) gM_ dykpqaf
dy. Ddfhp, `p¡.Np¡fp L$p¡gp¡_u - 393155.

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