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RURAL

DEVELOPMENT
Rural Development Report 2013
REPORT

2013

Youth in Development

YOUTH IN DEVELOPMENT

Centre on Integrated Rural Development for


Asia and the Pacific

CIRDAP Study Series No. 221

Rural Development Report 2013

Youth in Development

Designations employed and presentation of materials in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinions whatsoever on
the part of CIRDAP concerning the legal status of any country or territory, city or area, or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation
of its frontiers or boundaries.

May 2015
CIRDAP

Price:

For CMCs

US$ 10

For Others

US$ 15

ISBN 984-8104-74-5

Compiled and Edited by:


Dr. Devendra Agochiya
Youth Expert and Former Head of the Youth Affairs Division
Commonwealth Secretariat

Published by:
Centre on Integrated Rural Development for Asia and the Pacific
Chameli House, 17, Topkhana Road
G.P.O. Box 2883, Dhaka-1000
Bangladesh
Tel: (8802) 9558751, 9559686, 9586510; PABX- 9564776 (Admin)
Fax: 880-2-9562035, 9571880
E-mail: research@cirdap.org
Website: www.cirdap.org

Printed by: DOT AD, Dhaka.

iii

Foreword
The present volume of the Report on Rural Development in CIRDAP Member Countries-2013 is the twelfth in series of bi-annual
reports on the topical theme on Youth in Development prepared by the Centre on Integrated Rural Development for Asia and the
Pacific (CIRDAP). The Centre prepares the report as a part of its efforts to promote technical cooperation and support and further the
effectiveness of integrated rural development (IRD) programmes in the Asia-Pacific region.
Youth comprise a large segment of the population in CIRDAP Member Countries, and many of them are facing a difficult transition to
adulthood owing to social and economic instability and widespread poverty. Many factors push youth into situations of conflict such
as economic instability, social and political exclusion, unemployment, dissatisfaction with public services, and the breakdown of
traditional family and social networks. A strong economic base cannot be built without strengthening vulnerable youth groups social
and economic assets. It could thereby create the structural milieu for arresting future generations from falling into the poverty trap.
CIRDAP Member Countries (CMCs) have increasingly focused on the alleviation of poverty through appropriate strategies and
initiating policy reforms and actions in the broader structural processes and intersectoral efforts.
The emphasis in the report is on the state of the art in Youth in Development and associated policies in the CMCs to highlight both
the success and the failures. In this background, CIRDAP policy bodies decided in 2012 to assess the status of youth population in
CIRDAP Member Countries. The Rural Development Report 2013, however, should not be taken as a comprehensive survey and
assessment of the Youth in Development in the CMCs. It presents a review of some of the basic components on the basis of available
information and highlights some elements which are particularly significant.
I hope the report will be useful to the policy makers and rural development practitioners as well as researchers and professionals
interested in rural development in the region. I would like to take this opportunity to thank the researchers, policy makers of the
CIRDAP Link Institutions and other organizations in the member countries for providing relevant materials for the report. I also thank
Dr. Devendra Agochiya, Youth Expert from India who has taken painstaking efforts at my request for compiling and editing the report.
Of course, I thank the Research Division under Mr. Hussein Shahbaz along with Mr. Shafiqur Rahman for making the report ready
for publication by CIRDAP, and Dr. Vasanthi Rajendran and Mohammad Abu Saleh Siddique of the Information & Communication
Division, CIRDAP for editing and printing the report.

Dr. Cecep Effendi


Director General
CIRDAP

iv

RURAL DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2013

Acknowledgements
The preparation of the report has been made possible through the support and valuable contributions received from a large number of
individuals and institutions.
The report has drawn extensively from the information and background papers prepared by the country researchers in the CIRDAP Member
Countries (CMCs). The country reports were included from 11 countries i.e. Bangladesh, India, Iran, Malaysia, Myanmar, Pakistan,
Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam out of 15 CMCs and these information were presented in the Sixth Regional Policy Dialogue
held in India in 2013. Dr. Devendra Agochiya, Youth Expert from India and Former Head of the Youth Affairs Division (CYP), Commonwealth
Secretariat, who has taken a lot of painstaking efforts to compile the report, deserves special thanks.
CMCs contributions for the report were as follows: Afghanistan National Youth Policy by Mr. Sayed Mustafa Sayedi, Director General, Office
of the Deputy Ministry of Youth Affairs, Ministry of Information and Culture, Government of Islamic Republic of Afghanistan; Bangladesh
Country Report by Bangladesh Academy for Rural Development (BARD), Comilla and Paper on Youth Development by Adv. Golam
Muhammad Rabbani, President, Youth Forum, Bangladesh; Fiji Country Report by Josefa Sania, Permanent Secretary for Youth and
Sports, Ministry of Youth and Sports, Government of the Republic of Fiji; Indian Country Report by Dr. C.S. Singhal, Professor and Head,
Centre for Women Development and Gender Studies, National Institute of Rural Development (NIRD), Hyderabad, India; Myanmar Country
Report by Ye Tint Tun, Director, Department of Agriculture; Malaysian Country Report on Rural Business Challenge by H.E. Dato' Nursiah
binti Arshad, Deputy Secretary General (Planning), Ministry of Rural and Regional Development, Malaysia; Pakistan Country Report by
National Centre for Rural Development (NCRD), Ministry of Education and Trainings, Government of Pakistan; Philippine Youth
Development Report by the Department of Agrarian Reform (DAR), Republic of the Philippines; Youth in Development in Iran, Agricultural
Planning, Economic and Rural Development Research Institute (APERDRI), Ministry of Jihad-e-Agriculture, Islamic Republic of Iran; Sri
Lanka Country Report by Hector Kobbekaduwa Agrarian Research and Training Institute, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka; Country Report on
Vietnam Youth by Institute of Policy and Strategy for Agriculture and Rural Development, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development,
Government of Vietnam.
The report has been benefited much from the professional criticism and advice provided during stages of its preparation by Dr. Cecep
Effendi, Director General, CIRDAP; Dr. Vasanthi, Rajendran, Director, Information and Communication Division, CIRDAP and our esteemed
external reviewer Ms. Tahrunnessa Abdullah, Development Consultant, Ramon Magsaysay Awardee for Community Leadership 1978.

Hussein Shahbaz
Director Research (a.i.)
CIRDAP

Table of Contents
Foreword
Acknowledgements
Acronyms and Abbreviations
Chapter 1:

Youth in Development: Concept and Scope of the Study


1.1
1.2
1.3

Chapter 2:

Youth in Development
01
Youth Development Policies and Programmes in CIRDAP Member Countries
Scope and Content of the Report
01

Youth in CIRDAP Member Countries


2.1
2.2
2.3

2.4
2.5
2.6

2.7

Situation, Issues and Concerns


03
Situation of Youth in CIRDAP Member Countries
03
Youth Unemployment Issue of Regional Concern
39
2.3.1
Youth Unemployment General Scenario in the Asia-Pacific Region
39
2.3.2
Country Situations
43
The Regional Scenario of Youth Education
68
2.4.1
Country Situations
70
Gender Equity
80
Domestic Migration
82
2.6.1
Domestic Migration
82
2.6.2
Drivers of Domestic Migration
82
2.6.3
Domestic Migration and Economic Development
83
2.6.4
Official Position on Domestic Migration
83
2.6.5
Social and Economic Exclusion of Migrants
83
International Migration
84
2.7.1
Youth Employment Problems and their Interactions with Migration
84
2.7.2
Asian Migration Systems
85
2.7.3
Situation of Young Migrant Workers in Countries of Destination
85
2.7.4
Policy Approaches in Asian Countries
86
2.7.5
Policy Improvements and the Way Forward
86
2.7.6
Positive Effects of Migration
88
2.7.7
Negative Effects
88
2.7.8
Situation of Young International Migrants in Some Asian Countries
88

National Youth Policies of CIRDAP Member Countries

Chapter 4:

Youth Participation in Development

Chapter 5:

01

03

Chapter 3:

4.1
4.2
4.3

01

92

150

Youth Participation Meaning, Importance and Scope


Reasons for Promoting Participation
154
Challenges in Promoting Youth Participation
156

150

Case Studies on Youth in Developement in CIRDAP Member Countries


Case Study 1:
Case Study 2 :
Case Study 3:
Case Study 4:
Case Study 5:
Case Study 6:

185

Making it Work: Pravahs Experience in Working with Young People


185
Youth Parliament Bangladesh
187
Youth Parliament Sri Lanka
187
Youth ki Awaaz (Mouthpiece of Youth) India's Largest Media Platform for Youth to Voice Themselves
Youth Consultants (Save the Children and Ministry of Youth, Nepal)
190
Educating New Voters An Initiative of Alliance for Peace, Nepal (In collaboration with
the Finnish Embassy)
191

188

vi

RURAL DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2013

Case Study 7:
Case Study 8:
Case Study 9:
Case Study 10:
Case Study 11:
Case Study 12:
Chapter 6:
References

Poverty Reduction Strategy (Government of Vietnam)


192
Displaced Youth (Livelihoods and Alternative Education), Thailand
Commonwealth Young Ambassadors for Positive Living
195
Tutu Rural Training Centre (TRTC), Fiji
195
Commercial Farm Programme, Sri Lanka
197
Malaysian Youth Council
198

Summary and Conclusion

193

203

193

List of Tables
Table 1:
Table 2:
Table 3:
Table 4:
Table 5:
Table 6:
Table 7:
Table 8:
Table 9:
Table 10:
Table 11:
Table 12:
Table 13:
Table 14:
Table 15:

Age Distribution in Bangladesh


06
Sex-ratio of Youth in Bangladesh
06
Rural-Urban Youth Distribution in Bangladesh 2002 to 2010
07
Gender Distribution of Youth Population in Fiji
09
09
Youth Population (15-24 years) Distribution by Division by Urban-Rural Areas
Some Youth-related Key Laws in Indonesia
16
Proportion of Youth According to Age Group and Sex in Malaysia, 2010
19
Important Features of Pakistan Youth Demography
27
Proportionate of Youth to the Total Population in Sri Lanka
31
Percentage of Youth Distribution by Urban and Rural Area in Sri Lanka
32
Showing Female-Male Distribution of Population by Age Group, Thailand
34
Showing Female-Male Distribution by Age Group, Thailand
34
Population Composition by Age Group (2003-2011) in Vietnam
36
Population Composition by Age Group and Gender (Ratio Male/100 Female), Vietnam
36
Rate of Youth Unemployment (% of Total Labour Force Aged between 15 and 24 Years (Modelled ILO
Estimate) in CIRDAP Member Countries
41
Unemployment, Youth Male (% of Male Labour Force Ages 15-24) (Modelled ILO Estimate) in CIRDAP
Member Countries
42
Unemployment, Youth Female (% of Female Labour Force Ages 15-24) (Modelled ILO Estimate) in
CIRDAP Member Countries
42
Economically Active Persons Youth (15-24 Years) Employed and Unemployed: 2002 2010 (in 000)
in Bangladesh
45
Gender-wise Distribution of Unemployed Youth (15 29 Years) in Bangladesh: 2002 2010 (in 000)
45
Showing Nature of Youth Employment in India
48
Youth and Adult Unemployment Rates by Gender in Iran
53
Youth Employment Summary of Statistics of Malaysia, 2007-2011
55
Malaysias Youth Workforce by Age Group, Strata and Gender, 2011 (000)
55
Unemployment Rates of Pakistan by Age, Gender, and Location (1996 and 2006)
61
Youth Underemployment Levels and Rates by Age in Pakistan (1996 and 2006)
62
Total Youth Engaged in Employment in Sri Lanka
62
Youth Wage Employment in Sri Lanka
64
Youth Non-waged Employment in Sri Lanka
64
Percentage of Waged and Non-waged Youth Employee by Gender in Sri Lanka
64
Unemployed Youth Population in Sri Lanka
64
Youth Education The Regional Scenario
68
Youth Literacy Rate (15-24 Years) 2010 and 2015 (Projected)
69
Youth Literacy Rate (15-24 Years) 2008-2012 (Projected)
69
Youth Literacy Rate (15-24 Years) 2010
69
Education in Afghanistan
70
Population Aged 15-24 Years by Level of Education in Bangladesh (2002-2010)
71

List of Acronyms
Abbreviations

Table 16:
Table 17:
Table 18:
Table 19:
Table 20:
Table 21:
Table 22:
Table 23:
Table 24:
Table 25:
Table 26:
Table 27:
Table 28:
Table 29:
Table 30:
Table 31:
Table 32:
Table 33:
Table 34:
Table 35:
Table 36:

and

vii
Table 37:
Table 38:
Table 39:
Table 40:
Table 41:
Table 42:
Table 43:
Table 44:
Table 45:

Distribution of Working Youth According to Education Attainment in Malaysia, 2007 2010


Number of Mainstream Institutions, Enrolment and Teachers by Level (in 000) in Pakistan
Enrolment in Tertiary Level of Education by Sex: Academic Years 2004-09 in Philippines
Education Attainment by Youth in Sri Lanka
78
World Gender Gap Index 2013
81
World Gender Gap Index 2013, 2012, 2011 (Comparative Rank)
82
International Migration of Youth in Bangladesh: 2000 2010
89
Countries with Total Number of Pakistanis Living as Migrants
89
Sri Lankan Migration for Foreign Employment (2005 and 2010)
91

75
76
77

List of Boxes
Box 1:
Box 2:
Box 3:
Box 4:
Box 5:
Box 6:
Box 7:
Box 8:
Box 9:
Box 10:
Box 11:
Box 12:
Box 13:
Box 14:
Box 15:
Box 16:
Box 17:
Box 18:
Box 19:
Box 20:
Box 21:
Box 22:

The New Found Political Power of Afghan Youth


05
What Young Indian Actually Wants
12
Extracts from World Programme of Action
39
The Youth Employment Crisis: A Call for Action
41
43
Afghanistan Youth to Receive Skills Boost for Better Jobs
Case Studies of Young Entrepreneurs
46
Excerpts from Tenth Malaysia Plan 2011-15
56
Young Entrepreneur Society (YES) Malaysia
56
Educated and Energetic: Success Story of Wasantha, Sri Lanka
65
Call to Review National Youth Policy, Bangladesh
97
Youth Policy in Iran
104
Moulding Youth to Become Dynamic and Inspired Future Leaders, Malaysia
109
Some Common Objectives of Various National Youth Policies
147
Priority Areas for Action in NYPs
148
World Programme of Action for Youth 2010
151
Celebration Internationally
152
Participation and Inclusion A Fundamental Human Right
155
Innovative Ideas for Youth Participation
159
Continuum of Youth Participation (In Ascending Order)
160
World Programme of Action for Youth (WPAY) 2010
160
IANYD Sub-working Group on Youth Participation in Peace-Building
171
Promoting Gender Equity among Adolescents: Gender Equity Movement in Schools (GEMS), Mumbai, India

List of Figures
Figure 1:
Figure 2:

Male Youth Engaged in Employment (2000, 2005 and 2010)


63
Female Youth Engaged in Employment (2000, 2005 and 2010)
63

Annexures
Annexure A :
Annexure B :
Annexure C :
Annexure D :

Suggested Framework for the National Youth Policy (NYP)


145
Resolution Adopted by the General Assembly on 18 December 2013 [On the Report of the Third
Committee (A/68/448)]- 68/130, Policies and Programmes Involving Youth
176
UN Resolution 51/1- Policies and Programmes Involving Youth
179
Recommendations of UNICEF
181

173

viii

RURAL DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2013

List of Acronyms and Abbreviations


ANYP
ANYP
ASA
ASEAN
BARD
BBS
BISF
BJP
BPHS
BRDB
CAH
CAP
CIRDAP
CLIs
CMCs
CSO
CYC
CYPTEC
DACYP
DMoYA
ED
FWRM
GBV
GDP
GFC
GIRoA
HIV/AIDS
ICT
ILO
IRD
IT
IYY
LPRYU
MDG
MGNREGA
MOA
MOC
MOE
MOI
MOL
MOPH
MOPME
MOST
MP
MSDHS
MTYDP
MWI
MyCorps
MyPark

Afghan National Youth Policy


Afghan National Youth Policy
Association of Social Advancement
Association of Southeast Asian Nations
Bangladesh Academy for Rural Development
Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics
Benzir Income Support Programme
Bharatio Janata Party
Basic Package of Health Services
Bangladesh Rural Development Board
Children and Adolescent Health
Community Action Programme
Centre on Integrated Rural Development for Asia and the Pacific
CIRDAP Link Institutions
CIRDAP Member Countries
Central Statstical Office
Community Youth Collective
Commonwealth Youth Programme Technology Empowerment Centre
District Advisory Committee for Youth Programme
Deputy Ministry of Youth Affairs
Executive Director
Fiji Womens Right Movement
Gender Based Violence
Gross Domestic Product
Global Financial Crisis
Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
Information Communication Technology
International Labour Organisation
Integrated Rural Development
Information Technology
International Year of Youth
The Lao Peoples Revolutionary Youth Union
Millennium Development Goal
Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act
Ministry of Agriculture
Ministry of Culture
Ministry of Education
Ministry of Interior
Ministry of Labour
Ministry of Public Health
Ministry of Primary and Mass Education
Ministry of Science and Technology
Member of Parliament
Ministry of Social Development and Human Security
Medium Term Youth Development Policy
Magee Women Care International
Malaysian Youth Corps
Malaysia Youth Park

ix
NAVTTC
NESP
NGOs
NIC
NPP
NPYAD
NQF
NSO
NSS
NYAB
NYC
NYK
NYKS
NYP
PDR
PEMANDU
PKSF
PLDN
PYD
RGNIYD
SLYP
SRH
SRHR
TVET
UN
UNDP
UNESCO
UNFPA
UNGEI
UNICEF
VIN
VyREC
YAPS
YDC
YLP
YLPD
YoAC

National Vocational and Technical Training Commission


National Education Strategic Plan
Non-Government Organisations
National Integration Camps
National Priority Programme
National Programme for Youth and Adolescent Development
National Qualification Framework
National Statistics Office
National Service Scheme
National Youth Advisory Board
National Youth Corps
Nehru Yuva Kendra
Nehru Yuva Kendra Sanghathan
National Youth Policy
Peoples Democratic Republic
Performance Management and Delivery Unit
Palli Karma Shahayak Foundation
Pacific Leadership Development Network
Positive Youth Development
Rajiv Gandhi National Institute of Youth Development
Sri Lankan Youth Parliament
Sexual and Reproductive Health
Sexual and Reproductive Health Rights
Technical, Vocational Education Training
United Nation
United Nations Development Programme
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation
United Nation Family Planning Association
United Nations Girls' Education Initiative
United Nations Childrens Fund
Volunteers Initiative Nepal
Virtual Youth Resource Centre
Youth Attributes, Participation and Service Providers
Youth Development Centre
Youth Leadership Nepal
Youth Leadership and Personality Development
Youth Action Nepal

RURAL DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2013

Chapter 1
Youth in Development: Concept and Scope of the Study
1.1 Youth in Development
Young people share a number of common development
challenges: poor educational commitment, access and attainment,
steady rural-to-urban migration, a breakdown of traditional
systems of social support, a lack of economic competitiveness,
high levels of unemployment, poor human development
outcomes, and a strong perception that the public system is not
fair and fails to address their concerns. Young people also suffer
from alienation and have virtually no role in many areas of social
and political life; and the failure of the labor market to absorb them
exposes them to numerous risks, including organised crime and
violence and civil unrest.
Youth unemployment rates may be up to four times higher than the
adult rate in some countries, often because, while many youth may
have access to primary education, there is little access to
secondary or tertiary education, resulting in inadequate skills.
Even those youth that do benefit from higher education may find
their skills to be irrelevant, as the education system may not be
geared toward meeting the demands of the labor market. The
need to reform education systems in the region is not helped by
the decrease in spending on education over recent years.
Conflict and instability have also affected youth prospects due to
their effect on the economy, interruption of education, government
failure to provide basic services, and also because, as seen across
the region, youth could play a key role in the instability.
A large segment of the population of CIRDAP Member Countries
is under the youth group, and many of them are already facing a
difficult transition to adulthood owing to social and economic
instability and widespread poverty. Many factors push youth into
situations of conflict such as economic instability, social and
political exclusion, unemployment, dissatisfaction with public
services, and the breakdown of traditional family and social
networks. A strong economic base cannot be built without
strengthening vulnerable youth groups social and economic
assets. It could thereby create the structural milieu for arresting
future generations from falling into the poverty trap. It is estimated
that over 20 per cent of world population comprise of youth
(between 15-24 years of age) and by 2020, it is projected that this
would be double. This will exert a massive pressure on limited
infrastructure and public services especially in education, health,
housing, and other basic utilities. Developing countries with high
unemployment rates actually tend to be among the poor and, with
low levels of education; they cannot afford to idle and are more
likely to be employed under poor conditions. To assess the better

work prospect of youth, we also need to look at various aspects of


underemployment, quality of employment and barriers to decent
work faced by young people in respective working areas. This will
give raw data on some components like employment,
unemployment and underemployment, problem faced during
natural calamities, suggestion on how to involve youth in
development process etc. Youth population are a tremendous
resource for national development. There are clear evidences of
the determination of todays youth for self-improvement and their
commitment to improve the social, political, and economic fabric of
society through individual and group action. The youth is a major
force in bringing about change and are the worlds future
decision-makers. Given this, there is a need to involve youth in
planning, policy-making, and decision-making for development.

1.2 Youth
Development
Policies
and
Programmes in CIRDAP Member Countries
Overall youth development is the physical, social, and emotional
process that occurs during the adolescent period, from ages 10
until 24 years. Simply speaking, it is the process through which
young people acquire the cognitive, social, and emotional skills
and abilities required to navigate life. Although the word 'youth' can
be used synonymously with 'child', 'adolescent', or 'young person',
the phrase 'youth development' or 'positive youth development' is
usually used in the scientific literature and by practitioners who
work with youth to refer to programmes designed to optimise these
processes. It is distinguished from 'child development' or
'adolescent development' in its focus on the active promotion of
optimal human development, rather than on the scientific study of
age related change.
CIRDAP member countries, such as, India and Sri Lanka have
come out with the 2014 versions of the Policy, some others are still
in the process of reviewing their respective Policies formulated
earlier. Lao PDR and Myanmar do not have Youth Policies at
present but are working to give shape to their Policies with
assistance from international organisations. Presently, they are
engaged in situation analysis of young people in their
respective countries.

1.3 Scope and Content of the Report


Positive youth development, or PYD, refers to intentional efforts of
other youth, adults, communities, government agencies, and
schools to provide opportunities for youth to enhance their
interests, skills and abilities into their adulthoods.

02

RURAL DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2013

During adolescence, young people experience profound physical


changes, rapid growth and development, and sexual maturation,
in addition to psychological and social changes. This often leads
to issues with personal identity, sense of self, and emotional
independence. In an attempt to cope with the complex changes
and challenges of development, they may engage in behaviors
considered to be experimental and risky. Due to this, several
important public health and social problems either begin or peak
during these years including homicide, suicide, substance use
and abuse, sexually transmitted infections, and teen and
unplanned pregnancies. Addressing the positive development
of young people can decrease these problems by facilitating
their adoption of healthy behaviors and helping to ensure a
healthy transition into adulthood.
There are many variations of this approach but important
constructs included in all variations are promoting a sense of
safety; providing appropriate structures; creating supportive
relationships; providing opportunities to belong; providing positive
social norms; giving youth responsibilities and meaningful
challenges; and providing opportunities for skill building.
The study conducted by CIRDAP was aimed at examining the
links between rural development and welfare of the stakeholders
and developing and suggesting methodologies for monitoring
welfare-focused youth development concerns. The objective has
been to place, at the disposal of the policy makers and
development practitioners, improved tools for evaluating the
progress and effectiveness of welfare-focused youth development
interventions and, through application of the lessons learned,
enhance the impacts of effective policies. Thus, realising the
importance of the theme and policy imperatives, the policy body of
CIRDAP declared Youth in Development as theme for an in-depth
examination and analysis for the year 2013. Accordingly, the study
on Youth in Development to Rural Development and Poverty

Alleviation was commissioned for the CIRDAP Member Countries


(CMCs). The academic arms of CIRDAP, the CIRDAP Link
Institutes (CLIs) were engaged to prepare thematic country
specific status report covering various facets of the subject. These
reports provided valuable information pertaining to CMCs that
were shared in the Sixth Regional Policy Dialogue (RPD), held in
India in September 2013.
The broad objective of the study was to formulate a regional action
plan among the CIRDAP member countries to provide a
substantial support to the youth for mitigating socio-economic
disparity and poverty, in the present context, and in the future, and
to assess the country specific needs for youth and incorporate
policy recommendations for; envisaging youth villages, fully
integrated continuum of services for youth, skills, jobs and career
development, and psychological counselling at the lowest
administrative level of each participating country. The
methodological tools adopted for the study were collecting,
collating of data from primary and secondary sources. Review of
available literature, documents, reports to gain insights on the
subject. Available best and innovative practices were also
incorporated as case studies.
Thus the presentation covers in six chapters as follows:
Chapter 1 covers background information of the study and scope
and content. Chapter 2 presents factual information and data on
demographic features, education, gender equity and migration of
youth in CIRDAP member countries, followed by the presentation of
materials on some issues of prime concern to young people of the
region, especially youth unemployment that is assuming crisis not
only in the developing countries but in the developed world as well.
Chapter 3 focusses on youth related policies adopted in the CMCs
while Chapter 4 covers participation of Youth in Development
activities. Chapter 5 includes some case studies as best practices in
CMCs and Chapter 6 presents conclusion and way forward.

Chapter 2
Youth in CIRDAP Member Countries
2.1 Situation, Issues and Concerns

With regard to the contents of this section, the following are


important points:

This section presents factual information and data on


demographic features of youth in CIRDAP member
countries, followed by the presentation of materials on some
issues of prime concern to young people in the region,
especially youth unemployment that is assuming crisis not
only in the developing countries but in the developed world
as well.
The material given in this section is based on the country
reports that CIRDAP had received from some member
countries. Incidentally, others had not responded to our
request. As a result, considerable time and efforts had to be
invested in sourcing materials from various international and
national reports and documents on internet.
In a few cases, the data provided by the country reports
were very comprehensive, with a large number of tables,
charts, and figures. While these data could be valuable in
more than one way, but keeping in view the limited purpose,
discretion was used to select those data and information
including tables, figures, etc. that could be useful for the
member countries.
In some cases, the facts and figures included in the country
report were outdated and, therefore, not considered relevant in
the present context because the countries have moved on in
many ways, the dynamics of young people have changed, and
so have the responses of the respective governments.
In preparing this report, the aim was to ensure some degree
of uniformity in the areas covered under different
sub-sections, but this could not be fully realised as the data
and information, available either through the country reports
or accessed through internet varied considerably.
Notwithstanding this difficulty, an attempt has been made to
present comparable data.
This section has been divided into five sub-sections. They are:

Situation of Youth in CIRDAP Member Countries


For this sub-section, substantive material on Iran
and Myanmar could not be accessed.
Youth Unemployment: Issue of Regional Concern
Only Myanmar does not feature in this sub-section
as relevant material could not be found.

Youth Education: The Regional Scenario In this


sub-section, suitable material for Iran, Lao PDR,
Myanmar, Nepal, and Vietnam could not be found.
Gender Equity In this sub-section only presented
some data on member-countries, based on reports
of the World Economic Forum have been presented.
Domestic and International Youth Migration The
issue of youth migration, with emphasis on
international migration, has been discussed with
special reference to the studies carried out in
some countries of East Asia and the Pacific
region. Initiatives taken by the governments of
Bangladesh, Pakistan, the Philippines, and Sri
Lanka to regulate international migration of young
people have been included.

2.2 Situation of Youth in CIRDAP Member


Countries
Afghanistan

A protracted quarter century of war, of the magnitude


experienced in Afghanistan, will leave a trail of tragedies,
disorientation and bewilderment in its wake, overwhelming
for all, but especially burdensome on the youth and other
vulnerable groups. This is precisely what has happened to
Afghanistans so-called lost generation the nations
cohort of youth, who have never experienced anything in
their lives but conflict in their cities and villages, or had to
live in precarious refugee conditions in neighbouring
countries. Their education was not in the schools and in the
classrooms, but in the front lines and in the mine fields.
Neither were their activities in the playgrounds or on the
football pitch, but in the vexations of exile and constant flux.
Sixty-eight per cent of the population of Afghanistan is under
25 years old; these young people represent a cross-section
of its society; and they are an integral, large and
cross-cutting segment of a wide range of Afghanistans
development ambitions, including good governance, human
rights, education and health, rule of law, security and
employment. Afghanistans fragile peace and future
security rests paramount on the ability of this generation
of youth to find their productive roles in the society to
assume the onus of reconciling deep-rooted national
divisions, and to push forward the difficult task of
establishing a free and equitable society based on
democratic principles.

04

RURAL DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2013

Yet in spite of the telltale signs calling for their immediate


and full social-political integration, until now, the youth of
Afghanistan remains largely disenfranchised, under-skilled,
highly neglected, and worse, without a clear voice to
advocate on their own behalf. The fate of Afghanistans
current youth cohort (and ultimately the country itself) will
ultimately depend on the opportunities given to them. The
following generation (children under 12 years old) awaits the
example of its predecessors, to determine the prospects of
their own future. If this segment of the population is

neglected, there is a serious risk that anti-government


power-brokers, including drug lords, warlords, and religious
and political extremist will gain in influence, further
destabilising the country. The priority that must be placed on
youth empowerment and capacity building is clearly evident.
Any hesitation in affording this crucial area of nation-building
its rightful weight and significance can no longer be justified;
as is principally through the actions and exertions of the
youth that Afghanistan will see long-term stability and
continued development and future prosperity.

Youth Population in CIRDAP Member Countries


Country

Youth 10-24 years (in millions) 2013

% of total population 2013

Afghanistan

11.8

34

Bangladesh

46.7

30

0.2

27

India

362.0

28

Indonesia

64.3

26

Iran

19.2

25

Lao PDR

2.2

34

Malaysia

8.2

28

Myanmar

12.9

26

Nepal

10.3

33

Pakistan

58.5

32

Philippines

30.4

31

Sri Lanka

4.8

22

Thailand

15.2

22

Vietnam

23.3

26

Fiji

Source: Population Reference Bureau; The Worlds Youth, Data Sheet.

making it difficult for young people to contribute meaningfully to


policymaking and government reform. But over the last decade,
there have been improvements in schooling, health, and
opportunities for young people.

A New Generation of Engagement

In the Afghanistan National Youth Policy (ANYP) document,


youth is defined as a person who is between the age of 18
and 30. However, the ANYP also provides guidelines for
programming for adolescents (13 to18 years) since the
Government of Islamic Republic of Afghanistan (GIRoA)
recognises that for many sectors, including health and
education, the return on investment is particularly high when
made at earlier stages in life.
While more than 70 per cent of Afghanistans population are
under 25 years of age, young peoples voices are rarely heard,
said Maiwand Rahyab, Counterpart Internationals deputy
director of Afghanistan. He added, Lets not be nave about the
current reality. Afghan society is conservative and hierarchical,

With all of these challenges, it is easy to believe that it is


impossible for youth to mobilise and influence the
countrys future. However, I would like to emphasise that
there is an emerging generation that is striving to
transform a war-torn country into a safer, more secure,
and prosperous place to live.
Youth movements are changing politics by providing a
platform that ties their present and future to a stable and
democratic Afghanistan. This is a generation that actively
seeks to contribute to their community.

CHAPTER-2

Ayscha Hamdani, former special adviser and chief of staff to


the European Union special representative to Afghanistan,
emphasised the importance of empowering Afghanistans
young girls and boys to take responsibility for the welfare
of their country. We need to place the responsibility where
it belongs, and that is with the Afghan people, she said.
Lets build the capacity of the young Afghan people to
actually own these processes, thereby you create
accountability, you create ownership, and processes start
manifesting themselves within Afghan society. I believe the
sooner we start understanding that and the sooner we start
relying on these processes, the sooner we can counter
current brain drain that is going on in Afghanistan yet again.

05

Empowering Afghan youth to advocate for themselves is a


crucial investment for the country, said Rahyab, who has since
helped formulate the Afghan National Youth Policy. He added,
Youth movements are changing politics by providing a
platform that ties their present and future to a stable and
democratic Afghanistan this is a generation that actively
seeks to contribute to their community. This is a sector that has
seen tremendous individual and collective maturity over the
past decade becoming more relevant, viable, vocal, and
effective. Some youth organisations have even started refusing
international funding to showcase their independence.
I cant emphasise more the importance of education for
young men and women, said Rahyab. Access to quality

Box 1: The New Found Political Power of Afghan Youth


A key factor in the recently concluded presidential election which marks the first democratic transfer of power in Afghanistan's modern history - is the
participation of Afghan youth, who are expected to play an important role in shaping the country's future as U.S. troops withdraw. Ahead of this year's
poll, Afghan election officials predicted that the majority of voters would be young people (the voting age is 18), which explains why presidential
frontrunners pledged to carve out more than half the positions in their government for the younger generation.
What is remarkable is that many young people have treated the obstacles, especially related to the threat of the Taliban who has repeatedly vowed to
violently disrupt the election, as an opportunity to get more involved in the election, not less. Members of the Kabul-based Young Activist Network for
Reform and Change (YARC), an umbrella organisation of social and civil-society groups that includes about 300,000 members, inked their fingers a
week ahead of the vote to encourage Afghans to participate in the election despite the Taliban's threats.
The younger generation's emergence as a powerful political force has gone beyond symbolic actions. The National Democratic Institute notes that the
reason for this campaigning via social media and mobile technology have, for the first time in Afghan electoral history, become critical components of
the race (in 2013 there were 2.4 million internet users in the country, up from 2,000 during the 2004 election). In March, Afghanistan's election
commission reported that young people constituted a staggering 70 per cent of provincial council candidates across the country (YARC itself has put
forward more than 35 candidates for provincial councils).
And these young people appear to be more concerned with building the country's future than litigating its past, which has been dominated by warlords,
ethnic conflicts, and civil wars. "Our elders are divided, but the youth are more united," the youth activist Israr Karimzai told Stars and Stripes. "There
are certain candidates that are playing the ethnic card in this election, but Afghans have been through the process of national solidarity and they are
aware of national interest."
Ehsanullah Hikmat, the head of YARC's international-relations committee, expressed similar views. He said, We need peace. We need stability. We
need infrastructure. We need schools, roads, hospitals. About 1.5 million Afghan youth are unemployed. What are the schemes for this
unemployment? He said that while young people in cities like Kabul and Herat are especially focused on economic issues, their counterparts in rural
areas are more worried about security. According to him, Afghanistan's younger generation is not a monolith. And not everyone in his age cohort is
embracing democratic values.
Earlier this month, Borhan Osman, a political analyst in Afghanistan, wrote that less educated young people in rural areas tend to be politically inactive,
while a growing number of more educated young people in conservative urban areas are flocking to Islamist groups that oppose democracy and
elections and favour Sharia-based forms of governance.
In many cases, scepticism towards elections stems from experiences in the post-Taliban democracy era, which was riddled with war, corruption,
manipulation, political exclusion and the rule of warlords and patronage politics. Dissatisfaction with the government seems to have tarnished the
reputation of all democratic politics that produced the government, driving people to seek alternatives they perceive as better. In conservative
segments of society, religious groups have often offered as an alternative the form of an Islamic state based on Sharia Law. This discourse pits an
Islamic system against a democratic system in the marred form Afghans experienced during the past decade.
These findings hint at one of the key questions in this weekend's historic election. As the United States leaves Afghanistan, what lessons will young
Afghans the country's future leaders draw from the last decade and a half of war and instability? Will they work to improve Afghan democracy and
elect more effective and accountable leaders, or will they spurn the democratic process in favour of a system they perceive as superior?
(Source: Friedman April 5, 2014)

06

RURAL DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2013

and equitable education will transform Afghanistan. It


already has. Contrary to the conventional perceptions,
Afghanistan is on the right path toward development and
democracy, and supporting youth engagement is central to
the success of this journey.

and in all crises after liberation. It is, therefore, important that


young people should be encouraged to participate in the task of
nation-building.
Youth Population
The total population of Bangladesh in 2010 was148.74 millions
and the youth population (15-29) was 39.25 millions as shown in
Table-1 (Report on Labour Force Survey-2010). That means that
more than one-fourth (26.39%) of the population is youth. The
majority of youth population lives in rural areas.

(Source: Wilson Centre 2013)

Bangladesh
Definition of Youth
The National Youth Policy of Bangladesh, formulated in 2003,
defines youth as those between the age group of 18-35 years. This
definition provides the basis for the activities of the Department of
Youth Development, Bangladesh.
The youth constitutes about one-fourth of the total population in
Bangladesh. For this relevant section of the population, it is
important that they grow up with a national perspective. The
history of the nation is enlightened by the heroic contribution of the
youth. The youth of the country played vital role in the language
movement of 1952, mass upsurge of 1969, liberation war of 1971

The majority of youth population in Bangladesh could be a


boon for the country as young people have emerged as a major
force behind economic development. The data indicates that
almost one-fourth of the total population was youth during the
last decade.
The sex ratio of youth in Bangladesh in 2010 implies that there
were 91 males for each 100 females. During the last decade, a
fluctuating trend of sex ratio was observed. Except for 2002-2003,
inall other cases, the numbers of males were lower than females.
In 2002-2003, there were 110 males for each 100 females.

Table 1: Age Distribution in Bangladesh


Survey Year

Total

2002-2003

(No. in millions)
Age group
15-19

20-24

25-2

35.29

12.80

11.23

11.26

Per cent

100

36.27

31.83

31.90

2005-2006

34.31

11.43

11.97

10.91

Per cent

100

33.32

34.91

31.77

2010

39.25

14.46

13.19

11.60

Per cent

100

36.85

33.59

29.56

(Source: BBS 2002-2003, 13; 2005-2006, 91; 2010, 96)

Table 2: Sex-ratio of Youth in Bangladesh


Total male
youth population
(Percentage of total
youth population)

Total female
youth population
(Percentage of total
youth population)

Sex ratio
(Number of male
to 100 female)

2002-2003

12.80

11.23

11.26

Per cent

36.27

31.83

31.90

2005-2006

11.43

11.97

10.91

Per cent

33.32

34.91

31.77

2010

14.46

13.19

11.60

Per cent

36.85

33.59

29.56

Survey year

(Source: BBS 2002-2003; 2005-2006; 2010)

CHAPTER-2

Mentionable that in 2005-2006, the proportion of male and female


was very close that means there was a tendency of gender equity
in terms of youth population.
Among the youth, the 15-19 years age groups were dominant and
there were found almost the similar tendency of youth population.
The lowest youth population was found in the age limit of 25-29.
But after the survey year of 2005-2006, the youth population, with
in this age limit, was decreasing.

07

Rural-Urban Youth Distribution


The rural-urban youth distribution is fundamentally a delineation of
geographical areas, identifying both individual urban areas and
the rural areas of the nation. "Rural" encompasses all youth
population and territory not included within an urban area and
urban area encompasses all youth that are included in densely
developed territory, and encompass residential, commercial, and
other non-residential urban land uses. The rural urban youth
distribution in Bangladesh is presented below:

Table 3: Rural-Urban Youth Distribution in Bangladesh 2002 to 2010

(No. in millions)

Survey year

Total

Rural

Urban

2002-2003

35.29

26.41

8.88

Per cent

100

74.83

25.17

2005-2006

34.31

25.43

8.88

Per cent

100

74.12

25.88

2010

39.25

29.17

10.08

Per cent

100

74.33

25.67

(Source: BBS 2002-2003, 13; 2005-2006, 91; 2010, 33)

leaving school at early age and behaviour and there is a


high risk of long-term social exclusion of these youth.

Problems Concerning Youth

Youth in a country is the most viable and potential human


resource not only in population structure, but also in social
structure. Without proper and integrated bio-social
development of the youth, a nation cannot achieve its human
goals intended. Development in Bangladesh depends on the
proper utilisation of its youth; because they constitute
one-fourth (in the age group of 15-29) of the total population.
The youth of Bangladesh faces a lot of socio-cultural
problems such as unemployment, underemployment,
illiteracy, lack of technical knowledge, skill and training,
financial crisis for self-employment resulting from mass
poverty, and lack of informative plan implemented. Actually
youth are the main victim of poverty that constraints their
proper education, training and development.
Due to economic hardship, many young people are
deprived of having balanced diet, leading to considerable
malnutrition. A large number of adolescents suffer from
malnutrition and many of them are not physically, mentally
and intellectually strong enough to take the responsibility
that may come to them as they grow up.
Education is one of the prime means of human
development. But poverty is still a barrier to achieve proper
education. Many youth leave their school before completing
primary education because of financial crises that increase
the dropout rate. There is a strong correlation between

Deprived youth do not get satisfactory jobs as they lack


appropriate skills and relevant education. Because of this
situation and the shortages of jobs opportunities in the
formal sector, many youth remain unemployed. Even in the
rural areas where families work on farmland, there are more
hands than needed, resulting in under-employment.
A lot of Bangladeshi youth suffer from extreme frustration.
The origin of frustration is rooted in lack of proper
socialisation in childhood as well as unemployment at the
stage of youth. Different studies show that frustration is one
of the major causes of drug addiction among the youths in
one hand, drug addiction leads the addicted youths to
commit other offences such as pick-pocketing, stealing,
smuggling, shoplifting, snatching, dacoity or terrorism, illicit
drug and arms trafficking etc. on the other hand.
There are other forms of problems faced by youths,
particularly young women in Bangladesh such as early
marriage, dowry, women trafficking and so forth. As coping
strategy with unemployment situation, many youths migrate
internally or externally. But very often external migration can
take dangerous forms; especially young women are
vulnerable to human trafficking. They become innocent
victims of sexual harassment, low wages, and uncongenial
working environment. Many young male are also cheated by
their employer agencies.

08

RURAL DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2013

The problems stated above are barriers to the overall


development of Bangladesh. Therefore, problems of youth
should be addressed with utmost sincerely through proper
plans and programmes in order to transform young people
to skilled and productive workforce so that they can involve
in income earning activities, lead a satisfactory life and
contribute to the national development.

Roles and Responsibilities of Ministries Dealing with Youth

The Department of Youth Development is entrusted with


roles and responsibilities as per rules of business of
different ministries of government especially the Ministry of
Youth and Sports, Ministry of Women and Children Affair,
Ministry of Local Government Rural Development and
Cooperatives, Ministry of Industry, Ministry of Labour and
Employment, Expatriates, Welfare and Overseas, Ministry
of Environment and Forest and so on. These are:

Encourage youth for self-employment and wage


employment through motivation, training and other
necessary support;
Organise youth through voluntary youth organisations
and motivate them to take part in community
development and nation building activities;
Involve youth in socio-economic activities like literacy
programme, disaster management, primary health
care, environment, resource conservation and
awareness building against anti social activities, drug
abuse, AID/STDs etc;
Take necessary steps for empowering the youth by
providing skill development training and micro-credit
support for establishing self employment projects and
ensure their participation in decision making process;
Coordinate youth programmes and services, liaising
with concerned Ministries and agencies like the
Department of Women Affairs, the Bureau of Training,
Labour and Manpower, PKSF, BRDB, BARD,
Bangladesh Small and Cottage Industries Corporation,
BRAC, Grameen Bank, ASA, Swanirvar Bangladesh etc;
Take initiatives for conducting research and study on
youth and youth development activities;
Transform the unemployed youth into organised,
disciplined and productive workforce;
Facilitate the unemployed youth for self employment/
wage employment at home and abroad providing skill
development training and microcredit support;
Involve the youth in the mainstream of the national
development process.
(Source: Department of Youth Development, Bangladesh 2011)

Specific Strategies to Enhance Youth Development


The government of Bangladesh acknowledged the contribution
of the youth to nation building through establishing the Ministry
of Youth and the Department of Youth Development in 1978 and
1981 with the objective of creating a positive environment for
youth by ensuring the pro-active of creating positive
environment through improved education, skill development,
micro credits and other means. Several self-employment
programmes were undertaken from 1983-84 for the unemployed
trained youth to assist them to be self-employed. The
programmes proved quite a success.
Strategies for Capacity Building

Providing skill development training for the youth through


institutional training courses and these courses
implemented by joint venture, course for youth leaders and
course for DYD officials;
Implementing self employment programmes for trained youth;
Initiating two types of credit programmes such as group
based and individual credit programmes;
Implementing motivational and awareness programmes;
Creating public private partnership programmes and also
the allocation of revenue and development budget;
Establishing central human resource development centres
and regional human resource development centres;
Implementing programmes through completed technical
training projects for unemployed Youth; and
Initiating innovative management for resource for poverty
alleviation through comprehensive technology programmes.

On-going Projects

Establishment of New Youth Training Centres in the


remaining eleven districts.
Project on Completion of Incomplete Works of the Old Youth
Training Centre.
Youth Empowerment Through Life Skills Education and
Livelihood Opportunities.
Project on Strengthening of Programme Based Networking
between the Department of Youth Development and Youth
Organisation.
Project on Commonwealth Youth Programme Technology
Empowerment Centre (CYPTEC) on Wheels for
Disenfranchised Rural Young People of Bangladesh.

CHAPTER-2

relationships and responsibilities that youth takes on, both


personal and institutional level.

