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FORD

I

FeO.............

NiO ..............

CoO ............

CaO .............

BaO..............

14.58

0.486

0.06'

2.42

none

22.67

0.297

none

0.87'

0.21'

trace

0.7510

0.26"

1.80(2

0.014"

0.1514

0.081

?

MgO.............

MnO.............

SrO.............

.............

Li

cli ..............

HsO(Ign.) .

..............

S.

Cu.

C.

PSO

...............

CO ...

SO ...........

431

II

]tII

IV

3.35

0.03

16 .435

16.13

0.21

4.81

0.10

1 .758

2.31

3.77

0.09

0.04

3.29

3.02

0.01

2.05

0.25

0.10

22 .884

0 .556

22.42

0.18

0..943

0 .328

0.81

0.20

1. 839

0.20

0.03

1.98

0.06

0.03

0.06

0.10

0.70

0.02

Ni, Mn...........

Cu,.Sn ............

0.02

100.04',

Average of 46 determinations

' Average of 42 determinations.

' Average of 50 determinations.

4 Average of 41 determinations.

Average of 19 determinationa.

100.00

Average of 6 determinations.

7

Aveage of 33 determinations

Average of 49 determinations.

9 Average of 44 determinations.

i0

Average of 15 determinations.

99.82

100.00

u Average of 44 determinations.

Average of 51 determinations.

u Average of 16 determintions

14 Average of 8 determinations.

"

Average of 5 determinations.

mineralogical constituents of meteorites begun in 1912 under a grant

from the National Academy will be printed as a Memoir in the series

of Memoirs of the National Academy.

ON THE REPRESENTATION OF ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS BY

DEFINITE INTEGRALS

By Walter B. Ford

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS. UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN

Prented to the Academy. May 27. 1915

Letf (x) be any function of the real variable x defined and with|f (x)|

integrable throughout the interval (a, b) and having limited total fluctuation in the neighborhood of the particular point x a (a < a > b)

Then, if o (n, x a) be a function of the parameter n and of x-a satisfying certain well known conditions the integral

=

In (a)

(x)r (, x- a) dx(

(1)

432

property that

U In

f (a-0) +f (a+)

(2)

(2)

2-------An important special instance of an integral (1) having the property

(2) is presented in the study of the convergence of the Fourier series

forf (a), in which case the sum of the first n + 1 terms of the series can

be put into the form (1) with a = - r, b = Tr and p (n, x-a) = a certain trigonometric expression.

While the conditions upon o(n, x-a) that will insure (2) have been

extensively studied, especially by Du Bois Reymond, Dini, Hobson

and Lebesgue, relatively little appears to have been done in the actual

determination of such functions, the sole desideratum being the determination of the conditions themselves. In this connection the

present paper would point out a noteworthy class of possible functions

sp with special emphasis upon the corresponding integrals (1) to which

they give rise. Four theorems are established, the second being especially noteworthy in that it shows that to every convergent improper

integral of the form

f=

+a00

Sp(x)dx k*0,

o

wherein p (x) satisfies very simple conditions, there can be made to correspond a certain integral (1) having the property (2).

The theorems are as follows:

Theorem I: Let F (x) be any single valued function of the real variable

x defined for all finite values of x and satisfying the following three

conditions:

+li

(a)

(b)

(c)

X=

(-x)

-F

(x).

The derivative F'(x) exists and is such that if we exclude the point

x=O by an arbitrarily small interval (-e, e), (e>0), we shall have

for all remaining values of x, Ix F' (x) <AE = an assignable constant

depending only on e. Then, if f (x) be an arbitrary function of the real

variable x defined throughout the interval (a, b), we shall have for any

special value a (a <a <b)

1

d

in+n=+

J(J) dx F[

2-

( +0)

(x a)] -f (- 0) +f

2

(analogous

to

431

those under which the Fourier series for f (a) converges) in the neighborhood of the point x=a.

Theorem II: Given any convergent improper integral of the form

Jp (x) dx

k: 0

wherein (a) the function p (x) is even, i.e. p (-x) = p (x), and (b) the expression x p (x)l for all values of x lying outside an arbitrarily stll

interval surrounding the origin remains less than a constant de:p

on the interval. Then if f (x) be an arbitrary function of the

variable x defined throughout the interval (a, b), we shall have for any

special value a (a <a <b)

n f () p[n(x-a)] d ( -O) + (a+ O)

IS =+

Go

2kJ.

provided merely thatf (x) satisfies suitable conditions in the neighborhood of the point x =a.

