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Dr. K.C.

Training & Development

STEAM TURBINE

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Learning Agenda

Expansion of steam and work done

Description of the nozzle angles (), blade angles () and
surface roughness () and their impact on turbine
performance
Velocity vector diagrams and estimation of turbine stage
output and efficiency
Purpose, principle, classification, construction and
functioning of steam turbine
Physical significance of turbo-supervisory parameters
Performance of steam turbine

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Steam turbine is prime-mover for electric power generation,

which converts heat energy of steam to mechanical energy
of Steam Turbine Rotor.
This mechanical energy is utilized to spin rotor (magnet) of
the electricity generator to produce electric power.

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Steam Expansion

Steam expands, whenever it is subjected either to lower

pressure or to a higher temperature.
It is considered to be free expansion when the expanding
boundary is free from any resistance from the surrounding.
Though the free expansion has no engineering application but
it provides enough guidelines to the designers of steam
turbines/engine to properly deal with steam operating
parameter to avoid any possibility of free expansion.
Expanding steam (thermodynamic System) does work on
surrounding irrespective of its being a solid, liquid or gas
separated by well defined boundary.
Expansion of steam in turbine is facilitated to do work on
turbine blades mounted on the freely rotating shaft.
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Principle of Steam Turbine

When steam is allowed to expand through a
nozzle, then its heat is converted to kinetic energy
of steam itself, which in turn converts into kinetic
energy (mechanical energy) of Turbine Rotor
through the impact (impulse) or in an other way,
when it expands through Turbine Rotor Blades
without any change in its velocity then its heat is
converted directly in to kinetic energy (mechanical
energy) of Turbine Rotor through reaction of
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Impulse Turbine (DR = 0)

Reaction Turbine (DR = 1)
Impulse - Reaction Turbine (DR > 0 & <1)

DR =

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Total Pressure drop

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Impulse Turbine

Velocity compounded
Pressure compounded
Pressure - Velocity compounded

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Reaction Turbine
Expanding steam has to be accommodated in moving
blades without any change in velocity by suitably
increasing the space in the blade down stream, which is
very difficult and hence no steam turbine is constructed to
be pure reaction turbine.

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Impulse - Reaction Turbine

Expanding steam does work on surrounding
surface by virtue of its volume change and at the same
time incremental velocity of steam stream also does
significant work on moving blades by impaction.

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Vector Diagram

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Stationary Diaphragm

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Foundation (TG & Pillar)

Base plate / sole plate
Bearing pedestal / pedestal plate
Casing
Single / double (Inner or outer casing) / Triple casing
Barrel type or axially spilt (bottom or top flange)
Body liners and stationary diaphragm
Rotor
Inbuilt (solid), key & shrunk fit and welded
Moving diaphragm
Studs and nuts
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HP, IP & LP turbine.

Bearings.
Shaft sealing .
Stop & control valves.
Turbine control system.
Turbine monitoring system.
Turbine oil system.
Turbine turning gear

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TG Foundation

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IP Cylinder of a
500 MW Unit

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Hydraulic Turning Gear

The function of the hydraulic turning gear is
to rotate the shaft system at sufficient speed
before start-up and after shutdown in order
to avoid irregular heating up or cooling down
and also to avoid any distortion of the
turbine rotors. The hydraulic turning gear is
situated at the front end of the HP turbine
front bearing pedestal.
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Mechanical Barring Gear

The turbo- generator is equipped with a
mechanical barring gear, which enables
the combined shaft system to be
rotated manually in the event of a
failure of the normal hydraulic turning
gear. It is located at IP-LP pedestal
(Brg No-3).
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Low Pressure Turbine

Outer shell, upper half

STEAM FLOW

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Fixed Points of a 250 MW Turbine

Casing Expansion:

HP Turbine outer Casing expands towards front

Pedestal.
IP Turbine Casing expands towards Generator side.
LP Turbine outer casing expands towards both ends
from center.