Fiji
Youth Population and Its Dynamics
The United Nations definition of youth refers to those people
who are between the ages of 15 and 24 years of age. In the
case of Fiji, youth are those between the ages of 15 to 35
years of age given that in many cases young adults up to the
age of 35 actively participate in youth programmes. This
definition of youth in Fiji is similar to developing countries
like India, Malaysia and South Africa. A large number of this
age group participates in youth programmes provided by the
Government, and civil societies including NGOs and the
different faith based organisation in Fiji.

The youth definition for Fiji fully supports the transition


phase from childhood to adulthood where youths become
independent from their families and begin to have their own
families to look after and support. This transition period is
critical in youth development as it generally encompasses
the phase when adolescents gradually attain independence
as an adult. A recent report by United Way Calgary defined
transition as the period when youths take on responsibilities
or accomplish tasks, such as establishing independent
housing that moves them towards independence. The
report further stated that core transition areas often include:
completing education, entering the workforce, establishing
financial independence and independent housing, entering
a conjugal relationship or other stable committed
relationships and having children. This transition is marked
by significant changes in the life of a youth, these changes
are often linked to new roles that a youth assumes and

According to the 2007 population census, Fiji has a total


population of 837,271 of which 51.3% is male and 48.7%
female. Youth population (between the ages of 15-24) is
159,870, comprising of 19.1% of the total population.
Gender distribution amongst the youth population is
relatively equal, 51.4% of the total youth population are
male while the remaining 48.6% are female.
The current youth population as defined in the National
Youth Policy (15 to 35 years age group) in Fiji is 308,411 or
36.8% of the total population, according to the 2007
Population Census.
According to population census, children in Fiji constitute
29.1% of the total population while the adult population is
34.1%. The remaining 36.8% of the population comprises of
youths who are in the transition period and their role is to
achieve social and economic independence prior to
reaching 35 years. Then transitioning from adolescence into
adulthood is a critical period in youth development. The
vulnerable youth are at particular risk during this transitional
period as they often have additional challenges to overcome
and fewer resources and support to draw upon.
Young people are faced with many challenges in a rapidly
changing world. These challenges are associated with
technology, economic, social, cultural and environmental
factors that also provide opportunities. Youth development
stakeholders have attempted to address issues of concern
within the eight thematic areas of focus in the National

Table 4: Gender Distribution of Youth Population in Fiji


Survey year

Total

Male

Female

Total population

837,271

427,176

410,095

15 19 years

79,518

40,818

38,700

20 24 years

80,352

41,325

39,027

Total youth population

159,870

82,143

77,727

19.1

51.4

48.6

Youth percentage
(Source: Fiji Bureau of Statistics 2007)

Table 5: Youth Population (15 24 Years) Distribution by Division by Urban-Rural Areas


Central

Eastern

Western

Urban

54,229

1,026

26,370

7,242

Rural

16,418

4,926

33,876

15,783

Total

70,647

5,952

60,246

23,025

44.2

3.7

37.7

14.4

% of youth population
(Source: Fiji Bureau of Statistics 2007)

09

Northern

10

RURAL DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2013

Youth Policy. However, there are constraints funding,


resource capacity and in some areas the programmes are
not focused to those who are in need of development. The
number of organisations involved in some thematic areas is
quite low and it is hoped that these areas will be identified
and that activities implemented towards these priority areas
will increase. Addressing these thematic areas would
enhance work on youth development as it improves basic
life skills and empowerment of youth in Fiji. The NYP fully
appreciates that strong traditional and spiritual values will
provide the pathway for young people to deal with lifes
various challenges; it ensures that the full potential of young
people is developed for the betterment of the nation. This
can only be achieved through a framework of networking,
partnership, dialogue, and multi-sectorial co-operation
between the various stakeholders in public sectors, the
private sector, non-governmental organisations and other
civil society organisations in general.

Voluntary Youth Training Grant

Youth Mentoring Programme

(Source: Ministry of Youth and Sports, Fiji 2011)

Harnessing Youth Engagement in Rural Development

With 44.4% of youth population residing in rural areas,


current programmes established and implemented by the
Ministry of Youth and Sports, aim to harness youth potential
for development in rural areas, promoting holistic and
positive of rural youth. Some key programmes aimed at
enhancing the potential of rural youth are given below:

Links with youths are established through youth club


registration. This is when a group of youths who have
actively decided to organise and mobilise their members to
do youth related projects officially registers their group at the
Ministry of Youth and Sports as means to obtain government
recognition and to access services by the Ministry.
The Ministry of Youth and Sports utilises networks established
through the youth clubs registration to deliver training
programmes along with government assistance. Youth
officers responsible for each division and province continually
guide and monitor these youth clubs to ensure their youth
projects are sustainable for the betterment of their community.

Seeds of Success Programme

The seeds of success programme is a behavioural change


programme that targets youths in particular rural areas,
school dropouts and unemployed youths. It helps to
increase youths' confidence and belief in themselves, it
motivates youths to create productives and satisfying lives
and it increases youths' potential for success in their work
and their personal lives.

A youth to youth mentoring programme and best performing


youth groups are identified to benchmark other youth
groups. This programme was introduced in 2011 and it
provides an opportunity for youth groups to learn each
others best practices, and further more it provides an
opportunity to share knowledge and experiences.

Sports Development Programmes

Fiji is a sport loving nation. Sports have been used in major


events and fund-raising activities for development in rural areas.
Sport Grant
Annual grants are awarded to national sporting bodies in the
following areas:

Hosting of international tournaments,

Overseas sporting tours,

Short-term expert, and

Sports scholarships.

Establishment and Registration of Youth Clubs

The annual grant awarded by the Ministry of Youth and


Sports was given to support initiatives by youth clubs,
provincial youth councils and a civil society organisation
whose work and projects are aligned to and complements
the national youth policy. The aim of the grant is to support
registered youth groups and stakeholders in the areas of
youth training, capacity building and establish youth
projects, including small-micro enterprises towards that help
to strengthen networking and partnership resource to
enhance youth development work in Fiji.

Donation of Sports Equipment

Donation of basic sport equipment to schools, religious


organisations registered clubs and youth groups. This
enhances team work and sport participation for youth in Fiji.

Sports Field Development and Upgrading

This programme involves the development and upgrading of


sports playing fields. Priority is given to schools and
communities in remote areas who have limited access to
proper sporting facilities.

Youth Leadership and Training

Youth participants in the 2nd Pacific Youth Festival, held in


Suva in 2009, identified certain issues that relate to youth
leadership such as: lack of youth involvement in all sectors
of national development processes; and the negative
impacts of not being involved. The traditional and cultural
values and the expectations that hinder the active and
effective participation of these young people were also

CHAPTER-2

highlighted. Furthermore there are negative attitudes


towards supporting youth and women in political
participation and decision-making, including few gender
equality policies in the region; limited resources are
allocated for the engagement of youth in development;
integrity and other important virtues are not widely practiced
amongst our leaders nor constituents and many of the
leaders have failed to deliver their promises to young
people; and finally the inadequate mechanisms for young
people to engage in development agendas.

At a focus group consultation in February and March 2012,


the relevant stakeholders raised the problems faced by the
NGOs in delivering services in this thematic area. The Public
Emergency Regulations 2009 and the Public Order
Amendment Decree 2012 introduced by the government
restricted engagement in youth empowerment. Along with
the changing environment, the youths adaptability to these
changes the unfamiliar legal framework and the Ministry of
Youth and Sports unresponsiveness to correspondence are
key challenges stakeholders face in trying to implement their
programmes and activities. There is also the lack of capacity
building training for youth leaders and implementation of
youth specific research. The need for mainstreaming youth
development strategies, information sharing and networking
and a long term strategic plan for intervention programmes
are crucial in developing the youths of today.
In hindsight, the need for a stronger research approach for
youth development is needed through engaging in strategic
partnership among major providers and funders of youth
development. Only this will ensure improved knowledge,
information that is readily available, integrated effort towards
programmes and capacity building such as training of
trainers and training institutions.
The Ministry of Youth and Sports is expected to support the
role of the National Youth Council and the establishment of
District Youth Councils throughout Fiji, to ensure equal
representation of young women and men and marginalised
groups of all ethnic groups. Furthermore it is expected to
continue and promote the enhancement of youth capacity in
various aspects of leadership and good governance ably
equipping young people for effective engagement at family,
community, institutional, national and international levels.
According to the findings of the Models of Youth Leadership;
leadership training is not new in Fiji. Early colonial
administrators were aware of the need to consolidate and
develop a cadre of leaders through the Great Council of
Chiefs and the establishment of schools to groom children
from chiefly families for future leadership. Many leadership
programmes focus on management and project skills more
than on actual leadership training. This gap has only until

11

recently been realised and there are programmes such as


the Pacific Governance Network and the Pacific Leadership
Development Network (PLDN) that address these issues.
The Australian Aid has also included a public leadership in its
programme called the Pacific Leadership Programme.
However, most leadership trainings in Fiji are for short term
training courses such as that of the Public Sector, churches
and other government agencies. The Ministry of Youth and
Sports implements two specific programmes in this regard:
the Seeds of Success Programme and the Duke of
Edinburgh Award aim at developing youth leadership. Youth
leadership training has been conducted in mostly religious
organisations in Fiji especially in the Catholic Church and the
Seventh Adventist Church. Faith-based organisations have
traditionally been involved in leadership trainings as part of
their membership grooming and development process.

Established and highly visible programmes in Fiji include


Leadership Fiji and the Emerging Leaders Forum coordinated
by the Fiji Womens Rights Movement (FWRM). PIANGO has
been offering its Pacific Graduate Diploma in not-for-profit
management in collaboration with the UNITEC Institute of
Technology (Auckland) since 1999. Youth leadership or
programmes should be recommended to all young people; it
helps young people learn and understand the relevant issues
affecting their country and environment. The study revealed
that there were three main categories from which
programmes originated. These are internally-developed,
internally-adopted external ones, and universal programmes.
Respondents identified a list of strengths of the programmes
they either offer or have been through. Both the training
providers and alumni members agreed that leadership
training is relevant for youth development.
One unique feature about the landscape of leadership
training in Fiji is that most programme providers operate
independently of each other. This has been identified by
many stakeholder respondents as a major challenge.
According to the report, there is a lot happening all over the
place in terms of all service providers but there is a lack of
coordination and sharing of information that would enhance
service delivery in youth leadership. The report further
revealed the following: (1) Youth leadership programmes
exist in Fiji, however, their goals, scope and activities vary
across programme providers. Generally the programmes
are constrained by issues of access (related to cost, gender,
professional and educational qualification) and programme
focus, however, the strengths of the programmess are
many; (2) Leadership training in Fiji is reflective of shifting
positions and approaches to governance. Whilst some
programme providers acknowledge the significance of
cultural and traditional influences on leadership, others do
not; and finally the study has identified the potential and

12

RURAL DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2013

need for a collaborative and research informed approach to


youth leadership training in Fiji. The Leadership
Development Programme at the University of the South
Pacific offers a platform from which this can be achieved.
This will ensure that youth leadership needs and challenges
are meaningfully identified and adequately addressed.
Additionally, the government needs to take a more proactive
role in spearheading and supporting leadership initiatives.
(Source: Ministry of Youth and Sports, Fiji 2011)

rate is 1.41%, ranking 102nd in the world in 2010. Indian


population reached the billion mark in 2000.

Youth Population

India
Demographics of India

With over 1.21 billion people (2011 Census), India is the


second most populous country in the world. India houses more
than a sixth of the world's population. Already containing 17.5%
of the world's population, India is projected to be the world's
most populous country by 2025, surpassing China, its
population reaching 1.6 billion by 2050. Its population growth

India has more than 50% of its population below the age of
25 and more than 65% below the age of 35. It is expected
that, in 2020, the average age of an Indian will be 29 years,
compared to 37 for China and 48 for Japan.

The population in the age-group of 15-34 increased from 353


million in 2001 to 430 million in 2011. Current predictions
suggest a steady increase in the youth population to 464 million
by 2021 and finally a decline to 458 million by 2026.
By 2020, India is set to become the worlds youngest
country with 64 per cent of its population in the working age
group. With the West, Japan and even China aging, this
demographic potential offers India and its growing economy
an unprecedented edge that economists believe could add
a significant 2 per cent to the GDP growth rate.

Box 2: What Young India Actually Wants


One of the easily forgotten themes of debates that have surrounded the upcoming elections is the lack of youth participation and absence of genuine
representatives in the Parliament.
Indian history has witnessed many young people leading the country towards its independence; both Gandhi and Nehru became politically active at
their young ages. However, over the last few decades, our enthusiasm seems to have been muted, arguably due to deep-rooted corruption and
government insensitivity towards various social issues. Although it is true that the biggest success of our democracy is attributed to its representative
character, the striking absence of the youth in the political arena has been largely overlooked.
A youth representation (age group 25-40 years) of only 6.3 per cent in the current Lok Sabha, even though 50 per cent of the population lies in that age
bracket, cant be called parliamentary presence? Can it? What is it that Young India actually wants? As a part of an endeavour to create spaces for
youth where they can engage in politics all the year round in every twist and turn of the political story and not just on voting day, an event titled, My
Space; My Unmanifesto was held in August 2013.
Just like Humpty Dumptys un-birthdays in Alice and Wonderland, which are celebrated throughout the year except on the day of the birthday, we want
young people to participate in democracy all year around, not just on the day of the elections and create a participative democracy rather than a
representative one, says Arjun Shekhar, Founder, Community Youth Collective (CYC).
CYC along with around 26 other national youth organisations galvanised the youth online, and on the ground, into preparing Unmanifesto, the manifesto
of the youth, to be presented to the political parties ahead of the 2014 general elections. Through workshops and online dialogues that were initiated in
another event in February, 2013, they successfully collected thousands of young voices, wherein young people have spoken clearly and emphatically about
what they would like political parties to promise in the coming Delhi elections and next year in the Lok Sabha elections, if they want to secure their votes.
Besides the 5,000 promises collected (on ground and online), there were about 600 young people present at the event to add to the list. An interim list
of the top ten wishes of youth was presented to parliamentarians - Meenakshi Natrajan, MP, Congress, and Manvendra Singh, BJP.
Along with Amitabh Behar, ED, National Foundation for India, who moderated the panel discussion, the parliamentarians were engaged in a deep
dialogue with young people who were a part of this campaign. This process is not to do away with political parties. We have to collaborate with them
and they are not our enemies, Amitabh said.
Though there is a palpable sense of frustration about government inaction, young people who strongly believe that the only yardstick for participation
cannot be representation alone thronged the venue. For them its not about who gets elected and how, but about actions that are taken on behalf of the
people and for the people. It is as if they instinctively understand that their elected representatives have no major role to play, other than smiling through
billboards that greet us on festivals. Mandate 35 per cent reservation of youth in legislative assemblies and cabinet equivalent bodies along with 33
per cent reservation for women, said Dibya Ranjan Mishra, who presented the young peoples manifesto to Mr. Manvendra Singh.
(Source: The Hindu, September 2013)

CHAPTER-2

India has a younger population not only in comparison to


advanced economies but also in relation to the large
developing countries. As a result, the labour force in India is
expected to increase by 32 per cent over the next 20 years,
while it will decline by 4.0 per cent in industrialised countries
and by nearly 5.0 per cent in China. This demographic
dividend can add to growth potential, provided higher levels
of health, education and skill development achieved.

network and capacity building of youth club members.


These programmes are mostly common to all NYKs.
Special Programmes: Implementation of the schemes of
the Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports to further the cause
of youth development and participation of young people in
nation building activities. Among these are:

Agency for the Implementation of Youth Programmes

The Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports is the nodal agency


for all youth development programmes and schemes. It
carries out its mandate through three key projects:

Nehru Yuva Kendra Sangathan (NYKS)

The scheme of Nehru Yuva Kendra (NYK) for each district was
started by the government of India in 1972. The Nehru Yuva
Kendra Sangathan came into existence in 1987 as an
autonomous body of the central government which is presently
functioning under the Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports.
Since 1972, there has been a phenomenal growth in the
existing number of Nehru Yuva Kendras which are functional
today in as many as 623 districts of the country. Further, in
order to manage, administer and run the 623 district based
Nehru Yuva Kendra, zonal offices in 28 states of India have
been established by NYKS. Further, District Advisory
Committee for Youth Programmes (DACYP) with the district
collector as the chairman, helps in linking NYKS activities with
the district plan. Similarly, state advisory committee with the
Minister of Youth Affairs in the state as chairman helps in
dovetailing NYKS programmes with the states priorities.
Headquarters of the NYKS are located in New Delhi.

Involve rural youth in nation building activities; and


Develop such skill and values in them with which they
become productive and responsible citizens of a
modern, secular, and technological nation.

The core strength of NYKS is a network of 125,000


functional youth clubs at the village level and 12,000
volunteers of National Youth Corps (NYC). There is a clearly
defined functional linkage between the volunteers of the
NYC and the network of youth clubs at the district level.
Programmes and activities conducted by NYKS fall in three
broad categories:
Regular Programmes: Funded by the Ministry of Youth
Affairs and Sports through an annual budget, these are the
core activities aimed at strengthening the youth club

National Youth Corps (NYC) scheme is to prepare


and deploy a trained cadre of disciplined and
dedicated youth who have the inclination and spirit to
engage in the task of nation building;
National Programme for Youth and Adolescent
Development (NPYAD);
National Integration Camps (NICs) aims to create a
feeling of oneness among the youth of our country;
Youth Leadership and Personality Development
(YLPD) training; and
Life Skill Training for Adolescent.

Convergence Initiatives/Programmes: Supporting the


implementation of youth-related programmes of other
Ministries of the Central Government, UN agencies, and
other funding organisations. Among these are:

NYKS was established with a mission that carries two basic


objectives:

13

A scheme for various initiatives/ programme for the


youth of north eastern states;
Adolescent Health and Development Project with the
Support of UNFPA;
Projects of Mahatma Gandhi National Rural
Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) of the
Ministry of Rural Development;
Awareness and education for the prevention of drug
abuse and alcoholism; and
Cultural youth exchange programme for the youth of
the state of Jammu and Kashmir with the support of
the Ministry of Home Affairs.

National Service Scheme (NSS)

The National Service Scheme (NSS) aims at developing


student's personality through community service. Students
from universities, colleges and high schools have the option
to join the NSS as volunteers, working for a
campus-community linkage. The cardinal principle of the
NSS programme is that it is organised by the students
themselves, and both students and teachers get through
their combined participation in community service, a sense
of involvement in the task of nation building. It has aroused
among the youth students an awareness of the realities of
life, a better understanding and appreciation of the problems
of the people. NSS is, thus, a concrete attempt in getting the
students interested in the needs of the community.

14

RURAL DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2013

The main objectives of the National Service Scheme (NSS) are:

Understand the community in which they work;

Understand themselves in relation to their community;

Develop among themselves a sense of social and


civic responsibility;

Utilise their knowledge in finding practical solutions to


individual and community problems;
Develop competence required for group-living and
sharing of responsibilities;
Gain skills in mobilising community participation;

Acquire leadership qualities and democratic attitudes;

Identify the needs and problems of the community


and involve them in problem-solving;

post-graduate level encompassing various dimensions of


youth development, engaging in seminal research in the
vital areas of youth development and coordinating training
programmes for state agencies and the officials of youth
organisation, besides the extension and outreach initiatives
across the country.

Develop capacity to meet emergencies and natural


disasters; and
Practise national integration and social harmony.

Started initially in 37 universities involving 40,000


volunteers, the scheme has grown over the years and it is
implemented today with an involvement of more than 2.6
million volunteers spread over educational institutions under
200 universities, and schools.

The institute functions as a think-tank of the ministry and


premier organisation of youth-related activities in the
country. As the apex institute at the national level, it works in
close cooperation with the NSS, NYKS and other youth
organisations on the implementation of training
programmes. The institute is a nodal agency for training
programmes for youth work functionaries across the country.
The RGNIYD serves as a youth observatory and depositary
in the country and thereby embarking on youth surveillance
on youth-related issues. It has a wide network with various
organisations working for the welfare and development of
young people and serves as a mentor.
The Institute seeks to realise its vision by:

Projects undertaken by NSS units include:

Adoption of villages
Construction and reparation of roads
Afforestation
Literacy classes
Water conservation
Plastics eradication
Eye donation
Sapling plantation
Blood donation
Peer group learning

Rajiv Gandhi National Institute of Youth Development

The Rajiv Gandhi National institute of Youth Development


(RGNIYD) is an institute of national importance functioning
under the Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports, Government
of India. It was set up in 1993.
As the apex the national agency for youth development, the
institute strives to develop into a globally recognised and
acclaimed centre of academic excellence in the field of youth
development, fully responsive to the national agenda for
inclusive growth, and the needs and aspirations of young people
of the country to realise their potentials to create a just society.
The RGNIYD functions as a vital resource centre with its
multifaceted functions of offering academic programmes at

Providing substantive inputs in the formulation of


youth-related policies and in developing innovative
programme initiatives that respond effectively to the
needs and concerns of the young people of the country;
Developing professional capacity of all youth
development agencies in the country state-sponsored
or voluntary organisations through training and
specialised services, such as: consultancies, and
providing expertise and training materials for in-house
training programmes;
Setting up a world-class and modern resource centre that
will provide a library and other related services and
facilities to those involved in youth-related activities
youth organisations, educational and training
institutions, researchers, scholars, and young people;
and
Generating authentic and comprehensive primary and
secondary data on all issues and matters that impact
the life of the young people in the country through a
systematic and extensive programme of action
research and study.

The mandate of RGNIYD includes:

Function as a resource agency and think-tank for


youth programmes, policies and implementation
strategies;
Develop multi-faceted programmes for youth keeping
in view of the social harmony and national unity as the
ultimate objective

CHAPTER-2

Grow and develop as a facilitator and nodal agency


for youth training, youth work, and youth development
in the country for rural, urban, and tribal youth;

dialogue, consultation, and exchange of views on


matters and issues impacting the life of the young
people in the countr; and

Function as an institute of advanced study in the field


of youth to develop professional excellence that may
be required for the purpose;
Develop its programmes aimed at inculcating a
sense of national pride, awareness of national goals
and internalisation of national values among the
youth workers;
Develop new ideas and innovative programmes for
motivating and creating a committed cadre of youth
workers and functionaries.
Promote and conduct actions and user based applied
research and evaluation studies in youth
development and through this provide necessary
thrust to youth programmes on systematic and
scientific lines;

Indonesian Youth and Youth Development

Provide institutional training for the personnel working


in the field of youth;
Provide appropriate youth extension projects and
services which can function as laboratory on youth
work; and

The institute also works to enhance international


cooperation on all youth-related issues. It seeks to fulfil this
role by:

Establishing productive and enduring relationship


with international organisations engaged in
youth-related activities; and with national youth
development bodies of other countries, especially in
the Asian region;
Organising joint programmes and projects that will
benefit young people across the globe;
Working to build consensus on youth-related issues;

Offering trainings, consistent with international


standards and curriculum, to participants from other
countries in youth development areas;
Establishing and nurturing a national network of youth
development agencies and promoting co-operation
and collaboration among them;
Providing a forum to young people of the country and
other involved organisations and individuals for

Developing necessary expertise and proficiency of


the professional personnel of the institute to make
them active partners in establishing it as the centre of
excellence in youth development

Indonesia

Function as centre for information publication and


documentation pertaining to youth development;

Link its programmes and functions to the promotion of


the National Youth Policy.

15

There were many age limitations in defining youth. These


age limitations were defined by socio-political and cultural
context in their respective region. Each region had a
different limitation; various agencies also had different age
limitations. However, in Law No. 40/2009 on youth, the age
limitation was 16-30 years in between.
Just like every other country in Asia, Indonesia was
experiencing an increase in the group 16-30 years of people
in believing. With a population of over 230 million in 2011,
youth made up approximately 37% (62,343,755 million) of
the total population. This large number is both: challenge
and an opportunity for its the development of the country. In
response to this situation, the Indonesian government
needed a special strategy in developing youths potentials
and maximising their role as citizens.
An integrated youth policy in Indonesia did not exist. There
were eight policies related to youth and each had its own
definition of youth. Only law No. 40 of 2009 on youth had
specifically defined the criteria of being a youth. All the
policies intersected and even overlapped in trying to target
youth problems.
The disintegrated youth-related policies resulted in
fragmented distribution of funding for programmes and they
often overlapped between one ministry and another, when
in actuality the amount of funding for youth programmes in
Ministry of Youth and Sports Affairs combined with other
ministries programmes is quite significant.
From time to time, even though youth was seen as the next
generation, their roles had not been activated in practice.
Youth were still perceived as objects that needed to be
guarded and controlled. The complicated bureaucracy and
transparency in government institutions kept limiting youth
access to be involved is programmes that targeted their group.
The existing youth policies, especially the National Youth
Law, did not represent the needs and problems of todays
youth. According to several sources, this was due to the
closed nature of the formulation process, so there was a
lack of representation from youth in the formulation.

16

RURAL DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2013

The process of formulating policies also did not maximise


the existing comprehensive research and studies on the
needs and problems of youth.
The main challenge faced by Indonesian youth included
education, employment, health (including reproductive
health), food security, and fundamentalist movements that
encouraged intolerance and violence.

The state had not viewed youth as a diverse group with


specific needs and problems, such as disabled youth, street
youth, and young women. Both from the definition and
programme aspects, the state still considered youth
uniformly and had not given affirmation to marginalised
youth groups.

the government. The youth organisations in the Ministry of


Youth and Sports Affairs list were usually affiliated to
existing political parties, religious and ethnic groups, or
other mass organisations.

Even though the national youth law had regulated on youth


organisation, it still used the old framework in defining youth
organisation that many initiatives or contemporary youth
organisations did not meet those criterion. This resulted in
difficulties for such groups to access resources provided by

One of the most basic inhibiting factors in active youth


participation was the political culture that had been
embedded and practiced since the new order regime. By the
regimes power structure, Indonesia was envisioned as a
big family, namely a national family. Youth were positioned
as children, told to respect and obey older leaders, the
fathers. This cultural hierarchy could be found in
government bureaucracy in Indonesia.
The development of youth creativity and initiative required
support from governments resources. To date, many youth
groups with potentials worked on their own initiative and
resources, and their programmes did well. Support from the
government could amplify the impact of their initiatives,
because the government had structure and influence.
Especially with the existence of regional autonomy, each

Table 6: Some Youth-related Key Laws in Indonesia


(Based on the study of the existing law, policies related to Indonesian youth)
Sl.
No.
1.

Youth-related
laws and
regulations
Law No. 40
of 2009
on Youth

Rights regulated
under the rules
and regulations

Definition
of youth
Youth:
16 30
years old

2.

Government
Regulation No. 41
of 2011 on
Development of
Youth
Entrepreneurship
and Initiative as
well as Provision of
Youth Infrastructure
and Facilities

(Source: Ramadhan May 2013)

Youth:
16 30
years old

Conclusion of the
rules and
regulations

Protection, especially from


destructive influence
Service in using youth facilities
and infrastructure without
discrimination
Advocacy
Access to personal
development
Opportunity to participate in the
planning implementation,
monitoring, evaluation, and
strategic decision making in

This law naturally became the instrument that


dominated studies about youth policies in Indonesia.
With a total of 54 articles, National Youth Law focused
on regulations on defining youth (especially on age),
empowerment of potentials, developing leadership,
entrepreneurship, initiatives, partnership, youth
organization and funding allocation as well as
mandate on cross-sectoral coordination on youth
affairs. As the main reference basis, this policy was
expected to be able to respond to challenges faced by
youth and answer their needs. Thus, further studies
and follow up were required on this law since its
enactment in 2009.

Development of youth
entrepreneurship
Development of youth initiative
Provision of youth facilities and
infrastructure

This policy was derived from Law No. 40 of 2009 on


youth which focused on these aspects:
entrepreneurship, initiative, and supporting facilities
and infrastructure articles concerned regulated on
trainings, mentoring, and youth leadership forum as a
tool to develop initiative. The facilities and
infrastructure aspect regulated on the provision,
maintenance, utilization, and funding. The authority to
monitor this Government Regulation was given to the
central government and local government.

CHAPTER-2

and most urgent things in the lives of Indonesian youth


showed how the country positioned the youth as the subject
for development in Indonesia. The element of leadership was
clearly seen as important and relevant because the younger
generation was the next generation that was expected to
become future leaders, especially in the midst of the
weakening interest of the youth in politics and leadership.
The element of entrepreneurship was seen as important and
relevant to the lives of todays youth because young people
were expected to become subjects of economy that was
innovative and independent in the midst of competition on the
states ability to create employment or had them absorbed by
the market. In order to realize these expectations on young
people according to the objective of the states development,
the state enacted the National Youth Law that unwittingly
ignored other aspects of the lives of todays youth.

region could develop the potentials of their local youth to


collaborate in designing effective programmes.

Indonesian youth experienced various problems that


hindered their personal development in the transitional
period from children to adults. Disparity in access to
education, employment, and technology experienced by
youth in various regions in Indonesia reflected that the
governments attention to youth did not have a significant
impact to their development. As seen from the school
participation number, there were 1.2 million youth that did
not or had never accessed formal education (569.8
thousand males and 626.4 thousand females.
Even though they did not have an integrated National
Youth Policy, the government enacted Law No. 40 of 2009
on youth which was made into national reference basis in
discussions on youth. Even though Indonesian
government had several policies related to youth outside of
the National Youth Law, it was the only law that specifically
aimed to empower Indonesian youth. There was much
feed back when the law was made official; questions on
how the policy was formulated and how it would be
implemented also emerged.

Challenges for Contemporary Youth Organisations

(Source: Ramadhan May 2013)

Indonesian Youth Organisations

Political apathy and the lack of interest from the youth to get
involved in post-reformation politics were some of the reasons
for the enactment of the National Youth Law No.40 in 2009 by
the Ministry for Youth and Sports Affairs. This act was not only
expected to be the policy that supported youth empowerment
activities by the government, but also to increase youth
political participation. In the end, this law was even expected
to hasten the circulation of leadership both in regional as well
as national level which has so far been stagnant. Generally,
the National Youth Law did not only define what and who
young people were, but also established the characteristics of
Indonesian youth which were expected to be the generation
that succeeded the nation.

In regard to that interest, the Ministry for Youth and Sports


Affairs attempted to accommodate various youth
organisations in Indonesia. Up to February 2013, the data
showed that there were 149 youth organisations under the
Ministry for Youth and Sports Affairs.
In reality, there were several crucial aspects that needed to
be highlighted from the National Youth Law in relation to the
lives of contemporary Indonesian youth. One of the main
points constantly debated was that the National Youth Law
only highlighted leadership and entrepreneurship. The fact
that these two things were seen as the two most important

17

The first challenge for the contemporary youth organisations


in Indonesia was the minimal recognition from the
government of their existence and work. Recognition in the
form of acknowledgment as well as appreciation for
contemporary youth organisations were severely lacking.
Judging from the National Youth Law, this was obvious
when the youth organisations that were underlined were
only organisations working in the fields of leadership and
entrepreneurship. Constitutionally, there was no recognition
from the government of the diversity of youth expression
and youth issues. However, youth organisations/initiated by
non-government/ donor agencies had a good working
relationship with the government.
Recognition from the government of youth organisations
was also biased from issue standpoint, because only
organisations that upheld leadership and entrepreneurship
issues acquired support from the government and had their
aspirations heard.
Another challenge for youth organisation, especially
organisations that moved in sensitive issues such as
sexuality, freedom of religion or diversity, was societys
resistance to young activists and the issues they championed.
Some of the topics that always invited arguments and
resistance within the society for example are HIV/AIDS,
comprehensive sexual education or homosexuality. This
hindered the work of these organisations.
Volunteerism was an essential issue that became an
opportunity as well as challenge for the sustainability of
contemporary youth organisations in Indonesia. The
commitment of the volunteers to the organisation became
an issue that constantly haunted the sustainability of the
organisations activities.

18

RURAL DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2013

In turn, this affected the professionalism and the work


capacity of the organisation. There was assumption that the
work of these youth organisations were mostly temporal,
short-term (or even project-oriented) and unprofessional.
The organisations poor management of its volunteers of
course greatly affected the sustainability of the
organisations activities, with possible impact on the youth
movement in the future.
The next challenge for youth organisations in Indonesia was
the internal capacity of the organisation in relation to
technical issues for the development of individual and
organisational capacity. The activities of contemporary
youth organisation against various parties required specific
expertise such as management of network, information
dissemination, and media; identifying potential resources
and donors; formulating a good work plan; preparing
accountability reports; etc.
The next challenge for youth organisations in Indonesia was
to find a philosophy and common ground for youth
movement. In her observation regarding contemporary
youth movement in Indonesia, Maesy Angelina argued that
at the moment, popular discourse made it sound as if youth
was the only requirement for youth movement, while this
definition had its own biases such as class or gender.
According to Angelina, youth movement needed to develop
from an actor-based movement into a movement guided by
a basic philosophy on what it was that this movement would
like champion young people, irrespective of whichever
issue ended up being chosen. There needed to be a
collective vision or agenda to determine the direction of the
youth movement in Indonesia.
(Source: Raviola May 2013)

LRPYU has a Print and Electronic Media Department which


publishes Nok Hien Bin (Small bird) Magazine and Noum
Lao Newspaper and also makes television and radio
programmes for young people.

Proportion of Youth to Total Population

The Lao People's Revolutionary Youth Union (LPRYU)

LPRYU is a mass organisation in Laos, dedicated to


mobilising young people throughout the country with a view
to contributing to national development. It is the youth wing
of the Lao People's Revolutionary Party (Laotian: Phak
Pasason Pativat Lao), the Communist Party of Laos.
Originating in 1955 as the Youth Combatant Association and
now comprising some 243,500 registered members (aged
1530), the Lao People's Revolutionary Youth Union has a
particular focus on the fields of information, media,
entertainment, art and music. The LPRYU operates at
central, provincial, municipal district and village levels and
co-operates with foreign countries and international
organisations in a wide range of programme activities.

There is no universal definition of youth stemming from


policy frameworks, but the biggest youth organisation, the
Lao Peoples Revolutionary Youth Union (LPRYU), uses the
age-range of 15-30 years for its membership.

Malaysia

Lao PDR

For some time now, information on youth policies in Laos


and their impact, and more fundamentally on the situation of
young people more generally, was scattered and outdated.
UNFPA confirms the lack of data by stating in its country
programme for Laos for 2012-2015 that there is no
comprehensive situation analysis on adolescents and
youth. They seek to respond to this deficit by providing
financial and technical assistance to conduct a
comprehensive situation analysis on adolescents and
young people in the country. A first planning workshop for
the study was held in March 2013.

In the year 2010, Malaysias total population was


28,334,135, out of which 14,562,638 were male and
13,771,497 female, according to official statistics of the
Department of Statistics Malaysia, out of that number, youth
between 15 to 39 years (As defined in the National Youth
Policy 2003) were 12,443,040 or 43.9% out of total
population for that year.
According to the book Youth Facts by the Malaysian
Institute for Research in Youth Development under the
Ministry of Youth and Sports Malaysia, the numbers and
percentage of youth as compared to Malaysias total
population has steadily increased from 10,761.20 in the
year 2005 to 12,015.70 in the year 2010.

Sex-ratio

Malaysias youth (15-39 years) sex ratio stood at 103 male


per 100 female in the year 2000. This ratio has increased to
108 male per 100 female in the year 2010.

Rural-Urban Youth Distribution

According to Department of Statistics Malaysia, in the year


2000, 65.9% of youth lived in urban areas, compared to
34.1% in rural areas. The percentage of urban youth has
increased to 73.6% in the year 2010, and correspondingly the
percentage of rural youth has decreased to 26.4%.

19

CHAPTER-2

Table 7: Proportion of Youth According to Age-group and Sex in Malaysia, 2010


% of the total
population

Age group

Male (no.)

Female (no.)

Total

0-14

4,018,281

3,809,626

7,827,907

27.6

15-39

6,461,246

5,981,794

12,443,040

43.9

40-64

3,394,165

3,241,683

6,635,848

23.4

65 and above

688,946

738,394

1,427,340

5.0

Total

14,562,638

13,771,497

28,334,135

100

(Source: Department of Statistics, Malaysia 2010)

Malaysian Youth Index

The Malaysian Youth Index (MYI) is an instrument


developed to monitor the quality of life and well-being of
Malaysia's youth.
MYI will enable parties to act responsible for youth
development to monitor current youth lifestyle and thinking
patterns.
Although it is not a direct attempt to measure the
effectiveness of programmes targeted for Malaysian youth,
it can provide a strong indication as to the overall health of
youth and in what areas more programmatic efforts are
needed.
It also provides a guide to stakeholders to identify areas of
concern for improving quality of life and well-being of
Malaysian youth.
A more focused youth development transformation is
needed so that youth potential can be harnessed, supported
and unleashed as espoused in the National Youth
Development Policy.

Indicators and Domains


MYI contains sixty two indicators clustered in nine domains which
are:

Self Development

Social Relationship

Identity

Self Potential

Leisure Time

Health

Media Penetration

Deviant Behavior

Economic Well-Being

Domain 1: Self Development


2006

2008

2011

Self worth

71.9

73.6

72.5

Self efficacy

71.1

71.6

71.8

Motivation

72.9

73.4

73.2

Emotional intelligence

58.3

40.2

62.9

Assertiveness

56.5

76.4

63.3

Without depression

61.0

76.3

80.4

Without stress

89.9

53.7

36.2

MYI score

68.8

66.5

65.8

Integrity

71.2

Religiosity

73.4

68.8

66.5

67.2

Indicators

New sub-indicator

MYI total score

Table above shows that:

Serious attention should be given by stakeholders to


develop young generation in Malaysia.
The first three indicators show little change from 2006-2011.
The following indicators; Emotional Intelligence,
Assertiveness and Without Stress show significant
differences from previous indexes; Emotional Intelligence
increased in two years whereas Without Stress decreased.
Assertiveness dropped from 2011. These huge fluctuations
in score could be due to the infusion of new indicators
introduced for 2011 index.
Year 2011 indicates that Emotional Intelligence and
Assertiveness remain only moderate in terms of overall
well-being while the level of stress is extremely high among
the youth population.
The overall result for youth in Malaysia 'Self Development'
remains 'Good', however, there is room for improvement
since the highest indicator score in 2011 was only 80.4.

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RURAL DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2013

Domain 2: Social Relationship

Domain 4: Self Potential

2006

2008

2011

Relationship with
parents/family

73.5

72.8

71.1

Relationship with
community

54.4

63.9

Relationship with
friends

72.9

72.0

Indicators

MYI score

73.5

66.7

69.0

2008

2011

Leadership

67.2

65.3

56.6

Entrepreneurship

51.6

63.3

68.6

MYI score

59.2

63.9

62.6

Sensitivity

69.1

Environmental awareness

72.3

59.2

63.9

66.7

New sub-indicator

MYI total score

Table above shows that:

2006

Indicators

Malaysian youth can adapt better within their inner circle i.e.
family and friends, as compared to the wider community.
While there are some improvements in their sense of
belonging with the wider community, partly owing to greater
opportunities in community engagement through social
networking and the availability of information, Malaysian
youth still requires more skills and opportunities to engage
with the wider community as a whole.

Table above shows that:


There was a continued upward trend in the apparent interest
for Malaysian youth to become an entrepreneur.

There was a sizeable decrease in leadership and reflects a


continuing downward trend since 2006.

Malaysian youth are relatively sensitive towards different


values, cultural practices and inter-cultural interaction that
are vitally important in a multi ethnic country.

Domain 3: Identity
Indicators

2006

2008

2011

Competitiveness

63.1

64.3

56.6

Volunteerism

48.1

67.4

65.4

Patriotism

68.2

69.4

64.0

Unity

73.5

76.0

71.1

Political socialisation

32.9

41.2

35.2

MYI score

57.2

63.7

58.5

Empowerment

55.8

MYI total score

57.2

63.7

58.0

New sub-indicator

Table above shows that:

Domain 5: Leisure Time


2006

2008

2011

Sports

14.3

47.7

21.3

Clubs and associations

19.9

10.9

17.8

51.5

21.0

29.3

30.2

Indicators

Leisure activities
MYI score

Table above shows that:

Youth competitiveness level has decreased considerably in


2011 compared to 2008 and 2006.
Youth involvement in volunteerism decreased slightly in
2011 but is still better than in 2006.

Youth solidarity spirit also showed a small but significant


decrease in 2011.
Youth empowerment score of 55.8 indicates a moderate to
good score of Malaysian youth's sense of empowerment but
should concern policy makers. This indicator illustrates young
peoples' feeling toward the sense of ownership in their
communities, indicating that Malaysia has a long way to go in
engaging young people in becoming partners in development.

The environmental awareness among the Malaysian youth


is also above average for the overall indicators.

Malaysian youths' participation in sports decreased in 2008


compared to 2011. However it increased rather significantly
compared to 2006. The dramatic increased in 2008 is yet to
be understood
Since 2008, Malaysian youth are becoming more interested
in formal club activities although the score is low compared
to 2006.
Malaysian youth spend a significant amount of time in
leisure activities. This indicates that youth are generally
more interested in leisure activities compared to
conventional sports, clubs and associations.

21

CHAPTER-2

Table above shows that:

Domain 6: Health
2006

2008

2011

No high blood pressure

95.6

94.0

95.0

No diabetes

98.5

97.3

98.0

No cancer

99.8

99.7

99.9

No heart problem

99.1

99.1

99.6

No kidney problem

99.1

99.1

99.5

No asthma

94.2

92.8

95.1

No HIV/AIDS

99.9

99.8

99.8

No obesity

95.0

94.8

96.3

MYI score

97.7

97.1

97.9

No infectious disease

99.8

No insomnia

97.2

No gastric

89.3

No STD

99.8

MYI score

96.5

97.7

97.1

97.4

Indicators

New sub-indicator

MYI total score

Table above shows that:

The overall health of Malaysian youth has remained


essentially unchanged since 2006. However, with addition
of new indicators, the overall health has decreased slightly.
The individual indicator scores also show small differences
from previous index scores. Hence, we can conclude that
the health level of Malaysian youth remains very good.

Domain 7: Media Penetration

2008

2011

Free TV

96.9

95.3

95.6

Pay TV

66.7

75.9

77.0

Radio

94.8

90.8

92.5

Newspaper/magazine

95.2

93.7

Books

84.6

Mobile phone
Computer

Scores for the traditional forms of media such as free TV,


radio and newspaper and computer remained high but
relatively unchanged as compared to the previous index,
indicating that young people still rely on them as important
sources of information.
Only internet use showed considerably higher scores than
the previous index, indicating the steady growth of youth
exposure to global media and ICT, which is in-line with the
increase in social networking.

Domain 8: Deviant Behaviour


Indicators

2006

2008

2011

Non drinking/not
involved to the point
of causing public disorder

84.2

85.9

98.9

Not gambling/not
involved in gambling
to the point of being in debt

86.6

88.7

99.0

Not involved in
illegal racing

95.4

96.3

99.0

No vandalism
of public properties

94.6

95.8

97.3

No premarital
sexual activities

92.1

92.8

97.7

Not taking drugs/


illegal substance

98.2

98.7

96.4

MYI score

91.8

93.0

98.0

Table above shows that:

2006

Indicators

The majority of Malaysian youth are able to avoid serious


involvement in defiant behaviours.

Domain 9: Economic Well-being Table


2006

2008

2011

Financial security

50.7

95.2

Degree of indebtedness

43.0

83.3

88.1

Financial planning

44.3

93.1

94.9

96.6

Employability

49.8

79.3

79.7

83.3

MYI score

46.9

74.3

82.1

CD/DVD/MP3/MP4 Player

67.5

77.4

76.1

MYI Score

84.8

85.0

87.4

Internet

Indicators

Table above shows that:

Overall, the relatively low index score is explained by low


earnings, lack of permanent jobs and low employability
which contribute to financial insecurity, poor financial
planning and high degree of indebtedness.

22

RURAL DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2013

Some factors contributing to the low scores are:

No permanent job,

Insufficient income to meet the needs,

Extra job/overtime to supplement main job, and

No savings for emergencies.

recognition given to the traditional priority sectors such as


education, health, housing, and transportation.

Findings

The overall quality of life and well-being of Malaysian youth


remains good.

Malaysian youth have the potential and are well-facilitated


to play their role as partners in nation building.

Malaysian youth need more holistic emotional and


psychological support from all members of the community to
achieve balanced quality of life and well-being.
Malaysian youth are connected electronically and virtually
but increasingly disconnected from themselves, their wider
community and the political process.
The identity and economic well-being of Malaysian youth
need immediate attention from youth development
stakeholders.
An intensified effort to enhance the effectiveness of the
multitude of youth organisations and associations in the
country.

