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IJSRD - International Journal for Scientific Research & Development| Vol.

3, Issue 11, 2016 | ISSN (online): 2321-0613

Effect of Coconut Shell and Plastic Waste on the Properties of Concrete


Nitin Pandagre1 Devansh Jain2 Dr. Gyanendra Singh3
1
M. Tech Scholar 2Assistant Professor 3Professor
1,3
Patel Institute of Technology, Bhopal 2UIT-RGPV, Bhopal
Abstract Plastic waste was the byproduct of plastic
industries and also it is collected from local area and it
contains junk tv, radio, cds etc. coconut shells is a byproduct of coconut industries. This dissertation shows study
on the results of an investigation of effect of plastic waste
and coconut shells as coarse aggregate replacement in
concrete mix. Concrete mixes containing various contents of
the coconut shells and plastic waste were prepared and
properties material and concrete such as fineness modulus,
water absorption, specific gravity, crushing value, impact
value, abrasion value, workability, compressive strength and
flexural strength were determined. Concrete of M-40 grade
is prepared containing coconut shells and plastic waste as a
partial replacement of coarse aggregate in concrete. Plastic
waste and coarse aggregate which passes from 20 mm sieve
were mixed in concrete upto 50% at an interval of 10%.
Key words: Compressive Strength, Workability, Plastic
waste, Recycle Concrete Aggregate, Coconut Shells,
Concrete
I. INTRODUCTION
Research concerning the utilization of by-products to
augment the properties of concrete has been going on for
several years. In the recent years, the efforts have been made
to use industry by-products such as fly ash, silica fume, Red
mud, glass powder, etc., in civil constructions. The potential
applications of industry by-products in concrete are as
partial natural aggregate replacement or as partial cement
replacement, depending on their chemical composition and
physical properties. The use of these materials in concrete
comes from the environmental constraints in the safe
disposal of these products.
Big attention is being focused on the environment
and safeguarding of natural resources and recycling of
wastes materials. Actually many industries are producing a
significant number of products which incorporate scrap
(residues). In the last 20 years, a lot of works concerning the
use of several kinds of urban wastes in building materials
industrials process have been published. Many researches
have been extended to study new kinds of wastes to
investigate deeply particular aspects. The addition of wastes,
apart from the environmental benefits, also produces good
effects on the properties of final products.
The main objective of the present investigation is
to evaluate the suitability plastic waste and coconut shells as
a coarse aggregate in concrete. This investigation target to
determine the optimum percentage of these waste material
as a partial replacement of coarse aggregate in concrete.
II. METHODOLOGY
The Coconut Shell used in this research was collected from
different coconut oil industries. After removing the husk
portion from the coconut its shell portion are being used as
reinforcing material for research work. Shell particles of size
between 20 mm 4.75 mm are prepared in grinding

machine. Coconut shell aggregates are potential candidates


for the development of new composites because of their
high strength and modulus properties, Plastic waste or
Plastic Waste is collected from local area, this plastic waste
contain tv, radio, cd and plastic chairs and then this plastic
waste is dismantle and sieved from 20 mm sieve. The
material which is passed from 20 mm sieve is used in this
project along with OPC cement, natural river sand and
crushed stone as coarse aggregate. M 40 grade of concrete is
used for this project and designed by IS 10262 : 2009. 66
cube and beam is casted of 15 * 15 * 15 cm and 15 * 15 *
70 cm respectively. Curing is done in clean water at room
temperature. For this research workability is determined by
slump cone test on fresh concrete and on hardened concrete
compressive strength and flexural strength is determined.
III. RESULT AND DISCUSSION
Series of test were carried out on material, green & hardened
concrete to obtain the workability strength characteristics of
Plastic waste and Coconut shells for potential application.
The results for material test on, water absorption test,
specific gravity test, aggregate crushing value test, aggregate
impact value test are given and discussed below.
A. Test on Material
Test on material like Coarse aggregate, Fine aggregate,
plastic waste, coconut shells and cement are given below in
table 1 and 2.
Crushing
Impact
Abrasion
Aggregate
Value
Value
Value
Natural Coarse
14.50%
8.85%
10.13%
Aggregate
2.82%
1.25%
3.87%
Plastic Waste
7.21%
5.23%
6.95%
Coconut Shells
Table 1: test result on aggregates.
Water
Specific Fineness
Aggregate
Absorption Bulking
Gravity Modulus
%
Natural
2.65
3.10
0.9
Coarse
Aggregate
Natural
2.60
2.24
0.3
0.33
Fine
Aggregate
Plastic
1.10
3.15
0.06
waste
Coconut
1.70
2.50
4.80%
Shells
3.15
3.74
Cement
Table 2: Test Result of Materials.
B. Workability
To evaluate the workability of the fresh concrete, slump
cone test is performed. Slump cone test is done as per IS:
1199 1959. When coarse aggregate is partially replaced by

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Effect of Coconut Shell and Plastic Waste on the Properties of Concrete


(IJSRD/Vol. 3/Issue 11/2016/004)

plastic waste and coconut shells and it has been observed


that when plastic waste content increased, workability of the
concrete also increased and coconut shells concrete
workability decrease by the increasing content of coconut
shells Result of workability are given below in table 3 and
graph 1-2.
Plastic
Coconut
Percentage
Slump
Slump
Waste
Shells
Replacement
(mm)
(mm)
Mix
Mix
0%
CC
75
CC
75

10%
A1
81
B1
68
20%
A2
85
B2
65
30%
A3
92
B3
60
40%
A4
100
B4
55
50%
A5
110
B5
51
Table 3: Workability of Plastic waste and Coconut shells
Concrete.