Theorem III: Let F (x) be any single valued function of the real variable x which, when considered for positive (negative) values only of x

satisfies the following three conditions:

(a)

i

F (x) exists and

=tim

k *=

( im F(x) existsand=-k =

(b) F(O)=0.

(c) The derivative F' (x) exists and is such that if we exclude the

point x=0 by an arbitrarily small interval (-e, ), (e>0), we shall have

for all remaining positive (negative) values of x, Ix F' (x) <A, an

assignable constant depending only on e.

Then, if f (x) be an arbitrary function of the real variable x defined

throughout the interval (a, b), we shall have for any special value a

(a<a<b)

ln= + o

f (x) d F [n (x - a) dx =f (a+O)

n= +

!o f dxd

,,( i-m

+ co nkJ f (x) dx F [[n (x-.a)ld =f (a-)

=

provided merely thatf (x) satisfies suitable conditions at the right (left)

of the point x=a.

434

p (x) dx = k* 0

p(x) dx =k *C

wherein Ix p (x)l for all positive (negative) values of x lying outside

an arbitrarily small interval to the right (left) of the point x =0 remains

less than a constant depending on the interval.

Then, if f (x) be an arbitrary function of the real variable x defined

throughout the interval (a, b), we shall have for any special value a

(a<a<b)

b

f+ kP- f (x) P [[n (x - ) ] dx =f (a + 0)

n

provided merely that f (x) satisfies suitable conditions in the neighborhood at the right (left) of the point.

The proof of Theorem I follows directly from the fact (see for example,

Dini's Serie di Fourier (Pisa, 1880), pp. 119-121) that iff (x) satisfies the

indicated conditions there exists the general relation

tim

+

b

co

f (x)

(n

x-

dx

0)) +f (a( + 0)

_f(a

=

),

satisfying the following three conditions, e always denoting an arbitrarily small positive quantity:

lim

_-when--e<t<0

( ),

whenever

(I)

(II)

n- +

Jofo

I|

(n, t) dt

(III) | (n, t)

t+Jwhen

<c

O<t<e

when-e < t < , c1 being

constant

(de-

pendent only on e)

< c2 when o < t <

b

c2 being

a constant

(dependent only on E)

Theorem II is a corollary of Theorem I.

Theorem II results from the fact (cf. Dini, I.c.) that if the conditions

(I), (II), (III) above hold only for the positive (negative) values of t

there specified, then, whenever f (x) satisfies suitable conditions at the

right (left) of the point x = a, we may write

435

urn

_$m if (x)>p (n, x-a) dx= if (a+O)

(lin

f)

While the forms of representation for an arbitrary functionf (z)

afforded by the preceding theorems do not, strictly speaking, represent

the function in terms of definite integrals, but rather in terms of the

limits of such integrals as the parameter n increases to + o, it is to be

observed that the first member of (2) may always be expressed as a convergent series, viz:

and thus it appears that to every integral (2) obtained by any one of the

preceding theorems there corresponds an actual representation of the

arbitrary function in series of definite integrals.

By James B. Murphy and John J. Morton

ROCKEFELLER INSTIrUTE FOR MEDICAL RESEARCH. NEW YORK

Prsoled to the Acadmy June 22. 1915

phenomena which take place about a failing tissue graft in a host of a

foreign species, and an homologous cancer graft in an animal with a

natural or induced immunity to transplanted cancer. A constant finding in both cases is a local lymphoid reaction which appears early in

the process, and lasts till the destruction of the tissue or cancer graft is

complete. We have shown in previous communications that the lymphoid tissue is apparently the important factor in the destruction of a

tissue graft in an animal of a foreign species. The facts which lead up

to this conclusion are, that an organism like the chick embryo, which

normally has no defensive agents against the cells of a foreign species,

if supplied with adult lymphoid tissue becomes as resistant as the adult

animal in this respect. Furthermore when the adult animal is deprived

of the major portion of its lymphoid tissue by repeated small doses of

X-ray, it loses the ability to destroy the cells of a foreign species and

these will live and grow as well as they would in a native host. It

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