Awareness on physical health, and the high inclination


toward information communication technology, especially
through social networking, shows that Malaysian youth are
fully connected with the prime and alternative Medias, and
frequently seek information from various sources.
(Source: Malaysian Institute for Research in Youth Development)

Youth Development in Malaysia Some Key Features

Malaysia takes a very committed and positive view on the


role of youth in national development. Youth development in
Malaysia is, therefore, a national priority. Beginning with the
establishment of the Ministry of Culture, Youth, and Sport in
1964, just 7 years after the national independence, the first
Minister who assigned this important portfolio was our very
first Prime Minister.
In 1985, in the United Nations initiated the International Year
of the Youth, Malaysia formulated its very own National
Youth Policy. This guiding document was further enhanced
and upgraded to become the National Youth Development
Policy clearly availing youth development equal status and

The government of Malaysia has continuously ensured the


growth and development of the youth sector through the
creation and establishment of functionally effective
structures, mechanism, and programmes at all levels. This
full range of opportunities and facilities are readily available
to youth and youth serving organisations in furtherance of
their vision for a better and more meaningful future.
Malaysia has developed a Youth Development Index that
helps in expediting youth development initiatives.
To combat youth crime, Malaysia focuses on preventive,
educational, and life style approaches rather than
rehabilitative or even in corrective options. The Government
has adopted the Rakan Muda Programme which provides
ample opportunities for young people to indulge in clean,
positive, and meaningful pursuits in nine areas ranging from
sports, fitness, recreation, community service, inventions,
nature and environment, entrepreneurship and technical
skills, culture and the martial arts. This programme is
currently being enhanced and upgraded to include even
more specific areas of interest such as ICT, leadership and
global networking.
To address the problem of drug abuse among youths,
Malaysia has launched a national campaign called The
Youth Hate Drugs. It seeks to inform and educate youth on
the dangers of drug addiction. To promote this campaign,
Malaysia works closely with youth-focused organisations
and institutions of higher education to assist in
disseminating information through effective programmes
and interventions so that the young are made aware of the
dangers of drug abuse.
The government is aware that it cannot go alone in the area
of youth development. It has to engage the
non-governmental sectors and civil society outfits and all
other stakeholders who will have to play their respective
roles. To facilitate this, it proposes to enact the Youth
Organisation and Development Act. Through this most
important piece of legislation, Malaysia hopes to streamline
and regulate serving organisations and reposition youth
perspectives to the centre and not the periphery of the
decision making processes in the country.
Youth development strategies in Malaysia focus on the
following:

Recognition of youth potentialities,

Institution of effective structures and mechanisms,

CHAPTER-2

Empowerment and capacity building initiatives,

Education, technical and vacation training;

Employment opportunities,

Entrepreneurship,
interventions,

economic

Youth Development chaired by the Deputy Prime Minister


(August 2010) agreed to the following:

and

business

Leadership and personality development training,


Life style change education, information and
opportunities,
Direct participation in the decision making processes
from local to national and international levels, and

Positive engagement and restraint from youth


bashing.

To be effective, Malaysia has additionally embarked on the


following initiatives:

The formulation of the youth development action plan


which outlines 11 main thrusts encompassing such
areas as youth economy, Rakan Muda package,
social and national integration, leadership etc.
Improvement of the membership of youth
organisation from the current 2.8 million to 11 million
who are between the ages of 15 40 or about 42% of
the total population.
Establishment of the National Institute of Research
and Youth Development to undertake greater in-depth
researches to facilitate proper and significant youth
development initiatives.
Embarking on the full range of empowerment,
capacity building and ancillary support structures,
mechanisms and programmes at all levels.
Adopting direct reconciliatory and corrective
interventions to steer youth away from negativities
and to redirect their energies into meaningful pursuits.

Establishment of a special laboratory of


Transformation of Youth Development to help
understand the wants and needs of Generation Y;
The Performance Management and Delivery Unit,
Prime Minister's Office (PEMANDU) to assist in the
implementation of this laboratory, and
A roadmap or Key Strategic Plan should be made
collectively in dealing with the new generation.

To implement this project, a group of thinkers, belonging to


Generation Y, was appointed and the group conducted a
brainstorming session with stakeholders to discuss and
formulate a plan of action, identifying programmes that
would met the needs and aspirations of youth in Malaysia.
The involvement of the laboratory consists of 39 permanent
members representing the ministries/agencies, youth
organisations, non-governmental organisations, youth
leaders and individuals involved directly and indirectly in the
development of youth in national and international level.
In addition, the lab also involved representatives of
Bumiputera Sabah, Sarawak and the Orang Asli. Each
member of the lab is responsible for developing the
implementation plan through a problem-solving approach.

Laboratory Findings of Youth Transformation

The lab has identified three core values of a mindset,


determination, and action to be applied to each youth.
Meanwhile, nine values were also identified to form the ideal
youth of Malaysia which are the values of courage, discipline,
creativity, patriotism, tolerance, resilience, competitiveness,
accuracy and precision and teamwork. All these values are
included in the implementation of the initiative.
Core Values

The rapid development of information and


communication technology has developed a new generation
of psychographic profiles and features different characters.
This generation is known by the term Generation X, Y and Z
according to year of birth and the influence of digital culture
in their lives. Generation Y is more complex and has its own
identity with features such as tech-savvy, family-centric,
achievement-oriented,
team-oriented,
and
attention-craving.
Taking into account the changes and developments in youth
development, the meeting of the Cabinet Committee on

Main Values
Courage

Transformation of Youth in Malaysia

23

Mindset

Discipline
Creativity
Patriotism

Passion

Tolerance
Resilience
Competitiveness

Action

Accurate and Carefulness


Team Spirit

(Source: KBS Lab)

24

RURAL DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2013

In addition, the initiatives developed in this laboratory have


considered the issues faced by young people from 18 to 30
years through four crucial transitions, namely:

The transition from school to college/university;

The transition from school/college/ university to the


working world;
A shift in the employment of regular wage
employment to self-employment possession; and
The transition status of single person with no
dependents to get married and have dependents.

Laboratory framework has identified three main categories


of transformation Transformation Initiatives; Policy
Interventions; and Policy Enablers.
Transformation initiatives focuses on programmes that will
be implemented by the Ministry of Youth and Sports. The
target group is those aged between 18 and 30 years. Six
major initiatives are as follows:

MyPark 'Malaysian Youth Park'

youth. There are three components in a VyREC portal which are


Youth Portal, Social Media and Youth Radar. VyREC works as
follows:

Providing a one-stop centre with facilities and


services that attract young people to socialise and to
do a variety of activities. "MyPark" will be constructed
and maintained in an environment-friendly manner,
emphasising the Green Concept. The project is being
implemented in collaboration with youth
organisations, NGOs and other civil society
associations. It has the following components:
Youth Centre Promoting youth activities;
counselling services; seminar facilities.
Active Site Facilities for games and sports.
Talent Site Music performance; theatre; and other
talents.
Gallery and Bazaar Bazaar business for youth on
week ends; workshops to express their talent.

Malaysian Youth Parliament


This initiative is more of a larger membership of the National Youth
Consultative Council to involve youth association and
non-association of the 222 parliamentary constituencies.
Implementation of this initiative is expected to become a platform
for youth to speak out, stand to address issues related to youth,
and provide early exposure of parliamentary democracy.
VyREC 'Virtual Resource Centre Youth'
This initiative focuses on the development of a specialised portal
for youth that includes all the information and support services for

Providing local information centres in the form of "virtual"


information for various current and future youth
programmes and research related to youth development;
Provide a platform for the youth to spread any information
and activities within "from youth to youth";
Facilities for a variety of information related to 14 ministries
involved in youth development, government agencies, the
private sector and other sectors that provide services and
programmes for youth; and
Provide assistance and guidance to the youth to understand
the procedures, policies and any other matters related to
youth development.

Youth Icons
This is an effort to identify youths who are competent and excellent
to make youth idol, whether at the local or national level. This
initiative will provide a platform or a space to young people to
approach or engage their idol through appropriate approaches
such as capsule programme on TV and radio, session on "teh
tarik", face to face interaction, fan club "Facebook" and others.
There are three main icons of the proposed categories in
identifying idol, namely:

Finance and Entrepreneurship,

Arts, Entertainment and Sports, and

Political and Social Activities.

MyCorps
This initiative aims to promote and enhance the spirit of
volunteerism among youth through their experience and use their
own initiative in raising funds to carry out both locally and
internationally. This initiative will be implemented in collaboration
with Malaysian Relief Agency, Foundation for Peace, Global
Peace Mission, and other voluntary bodies within and outside the
country. It has the following objectives:

Promote and enhance the spirit of volunteerism among


youth through their experience and use their own initiative in
the performance of volunteerism in the local and
international levels; and
Promote awareness in youth about local issues and
practices relevant to the peace, war, conflict, cohesion,
education, health disasters, etc.

CHAPTER-2

service. They should have a desire to develop youth


leadership skills.

The Leader
This initiative is a mentor-mentee programme that requires a
rigorous selection process for individuals who are really
experienced and committed as a mentee. The Leader provides a
platform for mentees to improve their leadership skills through
experience, knowledge, and expertise of a mentor. There are five
key areas identified for implementation of this concept of
mentor-mentee:

Professional and corporate

Entrepreneurship

Public service

Social activists

Creative industries

YLP-Nepal objectives are:

Nepal
Youth Population

Total population of young people, aged 15-24 years was


4,405,770 with female youth accounting for 2,273,202 and male
youth 2,132,568.
Key Youth-focused or Youth-led Programmes
Volunteers Initiative Nepal (VIN)

VINs Youth Empowerment Programme aims to inspire and


encourage Nepals youth. VINs overriding objective is the
empowerment of marginalised communities, focusing on
women and children. It seeks to achieve this by engaging
them in community development activities that will also give
vital social and professional skills. By participating in this
programme, the volunteers will help the community people
in bringing out positive changes to their lives and to that of
their community by participating in the youth volunteer
programme.

VIN has launched youth club and life skills, english and
career development, and youth entrepreneurship projects
under the youth empowerment programme with an objective
of developing skilful youth manpower in the community.

The Youth Leadership Programme with Nepal (YLP-Nepal),


previously referred to as SAYS, is in its fifth year of funding
from the United States, Department of State, Bureau of
Educational and Cultural Affairs and is administered by
Magee Womancare International (MWI). All student and
adult delegates are competitively selected based on their
work in areas such as, environmental health and community

Promote mutual understanding between U.S. and


Nepal students and adults;
Develop a sense of civic responsibility and
commitment to community development among
youth;
Develop an awareness of environmental health
issues and what role the students can play in
addressing these issues in their communities;
Develop leadership skills among secondary school
students appropriate to their needs; and
Foster relationships among youth from different
ethnic, religious, and national groups.

YLP-Nepal develops and improves participants leadership


and collective action in order to prepare them to become
agents of change. The subtheme for this programme is
environmental health. YLP-Nepal recognises and builds on
the talents and assets of youth. It engages and teaches
them how to take a stake in their community. Young people
learn and develop practical skills and tools needed to
transform their ideas into a community-based group project.
The crux of YLP-Nepal is the follow-on project after the
exchanges. Utilising their new skills and training acquired
during the exchange, the teams develop and implement a
Community Action Project (CAP) that addresses an
environmental health issue that affects their home
community. The CAPs require a larger time and thus MWI
requires a serious time commitment from student and
adult delegates.

Youth Action Nepal (YoAC)

Youth Leadership Programme (2014)

25

The programme came into existence in the year 2003 with


the initiation of a few university students concerned with the
vulnerable social, economic and political situation of the
country, especially in the context of the armed conflict. The
youth decided to move into action in order to contribute to
human rights protection and promotion by involving fellow
youth at a time when the nation was at its worst.
YoAC is, therefore, a youth led and youth-focused
organisation dedicated to human development of youth for
human rights protection and promotion of Nepali people at
large, and the transformation of Nepali society. Since its
establishment, it has been carrying out research and study;
training and education; and lobby and advocacy campaigns to
address the burning socio-political issues facing the country.

26

RURAL DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2013

YoAC is implementing a variety of youth-related


programmes to improve the quality of life of people with
especial priorities for the development of youth using very
limited resources. The success of the programmes
implemented by the Youth Action Nepal has demonstrated
increased demand for further programmes to address social
cross-cutting issues in more spatial units. YoAC has been
working through it's 25 youth networks.

Restless Development The Youth-led Development Agency

The vision is: Young people taking a leadership role in


addressing the most urgent issues facing their countries and
the world. In carrying out this task, they should be fully
supported by their governments, their communities,
businesses and civil society institutions.

Civic participation Ensure that young people are


significant contributors to development processes
and the government and policy makers recognise and
support the active role of young people in society at
all levels;
Livelihood and employment Empower young people
with the skills, inspiration, and resources to take up
productive livelihoods and employment opportunities
that contribute not only to their household income, but
to the economies of their wider communities and
countries; and
Sexual and reproductive health Ensure that young
people engage in safe sexual and reproductive
practices that lead to healthy lives; improve their
access to sexual health education and services and
empower them to make responsible, healthy choices.

The agency seeks to achieve its goals through:

Direct delivery of programmes and services


Professionally trained volunteers and professionals
help spread knowledge, develop skills and address
priority issues within their communities. Through the
direct delivery of these grassroots programmes the
agency provides structured, long-term interventions for
1,100,000 youth, improving their civic participation,
livelihood opportunities, and sexual health.
Generation of leadership The strategy adopted by
the agency to recruit, train and support full-time
professionals is defined by a spirit and a drive that
makes them natural leaders, and arguably the most
valuable product of our work.

Shaping policy and practice We will get work with


government agencies and policy-makers committed
to create an environment that recognises and
supports the active role of young people in society at
all levels.
Building a strong youth sector Establish a network
of youth organisations to coordinate efforts on
youth-related issues.

The programmes are:

Its goals are:

Promoting education for girls This programme is


delivered in partnership with UNICEF and aims at
motivating girls to stay in school. The programme is
laid out through three main objectives. Firstly, to
support girls in formal education by retaining their
attendance between grade six and ten. Hopefully this
will help in the second objective of increasing the
secondary school enrolment. The final aim of the
programme and perhaps one of the most
challenging - is the work that will be carried out with
parents and community stakeholders to raise
awareness and produce an enabling environment for
the other aims.
HAMSA In 2012 restless development recognised
that a programme needed to be devised to improve
financial and social skills within the youth across
Nepal. HAMSA, which in its full form translates as 'our
concern; our participation' was devised at the solution
to this.
Dance life This programme started as a pilot
protect in 2010 in two districts of Nepal and it proved
to be successful as young people reacted extremely
well to the attraction of dance and music as a
medium to talk about important issues. Dance itself
has proved as a very diverse and therefore effective
medium to discuss serious issues as it can attract
such a wide audience.
Livelihood resources on ICT This programme
focuses on expanding Educational and Livelihood
resources with specific focus on ICT and youth. It is
implemented in collaboration with READ, an
international NGO. The project aims to improve the
education and opportunities through the provision of
life skills training, sports clubs, academic career
support and health awareness. It also aims to provide
in-depth vocational skills training to youth.

CHAPTER-2

Pakistan

Youth Population

In Pakistan youth (15-29 years) constitute 30% of the total


population. Youth are around 54 million in number, with
almost 2/3rd of the population (68%) concentrated below
the age of 30. Pakistan experiences a youth bulge which
will change the composition of future labor force over the
next three decades with more than 1/3rd of youth living in
urban areas. This share is expected to reach to 1/2 by 2030.
Some important features of youth demography are listed in
the table given below:

Table 8: Important Features of Pakistan Youth Demography


Total youth population (million)

54

% of total population

30

Male (million)

28

Female (million)

26

Rural areas (%)

64

Urban areas (%)

36

Youth literacy rate (%)

55

Male/female literacy ratio (%)

67/42

Urban/rural literacy ratio (%)

74/48

The age composition of a population gives insight to the


size of the future productive human resource. It also
highlights changes in the dependency levels. The available
projections of the population by age categories indicate
that those below 30 years of age will constitute more than
53 per cent of the total population by 2030. Countries, like
Pakistan, with a very young age structure are likely to have
large dependent population which, also, puts a
considerable stress on the economy. This higher
percentage has a dual impact on the countrys future
economic and social well-being. The growing youth
population will need proper education and training to
become an asset for the country.

Roles and Responsibilities of Ministries and Departments


Dealing with Youth

Different Ministries and departments in Pakistan have been


assigned various roles and responsibilities regarding youth
development in the country. The Ministry of Youth Affairs at
federal level served as the coordinator of various activities
between other relevant federal and provincial ministries and
departments until December 2010 (till the devolution of the
Ministry to provinces). The Ministry of Youth Affairs drafted
first comprehensive Youth Policy in 2008.

The Ministry of Youth Affairs served as the coordinator of


activities for reinforcement of the sense of pride,
awareness, and motivation in youth. After the devolution to
provinces, the responsibility rests upon provincial
departments dealing with youth affairs. The other relevant
ministries and divisions dealing with youth-related policies
and strategies include ministries of education and
Trainings, National Heritage and Integration, National
Harmony, Human Resource Development, Information
and Broadcasting, Science and Technology, Inter
Provincial Coordination, Sports and Culture. All these
ministries and departments have various policies and
projects aiming at youth development. Details are given in
the following paragraphs.

Youth Development at the Provincial and District Level

(Source: Planning Commission, Government of Pakistan 2012)

27

Separate organisations of youth affairs have been set up at


the provincial level in most of the constituent units. In some
provinces youth affairs are being looked after in conjunction
with culture/sports/tourism. In view of the much wider vision
given under the youth policy, the provinces have created a
separate department for youth affairs to perform similar
functions as (now devolved) the Ministry of youth affairs at
the federal level. The provincial Youth Councils headed by
the chief ministers of the provinces are also being
constituted. The council may review performance of
departments/districts in respect of each policy area and
plan of action.

Specific Strategies to Enhance Youth Development

Strengthen the training institutes such as TEVTAs, the


skill training centres and other private sector skill
development activities;
Launch national programmes for skill enhancement in the
provinces;
Support for educational, sports and recreational activities
where youth can be a principal player;
Explore jobs for youth in Middle Eastern and East Asian
countries under an institutional arrangement through the
Overseas Employment Corporation;
A larger role of the National Vocational and Technical
Training Commission (NAVTEC) as a coordinator in
imparting training among the youth is envisaged;
Amend laws regulations and procedures preventing
promotion of community centres, libraries and related mixed
use of spaces;
Create youth engagement committees for management and
supervision of activities in community;

28

RURAL DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2013

Increase capacity of local youth to support development


activities;

Provide technical and financial support to communities;

Engage youth in preservation of heritage and environment;

Higher Education Commission (HEC)

Focus on activities to provide youth quality health services


and ensure that the youth have access to information
relating to health issues, drug addiction etc.;
Expand vocational training and employment promotion
programmes to cover all districts/areas;
Expand the Youth Development Centres (YDCs) to achieve
the ultimate objective of youth development in each district.
The YDCs will be made centres of information for youth and
eventually information technology (IT) centres;
Conduct youth survey for compilation of all data on youths
situation along with a directory of the youth organisations
and youth serving agencies;
Place young graduates in universities, colleges and schools
in all parts of the country to assist and teach. Especially
graduate females will be given internship in their respective
districts/division in girls schools where there is shortage of
teachers;
Encourage innovations and inventions by financing
(micro-credit) innovative projects of youth; and
Less qualified youth especially the rural youth will be offered
stipend based trainings in livestock, poultry farming and
allied activities. Females would be preferred.

National Talent Pool (NTP)

The Philippines Youth

National Commission for Human Development (NCHD)


NVHD was established in 2002, mandated with the role to
support and augment human development efforts in
Pakistan. It works under the Ministry of Education and
Training. The mission is to transform lives by improving
access to basic education and healthcare in the countrys
poorest communities.

National Volunteer Movement (NVM)

It is designed to provide a platform for public contribution


in nation building and create a ready pool of individuals
that can be mass stimulated and mobilised to act promptly
and effectively in natural and man-made disasters. NVM
played a major role in provision of volunteers to the army,
NGOs and other agencies in their rescue and relief efforts
in the earthquake hit areas. NVM has contemplated many
peace time initiatives for gradual launch throughout the
country.

It is established in the Ministry of Education and Training


and has been assigned the responsibility to perform
specific assignments, with a focus on youth. It maintains
a database of highly qualified Pakistanis abroad and
creates opportunities to avail their expertise for public
and private sector.

Philippines

Best Examples of Youth-related Programmes

Higher Education Commission (HEC), formerly the


University Grant Commission, is the primary regulator of
higher education in Pakistan. Higher Education Commission
of Pakistan is responsible for higher education policy, quality
assurance, degree recognition, development of new
institutions and uplift of existing institutions in Pakistan. It
also facilitated the development of higher educational
system in Pakistan. Its main purpose was to upgrade
universities in Pakistan to be centres of education, research
and development. The HEC has played a leading role
towards building a knowledge based economy in Pakistan.
The creation of HEC has had a positive impact on higher
education and youth development in Pakistan.

The Philippine population is one of the fastest growing in the


world, with a population of 87.89 million (World Bank, 2007).
Its youth population is also increasing quickly, from 4 million
in 1950 to more than 15 million in 2000 with a projected
population of 40 million by 2020; 35 per cent of the
population are below 15 years old and 32 per cent are
between 10-24 years old (Population Reference Bureau
2008). Its rapid growth is due to high, though gradually
declining fertility rates coupled with improving life
expectancy. The Philippine is currently in the midst of a
youth bulge, a transitory but important demographic
expansion that occurred in the latter part of the 20th century
and the earlier segment of the 21st century. It also points to
the historical uniqueness of recent cohorts of the Philippine
youth: large numbers, rapid growth, and large proportion of
the total population.
The Philippine Republic Act, No. 8044 known as Youth in
Nation-Building Act defines youth as those persons whose
ages range from 15 to 30 years old. However, many
government agencies and private sector organisations set
24 years of age as the upper limit.
The Philippines is dominated by young people aged 13-35.
Almost 20 million are enrolled in schools; 10 million are out

CHAPTER-2

of school youth; and 12 million are part of the labor force.


Highest youth population is in Luzon areas: specifically in
Southern tagalong, national capital region and central
Luzon.

Children and youth below 25 years of age constitute nearly


one-half of the total population of the Philippines or about 40
million people. A significant and growing number are
out-of-school and/or out-of-work falling into a category broadly
defined as Out-of-School Children and Youth (OSCY).
The National Youth Commission (NYC) classified out of the
school youth as one of the four sub-sectors in the youth
sector: the others are in-school youth, working youth and
youth with special needs. OSCY is classified into: i) 7 to 14
years old and not enrolled in any formal or vocational
school; and ii) 15-25 years old, not enrolled in any formal or
vocational school, not formally employed, and not a tertiary
level graduate.

Social Perspective of Youth

Youth participation is a process by which youth influence


and share control over initiatives, resources, and the
decisions that affect them. Hence, youth are considered as
partners and not only as beneficiaries in national
development. Youth are the principal actors in community
development and for peer support.

Areas of involvement of youth in social and community work


include:

Organising social mobilisation,

Awareness-raising and policy advocacy,

Local and international networking,

Resource generation, and

Capability and capacity building.

Addressing the needs of the youth, including sexual and


reproductive needs, remains a priority concern for
development initiatives in the country as Filipino youth today
remains vulnerable to various threats to their health and
well-being.

The National Youth Commission (NYC) was created in 1995


by Republic Act No. 8044, otherwise known as the Youth in
Nation Building Act. NYC is the focal national government
agency for youth and is attached to the office of the
President.
NYC aims to be the moving force in Filipino youth
development. NYCs mission shall ensure the convergence
of youth policies, mobilise resources for youth development,
provide support to youth and youth serving organisations
and demonstrate and advocate effective programmes,
projects, and practices in youth development.
NYCs objectives are:

Poverty and hunger that affects youth belonging to


urban and rural poor families;

Primary education which affects children who would


be out-of-school youth if access to primary education
is a problem;

Gender equality which concerns young womens


participation;
Child mortality and maternal health which also affect
young mothers;

This is sought to be achieved by:

Roles and Responsibilities of the National Youth


Commission (NYC)

The country recognises the role of youth in nation building


as indispensable. As such, the country is committed and
doing necessary actions not only to mould the youth as
responsible adults in the future but also as productive
citizens today.

Global partnership for development which involves


strengthening youth and youth organisations
participation in development.

Create enabling policy environment for youth


development (research, monitoring and evaluation);
Wider youth participation (through coordination of
national programmes/projects/ activities on youth
participation); and
Heightened support of agencies/organisations
(through advocacy and networking, resource
mobilisation).

NYCs target outcomes are:

HIV/AIDS which might have resulted from youths


risky sexual behaviour;
Environmental sustainability which affects youth in
high-risk areas (such as upland and coastal
communities); and

29

Formation of the Local Youth Development Councils


(LYDCs) that possess the capacity to raise resources
and implement programmes and projects which
impact on the youth;
Mainstreaming youth development planning in the
local level;

30

RURAL DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2013

Increase the levels of awareness, interest,


participation and involvement of the youth in the
community, sectoral and national concerns;

Brigada Eskwela of the Department of Education

Influence, assist and enable youth-serving


organisations and the influentials of society to
allocate more resources, expand the scope and
intensify their efforts for the benefit of the youth.

Brigada Eskwela (Bayanihan Para sa Paaralan) is a


nationwide voluntary effort of teachers, parents students,
community members and other organisations to undertake
repairs and cleaning of their school before the start of the
school year. Started in 2003, the activity solicits from donors
and volunteers materials required for the repairs.

Generate more resources (people, pesos and


physical assets) for youth programmes and
projects; and

The Higher Education Development Project of the


Commission on Higher Education

Raise the capacity of youth organisations to plan,


programmes, and execute their mission and
objectives very well (towards self-management and
self-reliance).

NYCs major final output: coordination in the formulation,


implementation and promotions as well as monitoring and
evaluation of policies/plans/laws/programmes on youth to
provide intermediaries direction to all youth development
activities.
NYCs core strategies in the implementation of youth
development programmes, projects and activities are:

Localisation (strengthening local structures to create


learning and to propagate good practices);

Organisational development (strengthening NYC as


an organisation).

The Adopt-a-School Programme of the Department of


Education
The Adopt-a-School Programme is aimed at generating
investments and support to education outside the funding
mainstream and national budget. It was established to
encourage the private sector in the Philippines and abroad
to become active partners in education through short term
or long-term assistance in the upgrading and
modernisation of public elementary and high schools.
Under this programme, business groups, non-government
organisations, and civil society groups can adopt any

The Higher Education Development Project (HEDP)


focuses on the four major concerns of efficiency and
effectiveness, quality and excellence, relevance and
access. It covers state universities and colleges
rationalisation, normative financing, tracer studies, MIS
improvement, scholarships and loans, accreditation,
student testing and assessment, professional board
examinations, faculty development, management capability
development for HEIs as well as institutional capability
strengthening for HEIs. The project will also undertake
sectoral human resource and demand studies.

Programmes for the Out-of-School-Youth

Knowledge-building (partnership-building, research,


monitoring and evaluation, advocacy and social
marketing); and

Best Example of Policy/Plan/Activities for Youth Development

public school of their choice anywhere in the country. This


means providing the necessary support in infrastructure,
teaching and skills development, and other schoolrelated activities.

Formulation and implementation of policies, laws and


ordinances that affect the quality of life, strengthen
the rights, increase their participation, and empower
the youth;

The Immersion and Outreach Programme of the Department


of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) is composed of
a series of activities whereby the out-of-school youth
volunteers are assigned to depressed barangays or
centres/institutions to undertake activities such as assisting
in organising Pag-asa (Hope) Youth Associations, and
initiate peer counselling, leadership training, sports,
socio-cultural, and recreational activities.
The Alternative Learning System (ALS) of the Department of
Education (DoE) gives emphasis on functional literacy and
has no boxed subjects but, rather, life lessons. There are no
classrooms, but learning groups. The good thing about
alternative learning is that one could study from elementary
through college without even entering a classroom. The ALS
programme enables out-of-school-youth to take
equivalency tests that could allow them to apply for
technical-vocational courses and even college. The
alternative learning system was developed in the
Philippines. According to the DoE, the success factor of ALS
is high. Because of this, it was awarded the NOMA Literacy
Prize in 2000.

31

CHAPTER-2

Sri Lanka (NYP), youth is defined as people from 15 to 29


years of age. As in most industrial countries, the lower age
limit corresponds to the constitutional minimum
school-leaving age. The upper limit of 29 years is determined
keeping in view the time university students graduate and
enter the job market which is usually between the ages of 24
and 27. The age range also signifies transition from
dependent child to independent adult in the Sri Lankan
context. The NYP recognises the inherent complexities of
youth as a social category and remains fully aware of the
multiple experiences in the life-course of young people from
socio-economic,
urban-rural,
employed-unemployed,
ethno-linguistic, religious and other cultural perspectives.

Health and Nutrition Programmes

The Health Outreach Programme of the Department of


Health (DOH) involves youth participation in medical missions
and campaign programmes in the various municipalities and
Barangays all over the country. It aims to develop a strong
sense of commitment and dedication to the importance of
community volunteerism and service among the youth.

Roles and Responsibilities of NGOs, Local and


International Development Partners Dealing with youth

UNFPA has been in the Philippines since 1969 with the first
UNFPA Country Programme of Assistance starting in 1972.
From 1972 to 2011, UNFPA has invested some P6.2 billion
to support governments poverty reduction programmes that
include family planning, safe motherhood, gender equality,
and population and development. For the current 7th
Country Programme which started this year and ending in
2016, around P1.2 billion has been raised, with the
possibility of more funds to be mobilised.

Proportion of Youth in Total Population


The first Population Census in Sri Lanka conducted in the year
1871 showed a population of 2.4 million. The pervious census in
2001 showed a population of 14.8 million. Currently population is
around 20.277 million (Censes, 2011). Table 9 shows the
proportion of youth to the total population by sex. According to the
information year 2005 and year 2010, youth proportion has
declined comparatively to its early days. Nearly 2.6 per cent of the
proportionate reduction of youth can be seen during to the time
from 2000 to 2010.

Sri Lanka
Demographic Situation

According to the 2012 statistics, youth population in Sri


Lanka is about 4.4 million or 23% of the total population. The
youth population by sex indicates that there is an almost equal
distribution of 50.24% for males and 49.76% for females.

The Definition of youth in Sri Lanka is different from the


global definition of youth of the United Nations General
Assembly. According to the National Youth Policy of

Table 9: Youth Proportionate to the Total Population in Sri Lanka


Percentage of total population
2000

Age group
Male

2005
Famale

Male

2010
Famale

Male

Famale

15-19

5.5

5.3

4.9

4.8

4.9

4.8

20-24

5.2

5.1

4.7

4.7

4.7

4.7

25-29

4.3

4.3

3.9

4.0

3.9

4.0

Total

14.9

14.7

13.6

13.5

13.5

13.5

(Source: Department of Census and Statistics, Sri Lanka 2012)

Rural-Urban Youth Distribution

In the 2001 census, urban sector comprises of all


municipal and urban council areas. Estate sector is
defined as plantations of 20 acres or more in extent upon
which there are 10 or more resident labourers. The rest of
the area is treated as a rural sector. Although the
definition of estate sector is similar to that used in the
1981 census, the definition of urban sector is not
comparable between the two censuses. This happened
as a consequence of abolishing town councils which

were treated as urban in the 2001 census and absorbing


the administration of such areas into Pradesheeya
Sabhas which are considered to be as rural since 1987.
Therefore the urban population figures and percentages
seem to be underestimating of the true picture of urban
sector and should be interpreted cautiously. Anyhow,
majority of the youth population stagnated in rural areas.
However, due to change of town councils time to from
time, effects and numbers cannot give any reasonable
arguments to the changers.

32

RURAL DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2013

Table 10: Percentage of Youth distribution by Urban and Rural in Sri Lanka
Year

Rural

Urban

Male

Famale

Male

Famale

2000

44.1

42.7

6.6

6.6

2005

42.9

45.0

6.3

5.7

2010

41.5

46.1

5.6

6.8

(Source: Department of Census and Statistics, Sri Lanka 2012)

and Skills Development is seeking to coordinate the work of


the government, private sector, and voluntary organisations.
There are 133 registered training institutes operating in the
country for vocational training and skill development. By
September 2012, about 75,000 trainees had availed of the
courses conducted through the National Career Guidance
Centre. In addition five advisory service centres are in
operation with the objective of providing consultation
services to youth with problems.

Roles and Responsibilities of Ministries Dealing with Youth

Among the number of ministries that has linkages to


youth-related programmes, the Ministry of Youth Affairs and
Skills Development with 17 affiliated institutes has the
overall responsibility of formulating policies and strategies
and implementing projects regarding youth development.
The vision of the Ministry is to create globally employable
and empowered youth by making available effective policy
environment and institutional framework that enables the
youth to acquire necessary skills, knowledge, and attitudes
to become productive citizens. The main functions of the
Ministry of Youth Affairs and Skills Development focuses on
three key areas: youth development and entrepreneurship
development and skills development through vocational
training development.
Regarding youth development the Ministry is conducting
programmes to empower and organise youth. The
programmes are in the areas of sports, aesthetic skills,
leadership, and personality development. The Ministry is
also making an effort to secure increasing recognition for Sri
Lankan youth at international level. To promote
entrepreneurship among youth, programmes are being
conducted to provide entrepreneurial skills. This initiative is
supplemented by creating job opportunities and introduction
of new business opportunities for them. In addition the
Ministry is involved in building up international relations for
skill development.
In order to develop vocational skills, the Ministry organises
training through its vocational training centres or institutes.
These centres are responsible for providing career
guidance, developing infrastructure facilities, and devising
new training courses while improving the quality of the
existing ones.
The Ministries of Education; Labour; Sports, Culture and the
Arts; Child Development; and Womens Affairs also
organise youth-related projects and programmes.

Achievement of Strategies of Different Ministries

Job banks and vocational guidance centres have been


established to guide the youth. The Ministry of Youth Affairs

The Ministry of Youth Affairs and Skills Development has


organised many training programmes, workshops and
competitions to sharpen the skills of Sri Lankan youth while
providing a forum to showcase the programmes to the
people.
Skills
and
innovation
competitions,
Shramabhimani youth camps and educational exhibitions
attract large number of participants. One day
entrepreneurship training programmes for upcoming young
entrepreneurs, provision of vocational training for disabled
youth and two-day leadership training programmes for
school prefects are among other initiatives of the Ministry.
To improve the trainees English language competency, a
programme has been initiated with the assistance of the
British Council, Colombo. The services of young volunteers
have also been secured.
Members of the academic staff attached to the Ministry-run
training institutes have been trained in collaboration with
Nanyang Polytechnic International Institute, Singapore.
Another training programme on pedagogical training for
instructors of the institutes has been launched with the
assistance of the Institute of Technical Education (ITE) in
Singapore .
The Ministry of Youth Affairs and Skills Development has
signed a number of Memoranda of Understanding (MOUs)
with other Ministries under the inter-ministerial programme
to develop youth skills. Under this programme, the Ministry
of Rehabilitation and Prison Reforms provide vocational
training for prisoners; the Ministry of Power and Energy
provide on-the-job trainings to students who successfully
completed the courses stipulated by respective technical

CHAPTER-2

colleges or colleges of technology; the Ministry of Education


facilitates awarding National Vocational Qualification (NVQ)
to students who follow Information and Communication
Technology (ICT) as a subject in school curriculum; and the
Ministry of Foreign Employment Promotion and Welfare
offers couses for youth seeking foreign employment.

take collective action towards achieving a sustainable


development and greener Sri Lanka.
Private Sector Contribution in Youth Development

Roles and Responsibilities of NGOs, Local and


International Development Partners Dealing with Youth

There are 247 registered local and international


non-government organisations (NGOs) operating in Sri
Lanka. They play an important role in areas such as,
environmental protection, social welfare. (especially of
women and children) empowerment of low-income category
people, uplifting community health standards, etc. NGOs
are key actors in the national reproductive health and
gender programmes and their service has been recognised
by the government. They provide valuable support to
government programmes mainly in the areas of family
planning, adolescent health, and STI/HIV prevention. Their
programmes are directed towards educating, training and
counselling of adolescents on above subjects. Further they
provide counselling facilities, reproductive health
information and conduct various youth projects.
In collaboration with the United Nations Family Planning
Association (UNFPA) several NGOs have implemented
projects targeting the vulnerable sectors of the society such
as the free trade zone workers, the plantation and rural
community, youth, adolescents, and army personnel. The
project was to distribute condom vending machines
island-wide to encourage the use of condoms as a
temporary solution to prevent sexually transmitted diseases
and also to reduce the chances of unwanted pregnancies.
An NGO in collaboration with the Global Network of
Religions for Children (GNRC) South Asia Secretariat
hosted a special youth consultation day to mark the
International Day of Peace on the theme of Youth for
Peace. The young participants with diverse backgrounds
were able to prepare critical peace statements through a
participatory learning process. The critical peace
statements they prepared expressed their aspirations for
sustainable peace in Sri Lanka by grappling with various
issues in Sri Lankan society.
With support and endorsement from several United Nations
agencies operating in the country, a group of youth-led and
youth-focused organisations engaged in management and
conservation of environment, climate change, sustainable
development and advocacy for environmental issues are
working to inspire, engage and support young people to

33

Private sector firms have made considerable efforts to


empower Sri Lankan youth, initiating many activities such as
knowledge and skills development programmes, providing
on the job training facilities and loans, etc.
The Hatton National Bank (HNB) one of the premier banks
in Sri Lanka has introduced the Yauwanabhimana
programme to empower the Sri Lankan youth by fostering
personal and professional development and creating
employability. Number of other renowned companies such
as Hayleys, Dialog Axiata PLC, Chemical Industries
Colombo Ltd. (CIC), Diesel & Motor Engineering PLC
(DIMO), Holcim Lanka Ltd, the British Council, the
University of Colombo and the World University Service of
Canada (WUSC), are partners of the Yauwanabhimana
programme. The programme offers numerous
opportunities, including internships, knowledge sharing, and
exposure to private sector operations to increase the
employability of young people of the country.
Dialog Axiata PLC and Varam Sri Lanka joined hands in a
youth self-employment initiative. The Varam Welfare
Centres have been providing job skills training for young
people. Its paper recycling project which is part of a greeting
card manufacturing programme was funded by the Dialog
Axiata PLC Change Trust.
Dialog awards local and foreign scholarships annually to
assist young people to pursue their higher education. Local
scholarships are awarded to students who excel at the
ordinary level and advanced level examinations. Selection
of students for the scholarships is done by the Ministry of
Education of Sri Lanka and is based on the best results in
each of the 25 administrative districts. In addition to the
above scholarships approximately four differently-abled
students get scholarships each year.
Sampath Bank, one of the leading banks in Sri Lanka,
has joined hands with the University of Sri
Jayewardenepura to promote youth empowerment in the
country. The bank has adopted various mechanisms to
enhance employee engagement. For that purpose, the
bank has implemented its Corporate Social
Responsibility (CSR) projects in rural and semi urban
sectors, focusing on small and medium scale projects to
facilitate more beneficiaries. This is being done through
developing partnerships, strategic agreements, and
industry collaboration with respective bodies.

34

RURAL DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2013

gender ratio of 50.75 per cent or 3,779,615 males and 49.25


per cent or 3,668,064 females.

Thailand
Youth Population Key Demographic Features

Child and youth population in Thailand is likely to drop


continuously judging from a survey of demographic change
over the past five years (2001-2005). The survey showed
that during that period there were 0.75 0.81 million
newborns per year. This was due largely to the tendency of
women in reproductive age getting married later than before
and effective birth control methods. Working age population
remains stable, while senior population has been
continuously on the rise, projecting to reach 14.3 million by
2016 (Population projection, 2000-2033).
This situation presents a good rationale to focus on child
and youth development, on building skills and knowledge of
the next generation who are on the way to become the
countrys labor force in line with the market needs and
demographic trends which project high dependency rates.
The population of Thailand is estimated to be 64,076,033.
The gender ratio is 50.79 per cent or 32,546,885 females
and 49.21 per cent or 31,529,148 males.

Due to Thailands effective birth control policy in past


decades, numbers of youth are in reversed with the growing
numbers of the ageing population which of course will
increase the dependency rates in the near future.

Five Significant Issues Related to Young People in Thailand


Declining Number of Births and the Rising of Ageing
Population
The recent population changes have consequently
impacted both the number and age structure of population
with the proportion of ageing population increasing from
11.9 per cent in 2012 to 25.1 per cent in 2040 while the child
and working age population will be on the decline.

Drug Use among Younger Generation


Drug cases in 3rd quarter of 2012 increased by 9.8 per cent
compared to the same period in 2011. According to the 2012
report on drug situation and trends by the Office of the
Narcotic Control Board, drug abuse in the community with
children and youth were more prevalent. There was a rising
tendency that three out of four drug offenders arrested were
first-time convicts or youths. Moreover drug abuse among
young generation these days has fallen into people at
younger age than before.

Children and youth age-group (below 25 years) accounts for


22,522,512 or about 35.15 per cent of total population with
a gender ratio of 51.16 per cent or 11,523,531 males and
48.84 per cent or 10,998,981 females.
The children age group below 18 years old accounts for
15,074,833 or about 23.53 per cent of total population with
a gender ratio of 51.37 per cent or 7,743,916 males and
48.63 per cent or 7,330,917 females.

Inappropriate Sexual Behaviours and Teenage Pregnancy


Lack of appropriate sex education and underage sex lead to
unplanned pregnancy and unsafe and illegal abortion.
Teenage pregnancy (under 20 years of age) has risen

The youth age group between 18 - 25 years old accounts for


7,447,679 or about 11.62 per cent of total population with

Table 11: Showing Female-Male Distribution of Population by Age Group, Thailand


Age group

Male

Famale

Total

48.84

122,522,512

35.15

21,547,904

51.86

41,553,521

64.85

32,546,885

50.79

64,076,033

100

Total

Total

Total

Below 25 years

11,523,531

51.16

10,998,981

25 and above

20,005,617

48.14

Total population

31,529,148

49.21

Table 12: Showing Female-Male Distribution by Age Group, Thailand


Age group

Male

Male

Total

Total

Below 18 years

7,743,916

51.37

7,330,917

48.63

15,074,833

23.53

18 - 25 years

3,779,615

50.75

3,668,064

49.25

7,447,679

11.62

25 and above

20,005,617

48.14

21,547,904

51.86

41,553,521

64.85

Total Population

31,529,148

49.21

32,546,885

50.79

64,076,033

100

CHAPTER-2

beyond the average rate stipulated by the WHO standard.


In 2010, the share of teenage mothers accounted for 18.6
per cent of all birth deliveries at the hospital and the
number is increasing.

Role of Provincial Child and Youth Council and the


Bangkok Metropolitan Child and Youth Council

Problem of Education Quality

From the evaluation of the O-Net (Ordinary National


Education Test) exam result from 2008-2011, it was found
that the academic achievement of Thai students in major
subjects was lower than 50 per cent. Thereby, reflecting the
urgent need for the improvement of Thailands education
systems quality particularly when the nation is about to
become part of the ASEAN community which required more
efficient English communication skills.

Inappropriate Life-style of Children and Youth

Problems range from inappropriate time use, violence,


gang war involving the use of lethal weapons and the
uncontrolled access to the internet that leads to young
generation crimes. The fast pace advance in technology
and communication in the form of high speed internet, rapid
mobile network has contributed to the blurring of
geographical borders and facilitated easy and fast
communication across the globe. This situation presents an
excellent opportunity for initiating new channels for learning
and knowledge finding and creative expression. On the
other side, technological advance has had a negative
impact of technology addiction and over consumption and
was widening the gaps between people with resources and
those without.

Child and Youth Councils are established by the National


Child and Youth Development Promotion Act of 2007. Those
child and youth who work in the organisations are volunteer
workers. There are three levels of Child and Youth Councils
in different roles as below:

Role of District Child and Youth Council

Promote, support, and serve as a centre for learning and


organisation of activities relating to education, sports and
culture in the locality
Organise various activities to promote and develop local
children and youth to have knowledge, skills and
morality; and
Give recommendations and opinions to Provincial Child and
Youth Council regarding the development of children and
youth in the locality.

Coordinate with District Child and Youth Councils and


facilitate the exchange of knowledge and experience among
children and youth in the provinces or in Bangkok
Metropolitan;
Serve as a centre for learning and dissemination of
technical knowledge, education, sports and culture; and
Promote and support District Child and Youth Council,
educational institutes in provinces or Bangkok Metropolitan
activities concerning child and youth development.

Role of Child and Youth Council of Thailand

Child and Youth Councils

35

Act as the central coordinating body for the development of


children and youth in provinces;
Collaborate with governmental, non-governmental and
community organisations in the implementation of child and
youth development;
Provide opinions on policies, plans and budget
appropriations of governmental agencies for child and youth
development purposes;
Recommend development activities that may have impact
on children and youth;
Provide opinions to the commission on actions taken by
governmental agencies, non-governmental organisations or
community organisations; and
Besides, to promote public participation in the development
of child and youth, the National Child and Youth
Development Promotion Act of 2007 stated that
non-government organisations or community organisations
which have demonstrable experience in child and youth
development can register at the Ministry of Social
Development and Human Security as private organisations
or community organisations for child and youth
development for receiving subsidies or assistance from the
state for actions such as the recruitment of volunteers to
assist in the implementation, to set up or implementation of
activities for the development of children and youth or other
assistance and support for child and youth whose rights
have been violated, such as legal, medical, rehabilitation
and welfare assistance to children and youth.

Coordination Mechanism at the Federal/Central or


State/Province Level

Sub-Committee on Policy and Plan for Child and Youth


Development (under the National Commission on the
Promotion of Child and Youth Development) is a central
coordination mechanism to implement the National Child

36

RURAL DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2013

and Youth Development Plan 2012 - 2016 and decentralise


through 77 provincial child protection committees in provincial
level across the country. The provincial child protection
committee chaired by the Governor and is comprised of
representatives from government, non-government
organisations, Local Administrative Organisations (LAOs)
including the Child and Youth Council in the province which is
also a coordinating body.