Fig. 1. Graph 1 Workability of Plastic waste concrete.

Fig. 2: Graph 2 Workability of Coconut Shells Concrete.


46.75 N/mm2 to 41.12 N/mm2, by help of compressive
C. Compression Strength Test
strength test shows that coconut shells can replace coarse
Compressive strength test have been done as per IS 516
aggregate upto 50%.
1959, for 11 mixes total 66 cube is casted of 15 * 15 * 15
Compressive Strength (N/mm2)
Plastic
cm. When Partial replacement of coarse aggregate by Plastic
Mix
Waste
7 Days
28 Days
waste and coconut shells is done in concrete, it has been
0%
CC
41.24
50.08
observed that compressive strength of the concrete
10%
A1
30.87
43.27
decreased with the increase in the percentage of plastic
20%
A2
27.54
42.88
waste and coconut shells in concrete, none of the mix
30%
A3
26.11
41.34
possess higher value of compressive strength than control
concrete. Compressive strength test result of plastic waste
40%
A4
22.84
38.91
concrete are given in table 4, graph 3-4 and compressive
50%
A5
22.54
36.9
strength of coconut shells of concrete given in table 5, graph
Table 4: Compressive Strength test result of Plastic Waste
5-6. Compressive strength of concrete with plastic waste
Compressive Strength (N/mm2)
Coconut Shells Mix
varies from 43.27 N/mm2 to 36.9 N/mm2 after 28 days of
7 Days
28 Days
curing, with help of compressive strength test shows that
0%
CC
41.24
50.08
plastic waste can replace coarse aggregate upto 30%.
10%
B1
37.9
46.75
Compressive strength of the coconut shells varies from

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Effect of Coconut Shell and Plastic Waste on the Properties of Concrete


(IJSRD/Vol. 3/Issue 11/2016/004)

20%
30%
40%

B2
B3
B4

34.75
33.61
31.4

45.96
42.85
42.81

50%
B5
28.65
41.12
Table 5: Compressive Strength test result of Coconut Shells

Fig. 3. Graph 3 Compressive Strength test result of Plastic Waste.

Fig. 4. Graph 4 Compressive Strength test result of Plastic Waste.

Fig. 5: Graph 5 Compressive Strength test result of Coconut Shells.

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Effect of Coconut Shell and Plastic Waste on the Properties of Concrete


(IJSRD/Vol. 3/Issue 11/2016/004)

Fig. 6: Graph 6 Compressive Strength test result of Coconut Shells.


0%
CC
3.02
3.33
D. Flexural Strength Test
10%
A1
2.61
3.09
Flexural strength test is performed on concrete as per IS:
20%
A2
2.47
3.08
516 1959, for this test concrete beam of 15 * 15 * 70 cm is
30%
A3
2.40
3.02
casted. For all 11 mix total 66 beam is casted and it is tested
40%
A4
2.25
2.93
after 7 and 28 days of curing. Result of flexural strength of
50%
A5
2.23
2.86
plastic waste and coconut shells is given in table 6 and table
Table
6:
Flexural
Strength
test
result
of
Plastic
Waste
7 along with graph 7-8 and 9-10 respectively. It has been
Flexural Strength N/mm2
observed that plastic waste and coconut shells gives
Coconut Shells Mix
maximum value of flexural strength at 10% mix, but none of
7 Days
28 Days
the plastic waste and coconut shells mix possess higher
0%
CC
3.02
3.33
value of flexural strength than control concrete. flexural
10%
B1
2.89
3.21
strength of the plastic waste varies from 3.09 to 2.86 N/mm2
20%
B2
2.77
3.19
and flexural strength of coconut shells varies from 3.21 to
30%
B3
2.72
3.08
3.01 whereas flexural strength of control concrete is 3.33
40%
B4
2.63
3.08
Flexural Strength (N/mm2)
50%
B5
2.52
3.01
Plastic Waste Mix
7 Days
28 Days
Table 7: Flexural Strength test result of Coconut Shells

Fig. 7: Graph 7 Flexural Strength test result of Plastic Waste.

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Effect of Coconut Shell and Plastic Waste on the Properties of Concrete


(IJSRD/Vol. 3/Issue 11/2016/004)

Fig. 8: Graph 8 Flexural Strength test result of Plastic Waste.

Fig. 9: Graph 9 Flexural Strength test result of Coconut Shells.

Fig. 10: Graph 10 Flexural Strength test result of Coconut Shells.


concrete increased its workability and when coconut shells
IV. CONCLUSION
is added in concrete, its workability decreased. When plastic
waste partially replaced by plastic waste, compressive
This study intended to find the effective ways to reutilize the
strength shows that compressive strength of concrete
plastic waste and coconut shells particles as coarse
decreased with the increase in the percentage of plastic
aggregate. In this project workability of the concrete is
waste in concrete and its initial three mix i.e. upto 30% of
shown in the term of slump, and by the slump cone test, it
plastic waste mix can be used as structural concrete and
has been observe that introduction of plastic waste in

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18

Effect of Coconut Shell and Plastic Waste on the Properties of Concrete


(IJSRD/Vol. 3/Issue 11/2016/004)

coconut shells also decreased compressive strength of


concrete and its all five mixes i.e. upto 50% coconut shells
mix can be used as structural concrete.

[24] P.M.Subramanian, Plastic recycling and waste


Management in the US Resources, Conservation and
Recycling vol (28) pp 253263.

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