Rotor Expansion:

HP Rotor towards front Bearing.

IP Rotor towards Generator side.
LPT Rotor towards Generator.
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Casing Expansion
The bearing pedestals are anchored to the foundation by
means of anchor bolts and are fixed in position. The HP
and IP turbines rest with their lateral support horns on the
bearing pedestals at the turbine centerline level. The HP
and IP casings are connected with the bearing pedestals
by casing guides which establish the centerline alignment
of the turbine casings. The axial position of HP and IP
casings is fixed at the HP-IP pedestal. Hence, when there
is a temperature rise, the outer casings of the HP turbine
expand from their fixed points towards Front pedestal.
Casing of IP Turbine expand from its fixed point towards
the generator.
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Casing Expansion
The LP Turbine outer casing is held in place
axially, at centre area of longitudinal girder by
means of fitted keys. Free lateral expansion is
allowed. Centering of LP outer casing is provided
by guides which run in recesses in the foundation
cross beam. Axial movement of the casings is
unrestrained. LP Casing expands from its fixed
point at front end, towards the generator at centre
area of longitudinal girder by means of fitted
keys. Free lateral expansion is allowed.
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Rotor Expansion
The thrust bearing is housed in the rear bearing pedestal
of the HP turbine. The HP turbine rotor expands from the
thrust bearing towards the front bearing pedestal of the
HP turbine and the IP turbine rotor from the thrust bearing
towards the generator. The LP turbine rotor is displaced
towards the generator by the expansion of the shaft
assembly, originating from the thrust bearing.

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Over all expansion

Axial shift
Differential expansion
Eccentricity
Vibration

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THR = [(Qms*Hms Qfw*hfw) + Qrh*(Hhrh Hcrh)]/P

P = PGen.Ter. (Pexc + Pmin)
ta = 3600/THR = t*g*c
t = Wt/Hise
g = MW/Wt
c = Hise /[(Qms*Hms Qfw*hfw) + Qrh*(Hhrh Hcrh)] or
c = [Qms*(HmsHcrh)+Qrh*(Hhrh Hexh)Sum(qb*Hb)] /
[(Qms*HmsQfw*hfw)+Qrh*(HhrhHcrh)]
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Enthalpy Drop Across the Turbine

HPT

Qms*(Hms-H7) + (Qms-q7)*(H7-Hcrh)
IPT

+ Qrh*(Hhrh-H5) + (Qrh-q5-qd)*(H5-H4)
+ (Qrh-q4-q5-qd)*(H4-H3)
+ (Qrh-q3-q4-q5-qd)*(H3-H2)
LPT

+ (Qrh-q2-q3-q4-q5-qd)*(H2-H1)
+ (Qrh-q1-q2-q3-q4-q5-qd)*(H1-Hexh)
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Velocity Vector Diagram for

Pure Impulse Turbine

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Blade Performance of Pure Impulse Turbine

Wo = C2 Cos 2 (clockwise tangential component)
Wi = C1 Cos 1 (anticlockwise tangential component)
R2 < R1 & R2 = *R1
For smooth surface = 1 & R2 = R1
P = [Wi - (-Wo)]*u = [C2 Cos 2 + C1 Cos 1]*u
C2 Cos 2 = R2 Cos 2 u = R1 Cos 1 u
or C2 Cos 2 = C1 Cos 1 - u u = C1 Cos 1 2u
P = [C1 Cos 1 + C1 Cos 1 2u]*u = 2*u*[C1 Cos 1 u]
b = 2*P/C1**2 = 4*[(u/C1)*Cos 1 (u/C1)**2]
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Velocity Vector
Diagram for ImpulseReaction Turbine

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Deduction of C2 & R1 in terms of R2 & C1

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Degree of Reaction
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DR =

Total Pressure drop

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Stage Efficiency

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Internal Losses

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Thank you

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