Vietnam

Youth Population

According to preliminary assessment and figured of the


General Office for Population and Family Planning
(GOPFP), the proportion of youth in total population for the
period of 2003-2011 is still moderately low, at the average
level of 26-28%. Figures recorded were: 22.75% in 2003,
28% in 2004, 27.38% in 2006, 27.06% in 2007, 29.5% in
2008, 28.3% in 2009, 27% in 2010, and 26.2% in 2011.

Roles and Responsibilities of Ministries Dealing with Youth

The regulation coordinating the work of the Government and


the Central Executive Committee of the Ho Chi Minh
Communist Youth Union (Issued in conjunction with the Joint
Resolution of the Government and the Executive Committee
of the Ho Chi Minh Communist Youth Union Central
Committee in 2012) specifies the role and responsibilities of
the Ministry for Youth Development, as follows:

Coordinate intellectual and physical education of the


young generation and strengthen the solidarity
among young people.

Ministries and ministerial-level agencies shall launch


cooperation programmes with the Central Ho Chi
Minh Communist Youth Union (annual or periodical)
in order to promote the role of unions and union
members.
Ministries, ministerial-level agencies, agencies
attached to the government enable and support the
Ho Chi Minh Communist Youth Union in organising
activities for children.
Have appropriate rewarding policies for Union staffs,
the general in charge of team working directly in Ho
Chi Minh Young Pioneers.
Ministries, ministerial-level agencies, the agencies
attached to the government shall receive and handle
complaints and proposals of the Central Committee of
the Ho Chi Minh Communist Youth Union regarding
formulation, modification and amendment of policies
on youth development.
Secretariat of the Central Committee of the Ho Chi
Minh Communist Youth Union is responsible for
coordinating with other ministries and agencies in
monitoring compliance with laws and implementation
of regimes and policies on youth and youth works;
have representatives in the task force in charge of
youth development.
Ministries, ministerial-level agencies, the agencies
attached to the government and the Central
Committee of the Ho Chi Minh Communist Youth
Union are responsible for a close collaboration in
research, information on youth; provide and exchange

Table 13: Population Composition by Age Group (2003 2011), Vietnam


Age group

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

Pre-youth

15.63

25.51

25.1

25

24.8

24.1

Youth

27.38

27.06

25.9

28.3

27

26.2

Mature

56.99

47.43

49

46.7

48.2

49.7

(Source: General Office for Population and Family Planning (GOPFP), Vietnam)

Table 14: Population Composition by Age Group and Gender (Ratio Male/100 Female), Vietnam
Age group

2011

2010
Male

Famale

Gender ratio

Male

Famale

Gender ratio

Pre-youth

26.1

23.3

109.7

25.4

22.6

110.3

Youth

27.3

26.6

100.3

26.7

25.7

102

Mature

46.5

50

90.13

47.8

51.6

90.22

(Source: General Office for Population and Family Planning (GOPFP), Vietnam)

CHAPTER-2

necessary information related to the situation of


young people with the aim of formulating appropriate
policies and strategy accordingly.

volunteers involved in the development of agriculture and


new rural construction period from 2010 to 2015.
Accordingly, a steering committee was set up to coordinate
the activities

Specific Strategies to Promote Youth Development

With the aim of building a comprehensive development


Vietnamese young generation, i.e. rich in patriotism,
revolutionary morality, civic consciousness and socialist
ideals, good educational and career background,
knowledgeable in terms of culture, health, life skills, creative
and good at science and technology as well as promoting
the role and responsibilities of the youth in the national
development, the Prime Minister issued the Decision
2474/QD-TTg dated on December 30, 2011 on approving
the Vietnamese Youth Development Strategy for the period
of 2011 - 2020.

Specific Objectives

Appraise young generation about patriotism, ideals, moral


revolution, lifestyle, spirit of national self-respect, sense of
law, social responsibility, respect for the community
conventions and customs;
Enhance knowledge, foreign language skills and
professional skills to meet requirements of socio-economic
development of the country;
Focus on training and development of young human
resources of high quality, associated with the application of
science and technology in favor of the development of the
country;
Provide training and retraining for the young of all groups
(scientists, technicians, public servants, young managers in
government agencies and other socio-economic organisations);

Coordinating with other Ministries to Promote Youth


Development
Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD)

To encourage, support and promote the role of the young


people for local and sectoral development aiming at making
contribution to successful implementation of Resolution on
"Agriculture, Farmers and Rural Areas", MARD and the Ho
Chi Minh Communist Youth Union Central Committee
launched a joint-resolution on promoting the role of youth

In the framework of "Year of Youth" and for effective


implementation of agreed activities, on the basis of local
association with the practical conditions in each locality,
DARDs and the provincial union organisations came up with
joint action plans for the period 2011 2015. Under these
action plans, vocational trainings for rural youth are
highlighted. Besides, detailed activities encompass
technical assistance in sub-sectors, facilities development,
and prevention and mitigation of natural disasters.

Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (MONRE)


MONRE and Central Ho Chi Minh Communist Youth Union
launched a Joint Resolution on coordinating activities in the field of
natural resources and the environment for the period 2008 - 2012
as follows:

Create jobs, increase incomes, and improve material and


spiritual life for the youth; provide the young with settlement
in industrial zones and cities; and
Improve health condition of the young as well as their
capacity and soft skills to adapt to living and working
environment.

37

Raise awareness about role and responsibilities of the


young in protection activities, rational exploitation and
efficient use of resources, environmental protection, dealing
with climate change and sustainable development;
Diversify tools and instruments in communicating and
disseminating policies and laws on natural resources and
environment for the young;
Promote role of the young in the protection of natural
resources,
environmental
protection,
biodiversity
conservation and coping with climate change; and
Strengthen coordination between central Ho Chi Minh
Communist Youth Union with the MONRE and other units
involved with the aim of achieving set objectives (rational
exploitation and efficient use of resources, environmental
protection, dealing with climate change and make people
life environmentally friendly).

Best Examples
Development

of

Policy/Plan/Activities

for Youth

Vocational Training and Employment Supporting Funds in


Quang Tri

In Quang Tri, a provincial youth association in collaboration


with relevant departments and organisations has launched
activities aiming to encourage active participation of the
young in vocation training and professional education.
Special attention has been paid to areas such as,
agricultural-forestry-fisheries, handicrafts and electronics.
Preferential loans are provided to help the youth run their
businesses.

38

RURAL DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2013

development in Viet South" (VDVN) with financial support


from UNV and One UN. The project has been implemented
from 2009 to 2012. The goal of the project was to strengthen
volunteerism for development in Vietnam, including
supporting the establishment of Resources Information
Centre Volunteers in Vietnam (VVIRC) which is expected to
become a national agency with long-term and sustainable
mission to promote and support volunteerism for
development in order to better help young people and other
vulnerable objects in Vietnam.

Youth Development Programme in Ho Chi Minh City

Over the past years, the Youth Union of Ho Chi Minh City
has actively helped to create jobs for young people through
many ways: provide start-up loan with preferential interest
rates, extend consultation for career development, host free
training, improve professional skills, and support rural youth
in production and technology transfer.

Provide Preferential Loans to Help Poor Young

The fund for supporting the young to start up their business


has been set up from the Trust Fund of Bank for Social
Policy. Young beneficiaries from this fund have been trained
on issues regarding economic affairs such as business
registration, tax registration, exchange comments, and
resolve problems arising in the course of using the youth
capital.
City Youth Federation also organises Coffee Forum - a
place for young entrepreneurs to share their experiences in
starting and managing business. Moreover, Youth Support
Centre, in collaboration with qualified training centres,
provide basic and in-depth training.

Vocational Training and Professional Development for the


Young

Different vocational training programmes are organised on


information technology and office applications, accounting,
filming, editing, advertising design, photography applications,
and accounting.

Vietnam Chamber of Commerce and Industry Fund in


cooperation with the Association of Southeast Asian
Nations (ASEAN) has launched an incentive "To develop
and improve the skills of information technology and
communications for SMEs in Southeast Asia" with
financial support of the world's leading software group
Microsoft. The project will be implemented in two years,
from 2012 to 2014, in order to improve the use of
information and communication technologies for SMEs in
four Southeast Asian countries - Vietnam, Indonesia,
Thailand, and the Philippines.
In Vietnam, the project
promotes the use of
technologies, especially
young entrepreneurs in
include:

Young in Socio-Economic Development

The so-called Young Creativity campaign has been set up


and advertised broadly to mobilise their creative ideas of
young people. Other campaigns such as Three-saves,
Four Number-one gather the young in different activities
like infrastructure construction, new rural development,
traffic safety, etc.

Roles and Responsibilities of NGOs, Local and


International Development Partners Dealing with Youth

In collaboration with the UNFPA, the Ministry of Home


Affairs implements the project titled "Support for the carrying
capacity of the Vietnamese Youth Development Strategy for
2011-2020". The project aims to contribute to the effective
implementation of the Vietnamese Youth Development
Strategy about reproductive health, sexual health, HIV and
gender-based violence.
Ho Chi Minh Communist Youth Union Central Committee
runs the project "Strengthening of volunteerism for

aims to support awareness and


information and communication
in business and e-commerce for
the traditional villages. Activities

Training of trainers so that they get directly involved in


teaching information technology and communication
to students as young entrepreneurs in the traditional
villages;
Training for approximately 100 young entrepreneurs
in the traditional villages; and
Help in the selection of enterprises for appropriate
business technology programme. Selected
entrepreneurs will be consulted, trained, and
supported to use information technology to access
and expand the business market.

International Transparency Organisation, an international


NGO in the forefront for fighting corruption, has funded the
project "Youth Integrity towards a more transparent society"
with the aim of promoting understanding and positive
actions of young people on anti-corruption through
propaganda and by practising integrity.
International Labour Organisation and Socodevi (Canada)
have been helping the Cooperative Union of Quang Nam in
developing cooperative models, with a focus on engaging
young people.

CHAPTER-2

that economic growth is not always accompanied by


growth in employment. In the present era of globalisation,
and greater economic interdependence, crisis in one part
of the world affects the economic conditions of other
countries as well. Unfortunately, developing countries are
the worst sufferers.

2.3 Youth Unemployment Issue of Regional


Concern
2.3.1 Youth Unemployment General Scenario in the
Asia-Pacific Region

Though underemployment and unemployment are global


phenomena and affect all citizens, their effect on young
people is profound and these twin problems are of
considerable concern in the developing world of the
Asia-Pacific region. The problem of youth unemployment
has been further compounded by the global economic crisis
and the subsequent sluggish recovery. The disturbing fact is

39

The difficulty of finding suitable employment gets further


aggravated by the multiplicity of other problems confronting
young people, including inadequate educational facilities,
insufficient training opportunities, poor accessibility to
information on employment market, and lack of career
guidance.

Box 3: Extracts from World Programme of Action


Opportunities for Self-employment
Governments and organisations should create or promote grant schemes to provide seed money to encourage and support enterprise and
employment programmes for young people. Businesses and enterprises could be encouraged to provide counterpart financial and technical
support for such schemes. Cooperative schemes involving young people in production and marketing of goods and services could be
considered. The formation of youth development banks could be considered. The Committee for the Promotion and Advancement of
Cooperatives is encouraged to develop models for cooperatives run by youth in developed and developing countries. Such models could include
guidelines for management training and training in entrepreneurial techniques and marketing.
Employment Opportunities for Specific Groups of Young People
Within funds designated to promote youth employment, governments should, as appropriate, designate resources for programmes supporting
the efforts of young women, young people with disabilities, youth returning from military service, migrant youth, refugee youth, displaced
persons, street children and indigenous youth. Youth organisations and young people themselves should be directly involved in the planning
and implementation of these programmes.
Voluntary Community Services Involving Youth
Where they do not already exist, governments should consider the establishment of voluntary service programmes for youth. Such programmes
could provide alternatives to military service, or might constitute a required element in educational curricula, depending on national policies and
priorities. Youth camps, community service projects, environmental protection and intergenerational cooperation programmes should be
included among the opportunities offered.
Youth organisations should be directly involved in designing, planning, implementing and evaluating such voluntary service programmes. In
addition, international cooperation programmes organised between youth organisations in developed and developing countries should be
included to promote intercultural understanding and development trainings.
Needs Created by Technological Changes
Governments, in particular those of developed countries, should encourage the creation of employment opportunities for young people in fields
that are rapidly evolving as a result of technological innovation. A subset of the employment data compiled by bovernments should track the
employment of youth into those fields marked by newly emerging technologies. Measures should be taken to provide ongoing training for youth
in this area. Special attention should be paid to developing and disseminating approaches that promote flexibility in training systems and
collaboration between training institutions and employers, especially for young people in high-technology industries.
Promoting Youth Employment and Skills Development in the Context of Globalisation
In order to overcome the mismatch between the skills that youth possess and the specialised demands of labour markets shaped by
globalisation, Governments, with appropriate support from the international community, should provide funding and opportunities in both formal
and non-formal education for youth to acquire requisite skills, including through skills development programmes.
At the same time, governments should promote access to work through integrated policies that enable the creation of new and quality jobs for
young people and that facilitate access to those jobs.

40

RURAL DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2013

Advances in technology and communications, coupled with


improved productivity, have imposed new challenges as well
as new opportunities for employment. Young people are
among the most severely affected by these developments. If
effective solutions are not found, the cost to society will be
much higher in the long run. Unemployment creates a wide
range of social ills and young people are particularly
susceptible to its damaging effects: the lack of skills, low
self-esteem, marginalisation, impoverishment and the
wasting of an enormous human resource (World
Programme of Action for Youth 2010).

According to estimates of the International Labour


Organisation, more than one hundred million new jobs
would have to be created within the next twenty years in
order to provide suitable employment for the growing
number of young people in the economically active
populations of developing countries. The situation of girls
and young women, as well as of young people with
disabilities, refugee youth, displaced persons, street
children, indigenous youth, migrant youth and minorities,
warrants urgent attention, bearing in mind the prohibition of
forced labour and child labour.
Compared to the youth unemployment rate in the
Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development
(OECD) area, the youth unemployment rate in Asia and the
Pacific is relatively low. However, this rate masks the key
underlying concern that most young people in the region
cannot afford being unemployed, because of absent
unemployment benefits and other support measures.

Long-term unemployment among the youth is another


challenge, with several countries in the region reporting that
30 to 75 per cent of all unemployed youth have been out of
work for more than one year Often, these youth are
discouraged and stop looking for work altogether. This
prolonged inactivity threatens their future prospects as well.

(Source: UNESCAP Fact Sheet 2010)

Youth unemployment rates have stayed at peak levels


across the world. Currently, the average rate of youth
unemployment in Asia and the Pacific is estimated to be
around 11 per cent, more than double the rate of the total
working age population.
(Source: UNESCAP Fact Sheet 2010)

Young women are particularly underrepresented in the


labour market, and are thus an untapped resource for future
economic growth and development. Wide sub-regional
discrepancies prevail in that respect. Among youth in North
and North-East Asia, womens labour force participation rate
(60.5 per cent) is actually two percentage points higher than
men a trend driven by China. This is despite the fact that
gross tertiary enrolment female to male ratio in China is
1.01, meaning that the same number of young women and
men are also attending higher education. On the other hand,
in South and South-West Asia, only 23 per cent of young
women between 15 and 24 years old participate in the
labour force, less than half the rate for young men, at 57 per
cent. Unlike in China, however, fewer young women also
attend university (approximately three women to four men).
(Source: UNESCAP Fact Sheet 2012)

(Source: UNESCAP Fact Sheet 2010)

As it is, youth employment is already often precarious.


Young people abound in vulnerable employment where jobs
are characterised by insecurity, low wages, poor working
conditions and lack of social protection. As a result, working
poverty is significantly higher for young workers than for
their older counterparts.

In search of better living conditions, many young people


choose to migrate. The proportion of adolescent and youth
migrants in the total international migrant population is 19
per cent in Asia (on par with Latin America and the
Caribbean) and 13 per cent in the Pacific (on par with
Europe and North America). In Asia, 46 per cent of all
migrants between 10 and 24 years are females, whilst in the
Pacific there is parity among the proportion of male and
female migrants of these ages. Many youth migrants,
however, are undocumented and some are trafficked,
including for sex work.
For young people, jobs provide a source not only of income,
but also dignity and self-respect. In the absence of decent
work, young people subsist in the margins of the economy
and are particularly vulnerable to social exclusion, which
breeds political instability.
The need for youth policies oriented toward decent
employment is becoming ever more urgent, especially
because the potential youth labour force in South and
South-West Asia one of the worlds poorest regions is
increasing at a fast pace: 1.0 million additional young people
are expected to enter the labour market every year between
2010 and 2015.

CHAPTER-2

41

Table 15: Rate of Youth Unemployment (% of Total Labour Force Aged Between 15 and 24 Years
(Modelled ILO Estimate) in CIRDAP Member Countries
Countries

2009

2010

2011

2012

Afghanistan

19.4

19.5

19.5

19.5

Bangladesh

10.9

8.2

8.2

8.9

Fiji

20.5

20.3

20.0

19.9

India

9.7

10.2

10.2

9.7

Indonesia

22.5

22.6

21.2

21.6

Iran

24.4

28.4

28.4

28.9

Lao PDR

3.2

3.2

3.2

3.2

Malaysia

11.6

11.0

10.2

10.2

Myanmar

11.6

11.6

11.6

11.5

Nepal

4.5

4.5

4.5

4.5

Pakistan

7.9

8.0

8.0

8.2

Philippines

17.4

15.5

14.9

14.9

Sri Lanka

20.7

18.8

18.8

18.5

Thailand

5.9

4.0

2.9

2.8

Vietnam

4.9

4.8

4.3

4.4

Box 4: The Youth Employment Crisis: A Call for Action


The key policy areas, sourced from the resolution titled The youth employment crisis: A call for action from the International Labour Conference (ILC),
include:

Employment and economic policies to increase aggregate demand and improve access to finance.

Education and training to ease the school-to-work transition and to prevent skills mismatches.

Labour market policies to target employment of disadvantaged youth.

Entrepreneurship and self-employment to assist potential young entrepreneurs.

Labour rights based on international labour standards to ensure that young people receive equal treatment and are afforded rights at work.

On youth entrepreneurship and self-employment, the resolution urges the governments to give serious consideration, as appropriate, to:

The role of national strategies, coordination and oversight to ensure that youth entrepreneurship initiatives are complementary and effective.

Ensuring that there is an enabling environment, including for small and micro-enterprises, cooperatives and the social economy, that supports
youth entrepreneurship, taking care that there is no disguised employment.

Promoting youth entrepreneurship, especially for young women and other vulnerable groups of young people.

Improving access to finance for the operation of sustainable youth enterprises, in particular micro-, small and medium-sized enterprises,
cooperatives and social enterprises. This may include subsidising credit, guaranteeing loans and supporting microcredit initiatives.

Facilitating access by micro-enterprises to public procurement, in line with the provisions of the Labour Clauses (Public Contracts) Convention,
1949 (No. 94), where ratified.

Taking action to facilitate the transition of young entrepreneurs in the informal sector from informality to formality, including by promoting and
supporting compliance with national labour legislation.

Embedding entrepreneurship curricula at an early age and in secondary and tertiary schools as an effective way of improving attitudes towards
entrepreneurship. Information about cooperatives should also be introduced to students within national curricula, in line with the Promotion of
Cooperatives Recommendation, 2002 (No. 193).

Establishing and strengthening monitoring and evaluation mechanisms to measure impacts and to improve policy instruments.

42

RURAL DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2013

Table 16: Unemployment, Youth Male (% of Male Labour Force Ages 15 24), (Modelled ILO Estimate)
in CIRDAP Member Countries
Countries

2009

2010

2011

2012

Afghanistan

18.1

18.3

18.3

18.1

Bangladesh

9.8

7.8

7.8

8.6

Fiji

16.8

16.5

16.2

16.2

India

9.7

9.8

9.8

9.4

Indonesia

21.9

20.8

19.5

20.0

Iran

22.4

25.2

25.1

25.8

Lao PDR

4.1

4.0

4.1

4.0

Malaysia

11.2

10.6

9.8

9.8

Myanmar

10.2

10.2

10.2

10.1

Nepal

5.9

5.9

5.9

5.9

Pakistan

7.1

7.1

7.1

7.3

Philippines

16.2

14.2

13.6

13.6

Sri Lanka

16.9

16.0

16.0

15.5

Thailand

5.3

3.8

2.6

2.7

Vietnam

4.6

4.6

4.0

4.1

Table 17: Unemployment, Youth Female (% of Female Labour Force Ages 15 24), (Modelled ILO Estimate)
in CIRDAP Member Countries
Countries

2009

2010

2011

2012

Afghanistan

25.5

25.4

25.4

26.5

Bangladesh

12.5

8.8

8.8

9.3

Fiji

26.7

26.6

26.4

26.1

India

9.8

11.4

11.4

10.6

Indonesia

23.3

25.4

23.7

24.2

Iran

32.1

40.8

40.8

40.5

Lao PDR

2.5

2.5

2.5

2.5

Malaysia

12.1

11.6

10.8

10.8

Myanmar

13.0

13.0

13.0

12.9

Nepal

3.3

3.3

3.3

3.3

Pakistan

10.7

10.7

10.7

11.2

Philippines

19.3

17.7

16.9

17.1

Sri Lanka

27.6

24.2

24.2

24.1

Thailand

6.6

4.3

3.2

3.0

Vietnam

5.3

5.1

4.6

4.6

CHAPTER-2

2.3.2

Country Situations

Afghanistan
Unemployed and Underemployed Youth
Employment opportunities for youth in Afghanistan are
severely limited and where jobs for youth do exist they
often lack quality. Afghanistans youth employment
situation is constrained by challenges relating to the
demand side (slow job growth), supply side (lack and
mismatch of skills), and an overall unfavourable policy
and coordination context.

43

On the demand side, continuing security concerns,


apprehension about the process of the post-2014
transition and weak institutional capacity continue to
create an unfavourable investment climate and resulted
in declining growth rates. Afghanistans economy and
jobs are not growing enough to absorb the annual
400,000 new labour market entrants (ILO, 2012). The
2007/2008 National Risk and Vulnerability Assessment
(NRVA) reports high pockets of unemployment rates
among youth, 10 per cent for young men and 15 per cent
for young women1. The majority of unemployed youth in

Box 5: Afghanistan Youth to Receive Skills Boost for Better Jobs


The World Bank today approved a $55 million grant from the International Development Association (IDA) to assist Afghan youth to enhance their skills
and competencies as the country expands its work force. A skilled and employable workforce is important to Afghanistans nation building efforts that
can continue to drive the countrys prosperity and peoples wellbeing.
Robert Saum, World Banks Country Director for Afghanistan, on skills for youth:
Jobs and skills are central to Afghanistans successful economic transition and building a productive workforce. As Afghan businesses continue
to grow, they will need skilled employees in production and services sectors. By continuing to pursue technical and vocational education, Afghan
youth can become valuable members of the workforce, drive economic development, and contribute to a prosperous future for both the country
and the people.
The Afghanistan Second Skills Development Project (ASDP II), implemented by the Ministry of Education (MOE), focuses on building systems and
institutions in the formal sector that will impart technical and vocational skills in diverse job streams. This follows an earlier project financed by the World
Bank that has been supporting formal and non-formal interventions since 2008. With this new financing, the World Bank will have provided a total grant
of $93 million, including from the Afghanistan Reconstruction Trust Fund (ARTF) in Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET). The
Government is contributing $5 million. Further support to the non-formal sector is being proposed under a separate project. The project will also
contribute to creating self-employment opportunities by working with other projects like the Afghanistan Rural Enterprise Development Project (AREDP).
The most noteworthy success of ASDP to date has been the establishment of the National Institute of Management and Administration (NIMA),
revitalising the Afghanistan National Institute of Music (ANIM) that is nurturing gifted young musicians in the country, and supporting the Blind School
in Kabul. Most of the first cohort of NIMA graduates have been able to find employment within six months of graduation. The project has also provided
short term training in technical and business development for over 9,000 persons, more than a third of whom are women.
Despite recent progress in the sector, the country faces significant challenges in the sector. Workers in the formal sector account for about 20 per cent
of an estimated total workforce of seven million about 1.5 million. Data from several studies suggest that there is a growing demand for skilled
workers. In addition, employers highlight the need for more training for their current and future workers in some specific areas. In particular, businesses
have indicated that their workers need more training in general skills so that they can be used flexibly. They also need to develop their literacy and
language skills, as well as their management, administrative, marketing, and sales abilities. By the end of ASDP II in June 2018, the project aims to
achieve the following:

Over 18,000 students from project - supported institutions to obtain certification from internationally recognised institutions/agencies.

Around 10 percent of graduates from project- supported institutions to be employed within six months of graduation.

Graduates from project-supported institutions to see their earnings rise by at least 15 per cent.

At least 14 schools from the existing 3 to demonstrate good practices in terms of (a) increasing the market relevance of skills acquired by
students, (b) increased industry participation in school governance and management, and (c) improvement in infrastructure (both hard and soft)
for skills delivery.

Students learning outcomes to improve to 7 on a scale of 1-10.

(Source: World Bank Press Release March 19, 2013)


1

Employment data in Afghanistan is highly controversial. Given the high level of poverty most (young) people cannot afford to be
unemployed and the relatively low rates of unemployment indicate high levels of underemployment (ILO, 2012).

44

RURAL DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2013

the country are illiterate youth with low skills levels but
there are also high levels of unemployment among
university graduates in urban areas. Opportunities for
youth entrepreneurship are limited due to a lack of
access to finances and overall low financial literacy.

Widespread poverty among Afghanistans youth


population force, many young women and men take on
whatever work is available to them and led to high levels
of vulnerable forms of employment and working poverty.
Afghanistans informal sector (including illicit activities)
accounts for 80 to 90 per cent of the total economic
activity. According to the 2007/2008 NRVA, most
employed people (77 per cent) have insecure jobs as
own-account workers or unpaid family workers. Sixty per
cent of the employed labour force is working in
agriculture in low-productivity and subsistence-type
production (in 2011, agriculture contributed only to 23 per
cent of Afghanistans gross domestic product (GDP).
The supply-side related challenges are severe.
According to estimations by the GIRoA, there is currently
a supply gap of between 15,000 to 20,000 persons per
year at the existing level of economic development
across the primary, secondary and tertiary sectors. There
are several factors that act as barriers to achieving such
a number of certified and skilled people who are directly
employable after skills training. The first is the small
number of high school graduates who opt for technical
and vocational education and training (TVET). Although
there are about 200,000 high school graduates every
year who do not get admission to universities or private
colleges, only about 5 per cent of this number opt for a
formal VET program as a career option. The TVET sector
in Afghanistan also suffers from being supply-driven and
service providers in general have little or no concern
about the employability of graduates or the market
relevance of the skills they impart. The sector also
continues to remain unattractive to potential students due
to the absence of a robust system of licensing and
certification, the lack of regulatory control over both
public and private training and service providers, and the
low technical and pedagogical skill levels of teachers and
trainers of VET.
The virtual absence of employment and career
counselling services for most of Afghanistans youth
contributes to the mismatch in skills and demand by the
labour market. Many youth are not aware of what job and
training opportunities are available to them and what
skills are needed by employers.

Labour market and youth employment data on


Afghanistan is either absent or unreliable which presents
an obstacle to evidence-based and effective (youth)
employment policies and interventions.
(Source: Afghanistan National Youth Policy July 2013)

Bangladesh
Youth Employment and Unemployment

Between 2002-2003 and 2010, the total employment in


Bangladesh increased by about 7 million. During this period,
the non-agricultural sectors were the principal engine for
creating jobs. In 2003, the National Youth Policy was
formed, which put much emphasis on self employment in
both rural and urban areas by taking various training
programmes. As a result, the highest number of
employment was in 2010. Female employment rate has also
increased because of the efforts of the government of
Bangladesh to focus on womens employment through
appropriate and diverse trainings.
There was an increasing tendency among the economically
active persons (both employed and unemployed) aged
15-29 during the last era. The highest number of
economically active persons was found in 2010. As the
population growth rate was reduced significantly, the
number of youth population has been increased day by day
consequently.
Initially, it was thought that the youth unemployment
problem could be solved by providing them training to
develop their skill. However, this was not the care because
employment opportunities, both at home and abroad, were
limited. Because of this limitation, the concept of
self-employment emerged as an alternative. The directorate
of youth development is taking multi dimensional activities
to turn the potential youth force into national asset. As an
example of best practice, the success stories of some of
them have been included in this report.
The National Youth Policy 2003 has put special emphasis
on youth self-employment by means of technical
education in order to prevent the exodus of rural youth to
urban areas of the country and aims at rendering
assistance for creating appropriate opportunities to
effectively engage the youth of the country in the
Information Communication and Technology (ICT) sector.
The policy also plans to initiate advocacy programmes for
the creation of awareness among the youth who intend to
go abroad for employment. To implement the national
policy of self-employment, the government has adopted
the strategy of establishing networks through GO-NGO

CHAPTER-2

45

Table 18: Economically Active Persons Youth (15 24 Years) Employed and Unemployed: 2002 2010 (in 000)
in Bangladesh
Survey year

Employed and Unemployed

Employed

Unemployedemale

2002-2003

18985

17784

1201

Per cent

100

93.67

6.33

2005-2006

17750

16311

1439

Per cent

100

91.89

8.11

2010

20900

19342

1558

Per cent

100

92.55

7.45

(Source: BBS 2002-2003, 154; 2005-2006, 115; 2010, 88)

Table 19: Gender-wise Distribution of Unemployed Youth (15 29 Years) in Bangladesh: 2002 2010 (in 000)
Survey year

Both

Male

Famale

2002-2003

1201

877

324

Per cent

100

73.02

26.98

2005-2006

1439

947

492

Per cent

100

65.81

34.19

2010

1558

895

663

Per cent

100

57.45

42.55

(Source: BBS 2002-2003, 154; 2005-2006, 115; 2010, 88)

partnership for imparting training and offering technical


assistance to reach youth at grass roots. Currently, there
are as many as 776 training centres run by the
Department of Youth. There is also a good number of
Technical Training Centres (T.T.C) of the BMET (Bureau of
Manpower, Employment and Training) under the Ministry
of Labour and Employment to offer training for various skill
development.

Employment Programme and Facilitation Services

Governments policy of offering different kinds of trainings in


poultry business, aquaculture, agricultural farming, etc. for
self-employment has so far proved to be effective, although
due to the shortage of both material and human resources,
training programmes cannot ensure the participation of the
majority of the youth population. In one estimate of the
Department of Youth, it is found that out of a total of 555,004
young women and men who received training through 301
training centres run by the Department of Youth between
2001 and 2004, 341,677 were able to get fully engaged in
self-employment projects.

These training centres offer training in pisciculture, poultry


rearing, beef fattening, livestock rearing, food processing,
kitchen gardening, handicrafts, leather works, etc. There are
also a total of 475 mobile training centres functioning at
Upazila (sub-district) level. Also, 15 Technical Training Centres
(TTCs) and the Bangladesh Institute of Marine Technology
(under the Ministry of Labour and Employment), offer trainings
to 15,000 youth every year. Three more development projects
are under way to set up 20 more TCCs in the country. When
these projects will end, as many as 40,000 trainees will be
able to receive training on various skills.
However, to make sure that the youths can be engaged in
self-employment after receiving training for self-employment,
the government also offers micro-credit and donations from
the Youth Welfare Fund to youth. During the last three years,
the department has disbursed an amount of Tk. 10,708,000
million to its graduated trainees. Apart from the initiatives of
different relevant ministries, the government has successfully
created a policy and institutional environment through the
creation of institutions and supply of resources for rapid
employment in the private sector. Bangladesh has now the

46

RURAL DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2013

biggest microcredit sector in the world with covering 14


million clients, out of which about 70 per cent are youth.
PKSF, a national apex fund for promoting NGO-MFIs
partnership has played a crucial role in providing
micro-credits to young entrepreneurs. The MFIs have
identified microenterprise as the thrust sector for their future
programme expansion. This will help to create more
employment opportunities for youth. Moreover, the
government has encouraged the promotion of microenterprise
loan through commercial banks by creating special funds in
the central bank.

However, the training programmes for self-employment


and skill development of youth in the country suffer from
two oft-encountered weaknesses. The critiques point out

that some of these programmes are not need based and


updated to keep pace with the developments in the field.
In other words, the programmes in which the trainees
receive training do not reflect the real demand of the job
market in the country or abroad. As a result, the training is
not able to ensure employment to young people. Among
key factors that get in the way of employment are: illiteracy,
inadequate knowledge for choosing appropriate
enterprise, and inability to identify proper marketing
facilities. From the institutional point of view, lack of
coordinated and consistent efforts by different agencies of
the government is causing hindrance to bringing a
significant impact on the overall development of the youth,
consistent with the efforts made by the government.

Box 6: Case Studies of Young Entrepreneurs


Success Story of Jayeda Akhter
Jayeda Akhter was the daughter of a poor family of five members. Her father was not able to bear the expenses of her education. She was married
to an unemployed youth who belonged to a poor family. The couple was jobless and this aggravated the financial condition of the family. Jayeda
met a trainee of dress making trade of Patuakhali under the department of Youth Development. On the advice of that trainee she also contacted
the department. After training in dress-making, she started to work in her house.
From the profits, she was not only able to meet the household expenses but also paid for her education. After passing her high school
examination, she looked for a job but could not find any. Again she contacted the Department of Youth Development and on their advice,
underwent a training on livestock, poultry and fisheriy. She started her business in a small way and earned a profit of Tk. 10,000. As she wanted
to expand her business, she contacted the relevant authorities and got an amount of Tk. 45,000/- as youth loan. Out of this amount she spent Tk.
20,000/- for purchasing 100 hens, 100 ducks and their feed. With the remaining money, she purchased two cows. After one year she got a net
profit of Tk. 100,000/- from her combined project. By the money from profit she purchased seven thousand fish and seven ponds. There she
invested Tk. 100,000/-. She earned again a profit of Tk. 300,000/- from this project. Three unemployed youth also got employment in her projects.
Now Jayeda Akhter is a very successful entrepreneur, an role model for other young girls
Success Story of Md. Feroj Shah
Md. Feroj Shah is the son of poor parents. Though he was very eager to continue his studies but could not do so due to a financial crisis in the
family. Therefore he was not able to appear in the S.S.C. examination. Encouraged by some other ex-trainees of the Department of Youth
Development, he contacted the local Youth Development Office. On the advice of the officer and staff, he took a 15-day training on livestock and
poultry. After the training he started a Poultry farm with a capital of Tk. 35,000. Of this amount Tk. 10,000 was the subsidy from the Department
of Youth Development. He borrowed Tk.25,000 from relatives.
During the first phase of the project, he could earn a reasonable amount. As he earned profits, he gradually extended his farm. Side by side he
also started a fishery project. At present capital of his project has enhanced to Tk. 450,000. Five unemployed youth have been employed in his
project.
Md. Feroj Shah is now a self-employed youth. His success has provided a lot of inspiration to youth of the locality. The unemployed youth are
undergoing training in different trades of the Department of Youth Development and are getting engaged in various self-employment ventures.
(Source: CIRDAP Country Report of Bangladesh)

CHAPTER-2

to determine their career of choice from which 13,314 have


completed their aptitude test. A total of 2,017 passed on to
complete the employment skills training phase of the NEC
programme out of which 961 clients gained work attachment
places while 528 have since got permanent employment
and 142 entered volunteer services.

Fiji
Youth Employment and the Labour Market

In the Pacific, the challenges of youth unemployment are


magnified by development challenges confronting island
nations geographical isolation, lack of access to markets,
limited resource base, fragile nature of island economies,
and their susceptibility to natural disasters. These, in turn,
have largely constrained the ability of island nations to grow
their economies at a rate that is sufficient to meet the
demands of the new entrants into the labour market. A four
country study conducted by the Foundation for the Peoples
of the South Pacific identified that the major causes for youth
unemployment and violence in the Pacific is the lack of
opportunity for young people to participate in modern
society. The study revealed that two central issues,
education and employment are at the core of the transitions
that Pacific countries are making, from communal effort and
shared resources to individual effort and capital
accumulation. The need to be educated to allow
employment and income are critical to modern livelihood.
The Government of Fijis situational analysis of children,
youth and women in 2007 accepts that there is a shortage of
wage employment in Fiji and that youth are disadvantaged
by their lack of experience and often have limited
employable skills. While linkages between limited education
and restricted opportunities in Fiji are well documented there
is a significant increase in school dropouts after the age of
15 years. The analysis concedes that while there has been
an expansion of vocational education in the schools, most
vocational opportunities are integrated with higher
secondary forms. Students therefore wishing to pursue
courses miss out and demand exceeds places available.
However the events of 2006 in Fiji would have inundated the
labour market with demand for jobs as a result of the job losses
emanating from the political crisis and the general lack of
investor confidence and diminished tourist arrivals into Fiji.
Considerable policy attention is required to address the
employment aspirations of young people in Fiji. The National
Youth Policy (NYP) falls short of creating the necessary
policy arrangements needed to address youth employment
by focusing attention on capacity building, empowerment
and leadership initiatives. This could be attributed to the
current existence and role of the National Employment
Centre [NEC] as the lead agency of government that
coordinates state effort to promote employment. Since its
inception in 2010 to the 3rd Quarter of 2011 the National
Employment Centre completed 143 awareness activities
and registered a total of 22,497 unemployed persons. Out of
these, a total of 13,801 clients have undergone counselling

47

The NEC has signed 83 memoranda of understanding with


employers to facilitate arrangements for attachments and
employment. However the Centre may need to address the
high attrition rate that exists from those that were first
registered up to the attachment and employment phase.
Within the scope of its decree, the centre should also
explore employment opportunities in the informal sector and
open up self-employment options that hold, more promise
than the formal slow growing economy. However, funding
constraints for self-employment need to be addressed.
The NYP recognises and agrees to work in tandem with the
National Employment Centre. For this working relationship
to be effective, the Government should ensure that the
implementation of the NYP and the functions of the NEC are
fully aligned. Clear operational and service delivery
arrangements are needed to compliment policy decisions
and reduce resource wastage and duplication. A viable
starting point is to recognise that the NYP provides an
overarching function overlooking the numerous initiatives of
the state relating to youth including those under the
mandate of the NEC.
As opposed to compartmentalisation of the work related to
youth development, under the policies enunciated by the NYP
and the legislations of respective state agencies, there is a
need to develop a holistic approach to implement initiatives of
different agencies to realise mutually agreed goals.
This is further supported by OHiggins. N. 2001, who identifies
in his study on Youth unemployment and employment policy:
A Global Perspective, the interdependence of the various
measures for tackling youth unemployment. Higgins points out
that to address youth unemployment a package of policies and
programmes needs to be designed in such a way that they
complement rather than compete against each other.
Furthermore Higgins points out that it is important that the
interdependence between agencies responsible for youth
employment is recognised.
With appropriate policy and administrative arrangements
in place provides the environment to institute youth
employment strategies and initiatives that are conducive
to Fijis situation. The Department of Youth and Sports
currently provides the facility to formalise the registration of
youth groups into a network of autonomous organisations
that provide the platform for its members to participate in

48

RURAL DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2013

socio-economic activities. The registration service provided


by the department is administered through its divisional
offices in Lautoka, Labasa and Suva. In 2011 alone the
Department sets out to register at least 350 youth groups
nationwide. It is through these youth groups that the
department delivers its capacity building and empowerment
training programmes. While there is huge promise given the
available infrastructure of youth organisations nation-wide
resources available to the department is limited to meet the
myriad of demands and intentions of youth organisations.
Adequately resourcing and building the capacity of youth
groups through an effective policy arrangement has the
ability to address youth employment aspirations and
livelihoods particularly in the informal and resource based
sectors. Youth organisations with policy incentives have the
ability to diversify their functions into initiatives such as
cooperative enterprises to offer its members a form of
livelihood and savings scheme that can easily be
accumulated for investment capital.
(Source: Ministry of Youth and Sports, Fiji 2011)

though rural males are increasingly turning to the non-farm


sector as the possibility of gainful employment in the farm
sector has been shrinking. However, how many non-farm
jobs in rural areas are demand-induced is an important
issue that needs further research. Given the macro
evidence on the rural non-farm sector, expanding largely
due to supply-side factors, it is difficult to suggest that rural
youth are able to access sustainable livelihoods. On the
other hand, in urban areas they are largely in the services
sector in comparison to the secondary sector. Among young
women, social conditions and norms play an important role
in determining their labour market status. Labour market
participation, for example, tends to vary across social
groups. Among educated youth, the problem of
unemployment can have serious repercussions in terms of
social instability which, in turn, may affect governance and
growth adversely. Thus, the challenge is to ensure that more
opportunities are created in the formal economy, allowing
for a smooth transition from school to work for Indias youth.

India
Youth Unemployment The Present Scenario

Self-employment and casual wage employment comprise a


large majority of youth employment in India. Agriculture
employment is more prevalent for women in the rural areas,

Another aspect of youth unemployment is that many youth


participate in the labour market at an early stage because of
poverty and poor human capital endowment, They cannot
afford to remain unemployed for long and, hence, pick up
activities characterized by low labour productivity. In rural
and urban areas, among the early labour market entrants,
males are usually in casual wage employment, while their
female counterparts tend to be self-employed.

Table 20: Showing Nature of Youth Employment in India


Rural male

Rural famale

Urban male

Urban famale

Age
group

Reg.

Cas.

Self

Reg.

Cas.

Self

Reg.

Cas.

Self

Reg.

Cas.

Self

15-19

46.6

6.1

47.2

53.8

3.2

43.0

33.3

31.6

35.1

48.7

27.6

23.7

20-24

46.4

9.9

43.8

56.9

6.4

36.6

33.8

43.5

22.7

33.5

50.9

15.5

25-29

48.4

10.4

41.2

53.2

5.9

40.9

33.6

48.9

17.5

35.7

47.4

16.8

(Source: National Sample Survey, India, 66th Round)

Reg. Regular wage salaried employees; those who are in


regular employment including the long-term contractual category,
drawing wages and salaries on a monthly basis.
Cas. Casual labour; includes individuals working as casual
wage labour in public works other than Mahatma Gandhi NREG
public works; casual wage labour in Mahatma Gandhi NREG
public works; and casual wage labour in other types of works.
Self Self-employed workers include individuals working in
household enterprises as own-account workers; in household
enterprises as employers; and in household enterprises as helpers.

Looking at the nature of employment, almost half of the rural


youth are self-employed. However, among rural males, the

relative size of regular wage and casual wage employment


in the age group 25-29 is higher than the corresponding
figure for all-age groups. A similar pattern is also distinct in
the age group of 20-24, implying that wage employment is
relatively more prevalent among rural youth (male)
compared with the rest of the rural male population. In the
age bracket 15-19, only the share of casual wage
employment is higher than the corresponding figure for the
all-age average (individuals aged from 15-59). Those who
drop out from school early join as casual workers since
many of these youth (especially males) may not meet the
skills and experience requirements of regular wage jobs.

CHAPTER-2

Among rural females, self-employment in the age group


20-24 is higher than the all-age average figure. On the other
hand, the proportion of workers in casual wage in the same
age group is lower compared to the all-age average. Since
rural women around these ages are mostly engaged in
reproductive activities, casual wage jobs are less preferred
in comparison to self-employment, which can be
conveniently combined with household duties. In the age
brackets from 15-19 and 25-29, however, more than 40 per
cent of the women workers are in casual employment while
more than 53 per cent have been engaged in
self-employment.
Among urban males, an early drop-out from education
means pursuing casual wage employment, as in this age
bracket almost 35 per cent are engaged in such
employment. With an increase in age, the regular wage
share rises from 32 per cent in the 15-19 age group to 44
and 49 per cent in the other two age groups, respectively. On
the other hand, among urban females, an early drop out from
education means a higher rate of self-employment, while
those who complete higher levels of education tend to get
regular wage employment. This category comprises almost
half of the workers in the age brackets from 20-24 and 25-29.
The quality of employment in the organised sector is
generally high though the scope of additional employment
generation in this sector is rather limited. A Significant
employment generation is taking place in tertiary sector,
particularly, in service industries. Self-employment and
small business continues to play a vital role in this regard,
especially for youth. It is, therefore, necessary to promote
main employment generation activities like (a) agriculture,
(b) labour intensive manufacturing sector such as food
processing, leather products, textiles (c) services sectors:
trade, restaurants and hotels, tourism, construction and
information technology and (d) small and medium
enterprises. To develop efficient and fair labour markets for
workers belonging to both the organised and the
unorganised sector.

Reasons for Youth Unemployment


Shortage of Jobs

According to various estimates, productivity during the


period from 2004 to 2010 grew 34 per cent. Indias
economic growth was thus more due to productivity than
employment. In the wake of the limited creation of additional
jobs, workers, especially youth, found themselves without
jobs. The prevailing situation forced them either to opt for
unskilled or casual work in the informal sector or to enrol for
further studies. Many who could not afford to go for further
education opted for self-employment with extremely low

49

returns. The large number of self-employed or, for that


matter, casual workers is an instance of self-exploitation
since such workers are without any effective protection.
Employability

In order to take full advantage of the demographic dividend,


it is imperative for India to transform its labour force into an
asset. As of now, only 5 per cent of the workforce has
undergone any kind of vocational training, but even many of
those are not employable, since the skills acquired have
limited market application. Furthermore, Indias education
system is primarily of a generalist nature and is not
connected to the labour market. According to the figures of
the NASSCOM, almost 40 per cent of the skilled workforce
is not employable because the acquired education and
training are of substandard quality.

Skills Mismatch

India is generally seen as a labour surplus economy with a


majority of workers having limited or negligible marketable
skills. Furthermore, on examining the situation more closely
one finds that India has a lopsided skills stock. On the one
hand, a large section of the workforce are not able to get
even minimum wages, as made mandatory by the
government; on the other hand, there are a few people with
marketable skills who are able to demand higher rewards.
Recently, there has been increased activity in the acquiring
of skills, especially in the information and communication
technology. However, this has resulted in an imbalance,
creating surplus in some skills and shortages in others.

Women Security and Social Restrictions

The opening up of the Indian economy has created


increased employment opportunities for female workers,
particularly in IT, retail, travel and tourism. Their full
engagement, however, remains restricted due to problems
of personal security, biased attitudes of co-workers and
social customs. Faced with ineffective protection, young
female workers either select jobs for security considerations
or prolong their education.

Policy Initiatives for Generating Employment for Young


People

In recognition of the importance of the youth employment


challenge in India, the Prime Minister, Manmohan Singh,
stated at the 44th Indian Labour Conference in February
2012, Youth employment is a high-priority agenda item for
our government. This can happen only if we equip our
young people with skills that are required to meet the
demands of our rapidly growing economy.
(Source: ILO March 2013)

50

RURAL DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2013

Enhancing Skills for Faster Generation of Employment

A National Policy on Skill Development has been formulated


by the Ministry of Labour and Employment of the
Government of India to create a workforce empowered with
improved skills, knowledge and internationally recognised
qualifications to gain access to decent employment and
ensure Indias competitiveness in the dynamic global labour
market. This policy initiative will specially benefit young
aspirants of job as they enter the labour market in the
country. The salient features of the policy are:

Expansion of outreach using established as well as


innovative approaches;
National Vocational Qualifications Framework which will
interalia include opportunities for horizontal and vertical
mobility between general and technical education,
recognition and certification of competencies irrespective of
mode of learning;
System to deliver competencies in line with nationally and
internationally recognised standards;
Focus on new emerging occupations;

Focus on pre-employment trainings and life-long learning;

Stress on research, planning and monitoring; and


Involvement of social partners responsibility for
management and financing of the system would be shared
with all.
The Eleventh Five Year Plan of India had favoured the
creation of a comprehensive National Skill Development
Mission. As a result, a three-tier system to coordinate action
on skill development was created in early 2008. It consisted
of the following:

Prime Ministers National Council,


National Skill Development Coordination Board
(NSDCB), and
National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC).

The Ministry of Labour and Employment has launched the


Skill Development Initiative (SDI) in 2007 to address the
need of the following target group with a minimum age limit
of 14 years, thus covering the adolescents and youth:

Young workers seeking formal certication of their


skills acquired informally;
Early school drop-outs and unemployed youth;
Young workers and those youth who had passed out
from technical institutes but seeking skill
up-gradation; and
Children freed from child labour and their family
members.

In an initiative of the new Central Government, the portfolio


of skill development has been given to the Ministry of Youth
and Sports. Thus in development of skills, the focus will shift
to youth.

Employment Generation Programmes

Equity consideration adequate participation of women,


disabled persons and disadvantaged groups including
economically backward & minorities enhancing their
access to training; improving employability and increasing
employment opportunities;

Demand driven system guided by labour market signals


thereby reducing skills mismatch;

Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee


Act (MGNREGA);
National Rural Livelihood Mission (NRLM);
Swarna Jayanti Shahari Rozgar Yojana (SJSRY) Urban
Employment Scheme;
Prime Ministers Employment Generation Programme
(PMEGP); and
The MGNREGA provides for 100 days of unskilled manual
labour per year on public works projects for any rural
household member who wants such work at the stipulated
minimum wage rate. The NRLM has broadly adopted
objectives such as universal social mobilisation, formation
of peoples institutions, universal financial inclusion, training
and capacity building, enhanced package of economic
assistance for setting up of micro enterprises and larger role
for the Self Help Groups (SHGs) level. It is primarily
designed to promote self-employment income-generating
activities for those belonging to below poverty line families in
the rural areas. Young people are the key beneficiaries of
this programme.
(Sources: ILO March 2013; Singhal; Sinha March 2013)

Indonesia
Youth Unemployment Facts And Features

Indonesia is not only ranked in the top four for the population
but also the highest in youth (15-24 years) unemployment
rate for the Asia Pacific region. Tge Ministry of Education
and National Development Planning Board (BAPPENAS)
recorded the unemployment rate of Indonesian youth
between 15-29 years of age as 19.9 percent. The
corresponding figures for other high youth unemployment
countries in the region were: Sri Lankas 17.9 percent and
the Philippines 16.2 percent.

CHAPTER-2

The Population and Family Planning Bureau (BKKBN) said


that young people in Indonesia have difficulties in finding a
job which is almost five times greater than adult workers.
The ILO estimates confirmed this. It said that while globally,
youth unemployment is 2.8 times higher than the adult
population, in Indonesia it is 4.6 times greater. However, the
International Labour Organisation (ILO) said that the figure
is expected to be much higher than 2.8 in many countries,
globally. Overall, in Indonesia, young people constitute
71.3% of the total unemployed population of the country.
Young people are not able to fully access employment
opportunities as they do not possess the requisite skills,
training, and experience. This assessment was also
expressed by Tamar Manuelyan Atinc, Vice President for
Human Development at the World Bank, who said that
Ensuring there is a skilled workforce that can deliver and be
productive is just as important. She was of the view that
Indonesia had wealth in terms of this very young population
and if used wisely, they can become productive individuals.
Mindset and culture prevented young people from taking to
entrepreneurship, thus swelling the ranks of unemployed
youth. Expressing this view, Fasli Jalal, Deputy Education
Minister, said, Historically, people were trained to be
servants of colonial powers, and later civil servants of their
government. Parents who still have that mentality would
keep pushing their kids in that direction. A similar view was
expressed by Atinc, An image of a job is probably sitting in
an office and doing work, as opposed to doing
entrepreneurship. Atinc further said, Increasing the
number of entrepreneurs in Indonesia has been a goal of
the government. Possible reasons for a lack of
entrepreneurial spirit include educated youth aspiring to be
salaried employees, difficulty in accessing financing, a lack
of business skill and confusing regulations.
High unemployment is also due to the low level of education
as well as poverty. For the poor in Indonesia the figure was
12.5 percent, or about 30 million inhabitants. They tend to
have many children although they are not in a position to
meet the cost of their education. As a result, children of
school-going age (7-12 years) would be asked by their
parents to start earning money. For example, some children
who were not allowed to go to school, came from families who
earned their livelihood by fishing. Thus more young people
are involved in informal employment, without any benefits.
According to Wendy Hartanto, Population Control Deputy
of BKKBN, The period time of education for Indonesia
population is only about 5.8 years, which indicates that
there are still many who do not complete primary school.
Indonesia has still many children of school age who are not

51

in school, especially in remote areas. This situation would


create a structural poverty, other than that they tend to
have more children. So, he said, education for their
children is not guaranteed and planned. But for those who
drop out of school, it is difficult to get a job that can improve
their welfare.

In Indonesia, each year a new labour force of 900,000 is


added, majority of them having only primary and secondary
school education. In 2010 there were approximately 2.1
million students out of elementary and junior high schools,
while 300,000 of them could not continue their education
because of constrained costs.
Rates of open unemployment of youth decreased, except in
the 15-19 year age group since 2009 until 2011. However,
more than 5.16 million are still unemployed (14,35%
unemployment rate).
Unemployment rates based on education decreased in all
levels, except for elementary graduation.
In urban settings, the number of youth unemployment is
higher in all ages. Also, youth male labour force is slightly
higher than youth female labour force.
The proportion of youth working in the informal sector is
higher than those that work in the formal sector.
Most youth have an occupation as industrial and agriculture
workers, including trade and manufacturing sectors.

Policies and Strategies

In order to address the challenges of youth unemployment,


the Government of Indonesia has put in several measures.
The key strategy is to set up an integrated national action
plan that will bring together policies and programmes
related to employability, entrepreneurship, employment
creation, and equal opportunities. These programmes will
principally aim to:
Employ and utilise youth optimally and humanly;

Accomplish an even distribution of youth employment


creation;

Provide labour protection for youth; and

Increase the welfare of youth labour.

Employment- related policies will have three major


elements:

Preparing young people for work;


Overcoming the problem of youth labour surplus,
unemployment, and underemployment through macro,
regional, sector, and special policies; and

52

RURAL DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2013

programme meand institutional management for promoting


function and performance of training productivity institution;

Development of labour quality and productivity policy

Expanding
employment
creation
through
labour-intensive or self-employed programmes, small
and medium enterprises, and cooperatives.

Developing work competency of youth in order to


increase capability and productivity.

Labour protection policy

Creating a peaceful and harmonious industrial relation


between employers and youth employees and better
working conditions, welfares, and social security
systems for the youth employees.

Indonesian Youth Employment Network

With the support from the ILO the government has


established the Indonesia Youth Employment Network
(IYEN), involving senior policy-makers from different
government agencies, the private sector and civil society.
The functioning of the IYEN will be coordinated by the
Minister for Economic and the National Development Plan
Board (BAPPENAS) and involve related ministries, private
sector representatives, civil society and youth organisations
to develop an employment action plan. Four pillars of the
IYEN policy to reduce youth unemployment are:

Preparing young people to work;

Creating quality jobs for young people;

Developing entrepreneurship among young people;


and

Strengthen regulation in training and productivity through


policy and regulation adjustment in national and
province/regency/municipality levels in an effort to improve
manpower quality and productivity;
Strengthen infrastructure training and productivity through
institutional performance development;
Strengthen training and productivity systems and methods
through standard, norm, guideline, criteria, and procedure
development to improve efficiency and quality of training
and productivity;
Revitalise vocational training and productivity institution
through facility and infrastructure, quality, of instructor,

Capacity building for youth including vulnerable groups,


through:

Applying equal opportunity (gender equality) in doing


business.

Develop individual, social and professional competency;

The Ministry of Manpower and Transmigration data that


show there are 237 BLK belonging to provincial
governments currently in operation. They comprise 195
vocational training centres focusing on industry, 18 focusing
on manpower and 24 focusing on productivity development.
The Ministry itself is running 18 BLK, while 58 centres have
yet to start operations because of a lack of equipment.

Youth Empowerment and Entrepreneurship Training

Youth Training Strategies

In collaboration with BAPPENAS, the Ministry of Manpower


and Transmigration has undertaken the task to revitalise
313 vocational training centres (BLK) across Indonesia.
Muhaimin Iskandar, Minister for Manpower and
Transmigration, said the plan would play a strategic role in
increasing the competency of future workers. However,
BLK revitalisation will need a big amount of funds, which
cannot be accomplished merely by depending on the state
budget for manpower functions, he said. The programme
requires coordination with several ministries and
government institutions to succeed as well as support from
industry players and international institutions. In the future,
we hope there will be many more companies or industries
that accept BLK graduates as their employees; and

Business Management Training (business planning,


finance administration, marketing, taxing, life skill,
etc.),

Technical skilled training, and

Mentoring/Assistance.

Labour intensive programme;

Appropriate technology programmes;

Empowerment of Independent Labour (TKM);

Independent and Professional Young Labour (TKPMP);

Subsidy programmes;

Bachelor Labour Volunteers (TKS); and

Exchange of young volunteers across and states.


(Sources: Indonesian Ministry of Manpower and
Transmigration May 2013; Jakarta Globe; the Presidents
Post, Indonesia April 2012)

CHAPTER-2

Iran

rates globally, but in Iran they are six times as high for men
and eight times as high for women.

Youth Unemployment

53

While the stated aim of the sanctions is to target specific


individuals and companies related to Irans military and
nuclear industries, as they prolong the recession their
impact will be felt much more widely. One particular group,
the youth, stands to lose the most. The employment norms
in Iran are such that women and youth receive the lowest
priority in hiring and highest priority in layoffs. The Table
shows the striking difference between youth and adult
unemployment rates and between young men and women.
Youth unemployment rates are about twice as high as adult

The unemployment rate for young men and women (15-29


years old) in 2008 rose by nearly 5 and 9 percentage points,
respectively, while unemployment for older workers (30-64)
rose by only 0.5 and 1.0 percentage points. The latest
official data from Irans Statistical Centre (based on their
labour force survey) confirms the rising trend of youth
unemployment into the first quarter of 1389 (spring 2010):
the rate was up by 2.8 percentage points for men and 15.3
percentage points for women compared to spring 2009.

Table 21: Youth and Adult Unemployment Rates by Gender in Iran


Age group

Men

Women

15 29 years

30 64 years

15 29 years

2007

20.9

3.5

36.1

4.4

2008

25.6

4.0

45.2

5.4

In the past, unemployment rates had steadily increased for


Irans youth, not because of a stagnant economy, but
because of the unusually large cohorts born in the 1980s
that Irans test-based education system could not properly
educate, and that its rigid labour markets could not absorb
(Salehi-Isfahani and Egel 2010). In fact, during 1996-2006,
when, thanks to the oil boom, the economy grew at a robust
rate of 5 per cent per year and was able to add nearly 6
million jobs, adult unemployment rates remained steady
while youth rates increased dramatically. Nearly 80 per cent
of the increase in unemployment during this period is due to
higher youth unemployment. If youth bore the brunt of rising
unemployment during a period when the economy was
doing relatively well, they will certainly do so while it remains
in recession.
So far Iranian youth have waited, if not always patiently, for
their turn to enjoy the opportunities that the country offers its
adult citizens regular jobs, marriage, and homes of their
own. What will Iranian youth do if sanctions prolong the
recession and they find out that they have to wait even
longer? Most youth, especially women, who today marry
much later than their mothers, use the time to climb the
education ladder. They now outnumber men in universities.
Universities have expanded significantly, offering twice as
many spots to high school graduates as they did five years
ago. But only one-third of these spots are in the coveted free
public universities. Another one-third of the places are in
private universities that the average family cannot afford,
and the rest are in low-quality diploma mills.

30 64 years

However, because the increase in education is


supply-driven and is not in response to greater demand from
employers, the recent impressive expansion of higher
education has simply raised the unemployment rates of
university graduates to about the same level as high school
graduates. As a result, the fastest-growing industry in Iran is
the production of Masters degrees. In 2010, the number of
students taking the central examinations for Masters level
studies reached about one million, almost as many as the
1.2 million who had competed to enter college.
(Source: Salehi-Isfahani August 2010; McCann January 2014;
Salehi-Isfahani September 2010; Akademisi 2012)

Youth unemployment could be as high as 40 per cent and


Iran has one of the worlds highest brain drain rates.
(Source: Kashan June 2013)

Youth unemployment in Iran is more than double the


national level and now reaching the crisis point, the head of
the regimes Statistics Centre has admitted.
The unemployment rate for those aged between 15 and 24
is now at almost 26 per cent, compared to 12.2 per cent
across the whole population, Adel Azar said.
He confessed: When the youth unemployment rate is twice
the countrys total rate of unemployment, it means we have
reached an unemployment crisis point.
Based on reports, the highest rate of youth unemployment
is 50 per cent in the province of Lorestan.

54

RURAL DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2013

According to the state-run Mehr news agency, the status of


womens unemployment is also becoming critical, and has
soared to up to 50 per cent in some cities.
Although Tehran is the countrys administrative and
industrial center, women in the province still do not get
enough opportunities to enter the labor market. The average
official unemployment rate for women in Tehran is 21.6 per
cent, though the true figure is believed to be much higher.
(Source: Foreign affairs Committee of the National Council of Resistance

The Social Impact of Youth Unemployment

The youth unemployment does entail social impact on


national development and society as a whole.
It is a cause of many social evils such as drug addiction,
robbery and other illegal activities. Young people are easily
becoming victims of human trafficking.

Lao Government Policy on Labour

Provide youth with vocational training course and find jobs for them;

Upgrade the labour skill development and working style;

Lao PDR

Pay attention to labour law implementation inspection; and

Youth and Employment The Present Scenario

Manage Lao and foreign labour in an improved manner.

of Iran, October 2013)

The Lao PDR is a least developed country with a population


of about 5,6 million, of which 1,9 million are young. This has
provided the Lao Government with both opportunities and
challenges in its national development.
On the one hand, 1,9 million young people can be of great
labour force for economic growth. On the other hand, this
can also pose a great challenge for the government in
providing full and effective employment to them. Over the
past years, the Lao Government has exerted its effort to
create and enabling environment for investment through
the improvement of the legal framework and investment
incentives that would create job opportunities for Lao
young people.
To date, this has not yet been a comprehensive study on
youth unemployment in the Lao PDR. However, recently
there has been an issue of migration that is directly
associated with youth seasoning unemployment.
The statistics have shown that the number of migrant
workers moving from rural areas to the city, particularly to
Vientiane City, has increased rapidly reaching 72.800
people of which 54% migrating from the North, 29% from the
central and 17% from the southern part of the Lao PDR.
Furthermore, the report on migrant workers from Lao PDR
to the neighbouring countries has shown that most of these
migrant workers are young. The lack of permanent job after
harvesting season and the misperception about job
opportunities elsewhere have lured many young boys and
girls, particularly in the rural and remote area to migrate to
urban areas. This still remains an issue to be addressed.
According to the National Census in 2005 there were
37.820 unemployed people which covered 1.4 % of total
workforce of 2.776.712 people.

The Role of the Lao Youth Union

The Lao Youth Union is a mass organisation at central level,


under the direct leadership of the party and Central Youth
Executive Committee, its functions are leading, educating
and developing young people to make them become good
citizens, The Union is also responsible for leading young
pioneers and juvenile organisations.

Lao Youth Union Plan on Solving Unemployment Issue

Providing unemployed youth with vocational training


courses. To date, there are 15 vocational training Centers
across the country.
Sending young labours to work abroad in collaboration with
the Ministry of Labor and Social welfare.
Setting up youth funds to help young poor people to be able
to create jobs by themselves especially in the field of
agriculture.
Collecting information on the cause of unemployment
among young people and cooperating with local
administration to help them solve their own problems.
Cooperating with international organisations and NGOs
such as UN Aids, UNDP, UNFPA, Erickjapen, Oxfam, the
JapanLao Friendship Association and others in addressing
negative impact of unemployment by organising workshops
or implementing joint projects.
(Source: Lao Peoples Democratic Republic, Country Report on Youth
Unemployment Issue in Lao PDR)

55

CHAPTER-2

Malaysia
Employment
In the year of 2010, the total number of labour force in
Malaysia was 11,517.200. Out of the total, 996.6% or
11,139,400 labour force has been utilized. In the previous
year, the total number of labour force was 11,615,600
wherein 96.3% or 10,897,300 were utilised. The
unemployment rate in 2009 was 3.7% or 418,000.

Malaysias youth labour force has steadily increased from


7,114,600 in 2007 to 7,978,700 in the year of 2010. Out of
that number, a total of 6,874,400 youth were employed in
2007, also increasing each year towards 2010, with the final
tally of 7,640,000.

Table 22: Youth Employment Summary of Statistics of Malaysia, 2007 2011

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

Labour force (000)*

7,114.6

7,287.4

7,141.6

7,875.1

7,978.7

Male

4,339.6

4,505.2

4,554.3

4,854.0

4,879.8

Female

2,775.0

2,782.2

2,587.3

3,021.1

3,098.9

Employed (000)

6,874.4

6,961.5

7,051.0

7,528.4

7,640.0

Male

4,248.7

4,315.9

4,337.8

4,646.0

4,680.0

Female

2,625.7

2,645.6

2,713.2

2,882.4

2,960.0

Unemployed rate (%)

4.5

4.5

4.9

4.4

4.2

Male

4.3

4.2

4.8

4.3

4.1

Female

4.7

4.9

5.0

4.6

4.5

The labour force refers to youth between the ages of 15 to 40 years only.

(Source: Department of Statistics, Malaysia)

According to the 2011 Labour Force Survey by the


Department of Statistics Malaysia, 62% or 7,151,700 of the
total labour force in Malaysia comprises of youth.

The table also shows the youth unemployment rate in


Malaysia, which stood at 4.5% in the year 2007 and 2008,
increased slightly to 4.9% in 2009 and came down in the
years 2010 and 2011 to 4.4% and 4.2% respectively.

Table 23: Malaysias Youth Workforce by Age Group, Strata and Gender, 2011 (000)
Total

Urban

Rural

Age
group

Total

Male

Female

Total

Male

Female

Total

Male

Female

15-19

402.9

265.0

137.9

235.5

144.6

90.9

167.4

120.4

47.0

20-24

1,414.9

854.8

560.1

941.7

532.1

409.6

473.1

322.7

150.5

25-29

1,925.0

1,139.5

785.5

1,330.5

754.1

576.4

594.5

385.4

209.1

30-34

1,823.5

1,112.7

710.8

1,305.1

766.8

538.3

518.4

345.9

172.6

35-39

1,681.5

1,049.9

631.6

1,190.2

712.7

477.5

491.4

337.3

154.1

40

392.2

258.1

134.1

271.0

174.6

96.4

121.2

83.5

37.0

Total

7,640.0

4,680.0

2,960.0

5,274.0

3,084.9

2,189.1

2,366.0

1,595.1

770.9

56

RURAL DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2013

Box 7: Excerpts from 10th Malaysia Plan 2011 15

Youth participation is a critical driver of the nations growth as a key source of capable talent to support the human capital needs of the economy.
The youth population comprises those in the 15-40 age group, which has grown from 11.1 million in 2005 to 11.9 million in 2009 constituting 41.5%
of the population. In 2009, the number of youth employed stood at 7.1 million.

Youth unemployment increased from 10.5% to 10.9% between 2001 and 2008, accounting for 62.0% of total unemployment in 2008. The
employment-to-population ratio of youth aged 15-24 reduced from 42.7% in 2001 to 36.7% in 2008. This may indicate that a larger proportion of
youth choosing to further their studies, particularly as the number of the young labour force (aged 25-29 years) whohave completed tertiary
education also increased from 333,800 in 2001 to 571,600 in 2008.

To improve the employability of youth, more balance will be sought in developing both technical as well as soft skills. The National Youth Skills
Institute (IKBN), which offers skills courses that have high market demand, will be expanded to provide greater options for youth in various fields
of study. The courses offered will be fully accredited under the Malaysian Skills Certificate. IKBN will also provide soft skills training such as
leadership courses to its students. Greater exposure to capital-intensive sports such as golf and motorsports, will be provided through courses by
IKBN with the objective of enhancing youth participation in potentially lucrative sports sectors.

Entrepreneurship training and awareness programmes will be expanded through various institutions including the Malaysia Youth Development
Academy, INSKEN and MARA. Leadership skills, particularly among youth leaders, will be strengthened through internship programmes at
government departments, companies and NGOs for up to one year.

Box 8: Young Entrepreneur Society (YES), Malaysia


The Young Entrepreneur Society (YES), Malaysia is a non-profit subsidised entity that organise regular monthly meetings and activities that aim
to help entrepreneurs to grow, connect, share, learn and exchange ideas with each other.
Mission
Achieve 5000 members by year 2020.
Description
What YES can do for you and your business:

Sharing of different successful business models by experienced entrepreneurs;

Mentoring by successful entrepreneurs; and

Providing a network of local and international entrepreneurs.

forced to take on temporary, part-time, casual and insecure


jobs with poor and hazardous working conditions and few
legal provisions for their protection. Young women frequently
experience gender discrimination in the workplace, are often
not allowed to work, or are forced into subsistence activities.
Young people who enter the labour market with
underdeveloped skills, limited or no education, and limited job
prospects are most at risk of underemployment throughout
their working lives.

Nepal
Youth Unemployment The Present Scenario

Due to backward economy, the country is reeling under the


problem of unemployment. While twenty per cent of the
population is between the ages of 15-30 years, but with
theastronomical percentage of unemployment, a very large
part of this population is left out of the mainstream.
According to figures, there are 1.5 million youth in the
country who are totally unemployed. This is a big number
and in the absence of economic growth and the failure of the
State to chalk out proper strategies to provide jobs, the
problem is already assuming serious proportions and will
become more acute in the coming years.
While youth unemployment is a problem, underemployment
may be an even bigger issue, especially in the informal sector
in rural areas where the families depend on farming. Like in
some other parts of the world, Nepalese youth are often

The immediate problems driving youth underemployment in


Nepal are families poverty, hunger, and deprivation. As a
result, people have to start working at an early age rather
than using their time to develop human capital. This problem
is more prevalent among disadvantaged and discriminated
communities.
Every year between 300,000 to 350,000 Nepalese youth
enter the job market. Only ten per cent of them are absorbed
in the domestic market. More than 100,000 of these leave

CHAPTER-2

the country in search of jobs and the rest remains in the


country, still looking for jobs.

The economy is not capable of creating productive


employment for all those entering the labour market. The
education system remains static with a huge discrepancy
between market trends and prospects and actual supply.
Nepali youth face two interrelated problems: lack of access
to relevant education and training, and lack of information
on job prospects. Educational and training institutions lack a
career guidance and counselling system that could help
youth to select prospective careers.
Since 1996, the country has been facing insurgency and
terrorism problems. This added another dimension to the
problem of unemployment as insurgents find easy recruits
among unemployed and disoriented youth, particularly from
rural areas. Among the various factors Maoists have
advanced their cause due to rampant unemployment in the
country. The conflict devastated traditional systems that
ensured young people had several livelihoods options.
Youth from conflict areas did not have opportunities for
relevant education and training, and their mobility to obtain
employment elsewhere was also limited.
Other factors that have contributed to unemployment
problem among young people are the prevalent social
norms and traditional values that are part of the present
education system. Once they receive education, youth shy
away from working in farms or engaging in menial jobs even
if they remain unemployed for a long period.
Structural transition away from agriculture towards the
industrial sector has been slow; the contribution of
manufacturing to GDP has declined continuously for more
than a decade, reflecting limited employment opportunities.
Enormous inequalities exist among workers across sectors,
geographic locations, and gender. Employment
opportunities are mainly centred in urban areas, where only
a fifth of Nepals youth live.
The private sector remains the single largest employer.
However, it has not exhibited the capacity, dynamism and
skills needed to accelerate growth. It also faces a large
number of problems including an unfavourable investment
climate, weak regulations, lack of incentives, growing labour
militancy, ineffectual rule of law and, most prominently, a
poor political environment and a long transition period to
peace leading to uncertainty.
Apart from traditional job, new sectors like information
technology offers jobs to relatively educated urban and semi
urban youth in jobs like medical transcription, call centres,
and so on. The country does have scopes to absorb its
unemployed mass. In fact, it has to start pushing its

57

development projects and rope in such youth to steal the


steam from the currently raging insurgency as well. As the
country stands at the crossroads of development,
addressing the problem of unemployment would solve a lot
of its problems including poverty alleviation.
Youth Employment Way Forward

Tourism could provide jobs to hundreds of thousands of youth


if it takes off. Once the situation of insecurity is overcome, the
tourism holds enormous potential for youth employment.
So is the case with agriculture. Due to variety of climate and
geography, Nepal has some of the best places for fruit and
vegetable plantation that can be exported outside the
country. Therefore, there should be greater focus on rural
and agro-industry, by providing entrepreneurship and other
vocational training, in order to enhance employment.
The youth should be encouraged to engage in
employment in the agriculture sector by providing, among
other things, agricultural inputs and seeds, and loans as
required for the sector.
As the country is vastly under developed, development
projects like road construction, irrigation, hydropower and
communication will also be able to provide jobs to hundreds
of thousands of people.
For the development of professionalism and
entrepreneurship and generation of employment for youth,
steps may be taken to establish and develop financial
institutions, as required. In order to develop
entrepreneurship on the youth who have technical
knowledge and skills, programmes shall be launched to
provide youth friendly loans and seed money on the basis of
appropriate documentation.
Young people should be encouraged to establish
cooperatives in rural and urban areas for economic and
social transformation.
The youth employment programme should be extended to
the local level in a coordinated manner by establishing
youth employment promotion centres.
The motivation of youth to take up traditional professions
(arts and crafts) should be enhanced by introducing more
modern techniques. Appropriate environment should be
created for effective market management. Young people
who excel in these traditional crafts should be honoured and
given other incentives.
(Sources: National Planning Commission (NPC) and Employment
Promotion Commission (EPC), Country Report on Nepal; British
Council, Youth Survey of Nepal; Ministry of Health and Population,
Government of Nepal,Nepal Adolescents and Youth Survey 2010-11)

58

RURAL DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2013

Pakistan

Youth Employment The Present Scenario

A range of economic and political factors have negatively


impacted the Pakistan economy in recent years, including
persistent inflation driven by high oil prices, unreliable
supply of energy, low levels of investment and a
deteriorating security situation in parts of the country. In
addition, Pakistan has been buffeted by a series of natural
disasters, such as the flooding of 2010 and 2011.
Consequently, employment growth has not been strong,
with the majority of workers still in informal employment.
Structural transformation in terms of an increasing share
of workers in industry and services has stalled, with a
higher proportion of workers in the agricultural sector
than a decade earlier. Specific challenges persist for
women, who face considerable disparities in accessing
the labour market, though the gender gap in employment
is slowly decreasing.
Despite the continuing challenges, the political situation has
improved in the aftermath of the federal and provincial
elections held in May 2013, which has led to a more stable
outcome than expected. Indeed, the election marked the
first democratic handover in Pakistans history and may
stimulate more effective governance and policy-making in
the coming years, which, in turn, should encourage
investment and job creation.
Reflecting various complex economic and social
dimensions, the labour force participation rate in Pakistan,
notably for women, is low. Though the female labour force
participation rate has increased in recent years, converging
with the South Asian average, it ranked tenth lowest out of
189 countries in the world. The recent rise in the rate for
women has been driven by increasing employment, while
unemployment (also a component of the labour force) has
actually fallen. During this period, the labour force
participation rate for men decreased slightly, mostly driven
by an increase in education enrolment, while the male
unemployment rate fell from 6.2 per cent in 2003-04 to 4.0
per cent in 2007-08 before rising to 4.8 per cent in 2010-11.
In addition, unemployment for young people remains a
prominent concern despite some recent progress. The
youth unemployment rate has fluctuated from 11.7 per cent
in 2003-04 to 7.7 per cent in 2007-08 to 10.3 in 2010-11.
The rate for young women was 4.0 percentage points higher
than for young men. Youth in Pakistan face various
disadvantages including limited job search expertise, a
mismatch between education, aspirations and employers
requirements, and a lack of mobility, among other factors.

Beyond looking at trends in labour force participation rates,


there are different indicators of the quality of employment in
Pakistan, which all reveal the persistence of major decent
work deficits, notably for women. Firstly, agriculture
accounted for 3 in 4 jobs for women, but only around 1 in 3
jobs for men in 2010-11. Working conditions in agriculture
often lag behind other sectors partly due to lower
productivity levels. Agricultural productivity in 2010-11, for
example, was 28 times lower than levels in the mining
sector, around 8 times lower than the electricity and gas
sector and 5 times lower than the finance sector. Greater
investments in agriculture could help boost aggregate
labour productivity in Pakistan, which was fifth lowest in a
comparable sample of 19 Asia-Pacific economies in 2012,
and improve job quality overall.
Secondly, the share of women in vulnerable employment
(own-account workers plus unpaid family workers)
increased from 66.7 per cent in 1999-00 to 78.3 per cent in
2010-11, while the comparable rate for men declined from
62.5 per cent to 57.0 per cent during the same period. Many
of these vulnerable workers are informally employed
Thirdly, rather than a problem of time-related
underemployment, many men in Pakistan toil in jobs
involving excessive hours of work. In 2010-11, 47.2 per cent
of men worked 50 hours or more per week. In comparison,
women were more likely to be underemployed. In the same
year, 31.1 per cent of women worked 29 hours or less,
though this includes individuals who did not seek to work
more hours.
(Source: ILO Country Office for Pakistan, Update, September 2013)

Around the world governments and businesses face


problems as high levels of youth unemployment and
shortage of job seekers with critical skills, whereas such
challenges are much higher in developing countries
including Pakistan. This was the crux of the annual
conference 2013 Education to Employment: bridging the
gaps organised by the Association of Chartered Certified
Accounts (ACCA) Pakistan. Speakers on this occasion
said that high level of youth unemployment and a
shortage of job seekers are big challenges which led to
some pressing questions such as how a country like
Pakistan can successfully move its young people from
education to employment.
Engineer Imtiaz Hussain Gillani, Acting Chairperson, Higher
Education Commission (HEC), stressed the importance of
stronger links between academia and employers and said
that like other nations, Pakistan must begin to have the
debate about the importance of teaching financial literacy

CHAPTER-2

which enabled young people to understand even the basics


of income and expenditure, of profit and loss, of keeping
accounts and should ensure that young people even at
village level have the necessary skills to manage their small
and micro business affairs.

Arif Masud Mirza, Head of ACCA, Pakistan, highlighted that


Pakistan was one of the few countries in the world with the
trend of full-time student. He said it meant that the burden
on academia to bridge the gap between education and
employment was high. Kabeer Naqvi, Chief Financial
Officer, Tameer Micro Finance Bank Ltd, said it was age of
digital natives and for everyone the transformation to
e-learning was inherent. This means that the product will
need to match the needs of todays learners to be able to
have the desired impact, he maintained.
According to a report Education to employment; design a
system that works presented on the occasion, 75 million
youth are unemployed while half of youth are not sure that
their post-secondary education has improved their chances
of finding a job. Almost 40 per cent of the employers say a
lack of skills is the main reason for entry-level vacancies, it
maintained. It further stated that employees, education
providers and youth lived in parallel universes. To put it
another way they have fundamentally different
understandings of the same situation. Fewer than half of
youth and employees for example believe that new
graduates are adequately prepared for entry-level positions.
The report further maintained that one third of the employers
say they never communicate with education providers of
those that do fewer than half say it proved effective.
Meanwhile, more than a third of education providers report
that they are unable to estimate the job-placement rates of
their graduates. Of those who say they can 20 per cent
overestimated this rate compared with what was reported by
youth themselves. Nor are youth any better informed fewer
than half say that when they chose what to study they had a
good understanding of which disciplines lead to professions
with job openings and good wage levels.
(Source: Amin November 21, 2013)

Some Key Youth-related Employment Programmes


National Internship Programme (NIP)

The programme is designed for the benefit of young


unemployed postgraduates and graduates all over the
country, who have completed sixteen years of education
from recognised universities or degree awarding
institutions. The internees are given assignments in the
ministries, divisions, attached departments, autonomous
bodies, corporations of the federal government and

59

provincial/district governments, on full-time basis,


conveniently located near to their hometown. The duration
of internship is one year. The interns are entitled to a
monthly stipend of Rs. 10,000/- during the internship. NIP is
working under the Ministry of Education and Training. Under
the programme, internships have been awarded to 96,000
fresh graduates so far.
National Training Bureau (NTB)

NTB is now the part of Ministry of Education and Training


with primary objective to balance the demand and supply of
trained manpower and to promote employment position.
Vocational training seeks to assist young people in choosing
a particular vocation and preparing them for it. It provides an
opportunity to them to develop their talents and skills and
instil in them a sense of confidence, self reliance and social
usefulness. Vocational training in its totality refers to all
formal and non-formal training activities taking place in all
sectors of economy.
The NTB established 20 new Vocational Training Centres,
including five Women Technical Training Centres, across
the country. It also established a National Staff Training
Institute at Islamabad and three Provincial Staff Training
Institutes at Karachi, Quetta and Peshawar. The NTB has
also established five Skill Development Councils, one in
each province and Islamabad and implemented crash
training programmes for overseas employment. It was also
responsible for implementing federal programmes for skill
development trained 230 instructors and 93 managers and
provided equipment to 11 Technical Training Centres in the
country. It developed National Occupational Skill Standards
(NOSSs) in 46 trades, training curricula in 28 trades, trainee
manuals in 22 trades and instructor manuals in 20 trades.

National Vocational and Technical Training Commission


(NAVTTC)

The NAVTTC was established in December 2005 as an


apex body for technical and vocational training and is
working under Ministry of Education and Training. NAVTTC
facilitates, regulates, and provides policy direction for skill
development in Pakistan. Main functions of the NAVTTC are:

National policies, strategies and regulations;

National Qualification Framework (NQF);

Accreditation, certification, skill standards and


curricula;
Performance Evaluation System;
TVET Development
Partnership; and

through

Labour Market Information System.

Public-Private

60

RURAL DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2013

The NAVTTC has evolved a National Skills Strategy in


consultation with all the stakeholders, which provides a
comprehensive action plan for revamping of TVET in the
country. It has also developed national qualifications system
for teachers, code of conduct, accreditation system, skill
standards and curriculum in priority areas. Under the Prime
Ministers Programme of Hunarmand (artesian) 100,042
persons have been trained and under Presidents Funni
Maharat (Technical skills) Programme about 29,000
persons got technical trainings till June, 2012. NAVTTC
plans to train 24,735 students in the upcoming year with
regards to technical education.

Philippines
Youth Employment The Present Scenario

Benazir Income Support Programme (BISP)

The BISP is perhaps the largest pro-poor programme being


implemented in South Asia. It was initiated in 2008, to offset
the impact of inflation amongst the poorest segments of
Pakistani society. A cash grant of Rs. 1,000 each is disbursed
every month to each of the selected BISP beneficiaries. The
programme seeks to provide direct assistance, specifically to
women. The allocation for the financial year 2012-13 is Rs.
70 billion to provide cash assistance to 5.5 million families,
which constitutes almost 18% of the entire population. Thus
the Programme aims at covering almost 40% of the
population below the poverty line.
Besides empowering them economically, the government
aims to gradually provide health insurance, capacity
building and credit facilities to the identified beneficiaries of
this scheme. Under its Wassela-e-Haq initiative,
interest-free loans are provided to selected BISP
beneficiaries for the establishment of small businesses
aimed at generating income for their families. This loan in
the format of a business scheme is handed over to the poor,
and the loan itself would be returnable in 15 years without
any mark-up. This initiative is a good one so that the poor
people do not remain dependent on subsidies forever, and
are instead provided an opportunity to become more
productive.
The BISP is playing a positive role in employment
generation for youth through its programmes of
Waseela-e-Rozgar. Under this programme vocational
training has been imparted to 19,000 youth through public
and private institutions. The BISP targets to impart similar
trainings to 150,000 youth in the upcoming years.
(Source: National Centre for Rural Development, Ministry of Education
and Training, Pakistan October 2012)

In 2006, young workers accounted for an average of 36 per


cent of the total number of employed in the Philippines.
There is a downward trend in the employment rates for both
young and adult workers but youth employment rates have
shown greater volatility across the years. Similar to the trend
in labour force participation, generally, those employed are
predominantly male. The employment rate of young males
averaged 86.3 per cent as against 82.2 per cent for young
females. It is interesting to note that once the young women
reach adulthood, the labour market becomes very
integrative of them. The disparity between male and female
labour participation rates becomes marginal, if not
non-existent altogether, during adulthood.
The distribution of the employed youth across industries
reflects the structure of production and growth of the
economy. The service sector is the biggest absorber of
labour, accounting for almost half of the employed youth in
2006. Agriculture, despite its shrinking share in the
economy, remains a key sector, and employs about a third
of the employed youth. Industry absorbs less than 17 per
cent, not only because of the sectors dismal growth over
the years but also because of the capital-intensive nature of
industrialisation in the Philippines. The bulk of the youth are
labourers and unskilled workers (43.1 per cent).
Young male workers are mostly engaged in
agricultural-related activities where work is typically
seasonal in nature. On the other hand, a large proportion of
females are employed in sales and elementary service
providers that include street hawkers, peddlers, as well as
the small service providers such as beauticians,
laundrywomen and domestic helpers. The increase in the
proportion of permanent jobs held by young people has
been very minimal, declining even, from 1996 to 2004. The
rise in the proportion of short-term employment, in contrast,
has been significant.
In terms of the class of workers, there has been a significant
increase in the proportion of youth in wage employment,
from 54.6 per cent in 1988 to 62.7 per cent in 2006. Those
employed in private establishments, where working terms
and conditions are generally better, have increased. In
contrast, the proportion of own account workers declined. A
more favourable change is observed in the class of unpaid
family workers declining from 24.6 per cent in 1988 to 19.9
per cent in 2006.

CHAPTER-2

The National Statistics Office (NSO) currently defines the


unemployed as those persons who are 15 years old and
over, who actively looked for work but had no job/business.
Also considered as unemployed are persons without a job
or business but who did not, or who are not, looking for work
because of their belief that no work was available or because
of temporary illness/disability, bad weather, pending job
application or awaiting job interview. However, starting in
April 2005, the government adopted a stricter definition of
unemployment by adding the availability criterion, meaning
one must not only be out of work and looking for work;
he/she must express availability if work is available.
The Philippines has a chronic unemployment problem,
which has serious absorption implications on the youth
labour force. In fact, unemployment in the Philippines
generally wears a youthful face, as they comprise nearly
two-thirds of the total unemployed. From only 1.28 million in
1988, the number of young unemployed has doubled to 2.4
million in 2006. In that year, the youth-adult unemployment
ratio was 3.1, which means that young people are three times
more likely to become unemployed compared to adults.

factor. Most of the time, young women are forced to leave


their jobs to attend to traditionally female responsibilities
such as taking care of siblings or sick family members,
giving birth and subsequent child-rearing. Further, young
women, while performing these roles often lose contact of
relevant information networks for effective labour market
integration. (See table above).

Table 24: Unemployment Rates of Pakistan by Age,


Gender and Location (1996 and 2006)
Indicators

1996

2006

Total unemployment rate

12.2

17.0

5 to 19 yrs

13.6

18.2

20 to 24 yrs

15.2

22.6

25 to 30 yrs

8.9

12.0

Male

11.0

15.9

Female

14.5

18.8

Urban

15.6

22.6

Rural .

19.1

13.6

By age

By gender

By location

(Source: Canlas and Pardalis 2007a)

Unemployment prospects across youth groups have


displayed a very clear pattern over the years. Consistently
posting the lowest unemployment rates are the more
mature, more experienced 25 to 30 years old. Teenagers
follow them, albeit at an average gap of 6 percentage points.
Young people aged 2024 posted the highest
unemployment rates across youth groups. Young women
face higher chances of unemployment compared to their
male counterparts. Again, family responsibilities play a key

61

In the 2011 Philippine Labour Force Survey, the results


showed that 1.42 million young people were unemployed
with an unemployment rate of 17.6 per cent which is more
than the national average of 7.4 per cent. For a country with
a rapid population growth rate, the yearly new
entrants-ranging from 800,000 to 900,000 or more annually
to the labour force simply outnumber the jobs available.
Though the economy was said to be growing at 4.4%, the
growth of jobs for the youth only reached 1.6%. Another is
the sluggish growth of the economy, in particular in the
failure of the Philippines to develop an economy with a
strong industrial base and this is reflected in the sectoral
patterns of employment.
A disturbing feature of the youth labour market is the higher
incidence of unemployment among those with higher
educational attainment. In 2006, college graduates posted
an unemployment rate of 22.4 per cent, which means that
one out four finds themselves without work despite having
college diploma. This is disturbing because it implies
wastage of opportunities not only on the individual level, but
also on a macroeconomic perspective. Underutilisation of
college graduates indicates missed opportunities for the
country in the use of better educated human resources, a
crucial asset for economic development
The lack of basic skills of graduates was cited as the top
reason why local occupations are also hard to fill, attributed
to the jobs-skills mismatch in the labour market. This
mismatch in the labour market can also be attributed to the
weakness in labour market information and linkages
between the academe, including technical and vocational
schools, and various industries.
According to the International Labour Organisation (ILO),
unemployment of the educated youth has perverse
outcomes: It contradicts the assumption and the evidence
that higher education and training increase the productivity
and employability of young people; It is wasteful because of
the high cost of the investment in higher education (both
direct and indirect in terms of foregone earnings) and the
zero social returns from unemployed graduates; and the
frustration and resentment of young graduates at being
denied the promised rewards for their effort and sacrifice are
understandably intense.
(Source: ILO 101st Session, 2012)

62

RURAL DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2013

high underemployment rates are located in rural areas.


These jobs are often those in agriculture, fishing, and mining
and quarrying. Workers in the construction sector owe the
severity of their underemployment to the very nature of
construction contracts in the country; in this industry, work is
paid on a daily basis. In such a situation, a worker may work
for only three or so days in a week, thus the natural yearning
to work for more hours.

Underemployment of the Youth

Underemployment is a measure of currently employed


workers yearning for more time to work. Underemployment
of young people in the Philippines tends to be higher than
that of adults (Table 25: Youth underemployment levels and
rates by age, 1996, 2006) and has a rural characteristic
relating to the fact that most occupations that tend to have

Table 25: Youth Underemployment Levels and Rates by Age in Pakistan (1996 and 2006)

1996

Age group

2006

No. (000)

Rate

No. (000)

Famale

15-19

554

20.8

534

19.9

20-24

635

19.0

696

18.8

25-30

879

20.4

1 126

20.6

Total

2068

20.0

2356

19.9

(Source: Canlas and Pardalis 2007b)

Sri Lanka
Youth Employment Facts and Features
The table reveals that, the total number of youth in employment
has reduced during the period of 2000 to 2010 both for males
and females. Similarly compared to 2000, figures for 2010 reveals
that even the percentages of employed youth for both males and
females have also come down. This is worrying trend.

According to the figures given below, the mean age during


engagement of males employment is around 25 and 22 for
females. Most of the persons who went through the formal
education and ended up the university or followed some
professional courses entered the job market between 22 and 25.
Recently the lower limit of the age for people engaged in work
went down to 20 years.

Table 26: Total Youth Engaged in Employment in Sri Lanka


Male

Female

Total number

% of total
male youth

Total number

% of total
female youth

Total

2000

1,252,913

56.32

621,275

28.72

1,874,188

2005

1,244,425

56.60

590,769

26.13

1,835,194

2010

1,060,063

53.65

540,612

24.35

1,600,675

Year

(Source: Department of Census and Statistics, Sri Lanka 2012)

63

CHAPTER-2

Figure 1: Male Youth Engaged in Employment (2000, 2005 and 2010)

Male Population

150000

100000

50000

2000

15

2005

16

2010

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

Age (youth)

(Source: Department of Census and Statistics, Sri Lanka 2012)

Female Population

Figure 2: Female Youth Engaged in Employment (2000, 2005 and 2010)

2000

80000
70000
60000
50000
40000
30000
20000
10000
0

Male
Female
15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29
%of total
%of total
2010
Total
male youth
Total number
female youth
Age (Youth)
Total number
2005

Year

(Source: Department of Census and Statistics, Sri Lanka 2012)

64

RURAL DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2013

Table 27: Youth Wage Employment in Sri Lanka


Year

Number of
male youth

% to the total
male youth

Number of
famale youth

% to the total
famale youth

2000

795,314

35.75

444,051

20.52

2005

876,545

39.86

440,544

19.48

2010

704,222

35.64

394,574

17.77

(% to the
total male youth)

Female

(% to the
total female youth)

(Source: Department of Census and Statistics, Sri Lanka 2012)

Table 28: Youth Non-waged Employment in Sri Lanka


Year

Male

2000

457,599

20.57

177,224

8.19

2005

367,880

16.73

150,225

6.64

2010

355,841

18.01

146,038

6.58

(Source: Department of Census and Statistics, Sri Lanka 2012)

Table 29: Percentage of Waged and Non-waged Youth Employee by Gender in Sri Lanka
Year

Waged employed (%)

Waged employed (%)

Male

Female

Male

Female

2000

63.5

71.5

36.5

28.5

2005

70.4

74.6

29.6

25.4

2010

66.4

73.0

33.6

27.0

(% to the total
male youth)

famale

(% to the total
famale youth)

(Source: Department of Census and Statistics, Sri Lanka 2012)

Table 30: Unemployed Youth Population in Sri Lanka


Year

Male

2000

222,094

9.98

202,813

9.37

2005

205,286

9.34

213,175

9.43

2010

130,765

6.62

146,156

6.58

(Source: Department of Census and Statistics, Sri Lanka 2012)

CHAPTER-2

65

Box 9: Educated and Energetic: Success Story of Wasantha, Sri lanka


Wasantha Liyanage is 35 years old and lives in Ranorawa, a village in the Anuradhapura district in Sri Lanka. After graduating from the Faculty of Social
Sciences, University of Kelaniya, he currently serves as a teacher in a government school close to his home. This allows him to cultivate the family land
which is otherwise not possible since his father was no longer fit for hard work.
Initially, he had cultivated 1.5 acres with vegetables such as tomatoes, brinjals, etc. Plants were irrigated using water from a nearby canal. After a few
seasons of cultivation, he found that it needed more time and effort to succeed in this type of cultivation because he experienced serious crop failure
during the dry periods.
Meanwhile, he accessed information on training in micro-irrigation, conducted in the village by the Agrarian Development Department in collaboration
with private micro irrigation dealers. During training, he learnt about the importance of micro irrigation to protect crops in dry weather and various other
benefits such as saving of labour, time, etc.
He also thought of using micro irrigation systems since water and labour is scarce in the area. He received drip irrigation systems for 0.5 ac at a
subsidiary rate from the project initiated by the government with the aim of subsidized micro irrigation among farmers with small holdings in the country.
He started cultivating papaw with the drip irrigation systems. After some time he increased the area of cultivation by drip irrigation. However, he soon
experienced difficulties in getting sufficient water during dry spells even for drip irrigation since he was cultivating more land. As a solution, he
constructed an agro well in his farm to ensure continuous supply of water for the drip system.
His income increased to Rs.65, 000 per month from the papaw land of 1.5 ac. After a year of cultivation with drip irrigation, he invested about Rs.70,000
from his own savings to purchase drip systems to cover another 1 acre of land. Through regular investments from his earnings, he started irrigating his
entire farm of 4 acres by using drip systems.
In the beginning, Wasantha experienced difficulties in the maintenance and repair of the system such as, clogging of drippers, damages to the drip
tapes by animals, and in finding spare parts. But with time he was able to find solutions with the help of his friends, officers of the Agrarian Development
Centres, and micro irrigation dealers. They provided necessary knowledge and advice in using and maintaining drip systems, selection of crops, etc.
Further, Wasantha and his friends helped one another to find solutions to certain constraints they had experienced in using the drip system as well as
marketing the produce. Gradually they collectively developed farming into a more economically profitable enterprise.
They searched better markets for their produce and found that they could sell their higher quality harvest at higher prices. He and his teammates started
grading their produce according to the quality of the final product. They arranged with a supermarket in the city to buy their best quality produce. They
sell the next best to the markets in the town and they sell the remaining at the village fair. So far it is functioning well and they are very hopeful about
more prosperous future.
The story of Wasantha and his friends is a good example of developing a self-employment enterprise by introducing new technology to educated
youth along with initial financial assistance and sufficient post-project assistance.

grown from 27.1 million in 1985 to more than 38 million in


2011. The youth labour force, increased from 8.6 million in
1985, to its peak of 9.6 million working youth in 1989, and
persistently declined there after to a mere 4.76 million in 2011
(around 12.5 per cent of the total labour force). This decline
reflects the sharp fall in the teenage labour force (15-19) but
also the success of Thailands extended compulsory
education policy. This trend also suggests that the abundant
young labour on which Thailand has relied for economic
growth will be soon in shortage. To maintain its future growth
and competitiveness, Thailand will need to place renewed
emphasis on strengthening the capabilities of its young
people and boosting productive opportunities for them.

Thailand
Youth Employment in Thailand
(Based on the meeting report 2012 sponsored by ILO and
Chulalongkorn University Faculty of Economics, Labour and
Management Development Centre)

Thailand is South-East Asias second largest economy after


Indonesia. After recovering from the Global Financial Crisis
(GFC), Thailand experienced strong economic growth in
2010 (7.8 per cent year-on-year GDP growth). In 2011,
however, Thailands economy shrank as a result of the
floods in November 2011 which drove down the GDP by
nine per cent in the fourth quarter of 2011. However, the
economy bounced back in 2012, registering a growth rate of
about five per cent.
Like in most other middle-income countries, Thailands
proportion of youth population has been steadily declining and
Thailand is now an ageing society. The Thai labour force has

Thailands youth unemployment rate of 4.3 per cent (2009)


is one of the lowest in Asia and the Pacific and is
significantly lower than the South-East Asian average youth
unemployment rate of approximately 13 per cent. However,
high informality (over 70 per cent of Thailands labour force
work in the informal economy) and low social security

66

RURAL DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2013

coverage indicates high rates of youth underemployment


and working poverty. Thailand, a founding member state of
the ILO, ratified the Employment Policy Convention, 1964
(No. 122), in 1969 and successive Thai Governments have
implemented the conventions provisions for formulating
policies and measures to promote youth employment in
Thailand. These include the extension of compulsory
secondary education, public student loan schemes, and the
establishment of the Department of Skill Development
under the Ministry of Labour.

Skill Mismatch

Youth Employment in Thailand Challenges and


Recommendations

Mr. Sompat Pochanikorn opened the discussion by stating


that the government was very confident in the qualifications
and language skills of Thailands youth and that the
governments continuous investments in education and
training would lead to both a more competitive Thai
economy and higher skilled youth workforce. Dr.
Kiatanantha Lounkaew stressed the importance of looking
beyond the (relatively positive) youth employment figures
and reminded the audience of Thailands large informal
sector. Dr. Kiatanantha Lounkaew also emphasised the
great heterogeneity of Thai youth employment, such as
disparities between rural and urban youth employment,
between genders and sectors. Mr. Worrachon Dulyavitya
shared his personal experience of studying for a degree
rather than studying for a job and suggested that the
courses and degrees offered should be more geared
towards the labour market. Ms. Piyawan Maichan explained
that the job opportunities for informal young workers and
children from informal workers were rather restricted due to
a lack of funding for obtaining education and training.
In the interaction with the participants, the panellists made
the following points that provide a sound analysis of the
employment situation in the country. Key points made were:

Gender and Youth Employment

Although Thailands young women and men share equal


enrolment rates in schools and universities, young women
are still more likely to be unemployed than young men. The
panel was asked to explain this phenomenon and share its
views on possible policies to increase job opportunities for
young women. Three panellists agreed in their strong
commitment to tackling existing gender disparities in
employment. The panel discussed the role of access to
childcare and paid maternity leave in closing the gender gap
in the labour market. There was strong agreement that paid
maternity leave made it easier for young women to combine
having children with advancing in their careers, however,
the Employers representative warned that maternity leave
could become a weapon against women as it added
potential costs to hiring young women.

Many students expressed concerns about the potential


mismatch between their acquired skills at school and
university and the skills sought after in the labour market.
Mr. Sompat Pochanikorn shared this concern and said that
enrolment quotas needed to reflect labour market needs
and that the government was consulting with
representatives from the private sector to ensure that its
long-term education plan was in line with the job market and
provided skills for Thailands jobs of the future. On behalf of
Thailands employers, Ms. Siriwan Romchattong stressed
the importance of lifelong learning and mentioned good
practices from Singapore in this context. She also advised
students in the audience to look beyond traditional
occupations and to also consider new jobs for which skilled
workers were rare. Examples for new jobs included
occupations related to climate change/adaptation and
natural disasters. Dr. Kiatanantha Lounkaew added the
importance of reliable labour market information for
matching skills and jobs. Once young people knew which
skills were sought after by employers, they would align their
individual skill development plans with the labour market.
Ms Piyawan Maichan explained that workers in the informal
economy also had the will and energy to advance in their
careers and to move into the formal economy. Many young
informal workers studied on weekends and evenings and
made use of non-formal training opportunities as provided
by occupational groups such as Homenet Thailand.

Role of Culture and Social Norms

A number of questions related to the role of family and social


expectations for making career choices. According to the
statements and questions, Thai parents had a strong
influence over the career choices of their children which in
some cases led to a mismatch between the young
individuals aspirations and the familys expectations. In
addition, low social status and pay associated with
occupations which do not require a university degree (for
instance mechanics) prevented young people from pursuing
careers in these occupations. When the panel talked about
the low social status of mechanics, Dr Kiatanantha
Lounkaew told the audience that he used to be a mechanic
before pursuing higher education and becoming a labour
economist a reminder for everybody in the audience that it
is possible to change careers through lifelong learning. The
panel agreed that there was indeed a need for tripartite
dialogue between students, parents and teachers to ensure
that aspirations and future economic opportunities were not
compromised by traditional expectations. At the same time,
core values of Thai society (integrity, creativity, hospitality
etc.) were the strength of the Thai economy and contributed
greatly to its international competitiveness.

CHAPTER-2

strengthen social protection floors and promote transition to


formal employment, which in turn would support poverty
reduction, domestic demand and economic growth, said
ILO Viet Nam Director Gyorgy Sziraczki in the report. These
types of employment are typically low-productivity jobs
offering low income, poor working conditions and lack of
social protection, the report said.

Minimum Wage

Thailands new minimum legislation has been a subject of


much controversy since it was proposed as part of the
Governments election campaign in 2011. As the event took
place a few days prior to the legislation taking effect (1 April
2012), it was raised in many questions from the audience.
The Governments original minimum wage proposal (which
has been adjusted as a result of national tripartite dialogue
and due to the floods in November 2011) contained a
provision for a THB 15,000 (approx. US$ 500) minimum
wage for workers with B.A degrees which caused concern
among some students that the minimum wage would
prevent employers from hiring recent graduates. Mr Sompat
Pochanikorn assured the students that the Government had
put in place provisions which would prevent inflation and
helped employers coping with the additional costs and that
the increased purchasing power would boost domestic
demand and created new jobs. Ms Siriwan Romchattong
expressed concerns of many Thai employers over the
proposed wage hike for university graduates and warned
that this could lead to a decrease of hiring of graduates. Ms
Piyawan Maichan welcomed the new minimum wage but
asked the Government to look for ways to also include
informal workers.

The following points were identified for further action:

Youth employment interventions need to reflect the


heterogeneous nature of Thai youth;
Need to further develop coherent youth employment
policies;

Quality education which includes (Thai) values;

Social protection for young workers; and

Emphasise on practical aspects in education to


reduce the skills mismatch.

Vietnam
Youth Unemployment

While Vietnams jobless rate among people aged 15-24 is


well below the global average of 13.1 per cent, the youth
unemployment rate in urban areas remains persistently
high, at more than 11 per cent in the period, said the report.
In addition to high youth unemployment rate, Viet Nam is
facing another troubling tendency of increasing vulnerable
employment those who are either self-employed or are
contributing family workers. It rose by 2.2 per cent in the
fourth quarter of 2013. As a result, vulnerable employment
in Vietnam accounted for 62.1 per cent of total employment
during the period. This trend is worrying. It is crucial to

67

According to a report of the ILO, Vietnams unemployment


rate among young people (15-24 years) stood at 5.95 per
cent in the last quarter of 2013, which was over three times
higher than the overall unemployment rate of the country.
Youth unemployment in urban areas reached 10.9 per cent.
According to the General Statistics Office, there were at
least one million unemployed people during the first nine
months of 2013. Nationwide, young people (15-24 years
old) accounted for 5.97 per cent, though youth
unemployment in urban areas reached 10.79 per cent. On
the other hand, many companies reportedly struggled to find
skilled labourers. The countrys transformation into a
successful middle-income status cannot be guaranteed
without increasing the skills of the workforce to meet new
demands.
According to Nguyen Van Chien of the Centre for
Forecasting Manpower Needs and Labour Market
Information, Viet Nam Institute of Educational Sciences,
The difference between rural and urban areas lies in the
fact that temporary jobs are more readily available in rural
areas, since there are more options for people to choose, for
example by engaging in family businesses, such as farming
or planting. In addition, the youth in urban areas tend to be
quite picky in choosing a job. They are less likely to take
jobs that are not highly valued, such as manual labour,
even at the risk of being unemployed.
According to Chien, Not all sectors and companies need
workers with a masters degree. They are simply looking for
those with the skills they need. People should think of what
the labour market needs to choose their career path wisely.
Pursuing a masters or doctorate degree is not always the
best option for someone hoping to find a job at present.
Sometimes, having a higher degree may be a disadvantage,
if you apply to work for a position that does not require such
high degrees. In such a case, the employer might not need
someone with a high degree and is incapable of providing a
higher salary just because someone is overqualified in
terms of their academic background.
There has been a surplus of graduates of university level or
above in certain sectors, especially in educational and
social science sectors. Many university graduates fail to find
a job, so they continue to study further to get higher

68

RURAL DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2013

degrees, hoping to raise the chance of getting a job upon


graduation.

This all leads to the importance of career orientation, which


should be paid attention to since high school. Each person
should consider carefully which profession is suitable for
them, in terms of personal preference and strengths, as well
as the actual market demands. In moving towards
successful career orientation, the involvement of families,
society and sectors is needed. Research and forecasting
work for human resources demands in different sectors is
also important to help training institutes consider and set
suitable enrollment quotas, thereby preventing the waste of
time and money spent on those pursuing unsuitable
professions or professions that are not in great demand.

and export growth, economic diversification and creation of


more and better jobs. He said the issue of youth
unemployment in Vietnam could only be tackled by shifting
macroeconomic policies in ways that create fiscal incentives
that support employing young people.
Commenting on preparing the workforce for a modern
market economy, Christian Bodewig, chief author of the
World Banks Viet Nam Development Report 2014, said,
While, on the one hand, well-educated workers are taking
advantage of expanding opportunities in the private
sector, especially in urban areas, on the other hand, less
educated workers, and particularly those in rural areas,
are having more difficulties in getting jobs. They have
more difficulties transitioning into the expanding private
sector, and are often left in the agricultural sector or in
informal employment. That, surprisingly, includes higher
education graduates in rural areas, some of whom end up
working on farms.

ILO Vietnam Director Gyorgy Sziraczki said, An education


system that enhances the employability of the countrys
young people and satisfies the demands of businesses at
present and in the future is essential for increasing
productivity and competitiveness and creating jobs. It is
time to strengthen the link between education and training

(Sources: CCTV Com English 2014 NPC and CPPCC Sessions January 22
2014; Thanhmien News June 2014; and Vietnam News December 2013)

2.4 The Regional Scenario of Youth Education


Table 31: Youth Education The Regional Scenario

Countries

% Enrolled in
secondary school
2005/2011

Out-of-school
adolescents, lower
secondary (%)
2005/2011

% Enrolled in
tertiary education
2005/2011

Male

Famele

Male

Famele

Male

Famele

Afghanistan

30

60

Bangladesh

55

48

12

29

13

Fiji

91

83

17

21

18

15

India

60

66

15

21

Indonesia

77

77

14

14

22

24

Iran

84

98

43

43

Lao PDR

43

51

32

25

14

19

Malaysia

71

66

11

45

35

Myanmar

56

53

13

Nepal

41

46

Pakistan

29

39

64

53

Philippines

88

82

32

26

Sri Lanka

88

87

20

11

Thailand

82

76

10

54

41

Vietnam

81

74

22

22

69

CHAPTER-2

Per cent Enrolled in Secondary School The ratio of the


number of students enrolled in secondary school to the population
in the applicable age group (such as ages 12 to 17), also known as
the gross enrolment ratio. It can exceed 100 when the number of
students currently enrolled exceeds the population of the relevant
age group in the country.

most typically at the primary level. Lower secondary level typically


covers an age range from approximately 10 to 15 years.
Per cent Enrolled in Tertiary Education The ratio of the
number of students enrolled in tertiary education to the population
in the applicable age group (typically postsecondary school age),
also known as the gross enrolment ratio. It can exceed 100 when
the number of students currently enrolled exceeds the population
of the relevant age group in the country

Out of School Adolescents, Lower Secondary The per cent


of adolescents who are definitively out of school, meaning they are
not enrolled in lower secondary or any other level of education -

Table 32: Youth Literacy Rate (15 24 Years) 2010 and 2015 (Projected)
Countries

2010

2015 (Projections)

Total

Male

Female

Total

Male

Female

Afghanistan

Bangladesh

77.0

75.5

78.5

83.1

80.6

85.8

India

81.1

88.4

74.4

90.2

92.9

87.2

Indonesia

99.5

99.6

99.4

99.7

99.8

99.7

Iran

98.7

98.8

98.5

99.1

99.0

99.2

Nepal

83.1

87.6

78.4

88.1

90.7

85.5

Pakistan

70.7

79.1

61.5

77.1

81.7

72.2

(Source: UNESCO Institute of Statistics (UIS) May 2012)

Table 33: Youth Literacy Rate (15 24 Years) 2008 2012 (Projected)
Survey year

Both

Famale

Myanmar

96.3

95.8

Philippines

97.0

98.5

Sri Lanka

97.7

98.6

Thailand

98.2

97.9

Vietnam

97.5

96.7

(Source: UNICEF, Updated December 2013)

Table 34: Youth Literacy Rate (15 24 Years) 2010


Countries

Total

Male

Famale

Laos

83.93

89.19

78.74

Malaysia

98.42

98.38

98.46

(Source: UNESCO Country Fact Sheets,, Updated April 2014)

Note: Figures for Fiji were not available

70

RURAL DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2013

role of the education system (from pre-primary to tertiary


education) for the national development progress. However,
the large number of out-of-school and illiterate children and
youth especially girls and young women with low skills
levels will remain socially and economically problematic for the
foreseeable future.

2.4.1 Country Situations


Afghanistan
Youth and Education The Present Scenario

There are around 11 million young people aroud 15 years


and above and adults who missed out formal education or
could not complete their schooling to obtain a certificate.
There is not only a social debt to compensate to those to
whom access to education had been denied in the past, it is
also necessary to fully use their potential for the future
development of the country.
Conflict and fragile security impede delivery of school
supplies, enrolment, monitoring and school supervision.
These challenges are exacerbated by entrenched cultural
norms that oppose the education of girls. Early marriage
often interrupts the education of such girls if they have been
fortunated enough to enter school. A general shortage of
teachers and acute need for female instructors, coupled
with too few physical structures, makes attendance difficult
particularly in rural areas. Sixty per cent of the 4.2 million
out-of-school children are girls, and there are no female
students enrolled in grades 10-12 in 200 out of 412 urban
and rural districts throughout the country.

Table 35: Education in Afghanistan


39 %

Adult female literacy rate (15+ years)

13%

Number of total schools, grade 1-12

12,740

Number of community-based schools

3,843

Number of primary school teachers

170,000

Number of female teachers

51,000

Primary and secondary students

7.3 million

Girls in primary and secondary education

2.4 million

Boys in primary and secondary education

4.6 million

(Source: UNICEF Country Factsheet November 2011)

The general neglect of girls education can be attributed to a


perception that investment in girls carries a high alternative
cost as they often bare a heavy burden of domestic work.
The recent rise in fundamentalism that is especially
unforgiving of womens rights, has further exacerbated the
situation for girls education (UNICEF).
Apart from persistent security concerns, widespread poverty
is one of the main obstacles for children and youth to access
education and training. Child labour is very prevalent,
according to the AMICS 2010/2011, 25 per cent of children
aged 5 to 14 participate in economic activities

Many provinces of Afghanistan especially rural areas need


development in terms of quality and quantity of educational
opportunities. The government and non-governmental
sector must provide equal opportunities for universal access
to formal and non-formal education, in particular for girls and
young women. All stakeholders must keep in mind the
following points for providing inclusive and quality education
to the countrys children and youth:
Increase opportunities for quality education in secure
environments for the most disadvantaged adolescents
and youth, in particular young women and girls from
rural areas;

GIRoA and the non-governmental and private sector


must enhance a standard teaching/curriculum system
in the entire country which is flexible, participatory,
and gender-sensitive religiously;

Improve the quality and accessibility of the TVET system;

Create an enabling environment for the private sector


in order to promote investments in education and
public-private partnerships; and

Encourage life-long learning opportunities to keep a


pace with the rapidly changing work environments
brought about by technological progress and
development in the organisation of work.
Among the projects, the World Bank and the Afghanistan
Reconstruction Trust Fund (ARTF) have supported in
Afghanistan was the Strengthening of Higher Education
Project (SHEP), which aimed to progressively restore basic
operational performance at a group of core universities in

Despite continued efforts by the GIRoA and other national


and international stakeholders, there remains a large
gender gap in education: 60 per cent of the 4.2 million
out-of-school children are girls, and there are no female
students enrolled in grades 10 to 12 in 200 out of 412
districts throughout the country. Consequently, young
women (15 to 24 years) have significantly lower literacy
rates than young men: 18 per cent for young women
compared with 50 per cent for young men (UNGEI).
The last decade saw a huge expansion in school attendance
throughout Afghanistan. Girls and boys are back to school in
unprecedented numbers and more girls are attending school
currently than at any time in Afghanistans history. The Afghan
MDGs, the Education for All Goals, the Education Law and the
National Education Strategic Plan (NESP) highlight the critical

Adult literacy rate (15+ years)

71

CHAPTER-2

the country. Because of the project, bright new buildings


now stand in place of ruins at Kabul University, where the
science faculty was destroyed during the civil war in the
early 1990s. Today, about 1,500 students are studying
science in the two faculty buildings. They represent a
fraction of the 20,000 young people who applied last year.

Junior secondary/secondary and higher secondary level


institutions impart secondary education. Degree pass,
degree honors, masters and other higher-level institutions or
equivalent section of other related institutions impart tertiary
education. The education system is operationally categorised
into two streams: primary education (Grade I-V) managed by
the Ministry of Primary and Mass Education (MOPME)) and
the other system is the post-primary education which covers
all other levels from junior secondary to higher education
under the administration of the Ministry of Education (MOE).
The post-primary stream of education is further classified into
four types in terms of curriculum: general education,
madrasah education, technical-vocational education and
professional education.

Meanwhile, to prepare the next generation of bureaucrats and


business managers in Afghanistan, the World Bank and the
ARTF supported the Afghanistan Skills Development Project
(ASDP). Its goal is to help the next generation have the
opportunity to learn the latest computer and accounting skills,
among others. As a result of this project, about 52% of the more
than 1,000 graduates from the first batch found employment
immediately while the rest are pursuing higher studies.
The Basic Education for Afghanistan Consortiums
(BEACON) ultimate goal is to ensure that children and youth
have the knowledge and skills to be productive members of
the Afghan society. The project will focus on increasing the
accessibility of community-based education in rural areas,
while building the sustainability of programmes through
community and government support.

(Sources: Sebti February 18 2014; Behn August 1, 2012; UNICEF


Country Factsheet November 2011)

Bangladesh

According to the Bangladesh Bureau of Educational


Information and Statistics (BANBEIS), the present education
system of Bangladesh may be broadly divided into three
major stages, viz. primary, secondary and tertiary education.
Primary level institutions impart primary education basically.

During the last decade, the primary education of youth has


fluctuated and the highest percentage of youth in primary
education was found in 2005-2006. At the secondary level,
there was an increasing tendency of youth education and the
highest figure was found in 2010. During the last decade, the
rate of tertiary education of youth has been continuously
decreasing. That means a significant number of youth in this
stage did not continue their education. But the interesting point
is that the illiteracy rate of youth is continuously decreasing.
During the last decade, the level of secondary education of
youth was significantly increased. Male and female education
rate of youth were not equal at this level. It indicates that
many females did not complete their secondary education.
Perhaps the females were married off or they were involved
in domestic activity or unpaid family worker or helper. The
good sign is that the rate of female education at secondary
level was increased from the year 1999 to 2000.

Table 36: Population Aged 15 24 Years by Level of Education in Bangladesh (2002 2010)
Level of
education

Survey year
2002-03

2005-06

2010

Total

Male

Female

Total

Male

Female

Total

Male

Female

Primary

3698

2726

972

5129

3890

1239

5726

3850

1876

Per cent

19.48

20.25

17.41

28.90

29.54

27.03

27.40

29.38

24.06

Secondary

6622

4826

1856

7040

5383

1657

9054

5294

3760

Per cent

34.88

35.85

33.24

39.66

40.88

36.16

43.32

40.40

48.23

Tertiary

748

567

181

655

488

167

506

366

141

Per cent

3.94

4.21

3.24

3.69

3.71

3.64

2.42

2.79

1.81

No education

7917

5343

2574

4926

3406

1520

5614

3595

2019

Per cent

41.70

39.69

46.10

27.75

25.87

33.17

26.86

27.43

25.90

Total

18985

13462

5583

17750

13167

4583

20900

13105

7796

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

Per cent

(Source: BBS 2002-2003, 75; 2005-2006, 121; 2010, 209)

72

RURAL DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2013

students which support their understanding of the world of


work and develop those competencies that they will need to
demonstrate in the world of work.

Fiji
Educational and Vocational Training

Educational provision in Fiji features a partnership between


the state and the network of community run schools that
largely evolved out of social demand. The 1978 Education
Act as described by Tavola in the 2000 Fiji Education
Commission Report sets out the features of the education
system defining the roles of the state and the school
controlling authorities. Through this partnership, the
governments roles are:
Overall administration and policy-making for the education
system,
Registering and monitoring schools and provision of
advisory services,
Paying for tuition for the first years of schooling,
Defining and designing curriculum and producing related
materials,
Setting and overseeing external examinations,
Training teachers,
Licensing and employing teachers, and
Providing grants for buildings and other purposes.

(Source: Fiji Education Commission 2000)

While education for all Fiji citizens is accessible throughout


the country through the compulsory education policy and
tuition free initiative the education system still produces a
high attrition rate. The Fiji Education Commission in 2000
reported that in 1999 only 47% of the number of those that
enrolled in primary school had moved onto secondary
education. The situation is compounded by the high rate of
school goers leaving the school system and the apparent
lack of job opportunities available in the labour market. A
Department of Youth and Sports survey conducted in 2005
reported that 23.8% dropped out of secondary school
between 1999-2002. Despite the tuition-free assistance by
the government, many schools continue to charge a range
of fees in the form of building fund, sports uniforms, and
related school fundraising activities. Thus, poor and
disadvantaged families find it hard to meet these costs. The
challenges facing families is manifested by the assistance
rendered by Save the Children Fund to 5,000 children
rejected by schools for non-payment of fees.
Vocational training and non-formal education has received
wide attention as an alternative curriculum for quality
education in this regard. There is a long-standing discussion
outlining the current environment of rapid technological
innovation, economic development and market oriented
competition, there is a critical concern as to how adapted
training is keeping up with labour market demands. Schools
have been called upon to provide programmes for all

Despite these features and the promise of the Technical and


Vocational Education and Training (TVET) in Fiji, the
Government Situational Analysis of Children, Youth and
Women in Fiji in2007, reported that all forms of adult and
vocational education are limited and entry is competitive,
advantaging either the best qualified students or those who
can afford the high fees charged by private institutions. The
analysis goes on to point out that it is in vocational and
technical education courses that females are clearly
disadvantaged and that the trend has changed little over the
last ten years. There is a huge potential to absorb school
leavers into non-formal education programs but reports and
the literature have indicated that this sector seems poorly
organised in Fiji. The sector lacks assessment to gauge
demand let alone monitoring achievement of graduates
while places available are relatively few to allow youth, men
and women to participate.
A pragmatic approach therefore needs to be developed to
simultaneously address the parallel challenges confronting
the relevancy of Fijis education system to the world of work
and adequacy of technical vocational training and non-formal
education. This requires political will and commitment at
various levels for any serious impact at resolving the plight of
our youth and ensuring a safe and secure future through this
alternative form of education. There is a huge potential to
cultivate entrepreneurial competencies and resource
utilisation at a very young age through education. While the
National Youth policy objectives are clear in its intentions to
promote livelihood opportunities and capacity building
programmes there is a clear need to strengthen and align
delivery mechanisms from within the Ministry of Youths
existing programmes and institutional arrangements to
ensure that policy goals are realised. Training and capacity
building programmes offered by the Ministry of Youth as well
those provided by a range of faith based and civil society
organisations need to be mapped and consistently tracked
for their contribution to policy goals.
The challenges currently confronting technical vocational
training warrants increased attention at institutional and
policy level. Adequate grants and incentives are required to
encourage community-run schools to offer appropriately
resourced vocational centres to increase access both to
young people particularly young women and the community.
The opportunities and potential offered by community
participation in vocational based programmes have
received wide attention and successes particularly when
community participation offers opportunities for work
experience within the community and the world of work.

CHAPTER-2

Opportunities to strengthen non-formal education for youth


have huge potential to offer continuous life-long learning
arrangements. The National Youth Policy has offered little, if
any, scope to encourage the formulation of a non-formal
education policy to govern arrangements to effectively offer
and organise the provision of non-formal education
opportunities. The current youth policy promotes the provision
of capacity building and empowerment initiatives for young
people; however, the apparent non-formal training nature of
the programmes is being mooted without an effective delivery
arrangement through which these programmes can be
appropriately administered. This, therefore, warrants the
development of a policy for non-formal education and life-long
learning that will focus attention on the need to identify,
assess and certificate non-formal and informal learning,
particularly in the community.

India

entirely satisfactory even in the case of children who


complete elementary education.

Status of Elementary Education

The most significant development in India in the field of


education was the amendment to the Constitution of India
that made elementary education a fundamental right, and its
consequential legislation, the Right of Children to Free and
Compulsory Education or RIght to Education (RTE) Act,
2009, became operative on 1st April 2010. This
development has far reaching implications for elementary
education in the years to come: it implies that every child
has a right to elementary education of satisfactory and
equitable quality in a formal school which satisfies certain
essential norms and standards.
The government has since revised the framework of
implementation for Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) to
correspond with the provisions of the RTE Act, as also the
fund sharing pattern between the Central and State
Governments to provide for a more favourable sharing ratio
for the states. The government has also accorded approval
to a financial estimate of Rs. 2.31 lakh crore for the
implementation of the RTE Act over a period of five years for
the period of 2010-15.
There has been substantial spatial and numerical expansion
of primary and upper primary schools; access and
enrolment at the primary stage of education have reached
near universal levels; the gender gap in enrolment has
narrowed, and the percentage of children belonging to
scheduled castes and tribes enrolled is proportionate to
their population. Nonetheless, there remains an unfinished
agenda of universalising education at the upper primary
stage. The number of children, particularly children from
disadvantaged groups and weaker sections, who drop out of
school before completing upper primary education, remains
high, and the quality of learning achievement is not always

73

Enrolments at elementary level increased from 169 million in


2005-06 to 188 million in 2009- 10. In 2005-06, 125.7 million
children were enrolled in government schools. This figure
increased to 131 million in 2009-10. In addition, another 17
million are enrolled in government aided schools, and 40
million are attending private unaided schools.
The percentage of girls in the total enrolment at primary and
upper primary level was 48.0 and 46.5 respectively in the
year 2006-07; this increased to 48.5 and 48.1 at primary and
upper primary levels respectively in 2009-10. The annual
average growth rate of enrolment for girls is considerably
higher as compared to boys. The Gender Parity Index (GPI)
has also shown significant increase, particularly at the upper
primary level.
Census 2001 estimated that 32 million children in the 6-14
age-group are out of school. This represented 28.2 per cent
of the population in the 6-14 age groups. An independent
national sample survey conducted in 2005 estimated the
number of out of school children at 13 million. A second
independent national sample survey conducted in 2009
acknowledged the steady decline in the number of out of
school children, and reported 8.1 million children out of
school. Decline in the percentage of out of school children
has taken place across gender and all social categories.
However, the challenge at both primary and upper primary
level is to ensure regular attendance by children, which
continues to be erratic on account of a variety of factors,
including seasonal migration of children with parents, ill
health, and discrimination.
The Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) at the secondary school
stage (Classes IXX) is currently around 60.0 per cent
which is woefully low. With UEE becoming a reality, near
universalisation of secondary education is a logical next
step. Anticipating this, the scheme of Rashtriya Madhyamik
Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) and the Scheme of Model
Schools were launched in the Eleventh Plan to improve
enrolment and quality in secondary education. It now
appears desirable that efforts in this direction are expedited
and RMSA is made a single comprehensive scheme to
address issues of coverage and quality in secondary
education in a holistic manner.
While stepping up public investment in the sector by the
Central and State Governments would be necessary, it is
imperative that the private sector capabilities are fruitfully
tapped particularly as a majority of our secondary schools,
including aided schools, are under private management.
Models for Public-Private-Partnership (PPP) in this sector
also need to be vigorously explored.

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RURAL DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2013

The Centrally-funded Kendriya Vidyalayas (KVs) and


Navodaya Vidyalayas (NVs) have emerged as premier
public educational institutions in secondary education and
need to be expanded substantially. Further, the existing
1,060 KVs and 576 NVs could become hubs for inter-school
activities so as to catalyse improvement in other
publicly-funded schools in the area.
Providing vertical mobility options for students opting for
vocational courses, to pursue undergraduate and
postgraduate level, if they so desire, appears imminent, failing
which the vocational courses at the school-level may not pick
up. For a high quality vocational education at school level to
evolve and grow in the country, there is a need to train and
equip our teachers on a continuous basis with latest skills and
the vocational pedagogy itself. A National Vocational
Education Qualification Framework (NVEQF) has to be put in
place to ensure mobility. The vocational curriculum needs to
be integrated and closely aligned with academic curriculum
containing modules on various generic and specific vocational
skills and that the same need to be evolved in consultation
and active involvement of the industry. There is a need for
special focus on training of trainers/teachers in skill
impartation possibly using a PPP model.
According to the Census 2011, overall literacy rate has
increased from 64.8 per cent in 2001 to 74.0 per cent in
2011. Improvement in female literacy has been more rapid
than male literacy and the gender gap has declined to 16.7
percentage points in 2011 from 21.6 percentage points in
2001. The mean years of schooling of the working age
population (over 15 years) has increased from 4.2 years in
2000 to 5.12 years in 2010.

market directly. Senior secondary education is therefore a


key stage of transition to future pathways to fulfill the
potentials of the youth. In this context, Indonesias senior
secondary schools today represent the last stage in the
formal schooling system whose key objective is to ensure
that young Indonesians leave education with at least the
minimum qualifications required for employability and for
further education and training.

Indonesia

Senior secondary education has become of increasing


importance, as most countries throughout the world have
achieved universal primary education and many are well on
their way towards completion of 9-year basic education or
more. Indonesia is no exception to these trends and has set
the goal of expanding senior secondary education most
recently. Reaching this goal is not without critical
challenges. In the past, senior secondary schools were
designed largely to prepare elites for advanced study.
Today, in contrast, they enroll a majority of the youth
population in Indonesia. They are the last stage of education
to do so, with around 60 per cent of young Indonesians
going through senior secondary education, compared with
only 20 per cent going through tertiary education. One out of
three senior secondary graduates further advances to
tertiary education, while the other two enter the labours

Most recently, the Government of Indonesia unveiled plans


to increase compulsory education up to 12 years.
Recognising the uneven progress in achieving universal
9-year basic education, the stepping up efforts to introduce
compulsory 12-year education for all Indonesian children
will start with initial pilot programmes in selected regions
and roll out nationwide by 2014. This will be the third
extension of compulsory education in the past three
decades. The shift of attention and investment priority
towards improving education quality and expanding access
to the higher levels of learning is in part a response to the
soaring demand for places in senior secondary education as
the number of graduates from basic education increases
rapidly. But it also reflects the belief that successful
participation in the global economy requires skilled people,
as production and trade patterns have become more
complex than at any other time in the past. Broadening
access to secondary education is thus not only a response
to social pressure, but also an economic imperative.
The shift of attention and investment priority towards
improving education quality and expanding access to the
higher levels of learning is in part a response to the soaring
demand for places in senior secondary education as the
number of graduates from basic education increases
rapidly. But it also reflects the belief that successful
participation in the technology-driven global economy
requires skilled people, many with advanced science and
technology training. Advanced human resources foundation
is essential for effective participation in the world economy
that has more complex patterns of production and trade
than at any other time in the past. Broadening access to
secondary education is thus not only a response to social
pressure, but also an economic imperative. Indonesias
human resource base is still low as measured by the overall
education attainment profile of adult population (Figure 1.3).
Among adults from the ages 25 to 64, over 70 per cent have
not reached senior secondary education. In comparison,
OECD countries average is around 30 per cent. This is a
large gap to narrow if Indonesia is inspired to be an
upper-middle to high income country by 2025.
In summary, there is clear evidence that the demand for
senior secondary education is on the rise, and has

75

CHAPTER-2

surpassed the expansions in supply in Indonesia in recent


years. Further public investment in expanding access,
however, needs to give greater attention to narrowing the
disparities between provinces, rural and urban areas, and
households with different socioeconomic status. Improving
learning achievement and labour market outcome has to
be put at the center of any reforms at senior secondary
level, and necessarily starts at the lower cycles of
schooling. Without significant improvement in quality, any
investment, whether it is from public or private source, will
not get its full value. The quality improvement should also
aim at narrowing the gaps between public and private
schools reducing the sorting effect and giving low
performing student opportunities to catch up and close the
learning gaps.

Enhancing the quality of schools;

Strengthening the curriculum and assessment standards;

Enhancing proficiency in various languages;

Getting the involvement of parents;

Partnering with the private and social sectors;

The Malaysia Education Blueprint 2013 2025


The Stated Targets of the Blueprint Are:

Universal enrolment from pre-school to upper secondary


education in 10 years;

Halving the achievement gaps between the rich and the


poor, urban and rural, and between the states that form
Malaysia in eight years;
Rising from the bottom-third to the top-third of countries in
international assessments like PISA and Trends in
International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) in 15
years; and

Building an education system that gives children an


appreciation of their unique identity as Malaysians.

The Blueprint Has the Following Priorities:

Upholding the teaching profession;

Enhancing the leadership of schools;

Improving the competency and effectiveness of our


resources; and
Building up the potential and ability of the delivery system.

Expected Outcomes of the Blueprint Are:

Malaysia

Making students better prepared for higher education and


the job market;

A key priority for this transformation is to ensure better


alignment between policy formulation and implementation
along the entire education value chain. Another priority is to
improve resource productivity by strengthening the link
between desired outcomes and the effective allocation of
resources as well as efficient implementation and evaluation
of relevant programmes and projects.
Leadership, guidance and support from the ministry, state
education departments, district education offices as well as
schools, will be critical to achieve these aspirations.
Fulfilling these crucial roles will require a fundamental
transformation in the ministrys structure and operations,
which needs to evolve into a more responsive, transparent
and outcomes- focused. The capacities and capabilities of
personnel at the state and district levels will be enhanced.
Greater autonomy and balanced accountability will also be
provided to enable flexibility in delivering solutions tailored
to the unique needs of students. This will also require
constructive networking with key stakeholders across
government agencies, parents, community groups and the
private sector.

Table 37: Distribution of Working Youth According to Education Attainment in Malaysia, 2007 2010
2010

2008

2009

2010

Education
attainment

(000)

(000)

(000)

(000)

No formal education

144.5

2.1

185.3

2.7

151.6

2.2

132.9

1.9

Lower level

910.6

13.2

861.8

12.4

828.8

11.8

783.9

11.0

Secondary level

4,218.2

61.4

4,230.5

60.8

4,188.9

59.4

4,249.2

59.4

Tertiary level

1,594.4

23.2

1,683.9

24.2

1,881.7

26.7

1,985.7

27.8

Total

6,874.4

100.0

6,961.5

100.0

7,051.0

100.0

7,151.7

100.0

(Source: Department of Statistics, Malaysia)

76

RURAL DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2013

literary and non-formal education. According to Pakistan


Social and Living Standards Measurement (PSLM) Survey
2010-11, the literacy rate for the population (10 years and
above) is 58 per cent during 2010-11, as compared to 57 per
cent in 2008-09. Literacy remains much higher in urban
areas than in rural areas and much higher for men than for
women. The overall educational situation, based on key
indicators such as likely enrolments, number of institutes
and number of teachers, has shown improvement, as
depicted in the table:

Pakistan
The National Education Policy 2009 proposes that the
literacy rate be increased up to 86 per cent by 2015 through
up-scaling of ongoing programmes of adult literacy and
non-formal education in the country and achieving universal
primary education and ensuring zero-drop rates at the
primary level. The provinces will allocate a minimum of four
per cent of education budget for literacy and non-formal
education. Existing school infrastructure shall be used for

Table 38: Number of Mainstream Institutions, Enrolment and Teachers by Level (in 000) in Pakistan
Educational
level

Enrolment

Institutions

Teachers

2009-10

2010-11

2011-12 (E)

2009-10

2010-11

2011-12 (E)

2009-10

2010-11

2011-12 (E)

Pre primary

8762.5

9412.5

9863.2

Primary*

18771.6

19157.6

19571.0

157.5

155.5

154.6

441.7

440.5

435.5

Middle

5504.5

5643.7

5717.5

41.3

42.0

42.6

331.5

335.0

342.6

High

2583.4

2630.1

2725.1

24.8

25.2

25.8

447.1

452.8

463.9

Higher sec/inter

1166.0

1187.8

1291.0

3.3

3.4

3.6

77.2

81.2

85.0

Degree colleges

478.4

760.9

1015.2

1.4

1.6

1.7

30.8

36.3

45.4

Universities

935.6

1107.7

1413.5

0.132

0.135

57.8

63.6

72.6

32202.0

39900.3

41596.5

228.4

227.8

228.3

1386.1

1409.4

1445.0

Total

(Source: Ministry of Education & Trainings, AEPAM, Islamabad; *includes mosque schools)

Philippines

Enrolment in middle-level human resource development via


technical and vocational education and training (TVET)
increased by 27.38 per cent, from 1.68 million in 2004 to
2.14 million in 2007. However, it declined to 2 million in 2008
and 1.98 million in 2009, as a result of efforts to improve
quality assurance. On the other hand, enrolment in higher
education rose moderately from 2.40 million in 2004 to 2.62
million in 2009. The number of graduates across all
disciplines likewise increased from 409,628 to around
469,654 in the same period, or by 14.65 per cent. More
women are enrolled in tertiary level. Table 2 presents
enrolment in tertiary level of education.
Increased access to higher education and middle-level skills
development was made possible through the provision of
various scholarships and student financial assistance
programmes by CHED and TESDA, such as the Private
Education Student Financial Assistance Programme
(PESFA), ADB-assisted Technical Education and Skills
Development Programme (TESDP), President Gloria
Scholarship (PGS) Programme and Ladderised Education
Programme (LEP).

The National Education Policy 2009 proposes that the literacy


rate should be increased up to 86 per cent by 2015 through
up-scaling of ongoing programmes of adult literacy and
non-formal education in the country and achieving universal
primary education and ensuring zero-drop rates at the primary
level. The provinces will allocate a minimum of four per cent of
education budget for literacy and non-formal education.
Existing school infrastructure shall be used for literary and
non-formal education. According to the Pakistan Social and
Living Standards Measurement (PSLM) Survey 2010-11, the
literacy rate for the population (10 years and above) is 58 per
cent during 2010-11, as compared to 57 per cent in 2008-09.
Literacy remains much higher in urban areas than in rural areas
and much higher for men than for women. The overall
educational situation, based on key indicators such as likely
enrolments, number of institutes and number of teachers, has
shown improvement, as depicted in the table.
To ensure a competent workforce responsive to the quality
standards of industries, the TVET subsector through TESDA
implemented quality assurance measures through a
mandatory assessment of TVET graduates in programmes
covered by the promulgated training regulations. The
number of trainees who underwent competency assessment

CHAPTER-2

77

Table 39: Enrolment in Tertiary Level of Education by Sex: Academic Years 2004 09 in the Philippines
Year
TESDA

CHED

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

673,353

694,745

856,965

805,567

893,091

Female

1,010,029

1,042,120

1,315,449

1,208,353

1,091,555

Total enrolees

1,683,382

1,736,865

2,142,414

2,013,920

1,982,435

Graduates

1,154,333

1,340,620

1,702,307

1,812,528

1,903,793

Academic year

2004-2005

2005-2006

2006-2007

2007-2008

2008-2009

Male

1,100,199

1,130,360

1,194,701

1,211,108

1,199,247

Female

1,302,116

1,352,914

1,409,748

1,443,186

1,426,138

Total enrolees

2,402,315

2,483,274

2,604,449

2,654,294

2,625,385

409,628

421,444

444,427

444,815

469,654

Male

Graduate
(Source: TESDA, CHED)

and certification peaked to 836,131 in 2009. Of these, a total


of 690,836 workers were certified across all occupations,
representing a certification rate of 82.62 per cent.

According to the 2007 Annual Poverty Indicators Survey


(APIS), the proportion of dropouts was worst at the tertiary
level, or among the 16-24 age group, particularly in degree
programmes, at 65.8 per cent. This was mainly due to the high
cost of education that had to be fully shouldered by the
households. Access to tertiary education for students from poor
families was possible through publicly-funded scholarships and
other student financial assistance programmes. The challenge
for the tertiary education is not just broadening but rationalising
the access of the economically and socially-disadvantaged and
potentially-restive population.

The education and training sector remains confronted with


the following issues and challenges:

Limited participation of the industry sector in


developing competency standards and curricula;
Societal bias against TVET and insufficient social
marketing, particularly among basic education
students and their parents; and
Need to upgrade the quality of higher education
programmes, including S&T courses, and make them
internationally comparable; and continuing job-skills.

The National Youth Commission (NYC) classified


out-of-the-school youth as one of the four sub-sectors in
youth development sector: the others are in-school youth,
working youth and youth with special needs. NYC definition
of Out-of-School Children and Youth (OSCY) are classified
into: i) 7 to 14 years old, and not enrolled in any formal or
vocational school; and ii) 15-25 years old, not enrolled in
any formal or vocational school, not formally employed, and
not a tertiary-level graduate.

In the Philippines, the trend for the past ten years shows that
for every 10 pupils enrolled in grade school, only 7 graduate.
It was recorded that the dropout rate for secondary students
had slightly risen from 7.45 per cent in school year (SY)
2008 2009 to 7.95 per cent for SY 2009 2010. Main
reasons cited for dropping-out are mostly poverty related.
While basic education is free, many poor families are unable
to finance the ancillary school needs of their children.
Deprived of completing high school education, the
out-of-school youth are further marginalised from acquiring
technical skills. As mandated by the law, technical education
in the Philippines is a post secondary course.
The continuing inability of many poor young people to
complete basic education and/or undertake technical
education, consign them to the vicious cycle of poverty.
Their lack of education constrains their access to
better-paying jobs or ability to succeed in entrepreneurial
pursuits, all of which require higher degree of literacy.
Workers with solid foundation in technical education, have
better chances of landing jobs.

Sri Lanka

The government implements a free education policy along


with providing text books and set of school uniforms free of
charge for all school children. School children are also
benefited by the subsidised bus fares for government road
and railway transport as well as in the private transport
sector. In addition, the government is extending its support
for students from families with low income and less
privileged background.
In 1998, the age limit of compulsory education was fixed
between 5 to 14 years. However according to the present
governments Mahainda Chinthana development policy

78

RURAL DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2013

document this age limit has been extended to 16 years or


up to the General Certificate of Examinations (G.C.E),
Ordinary Level (O/L). The primary motive of this reform
was to protect the large number of children who were not
attending school and who were subject to various forms of
abuse such as child labour.

From 2011, to improve the employability of undergraduates


the government made it mandatory for all students selected
for undergraduate courses in state universities to undergo
leadership training.

Bilingual education is promoted by the education policy and


other than English students are expected to learn both
Sinhala and Tamil languages during primary education.

The government is adopting a free education policy for state


universities though intake for state universities is still limited
to about 2 per cent (CENWOR, 2002). Student selection
criteria are based on merit as well as district quota system
which provides equal opportunities to students in all parts of
the country. Scholarships are being awarded to students
who excel in advanced level examination and for those from
financially difficult families to assist in their expenses
through the Mahapola fund.

To expand the opportunity of higher education, the


University Act was amended allowing few more institutions
to award their own degrees. One such prominent institution
is the Sri Lanka Institute of Information Technology (SLIIT).

The Ministry of Higher Education in collaboration with the


University Grants Commission (UGC) has a continuous
dialogue with academia, trade unions and other key
stakeholders to uplift higher education system to global
standards. The Higher Education for the Twenty First
Century (HETC) Project is working towards achieving the
task of increasing the quality of higher education system. To
facilitate access to higher education the National Online
Distance Education System (NODES) project is also in the
process of expansion. With the objective of assuring
excellence in higher education through quality assurance
the Ministry of Higher Education is taking measures to
strength its institutional framework by establishing Quality
Assurance and Accreditation Council the (QAAC) under the
University Grant Commission. Initiatives have been taken to
improve effective communication skills and literacy in
Information Technology. One of the key initiatives of this
nature is ICT specialisation for BA degrees which will have
higher demand in job market.

Table 40: Education Attainment by Youth in Sri Lanka


Year

Primary
Male

Secondary
Famale

Male

Tertiary
Famale

Male

Famale

2000

197,193

175,835

1,810,065

1,659,027

216,796

328,718

2005

123,094

104,932

1,771,354

1,689,753

304,360

466,475

2010

84,351

69,468

1,578,246

1,654,536

313,130

496,072

(Source: Department of Census and Statistics, Sri Lanka 2012)

Thailand

Policy Responses for Supporting Youth Learning


Expanding Youth Opportunities for Quality Education

The post-primary education system should serve the needs


of young people as learners and future workers. To ensure a
successful transition into the workforce, the education
system must equip students with the skills and knowledge
demanded by the labour market, which can evolve rapidly.
Evidence indicates that Thai employers already perceive a
need for enhanced skills. A recent survey revealed that future
Thai workers will be required to have a multiple set of skills
including vocational, communication, and computer-related
skills. Currently, the Thai education system does not
adequately provide students with this range of skills.

Vocational education should be promoted as a more


competitive choice. Given social perceptions of vocational
education as inferior to university degrees-resulting in a
steady decline of entrants to vocational schools, there is a
move to promote vocational education as a more attractive
option. One way is to declare an open door policy in which
vocational students can enter universities at any point in
time suitable to their schedules as long as they are qualified
for admission. In so doing, it will offer life-long higher
education as well as skills advancement opportunities
according to learners or labour market needs.
Improving the quality and relevance of education is therefore
imperative. Given the low levels of academic achievement in
absolute terms, policies to improve the performance and
competencies of Thai students are necessary. To boost the

CHAPTER-2

quality of education, it will be critical to improve the


availability of learning resources as well as enhance teacher
quality. Key measures would include enhancing teacher
preparedness and practice, providing adequate instructional
materials, promoting performance incentives for school staff
and encouraging greater accountability for results.

To improve the quality of education, the Thai Government is


piloting a system that adapts to different students profiles.
The government has concentrated on ensuring minimum
quality standards while establishing a fast track for those
students who can cope with a more challenging programme.
The Information and Communication Technology (ICT)
Schools integrate computers to teaching and learning,
distance education, and university-school linkages.
Internal and external quality assurance mechanisms are
being applied to tertiary education. As required by the
National Education Act, every tertiary institution has
adopted the Internal Quality Assurance (IQA) system
whereby quality aspects are reviewed. An institution will
perform an annual internal quality assessment, submitting
the assessment report to its parent organisations and/or
concerned entities as well as making this report available to
the public. Thailand has also made its first attempt to
administer university rankings on two main functions,
research, and teaching. However, indicators will need to be
reviewed carefully to ensure the inclusiveness of all
university functions with feedback from universities and
other stakeholders.
The provision of life skills is equally important for youth
development and their transition into adulthood. Life skills
refer to a large group of psycho-social and interpersonal
skills which can help people make informed decisions,
communicate effectively, and develop coping and
self-management skills that may help them lead a healthy
and productive life. Education could play a more active role
in equipping youth with necessary life skills, both through the
school curricula and extracurricular activities.

Providing Second Chances: Helping Those who Dropped


out and the Underprivileged to Reintegrate

Providing Second Chances: Helping Those who Dropped


out and the Underprivileged to Reintegrate Despite
Thailands success in the expansion of primary and lower
secondary education, many children and youth drop out of
school early and there are limited channels for them to
return to the formal system. Children and youth who have
dropped out, especially from the academic stream, may
have difficulties returning to school. Although schools are
not prohibited from accepting over-aged students, students

79

themselves may find difficulties in adjusting to a classroom


environment and socialising with peers again, especially if
they are older than their counterparts.

Greater efforts are needed to provide second chances for


these disadvantaged young people. In the Education Provision
Policy for Disadvantaged Children, the Thai Government has
outlined its vision to include traditionally disenfranchised
groups in formal education through specifically-targeted
programmes. However, this policy has not yet translated into a
practical implementation plan. Better data collection and
analysis are necessary to enhance resource targeting and
enable the design of suitable programmes.
Children with disabilities (CWDs) have been a group largely
neglected from efforts to universalise basic education.
Thailand has 41 specialised basic education schools for
CWDs serving approximately 13,000 students. The MOE has
adopted an inclusive policy of mainstreaming CWDs within
the regular system, but this policy has not been clearly
articulated. As a result, children with disabilities have
remained largely excluded from the regular education system.
In 2004, only 175,000 children with disabilities were enrolled
in pre-primary through upper secondary school, comprising
approximately 1.3 per cent of total children enrolled.
Another group that has remained at the margins of inclusive
education policies is children of non-Thai citizens living in
Thailand. Although non-Thai children and youth is one of
disadvantaged groups who can potentially benefit from
existing education provision policies, actual practice is
complex and unable to reach the majority of young people
outside the formal system. Demand-side constraints keep a
large share of non-Thai youth out of school. Language of
instruction has also been a problem, as these young people
may not be fluent in Thai. Efforts to reach immigrant
out-of-school youth have been small in scope and mostly
led by specialised non-governmental organisations.
Non-formal education represents a unique opportunity to
provide young people out of the formal system with skills for
work and life. Greater flexibility in terms of learning sites,
class schedules, and curriculum can provide a more
suitable environment to fit the needs of children who cannot
participate in traditional school settings, such as rural
migrant workers. Increasing the role of alternative education
service delivery programmes may provide further
opportunities for rural and poor students. However, existing
programmes are small and do not seem to satisfy the
potential demand. The Thai Children and Youth Survey
found that out of about 7.0 million youth who do not attend
school, only 3.8 per cent received non-formal education.

80

RURAL DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2013

Completion of non-formal education is low, particularly at


the basic level. Only around 14 per cent of the total number
of enrollees in basic non-formal education complete it
compared to completion rates of nearly 95 per cent for
vocational education and skills training programmes. The
long duration of the programmes three years could be a
factor contributing to low completion rates in primary, lower
secondary and upper secondary education. Education for
occupational improvement and education for life skills
improvement are relatively in high demand and seem to
respond to the needs of learners, as shown by high
completion rates. Both programmes require shorter time
commitments. The knowledge gained can be applied
directly to learners current work and their everyday life.

and health opportunities to all members of society,


which is often reflected in measures of education
levels (although this is quite independent of the
gender-related issues faced by each country at its
own level of income).

2.5 Gender Equity

The World Economic Forum Gender Gap Index report 2013


ranks countries according to their gender gaps, based on the
percentage of the inequality between women and men that
has been closed. The three highest ranking countries have
closed over 84% of their gender gaps, while the lowest ranking
country has closed only a little over 50% of its gender gap. The
report "assesses countries on how well they are dividing their
resources and opportunities among their male and female
populations, regardless of the overall levels of these resources
and opportunities." By providing a comprehensible framework
for assessing and comparing global gender gaps and by
revealing those countries that are role models in dividing these
resources equitably between women and men, the Report
serves as a catalyst for greater awareness as well as greater
exchange between policymakers.
In measuring the Global Gender Gap, the Report uses three
basic concepts. First, it focuses on measuring gaps rather
than levels. Second, it captures gaps in outcome variables
rather than gaps in means or input variables. Third, it ranks
countries according to gender equality rather than womens
empowerment. These three concepts are briefly outlined
below:

Gaps vs. Levels The Index is designed to measure


gender-based gaps with regard to access to
resources and opportunities in individual countries
rather than the actual levels of the available
resources and opportunities in those countries. This
is done in order to make the Global Gender Gap
Index independent from the countries levels of
development. In other words, the Index is constructed
to rank countries on their gender gaps not on their
development level. For example, rich countries,
generally speaking, are able to offer more education

Outcomes vs. Means The second basic concept


underlying the Global Gender Gap Index is that it
evaluates countries based on outcomes rather than
inputs. The aim is to provide a snapshot of where men
and women stand with regard to some fundamental
outcome indicators related to basic rights such as
economic participation, education, health, and
political empowerment. Indicators related to
country-specific policies, culture or customs - factors
that are considered to be input or means variables
- are not included in the Index. For example, the Index
includes an indicator comparing the gap between
men and women in high-skilled jobs such as
legislators, senior officials and managers (an
outcome indicator) but does not include data on
length of maternity leave (a policy indicator).
Gender Equality vs. Womens Empowerment The
third distinguishing feature of the Global Gender Gap
Index is that it ranks countries according to their
proximity to gender equality rather than to womens
empowerment. The aim is to focus on whether the
gap between women and men in the chosen
indicators has declined, rather than whether women
are winning the battle of the sexes. Hence, the
Index rewards countries that reach the point where
outcomes for women equal those for men, but it
neither rewards nor penalises cases in which women
are outperforming men in particular indicators.

The report examines four critical areas of inequality


between men and women covering countries that represent
over 93% of the worlds population. These are:

Economic Participation and Opportunity This


sub-index is captured through gaps in three aspects:
participation,
remuneration,
and
career
advancement. The participation gap is based on the
difference in labour force participation rates. The
remuneration gap depicts hard data indicator (ratio of
estimated female-to-male earned income) and a
qualitative variable calculated through the World
Economic Forums Executive Opinion Survey (wage
equality for similar work). Finally, the gap between the
advancement of women and men denotes two hard

81

CHAPTER-2

data statistics (the ratio of women to men among


legislators, senior officials, and managers; and the
ratio of women to men among technical and
professional workers).

Educational Attainment In this sub-index, the gap


between womens and mens current access to
education is captured through ratios of women to men
in primary-, secondary- and tertiary-level education. A
longer-term view of the countrys ability to educate
women and men in equal numbers is captured
through the ratio of the female literacy rate to the male
literacy rate.

preference. The second is the gap between womens


and mens healthy life expectancy, calculated by the
World Health Organisation. This measure provides an
estimate of the number of years that women and men
can expect to live in good health by taking into
account the years lost to violence, disease,
malnutrition or other relevant factors.
Political Empowerment This sub-index measures
the gap between men and women at the highest level of
political decision-making, through the ratio of women to
men in minister-level positions and the ratio of women to
men in parliamentary positions and membership. In
addition, the Index includes the ratio of women to men
in terms of years in executive office (prime minister or
president) for the last 50 years. A clear drawback in this
category is the absence of any indicators capturing
differences between the participation of women and
men at local levels of government.

Health and Survival The sub-index provides an


overview of the differences between womens and
mens health. To do this, two indicators have been
used. The first is the sex ratio at birth, which aims
specifically to capture the phenomenon of missing
women prevalent in many countries with a strong son

Table 41: The World Economic Forum Gender Gap Index 2013

Overall rank

Economic
participation and
opportunity rank

Educational
attainment
rank

Health and
survival
rank

Political
empowerment
rank

Bangladesh

75

121

115

124

Fiji

117

120

63

125

India

101

124

120

135

Indonesia

95

103

101

107

75

Iran Islamic Republic

130

130

98

87

129

Lao PDR

60

113

106

73

Malaysia

102

100

73

75

121

Nepal

121

116

130

112

41

Pakistan

135

135

129

124

64

Philippines

16

10

Sri Lanka

55

109

48

30

Thailand

65

50

78

89

Vietnam

73

52

95

132

80

Country

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RURAL DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2013

Table 42: World Gender Gap Index 2013, 2012 and 2011 (Compartive Rank)
Country

2013

2012

2011

Bangladesh

75

86

79

Fiji

117

113

109

India

101

105

113

Indonesia

95

97

91

Iran Islamic Republic

130

127

125

Lao PDR

60

Malaysia

102

100

97

Nepal

121

123

126

Pakistan

135

134

133

Philippines

Sri Lanka

55

39

31

Thailand

65

65

60

Vietnam

73

66

79

increase at a faster rate than international migration. Third,


internal migration involves poorer people from poorer
regions and has a strong role to play in achieving the MDGs.
Fourth, it is an important driver of growth in many sectors
including agriculture, manufacturing, construction, coastal
economies and services.

2.6 Domestic and International Youth Migration


2.6.1 Domestic Migration

When people migrate to a city or village within the country in


search of good facilities, employment, food, shelter, or some
other reasons it is known as domestic or internal migration.
Migration has some elements of permanency, because
people going to another location for a temporary period
doing harvesting season some farm labourers may go to
another place to work may only be referred to as seasonal
migrants. They may remain in another place for a fixed
period and return to their home after completing the job. In
case of permanent migration, the migrant leaves the place of
birth once and for all and stay at the place of destination. The
trends and history of migration show that masses have been
moving from less developed areas to developed, more
congenial, sophisticated, and financially strong locations.
Thus, movements within the national territory, between
states or locations may affect the migration balance in a
certain area or zone but not the national migration balance.
Internal migration has greater potential for poverty reduction,
meeting the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and
contributing to economic growth in developing countries than
does international migration. This is because of four things.
First, internal migration stems from a broader base where
smaller sums of money are evenly distributed to specific
areas and poor families through internal remittances (rather
than international remittances, which reach fewer people).
Second, it is likely that internal migration will continue to

It can be said that the potential benefits of internal migration


are not being fully realised because of an inadequate
understanding of migration patterns (especially temporary
and circular migration), continuing policy barriers to
population movement, urban middle-class attitudes, social
exclusion on the basis of ethnicity, caste, tribe and gender,
and poor enforcement of legislation meant to protect the
rights of the poor.

2.6.2 Drivers of Domestic Migration

Most South-Asian economies have experienced increases


in inequality recently mainly due to unequal access to land,
education, civic amenities, and employment opportunities.
As a result some areas have seen greater concentration of
growth and development and others have been left behind.
This is particularly true of the rural areas in many of the
countries of the region. Thus, there is a tendency among
those belonging to these less-developed areas to look for
greener pastures for livelihood and other facilities, such as
health, and education. It needs to be stressed, however, that
the relationship between income and opportunity inequality
and migration is not clear-cut and cannot be generalised.
Also, the relationship between migration and inequality is
two-way: inequality may drive migration and migration has

CHAPTER-2

an effect on inequality both within the sending area and


between regions. It is very likely that migration, especially
circular migration, will continue either until the gap between
different regions narrows down or until conditions in the
sending area become so unsustainable that populations
have to move out altogether.

High growth areas are generally driven by labour intensive


activities in sectors such as construction, manufacturing,
and services. These possibilities attract large numbers of
migrant workers from under-developed regions.
Rural-rural labour migration of poor people from marginal
regions to more prosperous agricultural areas is widespread
in countries with sharp regional differences in productivity
and wages and low/moderate levels of mechanisation.
There is some indication that a switch from rural-rural to
rural-urban circular migration is occurring in areas where
agricultural employment is shrinking and industrial jobs are
being created either at the same destinations or elsewhere.
A common feature across several Asian countries is that
there is large-scale underemployment in agriculture sector.
Thus, there is a large pool of under-employed rural poor
who need to find more sustainable livelihood options.

Demographic factors also matter there will be more


migration where the population of young adults continues to
grow but in countries where this is likely to slow down,
migration streams will also be affected. Circular migration is
likely to continue and increase in South Asia where growth
is likely to be limited to a few areas, employment is
predominantly informal in the destination areas and where
structural problems in the countryside continue to hamper
access to capital and rapid poverty reduction.

The volume of internal remittances is vast. Remittances are


used to finance a range of expenses including food, health,
weddings, funerals, schooling, etc. and even if not spent
directly for productive uses, such spending can have an
overall positive impact at the household level by freeing
resources for other productive uses. And even if not reducing
poverty directly, remittances are probably helping to sustain
rural livelihoods by preventing people from sliding further into
poverty which would be the prospect facing them had they
depended solely on a deteriorating agricultural base.

Migrant labour has clearly contributed to economic


development through the kinds of subsectors described
above but precise estimates on this contribution are not
available. Studies in some Asian countries have come to the
conclusion that migration is a driver of growth and an
important route out of poverty with significant positive
impacts on peoples livelihoods and well-being.
Migrants who return after they have come to the end of their
contract or planned stay at the destination often bring back
skills and technical know-how which they then invest at
home. A majority of the entrepreneurs set up businesses in
nearby towns and small cities rather than villages. Even
though the absolute numbers of returning migrants who are
entrepreneurial may be small, their role in setting up
businesses means that their impact may be greater than the
numbers alone suggest.

2.6.4 Official Position on Domestic Migration

In view of the given current development patterns and future


projections on urbanisation and growth of job opportunities
in manufacturing, construction and services, it is very likely
that internal migration, both temporary and permanent, will
persist and grow. There will be a transfer of populations from
rural/agriculture to urban/non-farm areas and occupations
but the rate at which this will occur is uncertain.

2.6.3 Domestic Migration and Economic Development

83

The evidence reviewed so far shows that although a


majority of poor migrant workers end up working in informal
sector jobs, they may be able to exit poverty themselves and
migration can contribute to development in both sending
and receiving areas. Yet, migration continues to be viewed
negatively by many policy makers. Most governments have
tried to control rural urban movement through a combination
of rural employment creation programmes, anti-slum drives
and restricted entry to urban areas. While some have
relaxed some restrictions recently, others continue to design
policies and programmes that will discourage people to
move. Despite these measures, people have continued to
move but have faced unnecessary hardship in doing so
because they are often perceived as engaged in illegal
activities. There is an urgent need to reform policies related
to migration and also make other policies which may
indirectly affect migrants, more migrant friendly.
Official agencies also consider the growth of migration as a
pressure on civic amenities and infrastructure, like water,
power, sanitation, health, and transport.

2.6.5 Social and Economic Exclusion of Migrants

Although poor migrants have contributed significantly to


economic growth and gained from higher wages in higher
productivity areas, they remain socially and economically
excluded from the wider benefits of economic growth such
as access to health and education, housing, sanitation and
freedom from exploitation. Across Asia, nearly all temporary
migrants and new arrivals who intend to stay permanently
but who have moved without formally acquiring a house or a
job are regarded as illegal. This brings a host of problems
for migrants and their families.

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RURAL DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2013

Migrants live in temporary and insecure accommodations in


host areas, which are usually prosperous and highly
developed and are barred from accessing social and
economic benefits that are taken for granted by the
legitimate residents of the host area. Childcare and
schooling are rarely accessible to migrants children and the
majority of infants and children who accompany their
parents have to spend their days in highly polluted,
dangerous, and unhygienic conditions.
Even within the broad category of migrants there are
important differences in terms of access and entitlements
based on ethnicity. Those communities or groups who have
a poorer asset base than other social groups face numerous
problems. While some have argued that migration provides
an escape from traditional structures of caste-based
oppression in villages and gives poor labourers some
bargaining power vis--vis their traditional employers,
others maintain that structures of oppression are
reproduced through labour contracting arrangements at the
destination and may even be more exploitative.

age group (teenagers and young adults), gender, location


(urban and rural), education, and skills, among others.

2.7.1 Youth Employment Problems


Interactions with Migration

(Source: Deshingkar March 2006)

2.7 International Migration

In 2010, Asia accounted for 700 million of the worlds youth


(15-24 years) or one billion youth if the age range is
extended to 29 years, which is more meaningful for a
discussion of migration options for youth. Asian youth thus
range from 58 per cent to 68 per cent of the global youth
population. Asian migrant youth form about one third of
global migrant youth numbers.

The present Asian youth generation shares some unique


characteristics. They have grown up in an age of
globalisation and are more connected within the region and
beyond given easier communications, internet connection,
and social networking technologies. They also have
benefited from the vast expansion in education and health
services in the region.
Asia is currently passing through a youth bulge with a high
share of young adults in the total population. A youth bulge
at the regional level was observed in the 1990s which has
only slightly declined by 2010. Some countries have ageing
societies while others are experiencing a youth bulge. While
this may enhance migration pressures, the actual
possibilities of migration are different in the region. Over the
long term, however, UN estimates indicate a downward shift
in the share of youth in the total Asian population in all
sub-regions by 2050.
The individual characteristics of youth also determine their
labour market and migration options. The most important
among these are socio-economic status of youths household,

Great strides have been made in the education field in Asia


which have enabled it to benefit from globalisation
opportunities. A number of countries in the region have
expanded quality education. However, the achievements
are uneven in this area. Access to quality education can be
a problem for children and youth due to poverty, location in
remote rural settings, and other reasons. There are also
major gaps between the education received by youth and
the needs of the labour market. The resulting situation has
intensified pressures for migration and made some aspiring
young people vulnerable to traffickers and smugglers.

and

their

Youth have borne the brunt of the unemployment problem in


the region. Young people are at least two to three times more
likely to be unemployed than adults in the region. Yet for
many of the young working poor, unemployment is a luxury.
Working poverty is high among youths. It is more severe
among young people with no assets and fixed income or
decent job. Youths are also disproportionately represented in
the informal economy in many countries in the region where
most of the recent job creation has taken place. Youth
employment has a definite gender dimension with significant
gaps between women and men in income and in access to
productive resources and credit and with the concentration
of women in vulnerable and low-paid informal jobs.
The factors that cause youth to migrate whether internally or
outside their countries are complex and varied, and it is not
possible to generalise from the limited available data. Youth
migrate for various reasons: employment, education,
marriage, family unification or family formation, and for
humanitarian reasons. Asian youth formed 52 per cent of the
OECD countries international students at tertiary level in
2009. Cross-border marriages have also become more
common in Asia. Forced migration also occurs from
Afghanistan and Myanmar to neighbouring countries, among
others. At the same time, migration offers young people
greater economic and social independence, exposure to new
places, ideas, and new challenges. This report focuses on
migration for employment internally and overseas.
The largest flows of people and youth occur within countries
rather than across international borders. Internal migration
is thus the more common form of migration option open to
large numbers of Asian youth, particularly from the rural
areas as shown by the cases of China, India, Indonesia, and
Viet Nam. It is also the best example of circular migration. In
some Asian countries, there are still barriers to internal
movements. Internal migration is often viewed in negative

CHAPTER-2

terms, which is not warranted because it confers a number


of benefits as well. It benefits a much larger number of youth
and also is a major poverty alleviation strategy for rural
families. Rural to urban migrants also face a number of
problems similar to international migrants in regard to
protection, rights and social protection as seen in the case
of Chinas internal migration.

There is not much direct evidence linking local employment and


unemployment pressures with overseas migration. This is
because youth desiring to work overseas may not have the
resources and skills for migration, a situation described as
involuntary immobility by Carling. The capacity to be mobile
across borders varies according to the personal characteristics
of migrants. The educated and skilled youth face better options
of moving for higher education or as permanent residents in
developed countries. The vast majority, however, are not able
to realise aspirations for migration to other countries for
improving their living standards. They may fall prey to
smugglers and traffickers in trying to find other means and
avenues to do so and migrate under irregular situations
suffering gross violations of human rights.

2.7.2 Asian Migration Systems

Few origin countries collect youth-specific and


gender-disaggregated data in their migration statistics.
Destination countries, especially reliant on temporary
migration schemes, rarely report on the age-related profiles
of migrant workers in their countries. This makes the
analysis of the role of youth in migration processes difficult.
Findings from country sources show that youth migrants may
range from 15 to 39 per cent of the total migration outflows in
recent years. The profile of young migrant workers
represents mostly unmarried men from India and Nepal
while the Philippines and Sri Lanka show more variety with
women dominating some age groups. Traditional views and
restrictions on female migration have limited female
migration from South Asia except for Sri Lanka.

2.7.3 Situation of Young Migrant Workers in Countries


of Destination

The situation of young migrant workers in destination


countries was analysed based on three migration
systems in Asia: the Gulf and Middle Eastern migration
regime, South-east Asian migration system centred on
Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand, and the Australia and
New Zealand migration system, which combines
permanent migration, temporary labour migration and
student migration.

85

In the first two systems, the available data do not show much
difference in the conditions of work between young and adult
migrant workers. Competition and recruitment malpractices
have driven down wages and working conditions are
proverbially poor. Intermediaries play a major role at both
ends, which further erodes the benefits of labour migration for
workers and source countries. There are decent work gaps in
all areas affecting migrant workers, especially in the Gulf: the
rights gap reflected in widespread denial of rights at work; the
employment gap with a segmented labour market with low
labour productivity; the social protection gap manifest in the
lack of decent working conditions and income security; and
the social dialogue gap with no mechanisms and institutions
for representation and dialogue. The vulnerability of young
migrants is exacerbated by common practices of passport
confiscation, control by labour brokers, unlawful deductions
from wages, and forced labour situations
The situation of migrant workers in Malaysia and Thailand is
not very different from the Gulf situation. The most vulnerable
are female migrant domestic workers and those in irregular
status. Under the Malaysian immigration system, employers
exercise significant power over migrant workers, and they are
increasingly relying on labour brokers and employment
agencies to supervise and manage migrant workers, thereby
shedding employer responsibility for the working and living
conditions of migrant workers. The response by the
Malaysian Government over these practices leaves much to
be desired. Thailand has been hosting close to one million
workers from neighbouring countries for many years and
most are in the younger age groups. It has also emerged as
a regional hub for trafficking in persons for the sex industry
and for forced labour purposes, especially of young women
and men, from neighbouring poor countries for many years.
There is also increasing evidence of forced labour practices
and near-slavery conditions in agriculture, domestic work and
particularly in the multi-billion dollar fishing industry, which
are outside the protection of national labour laws. A sizeable
number of victims of these practices are young migrant
workers fleeing from persecution by the Myanmar military
regime or poverty and deprivation in Cambodia, Lao Peoples
Democratic Republic and Myanmar.
The situation of migrant youth in Australia and New Zealand
depends partly on their background whether they are
temporary migrants such as students or those with
permanent visas or the second or third generation of migrant
youth. While there is no adequate data to differentiate
between them, in general all categories, particularly those
with permanent residence and second and third generation
youth, fare much better compared to the Gulf and South-East

86

RURAL DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2013

Asian experiences. Yet labour market discrimination against


ethnic minority and immigrant youth is present in varying
degrees. But the strong democratic traditions and labour laws
based on international labour standards in these countries
make access to justice easier.

Young migrant workers face specific general health


problems as well as occupational health and safety (OSH)
issues. Migration poses special risks to migrant youth in
view of their higher propensity for risk-taking behaviour,
unsafe and unsanitary living environments, lack of
experience, and lack of resources to seek proper medical
care. Trafficked young women rarely have access to
health services.

2.7.5 Policy Improvements and the Way Forward

2.7.4 Policy Approaches in Asian Countries

Most Asian countries recognise the issue of youth


employment as a priority issue in their policy agendas.
Countries have taken various initiatives to address the crisis
ranging from incorporation of youth issues in development
plans, development of national youth policies and/or
national action plans, and targeted interventions. But there
is not much evidence of an integrated and coordinated
approach at the national level. These policies also do not
cover youth migration issues in many cases.
The analysis in this paper has not been able to provide
much evidence orientation of national migration policies
with a youth lens, either in origin or in destination countries.
This is reflected in the virtual absence of any references to
youth in most migration legislation, and national policies
and strategies on labour migration in both origin and
destination countries.
Most Decent Work Country Programmes (DWCP) have
incorporated youth employment issues in a major way, and
labour migration also has been covered in a number of
DWCPs. In most cases, the two areas have been addressed
as separate issues, and not in an integrated manner.
There are a number of good practices in dealing with
youth migration issues identified in the study: National
action plans on youth which integrate youth employment
and migration concerns, the ASEAN Declaration on the
Protection and Promotion of the Rights of Migrant
Workers, platforms for youth voices and their views in
policy, special studies on the profile of youth migrants and
their issues by destination country authorities, campaigns
for advocating and raising awareness among young
migrant workers using innovative media, and diasporas
youth initiatives.

The diversity in youth characteristics and profiles obviously


call for differentiated approaches, policies, and strategies to
meet the needs of youth target groups. Gender, rural and
urban locations, and educational levels are major factors
which affect the employment, migration prospects, and
labour market outcomes of youth. Given the seriousness of
youth employment issues and their potential implications
for social stability, a multi-pronged approach covering
demand, supply, and labour market-matching functions
would be needed.
Ratification of the core ILO conventions and governance
conventions including the Employment Policy Convention,
1964 (No. 122), ILO Migrant Worker Conventions (No.97
and No. 143), and the Domestic Workers Convention (No.
189) and the UN Convention on the Protection of the Rights
of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families (1990)
would provide a solid normative foundation for good labour
and employment and migration policy. The policy thrust
should not simply be on safe migration but on migration in
conditions of freedom, dignity, equity, and security which
captures the broader vision of migration, consistent with the
concept of decent work. Ratifications should be followed up
by needed revisions of national legislation and their effective
enforcement through strengthened labour inspection
systems and establishment of effective mechanisms for
access to justice.
Mainstreaming youth employment into national
development plans, poverty reduction exercises and
decent work country programmes is desirable to place it in
the context of the overall employment situation of the
countries concerned. Yet the bottom line is that labour
migration cannot offer the bulk of Asian youth opportunities
for decent work which have to be generated in their own
countries. Local alternatives to migration need to be
explored and promoted.
Internal migration is quite important in most origin countries
in terms of population and labour flows and as a poverty
reduction strategy; it is difficult to justify negative views on it
or to retaining barriers to mobility. It is important to target
active labour market policies and provide supporting
services to young internal migrant workers in their
destinations and also to ensure rights for migrants and their
families in destination cities
Governments and other stakeholders can take action in
several areas to strengthen youth employment and youth
migration with decent work. Potential young migrants men
and women should be able to make informed choices on
migrating across borders. Some active labour market policy

CHAPTER-2

interventions can be targeted to facilitating foreign


employment of youth and ensuring their protection. Public
employment services can provide counselling and career
guidance for intending migrant youth. Enterprise
development programmes can incorporate returning
migrant youth and also youth members of families left
behind. Qualified unemployed youth may be given priority in
filling jobs vacated by migrant youth. Migrant remittances
can be invested in youth employment-friendly ventures.
Networks can be established between migrant youth and
local employed youth. Labour market information systems
can provide useful information on available job opportunities
at both home and abroad and on the risk of irregular
migration. Another promising area which is open to origin
countries is the engagement of diaspora youth for home
country development.

Brain drain of the best and the brightest young persons is


another area that deserves attention in collaboration with
destination countries. The practice of developed countries
such as Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom to
levy exorbitant visa and tuition fees on international
students from developing Asian countries and later to
facilitate their easy transition into the local labour market
hurts origin countries in two ways capital drain and brain
drain. This practice also reflects lack of sensitivity of such
destination countries to the migration and development
nexus and interests of developing countries. Either the
destination countries should reduce the excessive fees
which subsidise host country educational institutions and be
liberal with scholarships for students from developing
countries, or encourage the return of trained youth to their
countries of origin.
A priority area for action is the role of recruitment agencies
and their sub-agents. The obvious laxity in law enforcement
in origin countries needs to be addressed. The support of
social partners and NGOs may be sought to monitor the
activities of these agencies since action by national
authorities themselves seems to be ineffective. Guidelines
provided in the ILO Multilateral Framework on Labour
Migration and the ILO Guide on Private Employment
Agencies would be useful resources in this context. At the
same time, the sponsorship system in Gulf countries and
employment agency/labour broker systems in countries
such as Malaysia need urgent reform to prevent exploitation
of migrant workers and ensure their protection.
In view of the large decent work deficits in relation to rights,
social protection and social dialogue for migrant youth,
destination countries have a major role to play in mitigating
the poor working conditions that many young and adult
migrants find themselves in. There should be more effective

87

regulation of certain sectors such as construction, domestic


work, agricultural work and fishing in line with international
labour standards. The bilateral agreements need to address
these issues and also to guide actual migration flows and
treatment of migrant workers in destination countries.

Both origin and destination countries should play a role in


creating awareness about the health and occupational
safety and health (OSH) issues of young migrant workers.
Destination countries should recognise the presence of
young migrant workers in the workforce and design and
implement OSH arrangements specific to their unique
vulnerability and with careful consideration of their physical
development.
Given the complexity and persistence of the youth
employment problem, all stakeholders need to work
together to address it. The resolution and conclusions on
the youth employment crisis: a call for action adopted by the
International Labour Conference (ILC) in 2012, called for
Innovative and multi-stakeholder partnerships engaging
governments, social partners, educational institutions,
communities and young people themselves. Governments
need to create a facilitating environment for job creation by
the private sector. Employer and worker organisations need
to be involved in youth employment policies and schemes to
ensure their sustainability. Above all, youth themselves
need to be made partners in these exercises since their
views and aspirations need to be taken into account in
programmes designed for them.
Social partners should build on the 2005 and 2012 ILC
resolutions on youth employment in addressing migrant
youth concerns. They need to continue their work in
mitigating the impact of the global crisis on young persons in
accordance with the ILO Global Jobs Pact. Employers have
a major role to play in stimulating the demand for migrant
workers, including young migrant workers, to access good
quality jobs.
There is a need for capacity-building at several levels in
addressing youth employment and migration issues. This
would involve strengthening the capacity of concerned
government ministries and agencies, social partners,
concerned non-governmental organisations and youth
organisations and forums.
It is important to improve the capacity of governments in
both origin and destination countries to develop efficient
recruitment systems, develop bilateral MOUs, exchange
regular information, provide effective migrant employment
services, strengthening the labour inspection systems, OSH
services, and dispute settlement mechanisms in line with
international norms. Specific issues concerning youth

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RURAL DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2013

migration should receive particular attention in these


capacity-building programmes

The need for further research on youth employment and


migration links as well as the collection and analysis of
labour migration data by age and sex should receive priority
consideration by both origin and destination countries. The
resolution and conclusions of the general dscussion on The
youth employment crisis: A call for action at the 101st
session of the ILOs International Labour Conference (ILC)
in 2012 identified a number of areas for the ILO to
strengthen its work on knowledge development and
dissemination of information on youth employment. While it
referred only to the particular vulnerabilities of groups of
young people, including migrants, all other areas identified
are also highly relevant for issues of youth and migration.
It is also important to expand the knowledge base on youth
employment, migration and young migrant workers through
focused primary surveys in both origin and destination
countries. National youth surveys should collect information
on key labour market indicators, including those related to
internal and international migration of youth, and also on
migration issues and related good practices. The
international migration of youth as students and as skilled
workers needs to be analysed to better understand its
implications for brain drain and remedial action.
(Source: Wickramasekara 2013)

2.7.6 Positive Effects of Migration

2.7.7 Negative Effects of Migration

Diasporas frequently assist in times of crisis in their


countries; and
Physical or virtual return of skilled workers translates into
increases in human capital, skills transfer and foreign
network connection.

Youth left behind by their parents commonly experience


increased demands as they must assume responsibilities
previously assumed by their parents. This can lead to
declines in academic performance and exit from school
altogether;
Migration may expose youth, especially young girls, to
higher risks of abuse, exploitation and discrimination;
In places of origin, returns on public investments in
education are lower; and
Remittances coupled with limited parental supervision may
be linked to a higher probability of risky behaviour among
youth left behind.

International migration is very important for any nation to


earn the remittance from the abroad. At present more than
7.6 million youths are working in different countries (Nirjas,
2011:1). The figure of total number of international migration
in 2010 and 2011 are presented below:

Migration may empower young women and reinforce


gender equity norms;

Diasporas can be source of technology transfer, investment,


and venture capital for the countries of origin;

The absence of parents may increase the vulnerability of


youth left behind, and adolescents commonly experience
difficulties in their social relations and will isolate themselves
in small peer groups who are in a like situation;

Bangladesh

Exit of jobseekers may reduce pressure of unemployment


due to excessive supply;

Inflow of remittances may help in economic growth and


poverty reduction and also stimulate investment In human
capital;

Economic growth and productivity decline with reduction in


the stock of highly skilled labour;

2.7.8 Situation of Young International Migrants in


Some Asian Countries

More career opportunities for youth;

Migration for education or employment may help girls to


avoid marriage at young age;

Loss of highly skilled workers and a reduction in quality of


essential services;

During the last decade, the international migration of youth


increased significantly. From the above table, we can see
that in 2010, 385430 people went abroad for work and out of
them 83.26% were in middle-east especially in the country of
KSA, UAE, Kuwait, Oman, Bahrain, Lebanon, Jordan, Libya
and Iraq. Around 12 per cent were in Malaysia, Singapore,
South Korea, Japan and Brunei; 1.79% were in Europe
especially Italy and the UK; 1.6% were in Africa especially in
Sudan, Egypt and Mauritius. The significant international
migration occurred in the year of 2010 and in this year nearly
121589 people were migrated than the previous year.

Government Initiatives for International Migration


International migration is one of the important sources to
enhance the foreign remittance and employment

89

CHAPTER-2

Table 43: International Migration of Youth in Bangladesh: 2000 2010


Year

Total

2000

Name of region
Middle-east

South-east Asia

Europe

Africa

Others

221266

191584

29344

334

Per cent

100

86.59

13.26

0.00

0.15

0.00

2005

252706

217176

13055

3747

2473

4015

Per cent

100

85.94

5.17

1.48

0.98

1.59

2010

392990

320898

47167

6899

6449

4017

Per cent

100

81.66

12.00

1.76

1.64

1.02

2011

513699

436794

52007

6903

8392

2923

Per cent

100

85.03

10.12

1.34

1.63

0.57

(Source: Saronika 2011, 81)

opportunity for Bangladeshi youth. In recent time, the


Government of Bangladesh has taken various initiatives for
international migration for youth and this are:

Pakistan

Data base net working registration

Extension of Registration at District Level,

Online registration,

Finger print,

Distribution of smart card,

Verify the online visa of youth,

Identify the real worker on online,

Collection of tax and welfare fee through the digitalised system,

Submission of allegation on online, and

Issue of machine readable passport.

Young Pakistanis are leaving the country for places like the
Middle East, Europe, America, and East Asia for better
education and employment opportunities.
Dr. GM Arif, Joint Director of the Pakistan Institute of
Development Economics, believed that most Pakistani
migrants to the Middle East were below the age of 25, and
they left in search of better economic and social
opportunities. Another wave of migration has then been the
move from urban centres in Pakistan to urban centres
overseas. From the mid-1960s, the trend has been
continuing, taking away some of the most talented,
intelligent and motivated citizens of Pakistan, however, also
contributing to foreign earnings of Pakistan. It has changed
the life of many people in the country.
The Middle East is most favourite place for Pakistani
migrants due to its vast oil wealth, has provided many
opportunities for overseas labourers to work and earn a

Table 44: Countries with Total Number of Pakistanis Living as Migrants


Countries

2008

2009

2010

2011

221765

140889

113312

156353

Kuwait

6250

1542

153

173

Malaysia

1756

2435

3287

2092

Oman

37441

34089

37878

53525

Qatar

10171

4061

3039

5121

Saudi Arabia

138283

201816

189888

222247

756

556

430

308

UAE

UK

(Source: Overseas Employment Corporation, Government of Pakistan)

90

RURAL DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2013

living, building and maintaining infrastructure in various Arab


states, especially in the Persian Gulf. The migration to the
Gulf began in the 1970s. Pakistan had a severe balance of
payments deficit and so as a way of dealing with this deficit,
the government encouraged both skilled and unskilled men
to work in the Persian Gulf countries. The government set
up a programme under the Ministry of Labour, Manpower,
and Overseas to regulate this migration. With the
construction boom in the Gulf States at that time, labour
jobs were plentiful and Pakistani men were more than
willing to go.
Government Initiatives for International Migration

Philippines

Government of Pakistan has been facilitating the intending


migrants to other countries by speedy procedures to issue
passports, improving visa regime. The Overseas Employment
Corporation provides an opportunity to developing countries to
improve employment linkages. In 2011 the total number of
registered Pakistani workers in different countries was 456,893.
The Bureau of Emigration and Overseas Employment is making
concerted efforts to boost overseas employment.
In order to facilitate the international migrants, tge government has
established the Bureau of Emigration and Overseas Employment.
Its main functions are:

Control and regulate emigration;

Look after the interests and welfare of emigrants; and

Look after the welfare of seamen.

Export of Manpower
The government of Pakistan is making sincere efforts to boost
overseas employment which will not only reduce the
unemployment burden in the country but will also increase
remittances and thereby help to improve the economy of Pakistan.
In this regard, MoUs have been signed with several labour
importing countries like Malaysia, Kuwait, and Qatar. The number
of emigrants was 0.43 million in 2008 which increased to 0.46
million in 2011.
Policies are being made to enable the utilisation of a huge brain
reserve abroad to reverse the brain drain and convert it into
brain gain, much needed to jumpstart the economy by enabling
technology transfer and fostering entrepreneurship and
innovation.

Because of the lack of opportunities in the labour market in


the Philippines, young Filipinos are attracted by the
promise of greener pastures abroad. In 2011, DOLE
confirmed that a significant number of the Filipinos leaving
the country to work abroad were those belonging to the
youth sector. According to ILO, young migrants expose
themselves to the risks of migration such as exploitation
and human trafficking especially among young women
who currently outnumber the young men Overseas Filipino
Workers (OFW).
DOLE reported that many young people are being lured
by their OFW parents to join them overseas without
realising that they are exposing them to human trafficking
and other risks of migration. The agency also noted that
there are social costs to migration of youth and among
them is the increasing number of high school dropouts due
to lack of interest to finish school to work abroad.
(Philippine Star, DOLE: More young workers leaving the
country, August 13, 2011).
Youth comprise about 35% of all Overseas Filipino Workers
(OFWs) this translates to a significant "youth" share in the
national financial inflows associated with migration. With
USD 16 billion in remittances received in the Philippines
during the year 2008, the government continues to
recognise remittances as one of the most visible and
tangible contributions of migration to national development.
The ILO also explains that youth unemployment induces
local and overseas migration, in search for better work and
income opportunities, with 44% of young Filipinos living far
away from home. The study presents estimations that the
youth (between 15 and 24 years old) account for 10.7% of
the total number of Filipino migrants, and 34.5% when also
considering those between 25 to 29 years old. While
migration brings significant economic benefits, it also has
social costs, particularly to children living apart from one or
both parents, which account to 27% of the total. According
to the study, children of migrant workers tend to have a
higher dropout rate, and a diminishing interest in finishing
school, working, or building a career, as they are overly
dependent on remittances. Migration is also associated with
several risks and vulnerabilities, especially for young
women, including vulnerability to trafficking due to lack of
information and knowledge of their rights.

CHAPTER-2

development programme, nor do they have a monitoring


arm to at least record the challenges faced by loan
recipients. Since migrants may not have entrepreneurial
skills, a loan scheme without an accompanying component
to develop those skills may not be useful to a large segment
of the migrant returnee population.

Sri Lanka
Government Initiatives for International Migration

The Sri Lanka Bureau of Foreign Employment was


established in 1985 within the Ministry of Labour. Its main
objectives are the promotion, development, and
standardisation of migrant labour rules, as well as providing
protection for employees and their families. While the Sri
Lanka Bureau of Foreign Employment (SLBFE) has played
an important role in implementing policies that protect
migrant workers, especially housemaids, it has done little to
explore and diversify overseas employment opportunities.
Neither the ministry nor the bureau has formally studied the
international labour market with the intention of determining
what categories of available jobs could be filled by Sri
Lankas export labour force.
The government and some nongovernmental organisations
have set up self-employment and entrepreneurship
programmes for returning migrants. The Bank of Ceylon, for
example, has two credit programmes for self employment
projects. These initiatives are not complemented by a skills

91

Further, the SLBFE has a compulsory registration scheme


that includes an insurance scheme that covers
contingencies like medical or other emergencies that may
compel a worker to return home. 70 per cent of all migrants
register before departure. Workers who migrate without
registering are not eligible for protection under the act. The
SLBFE also provides self-employment loans, scholarship
schemes for migrant workers children, and distribution of
school equipment. Other interventions include the
establishment of safe houses in certain Middle Eastern
countries and loan schemes by state banks to prevent
exploitation by money lenders. However, the government
does not regulate or monitor the fees levied by the
employment agencies on migrant hopefuls, who spend
close to Rs. 100,000 to obtain a job.

Table 45: Sri Lankan Migration for Foreign Employment (2005 and 2010)
Category

2005

2010

231,290

267,507

Male (No.)

93,896

148,001

Percentage

40.6

55.0

Female (No)

137,394

119,506

Percentage

59.4

45.0

Professional

0.6

1.1

Middle level

3.5

2.6

Clerical & related

3.6

3.0

Skilled labour

20.2

28.5

Unskilled labour

18.1

22.6

Housemaids

54.3

42.1

1,221,763

1,932,245*

Foreign employment as a % of total labour force

16.7

23.8*

Foreign employment as a % of total number employed

17.2

25.1*

Total migration for employment (number.)

Migrant employment by skills (%)

Estimated stock of foreign employment

Provisional*
(Source: Department of Immigration and Emigration, Sri Lanka Bureau of Foreign Employment)

Chapter 3
National Youth Policies in CIRDAP Member Countries
(In this section, national youth policies of CIRDAP member
countries are presented. While some countries, such as, India
and Sri Lanka have come out with the 2014 versions of the
Policy, some others are still in the process of reviewing their
respective policies formulated earlier. Lao PDR and Myanmar
do not have youth policies at present, but are working to give
shape to their policies with the assistance from international
organisations. Presently, they are engaged in situation analysis
of young people in their respective countries.

expansion of talents, skills and potential of young women


and men in economic, social, cultural and political areas of
the country. The ANYP is designed in a way that will lead to
sustainable and equitable progress in the development of
Afghanistans youth.
Purposes

The documents presented here are the edited versions of the


policies, but care has been taken to keep the core or key
features of the documents intact.

The ANYP was designed and developed in line with the


vision of the Afghanistan National Development Strategy
(20082013) (ANDS), the National Priority Programmes
(NPPs) as well as the Millennium Development Goals
(MDGs). It is aimed at serving the following purposes:

These documents have been sourced from www.youthpolicy.org


(the global community and knowledge base on youth policy. In
some cases, these documents were authenticated by accessing
online official versions of the NYPs).

Afghanistan
Rationale

Afghanistan is one of the worlds youngest and fastest


growing populations at an annual rate of population change
of 3.1 per cent (UNFPA, 2012a). According to the Central
Statistics Organisation (CSO), in 2011, 68 per cent of
Afghanistans population of around 26.5 million people was
under the age of 25, with people between the ages of 15 to
24 years accounting for 40 per cent of the total population.
Examples from other countries have shown that this sizable
youth population can be turned into a demographic dividend
if a country is committed to making its young women and
men the focus of its development and poverty reduction
strategies. With Afghanistan soon entering the
transformation decade (2015 2024, it is now critical to
make these strategic and well-coordinated investments in
Afghanistans young population to realise the full potential
and energy of its youth.
The aim of developing the Afghanistan National Youth
Policy (ANYP) is to bring together all the relevant
governmental and non-governmental stakeholders in
particular youth to systematically address youth issues,
and to design and implement short-term, medium-term and
long-term strategies and programmes for growth and

Promotes youth as a strategic priority target group for


Afghanistans overall development and poverty
reduction strategies;
Identifies priority youth issues and provides the legal
framework and strategic direction for sustainable
youth development;
Identifies gaps in existing youth related research,
policies and programmes and provides a common
framework for addressing these gaps;
Acknowledges the distinctive and complementary
role of governments, non-governmental organisations
(NGOs), the private sector and youth organisations in
youth development and intends to provide a
framework for common goals and the development of
a spirit of cooperation between these groups;
Intends to strengthen the coordination between the
various governmental and non-governmental actors
involved in youth related issues;
Provides a framework for designing and
implementing a monitoring mechanism to improve
and strengthen youth related programmes and
interventions; and
Promotes opportunities for political, economic, social
and cultural youth participation at the national,
sub-national and local levels.

Definition of Youth

In this Policy a youth is defined as a person who is between


the age of 18 and 30. However, the ANYP provides also
guidelines for programming for adolescents (13 to 18 years)
since the Government of Islamic Republic of Afghanistan

CHAPTER-3

(GIRoA) recognises that for many sectors, including health


and education, the return on investment is particularly high
when made at earlier stages in life.

Values and Commitment

Vision

Responsible, skilled, productive and healthy young women


and men who realise their full potential and contribute to
Afghanistans sustainable development and prosperity in
accordance with Islamic values.

Objectives

Mainstreaming and Prioritising Youth Issues

Facilitate and strengthen coordination and cooperation


among governmental and non-governmental
stakeholders to deliver efficient and timely basic
services to youth; and
Promote knowledge building and sharing on youth
issues amongst all national and international
stakeholders.

Promote and facilitate youth participation at all levels


of social, economic and political decision-making
processes; and
Provide opportunities for meaningful social, economic
and political opportunities for the most disadvantaged,
vulnerable and marginalised groups of youth.

Empowerment and Capacity Building

Promote free and universal access to quality


education and training to build the capacity of young
people and a strong human resource base;
Promote decent employment opportunities for young
women and men, in particular for young women and
persons with disability and in rural areas;
Design and implement programmes to build
self-confidence, leaderships skills, life skills and
resilience of young women and men; and
Engage youth in the fight against the cultivation,
production, trafficking, and the use of drugs by
offering alternative income generating opportunities
and the promotion of healthy lifestyles.

Strengthen young peoples commitment to the values


enshrined in the constitution;
Promote young peoples awareness of and
commitment to Islamic values, democracy, human
rights and gender equality and support young people
in becoming advocates for these values.
Establish and strengthen religious schools for Islamic
education in all provinces for eliminating extremism;
Instituting patriotism, national unity and social
responsibility among young people so they
understand their national duties and play an active
role in the rebuilding of the country;
Promote and strengthen a culture of tolerance,
acceptance and equality;
Boost the spirit of volunteerism among the youth in
various fields, including, civic education, charity, and
community services; and
Engage youth in the protection of the environment
and the preservation of the countrys cultural heritage.

Priority Target Groups

Participation and Inclusion

Coordination and Cooperation

Include youth, in particular young women, as a priority


group in national and sub-national policies, strategies
and programmes of relevant line ministries, civil
society organisations, private sector and international
development agencies.

93

While the ANYP considers the problems and needs of all


sections and groups of the youth population, the policy
prioritises the following most vulnerable and disadvantaged
groups:

Young women and girls;

Unemployed and underemployed youth;

Youth without access to health services;

Rural youth;

Youth without access to education and training;

Young persons with disability;

Youth with drug addiction;

Extremist youth; and

Marginalised youth.

Key Thrust Areas

Youth Employment
Continuing efforts to boost decent youth employment
opportunities in line with labour market demands should be
given priority by all stakeholders. The GIRoA in close
consultation with the private sector and social partners
should develop a national youth employment action plan
which will address the youth employment challenge through

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RURAL DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2013

a holistic, multi-dimensional and rights-based approach


including the following components:

Create a favourable policy environment and remove


bottlenecks for decent job opportunities for young
people with a focus on the agriculture and livestock,
rural development, information technology, mining,
trade and industry and construction of dams;
Promote sustainable youth entrepreneurship through
increasing young peoples access to sustainable
finances, increased financial literacy and business skills;

Promote work experience opportunities for youth


including through formal and informal apprenticeships
and public and private internship programmes; and
Increase young peoples awareness of their workers
rights and promote young workers participation in
social dialogue at all levels.

Promote comprehensive, gender-sensitive and life


skills-based Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH)
education in schools and community settings;
Make religious and community leaders key actors for
positive change in Sexual and Reproductive Health
Rights (SRHR) policies and practices;
Promote public awareness and universal access to
the prevention, care, treatment and support of
HIV/AIDS and other STIs. Promote campaigns to
de-stigmatise people living with HIV/AIDS;

Sensitise, educate and train legal enforcement entities


on GBV and ways to protect victims of GBV; and
Promote public awareness raising campaigns on
healthy lifestyles.

Education and Training

Adolescent and Youth Health

Build public awareness of gender-based violence


(GBV);

Many provinces of Afghanistan especially rural areas need


development in terms of quality and quantity of educational
opportunities. The government and the non-governmental
sector must provide equal opportunities for universal access
to formal and non-formal education, in particular for girls and
young women. All stakeholders must keep in mind the
following points for providing inclusive and quality education
to the countrys children and youth:

Promote public works programmes for disadvantaged


youth;

The Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) National Child and


Adolescent Health (CAH) Policy (2009-2013) and related
CAH Strategy include children and adolescents up to 18
years. The CAH Policy should be expanded to include a
separate, evidence-based strategy on adolescents and
youth in line with the definition as of this policy. Young
people have specific health needs and adolescent and
youth health services should be mainstreamed into the
Basic Package of Health Services (BPHS). In addition, the
following key steps should be taken in order to ensure the
development of a healthy young generation:

Enhance the quantity and quality of youth friendly


mental health care services and referral systems;

Increase opportunities for quality education in secure


environments for the most disadvantaged adolescents
and youth in particular persons with disability and
young women and girls from rural areas;
GIRoA and the non-governmental and private sector
must enhance a standard teaching/curriculum system
in all sectors of the entire country which is flexible,
participatory, religiously, culturally, gender sensitive,
and demand driven; and
Improve the quality and accessibility of the Technical
and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) system.

Participation
Youth are part of the solution. The GIRoA recognises that
youth are not passive recipients of programmes but are
partners and protagonists in their design, implementation and
evaluation. Young peoples meaningful participation in all
aspects of social, political and economic decision making
processes is particularly critical in a young democracy where
youth participation enables the exercise of citizenship.

Raise young peoples awareness of the adverse


effects of substance abuse;
Increase youth friendly treatment facilities for drug
addicted youth;

Promote integrated programmes that combine


anti-drug cultivation and addiction and interventions
aimed at alternative income generating opportunities;

Involve young people at all stages of policy and


programme development and implementation;
Encourage and support youth representatives,
particularly young women, to participate in political,
social and economic decision making processes;
Involve young people in traditional and local dispute
resolution processes;
Promote the expansion of Afghanistans Youth
Council to village and town levels and promote the
cooperation between rural and urban youth;

CHAPTER-3

Design mechanisms to collect young peoples views


and opinions on youth related issues; and
Strengthen youth led organisations and networks on
national and sub-national levels.

Monitoring

Cross-cutting Issues
Many of the challenges and problems that youth face cut
across a number of areas of intervention and should be
tackled through coordinated efforts by all governmental and
non-governmental stakeholders. While not being exhaustive,
the ANYP identifies the following priority cross-cutting issues:

Gender equality,
Peace and security,
Sports and recreation, and
Environmental sustainability.

The Ministry of Information and Culture (MoIC) is responsible


for the overall supervision over the implementation of the
ANYP. The MoIC reports the implementation process of this
policy to the Council of Ministers and attracts political support
GIRoA for its implementation. The office of the DMoYA will
monitor the implementation of the ANYP at national,
sub-national and local levels. This is the direct responsibility
of the DMoYA to oversee the implementation of the ANYP
through the Programme Coordination and Policy
Development Directorate the DMoYA is responsible for the
coordination of the programmes and monitoring the
implementation. The directorate will provide suggestions to
other ministries and departments for better implementation
the policy and related programmes.

Implementation Framework

Coordination Mechanism

Implementing Bodies

The ANYP was drafted according to the country's social and


economic needs. This policy is proposed by the executive
departments of government and non-government agencies
to address the short-term, medium-term and long-term
social and economic needs of youth. Government agencies
involved in the formulation and implementation of the ANYP
are: Deputy Ministry of Youth Affairs of the Ministry of
Information and Culture, the Ministry of Education, Ministry
of Higher Education, Ministry of Justice, Ministry of Finance,
Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs, Martyrs and Disabled,
Ministry of Public Health, Ministry of Women's Affairs,
Ministry of Counter Narcotics, Central Bureau of Statistics,
Independent Directorate of Local Governance, Independent
Commission of Administrative Reform and Civil Services,
General Directorate of Physical Education, Sport and
National Olympic Committee and other governmental
departments. The following governmental agencies and
non-governmental organisations will also play role in
implementing the policy at national and local level.
In the centre, the Deputy Ministry of Youth Affairs (DMoYA)
supports civil society institutions to design and formulate their
programmes according to priorities as defined in the ANYP.
Implementation of the policy at the local level: at the
provincial level, directorates of youth in closer coordination
with governors, governmental directorates and civil society
institutions have the responsibility to implement the ANYP
and coordinate the implementation of programmes for
youth. Youth development programmes, both economic and
social, will be implemented by the relevant governmental
and non-governmental organisations and all these
organisations are accountable to youth.

95

The MoIC organises regular meetings with relevant


governmental organisations, representatives of youth
organisations, civil society and the international community in
order to coordinate and track the implementation of the ANYP.

Bangladesh
Introduction
The youth constitutes one third of total population in Bangladesh.
For this important portion of population, determination of national
outlook is undeniable. The history of our nation is enlightened by
the heroic contribution of the youth. The youth of country played
vital role in the language movement of 1952, mass upsurge of
1969, liberation war of 1971 and in all crisis after liberation. It is
indispensable to encourage the youth in light of their glorious
history of the past.
The present national youth policy is updated as well as
comprehensive form of the youth policy which was formulated in
the eighties of the twentieth century and is being followed in the
youth sector of Bangladesh. In light of changing global
socio-economic situation, rapid advancement in the fields of
science and information technology, the problems, rights,
responsibilities of the youth, existing youth activities etc. the
subject matter of national youth policy has been determined.
According to this national youth policy all Bangladeshi citizens
between the ages 18-35 years shall be treated as youth.
Key Objectives

Create a sense of respect and awareness among youth


towards the constitution of the Peoples Republic of
Bangladesh and justice and ethics along with moral values
and social responsibilities;

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RURAL DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2013

Empower youth and create appropriate opportunities for


employment and entrepreneurship development through
proper practical education and skill developing training;
Encourage youth, especially the unemployed youth,
towards self-employment through proper utilisation of local
resources and by providing credit and create favourable
situation with a view to bringing out all the dormant
potentialities of the youth;
Create awareness among the youth about all glorious
heritage and feelings so that they feel encouraged engaging
themselves in the ethical and social activities and keeping
themselves aside from all kinds of unethical deeds;
Motivate and encourage the youth for voluntary services
and at the same time to be effectively involved in national
service oriented activities such as vaccination, tree
plantation, preventive campaigns against AIDS and drug
abuse, rehabilitation activities etc;
Create facilities and opportunities for participation of the
youth and their contribution in literature, culture, sound
recreations including sports and games and patronised
these aspects from all corners;
Implement an appropriate and productive scheme with
eligibility and efficiency of the youth creating modern
facilities in rural areas;
Create opportunity for participation of male youth and
female youth equally in every step of development and
decision making process with a view to promoting national
development activities; and
Impart training on youth health, social right of handicapped
youth including their human rights and introduce special
programme on developing leadership qualities among youth
so that they can undertake political, social and economic
leadership of the country in the future.

unemployment, illness or disablement, or suffered by


widowhood or orphanage or other such cases.

Responsibilities of Youth

Like every citizen of the country the youth community will


have the right to meet all the basic needs including food,
shelter, clothing, education, and health care.
Considering quality and quantity of work, in exchange of
reasonable labour, the youth will have employment
opportunity at home and abroad including self-employment.

Youth will have opportunity to spend rest and recreation and


leisure under reasonable circumstances.
Youth will have the right of social security, that is to say, the
public assistance in cases of undesired want arising from

Have respect for national unity, social solidarity, general


consensus, tolerance and law and order;
Strengthen themselves for self-dependence and creativity
by having regular education, training and other fruitful
exercises;
Enrich and preserve all historical and cultural heritage;
Play pivotal role in creating a wealthy society free of
terrorism, social injustice, exploitation, corruption and crime;
Have an active role in accelerating sustainable development
through different development oriented activities
undertaken by the government;
Be confident in working initiatives through expansion of job
oriented education and make contribution towards
expansion of creative education; and
Work as ambassador of national, regional and international
development.

Youth Activities

Youth Rights

Youth will have the right to work as representatives in


decision making processes regarding youth affairs.

Provide skill development training and self-employment to


youth, irrespective of caste, religion, colour, creed,
education and geographic situation. To achieve this, create
integrated initiatives among the government and
non-governmental sectors at grass root and national levels;
Ensure equitable and proper utilisation of local and external
resources with a view to giving special attention to
disadvantaged and unemployed youth living under poverty;
Ensure representation of youth in all decision making
processes relating to all round development of the country;
For creating avenues of youth self-employment, make it
easier for them to access microcredit at low rate of interest
and under simple terms and conditions;
Take steps for making necessary provisions for registration of
non-governmental youth organisations/ youth cooperatives to
organise and involve them in development work;
Support registered youth organisations with monetary grant
for adoption and implementation of youth activities;

CHAPTER-3

Initiate awareness building programmes on HIV/ AIDS,


STDs, drug abuse and other problems;
Institute a massive youth development programme for
utilisation of rural resources for generating self-employment
for rural youth to discourage their migration to urban areas;
Introduce awareness building programmes for youth
seeking employment abroad, through media and registered
youth organisations;
Secure rights for all young women in decision-making
processes related to education, health - especially
reproductive health - and cultural amenities of life;
Encourage youth organisations to involve people in planned
industrialisation, fish cultivation, afforestation and plantation
for the conservation and development of environment; Create skilled manpower in the fields of computer and
acceptable technology through IT projects;
Attempt will be taken in all youth activities to create
constructive outlook and mentality amongst the youth to pay
significant contribution in resisting terrorism, exploitation,
corruption, offence and menace to build up a free society;
Establish information and research centre on youth-related
issues and matters to help in the planning of youth
development programmes;

97

Strengthen and promote youth exchange programmes


within the country and internationally;
Lease out state-acquired uncultivated land and marshes to
the youth on simple terms and conditions for the purpose of
poverty alleviation; and
Provide legal support to youth confronted with distress and
other social problems.

Advisory Committee for National Youth Policy


For necessary directions and instructions in implementing National
Youth Policy smoothly, there will be a high powerful Advisory
Committee headed by the Prime Minister, Govt. of the Peoples
Republic of Bangladesh. Ministers relating to different areas of
youth development will be members of the committee.
Implementation, Monitoring and Review of Youth Policy
Having representatives from the youth community, there will be an
inter-ministerial standing committee headed by the Secretary of
the Ministry of Youth and Sports to implement and monitor the
National Youth Policy. On the other hand, the National Youth Policy
will be made up-to-date keeping in view changing time and
requirements, on the basis of recommendations of the Advisory
Committee for the National Youth Policy and recommendations of
the Monitoring Committee. The Ministry of Youth and Sports will be
responsible for implementing, monitoring and reviewing the
National Youth Policy.

Box 10: Call to Review National Youth Policy, Bangladesh


The national youth policy should be reviewed and made up-to-date to involve youths, who account for one-third of the population in the development
processy.
The recommendations came from a national dialogue on 'Revisiting Youth Policy of Bangladesh' jointly organised by the Population Sciences
Department of Dhaka University and the UNFPA at a city hotel.
"The National Youth Policy formulated in 2003 does not address how to make youths competent for a job market. It also did not give any direction about
self-entrepreneurship of youths, which could be a effective way to reduce the unemployment rate," said Director General of Department of Youth
Development, Md Azizur Rahman. "We need to address these issues through revisiting the national youth policy, he said.
UNFPA representative Arthur Erken said studies have shown that investing in the needs of young people -- education, jobs, health care, information -is perhaps the single best way to bring benefits to society as a whole. "Failing to invest adequately in the full potential of young people will mean losing
this one-time demographic opportunity, he said.
Secretary of the Ministry of Youth and Sports Mahbub Ahmed said youths should be instrumental in reducing poverty and ensuring development and
global peace. We want to revisit the youth policy so that the youths would be able to assist the government in achieving the Vision 2021, he added.
(Source: The Daily Star June 24, 2010)

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Fiji

35 actively participate in youth programmes. Therefore,


youths are defined as those, both males and females,
between the ages of 15 to 35 years.

Background

The policy accepts that youths are instrumental to Fijis


development and it is imperative to develop their full potential
and their active participation in national development.
Integrating them into the local-global dynamics is also
important, given that this will promote their sustainability.
Young people are faced with many challenges in a rapidly
changing world. These challenges are associated to
technological, economic, social, cultural and environmental
factors. These factors provide opportunities as well as
obstacles. The national youth policy fully appreciates that in
such situations, strong traditional and spiritual values will
provide the wisdom for young people to deal with lifes
various challenges.
The national youth policy advocates a framework of
networking, partnership, dialogue and multi-sectoral
co-operation between the various stakeholders in public
sectors, the private sector, non-governmental organisations
and civil society. This will ensure that the full potential of
young people is developed for the betterment of the nation.
This policy works in tandem with the Roadmap for
Democracy and Sustainable Socio-Economic Development
2009 2014, the National Employment Centre Decree, the
National Sports Policy, and relevant policies in other
ministries, including government reforms and initiatives
undertaken for the sustainable development of youth in Fiji.
The policy recognises the current status of young people
and the potentials they possess for the future. This policy
strives to enhance their holistic development to become
resourceful and effective members of society. The policy will
be reviewed and updated to address the existing socio
economic circumstances and incorporate new trends and
developments that confront young people.
The national youth policy is presented here as a dynamic
and flexible document with provisions to allow for changes
and additions wherever appropriate. Youths will be involved
in all facets of consultations on this issue and government is
to invite stakeholders to form a national youth council to
regularly advise the Minister directly on the issues of
concern to young people.

Policy Objective

Policy Principles
Equality

Wherever applicable, the essence of sustainability will be


foremost to promote continuity, perseverance, self-reliance,
esteem and cohesion.

Youth Participation and Inclusivity

Young people from all facets of the community irrespective


of their status are the mandatory benefactors of the services
and programs and encouraged to participate as they deem
appropriate.

Transparency and Accountability

The fundamental principles and concepts that regulate


transparency and accountability will take precedence in the
implementation of the Policy objectives.

Priority Areas and Policy Initiatives


Youth Empowerment and Livelihood Opportunities

Empower youths to explore and use their abilities and


potential that will helps create an enabling environment for
sustainable livelihoods and success and the further
acquisition of knowledge and skills.

Leadership, Good Governance and Human Rights

Facilitate equal opportunity for participation in leadership


and decision-making processes at all levels.

Sports and Recreation

Officially the United Nations defines youth as those between


the ages of 15 and 24. However, in reality, the Ministry of
Youth provides service to individuals younger than 15 and
over 35 as social and cultural perceptions dictate the status
of youth in Fiji. In many cases, young adults up to the age of

The absence of all kinds of discrimination on the basis of


gender, sexual orientation, ethnicity, geographic location,
physical, spiritual or social economic status.

Sustainability

Definition of Youth

The national youth policy aims to provide an enabling


environment where youth development is mainstreamed
into the various focal areas of national development.

Encourage youths to actively participate in sports and


recreational activities to attain maximum achievements and
satisfaction.

Youth Health

Encourage youths to appreciate and practice high


standards of personal health, hygiene and healthy lifestyles.

CHAPTER-3

Life Skills Training

Promote and enhance life-skills training and experiences.

Vulnerable Youths

Promote respect and understanding for cultural, religious


and ethnic diversity. Virtues education, spiritual
development programmes and positive values inculcation
processes must be grounded in young people so that they
can develop holistic personalities with positive attitudes.
Values will help youths to grow up to be responsible
members of society.

Environment Sustainability

Facilitate the engagement of youth in environment


management and conservation of Fijis natural resources,
including mitigating the impacts of climate change.

Relevant Legislations and Authorities

Leadership, Good Governance and Human Rights


DYS shall:

Effectively respond and support the specific needs of


vulnerable youths.

Cultural and Religious Value and Virtues

Roadmap for Democracy and Sustainable Socio-Economic


Development 2009 2014

Peoples Charter for Change, Peace and Progress 2008

National Employment Centre Decree 2010

Draft National Sports Policy 2011

Juvenile Act 1973

Child Welfare Decree 2010

Family Law Act 2004

Support the role of the national youth council and the


establishment of District Youth Councils throughout Fiji, to
ensure equal representation of young women, young men
and marginalised groups of all ethnic groups;
Promote the enhancement of youth capacity in various
aspects of leadership and good governance ably equipping
young people for effective engagement at family, community,
institutional, national and international levels; and
Support the protection of young peoples legal rights.
Strategies to support this will include literacy training, legal
awareness workshops and awareness programmes on
human rights conventions for our target audiences.

Sports and Recreation


DYS shall:

Support active participation of youths in sports and


recreational activities.

Youth Health
DYS shall:

Implementation Strategies - Priority Areas

Support and encourage programmes that discourage young


people from anti-social behaviour such as drug and
substance abuse, sexually transmitted infections and
HIV-AIDS, juvenile delinquency and any other issues
identified by young people and youth stakeholders; and
Support adolescent and reproductive health education in
schools and out of schools, preventative and community
health programmes to deal with infectious and
non-communicable diseases, and mental health awareness
and advocacy programmes.

Youth Empowerment and Livelihood Opportunities

Life Skills Training

Department of Youth and Sports (DYS) shall:

DYS shall:

Encourage and support initiatives that are centred on


developing youths in gaining either formal or informal
employment, volunteer and work attachments, and the
acquisition of entrepreneurial skills;

Facilitate youth employment through the National


Employment Centre Decree; and
Act as an advisory and referral agency in adhering to the
above.

99

Support and encourage life skills initiatives that will


complement and enhance the abilities and competencies of
youths;
Support national and regional programmes such as the
Duke of Edinburghs Award Programme, Young Womens
Christian Association, Girl Guides, and Scouts, St Johns, Fiji
Police Blue Light and others; and
Support Regional and international exchange programs
aimed at promoting life skills training will also be supported.

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Vulnerable Youths

DYS shall:

Support initiatives and mandates of key stakeholders and


youth development partners that partake in effectively
addressing the needs of vulnerable youths. These include
empowerment training and capacity building, networking,
advocacy, advise, referrals and counselling sessions.

Role of Implementation Partners

Cultural and Religious Value and Virtues


DYS shall:

Support the continued education of young people about


their culture and the cultures of others in Fiji; and
Encourage cultural and religious organisations to actively
participate in spiritual and cultural training on values and virtues
to maintain within the lives of our young people the uniqueness
of our respective cultural identities and spiritual richness.

DYS shall:
Promote sustainable climate change adaptation strategies
and good environmental principles and practices on the
management and conservation of our natural resources and
environment. This will enable youths to be at the forefront of
environmentally friendly programmes.

An implementation partner refers to youth development


stakeholders who are obligated within their own mandates
to provide youth development and empowerment
programmes and services for young people. They will in
their own capacities and expertise be supported by the
Department of Youth and Sports in successfully
implementing their core objectives whether independently,
or in alliance with government, civil society organisations or
corporate organisations.

Networking and Partnership

Environment Sustainability

The department will be responsible for informing the


minister of any changes or improvements to the national
youth policy that will enhance the effective attainment of the
policy objectives.

The policy requires multi-sectorial partnerships for the


development of strategies and the implementation for
initiatives on youth empowerment, youth employment and
livelihood, research and other youth development aspects.
Multi-sectorial partnerships should be sought with public,
private, non-government and development agencies.
To ensure coordination amongst various stakeholders a
multi-sectorial or inter-agency taskforce shall be established
to provide guidance on matters of new policy direction and
initiatives.

Coordination

Funding

Role of the Department of Youth and Sports

The Department of Youth and Sports shall be the focal


agency responsible for coordinating policy and programme
implementation in collaboration with other government
ministries involved in youth service delivery. The Department
of Youth and Sports shall also work in partnership with
training institutions, churches, other religious organisations,
non-governmental organisations and civil society groups
responsible for youth service delivery.
In the case where the department is not solely responsible
for the implementation of programmes it will render its full
support to other government ministries, non-governmental
organisations, religious and other organisations that fulfil the
obligations as stated in the policy.
The department will be responsible for the monitoring and
evaluation of the national youth policy critically analysing
and ensuring that the objectives and mandates of the policy
are fulfilled.

As the focal agency in the implementation of the policy, the


Department of Youth and Sports is expected to provide the
resource requirements to implement the policy. However,
the policy is mindful of the limited resources for youth
programmes and advocates the effective coordination of
programmes and where possible the pooling of resources
between stakeholders.
The policy recognises the on-going commitment of the
private sector, donors, and UN agencies towards youth
programmes and will continue to explore resource
opportunities needed for policy implementation.

Youth Database

The existing data base of information and statistics on


youths, sources of funding, resources available as well as
public sector, local NGOs, regional youth bodies and UN
agencies that service offering the various needs of young
people shall be strengthened.
(Source: Country Paper presented at the Regional Conference of
CIRDAP September 2013)

CHAPTER-3

India

National Youth Policy 2014

India lies on the cusp of a demographic transition, similar to


the one that fuelled the spectacular rise in GDP of the East
Asian Tigers in the second half of the 20th century.
However, in order to capture this demographic dividend, it is
essential that the economy has the ability to support the
increase in the labour force and the youth have the
appropriate education, skills, health awareness and other
enablers to productively contribute to the economy.
Youth in the age group of 15-29 years comprise 27.5% of the
population. At present, about 34% of Indias Gross National
Income (GNI) is contributed by the youth, aged 15-29 years.
However, there exists a huge potential to increase the
contribution of this class of the nations citizenry by increasing
their labour force participation and their productivity.
The Government of India (GoI) currently invests more than
Rs. 90,000 Crores per annum on youth development
programmes or approximately Rs. 2,710 per young
individual per year, through youth-targeted (higher
education, skill development, healthcare etc.) and
non-targeted (food subsidies, employment etc.)
programmes. In addition, the state governments and a
number of other stakeholders are also working to support
youth development and to enable productive youth
participation. However, individual organisations in
non-government sector are small and fragmented, and
there is little coordination between the various stakeholders
working on youth issues.
The National Youth Policy, 2014 (NYP-2014) seeks to define
the vision of the Government of India for the youth of the
country and identify the key areas in which action is
required, where not enough is being done, to enable youth
development and to provide a framework for action for all
stakeholders. It is intended to serve as a guiding document,
and should be reviewed in 5 years, so that GoI may refocus
its priorities for youth development, as may be necessary.
NYP-2014 provides a holistic vision for the youth of India
which is to empower the youth of the country to achieve
their full potential, and through them enable India to find its
rightful place in the community of nations. In order to
achieve this vision, all stakeholders must work towards
meeting five key objectives. This requires specific action in
one or more of 11 priority areas, identified as important for
youth development. The following exhibit summarises the
vision, the objectives and the priority areas of NYP-2014.
It also lists the enablers available to achieve these
objectives.

101

The policy seeks to recommend specific future policy


interventions required in each of the 11 priority areas.
In order to work towards closing the gaps identified in the 11
priority areas of action, it is imperative to have a concerted
effort from all stakeholders. A stakeholder map must be drawn
up and stakeholder roles and responsibilities should be
identified. The government must increase its investment in
youth in order to capitalise on the opportunity they present. For
this, all government departments must make a determined
effort to ensure youth mainstreaming across sectors and policy
areas. There are several tools that can be leveraged in order
to promote youth development, including social media which
enjoys high penetration amongst the youth, and the network of
existing youth development organisations.
In addition, it is important to monitor and evaluate the
success of NYP-2014. A set of leading and lagging
indicators have been identified. A baseline assessment
must be undertaken across these indicators, annual targets
must be set and progress against these targets monitored.
The Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports should publish a
biennial report on the status of the youth in order to inform
the nation about progress against indicators, highlight key
achievements and identify new and unmet challenges. The
report shall also serve the purpose of informing the youth of
the country about various government initiatives for the
development of the youth.
All through history, youth have been the harbingers of
change from winning independence for nations, to
creating new technologies that upset the status quo, to new
forms of art, music and culture. Supporting and promoting
the development of Indias youth must be one of the
foremost priorities, across all sectors and stakeholders, of
this nation.

Definition of Youth

In the National Youth Policy-2003, youth was defined a


person of age between 13-35 years, but in the current policy
document, the youth age-group is defined as 15-29 years
with a view to have a more focused approach, as far as
various policy interventions are concerned.
However, it needs to be recognised that all young persons
within this age-group are unlikely to be a homogeneous
group. Different segments of the youth would have different
needs and concerns, which need to be addressed.

Vision

To empower youth of the country to achieve their full


potential, and through them enable India to find its rightful
place in the community of nations.

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Objectives and Priority Areas

Create a productive workforce that can make a sustainable


contribution to Indias economic development:

Develop a strong and healthy generation equipped to take


on future challenges:

Promotion of social values


Community engagement

Facilitate participation and civic engagement at levels of


governance:

Health and healthy lifestyle


Sports

Instil social values and promote community service to build


national ownership:

Education
Employment and skill development
Entrepreneurship

Participation in politics and governance


Youth engagement

Support youth at risk and create equitable opportunity for all


disadvantaged and marginalised youth:

Inclusion
Social

Future Policy Imperatives (in Priority Areas)


Education

Build system capacity and quality; and


Promote skill development and lifelong learning.

Employment and Skill Development

Targeted youth outreach and awareness;


Build linkages across systems and stakeholders; and
Define the role of government vis-a-vis other stakeholders.

Entrepreneurship

Targeted youth outreach programmes;


Scale-up effective programmes to build capacity;
Create customised programmes for youth entrepreneurs;
and
Implement widespread monitoring and evaluation systems.

Health and Healthy Lifestyle

Improve service delivery;


Awareness about health, nutrition and preventive care; and
Targeted disease control programmes for youth.

Sports

Increase access to sports facilities and training;

Promotion of sports culture among youths; and

Support and development for talented sports persons.

Promotion of Social Values

Formalise values education system;

Strengthen engagement programmes for youth; and

Support NGOs and for-profit organisations working.

Community Engagement

Leverage existing community development organisations;


and
Promote social entrepreneurship.

Participation in Politics and Governance

Engage youth outside of the political system;


Create governance mechanisms that youth can leverage;
and
Promote youth engagement in urban governance.

Youth Engagement

Measure and monitor effectiveness of youth; and

Create a platform for engagement with youth.

Inclusion

Enablement and capability building for disadvantaged


youth;
Ensuring economic opportunities for youth;
Develop a multi-pronged approach to supporting; and
Create awareness and opportunities among youths.

Social

Leverage youth to eliminate unjust social practices; and

Strengthen access to justice at all levels.

Monitoring and Evaluation


The NYP-2014 seeks to define the vision of the government for the
youth of the country and to identify the key areas where action is
required and not enough is being done, to enable youth
development. It is intended to serve as a guiding document and
provide a framework for action for all stakeholders.
Keeping in mind the diversity of the country and the need to
address region-specific needs and concerns of young people that
are not adequately reflected in the NYP-2014, each state should
also enunciate its own state youth policy, keeping the overall
national perspective set out in the NYP-2014 in view.

CHAPTER-3

In light of the fact that many Ministries of Government of India have


significant components of their policies and programmes that are
relevant to the youth, an inter sectoral approach is imperative for
dealing with youth-related issues. In view of this, the NYP-2014,
consistent with the suggestion made in earlier policy documents,
advocates the establishment of a coordinating mechanism at the
centre and state levels. The State Coordinating Committee may be
chaired by the Chief Minister of the state or a senior member of the
cabinet. This will ensure optimum utilisation of resources available
with different ministries and departments and streamlining of
policy and programme interventions.
Indicators for Measuring the Success of NYP-2014
There are two types of indicators that can be selected to measure
the impact or success of a policy; leading and lagging indicators.
Leading indicators measure short-run impact of the policy, and are
more likely to be process-based. They are an early signal of
whether the policy is on track to achieve its objectives. Lagging
indicators, on the other hand, measure the longer term impact of
the policy, once it has been in place for a sufficient length of time.
These indicators measure whether the policy has had an impact
on the outcomes it was intended to alter, and therefore, whether it
has achieved its objectives.
The following four leading indicators have been selected:

Number of states that have created a youth policy?


Number of times has NYP-2014 been referenced in other
central/state policy documents, reports and RFDs?
Number of times NYP-2014 has been referenced in
stakeholder documents, including media, civil society and
the private sector?
Number of policies/ programmes that have been initiated to
close gaps identified in NYP-2014?

Lagging indicators of success of NYP-2014 measure the progress


towards achieving each one of the five objectives for youth set out
in the policy. The following eight lagging indicators have been
selected for the corresponding objectives/priority areas:
Create a productive workforce that can make a sustainable
contribution to Indias economic development

Youth unemployment rate


Completion rate of higher education

Develop a strong and healthy generation equipped to take on


future challenges

Maternal mortality rate


Gold medals per capita won at Commonwealth Games

Instil social values and promote community service to build


national ownership

103

Number of delinquent youth Under different penal codes

Facilitate participation and civic engagement at levels of


governance

Number of elected PRI members below the age of 35

Youth voter turnout

Support youth at risk and create equitable opportunity for all


disadvantaged and marginalised youth

Unemployment rate across different social groups

A baseline assessment must be undertaken and annual targets


must be set for each one of the indicators. In the event these are
not met, an investigation into the reasons for this must be done
and appropriate course correction actions must be initiated. These
indicators may also be combined into a comprehensive youth
development Index.

Indonesia
(The UNESCO Jakarta Office in collaboration with Sekitar-kita,
hosted a 5-day programme for the empowerment of the
Indonesian youth. The agenda included training on youth-led
Initiatives and civic engagement, research-based discussion on
youth policies in Indonesia and a consultation on the UN
Post-2015 Development Agenda.)
Building Skills for Youth Civic Engagement
25 participants from all across the archipelago - 17 of them coming
from regions outside Jakarta, including West and East Java,
Papua, Bali, Sumatra, Sulawesi and Kalimantan - attended the
training that provided interactive and informative sessions on such
themes as social analysis, youth identity awareness, activism,
networking and resource mobilisation. Participants were also
introduced to the development action plan as a roadmap for the
implementation of activities in their communities, which each
participant drew up throughout the training and presented at the
last session with the guidance of UNESCO and Sekitar-kita.
Participants will receive continued encouragement and support
from UNESCO toward implementation of their Action Plans in their
communities in the next six months.
Reviewing Youth Policies in Indonesia
The fourth day of the programme was devoted to present the
preliminary findings of the broad research work conducted by
Sekitar Kita on youth policies, youth organisations typology in
Indonesia and assessment of Papuan youth organisations. The
event, held at the Akmani hotel in Jakarta, was attended by
government officials, UN agencies, youth-led NGOs, and other
stakeholders, in addition to the trainees.

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In reviewing Indonesias youth policy, Sekitar-kita identified the


discord between the needs of youth and implemented programmes
due to the lack of youth participation in policy making. Research on
the typology of youth organisations in Indonesia revealed the
current youth organisations officially registered under the Ministry
of Youth and Sports to be mostly established under political parties
and religion groups. As for the assessment of youth organisations
in Papua, it examined the facts and snapshots of Papuas youth,
calling for the need for coordination and cooperation among and
between the government and youth agencies in the region, as well
the formation of a youth-specific agency.
The presentation was followed by a space for discussions on
youth policies in Indonesia led by representatives from
Sekitar-kita, UKP4, UNICEF, UNFPA, and the youth-led NGO
Indonesian future leaders. The session was moderated by
UNESCO.
Sekitar-kitas research and policy review will be reflected in future
dialogue with policymakers and stakeholders as well as determine
the direction of UNESCOs youth programme in Indonesia.

Activating the Role of Youth


Capacity Building for the Empowerment and Involvement
of Youth in Indonesia
Priorities of policy direction and strategy of the Ministry of Youth
and Sports Affairs in accordance to RPJMN of 2010-2014:

Youth Awareness

Youth Empowerment

Development of Youth Leadership

Development of Youth Entrepreneurship

Development of Youth Initiatives,

Development of Youth Awareness and Volunteerism

Increase of Youth Synchronisation and Partnership

Upgrade of Youth Facilities and Infrastructure

Empowerment of Youth Organisations

Increase of Society Participation

Development of Youth Awards


(Source: Strategic Plan of Ministry of Youth and Sports Affairs 2010)

Post 2015 Development Agenda


The event included an interactive session on the Post 2015
Development Agenda. Inspired by the consultations conducted
around the world on the Post-2015 development framework,
participants were asked to envision and discuss the future we
want far all, the development issues and challenges that the
Indonesian youth is concerned about and the possible solutions.
The opinions and ideas captured during this reduced consultation
session will be represented as the voice of Indonesian youth for
future discussions on the Post-2015 Development Agenda,
including the meeting of the high-level panel of Eminent persons
on the Post-2015 Development Agenda in Bali next March.

Iran
Youth Policy Discourses in Post-revolutionary Iran
(This article is a summary of the paper titled Youth policy
discourses in post-revolutionary Iran presented at the XVII ISA
(International Sociological Association) World Congress of
Sociology Sociology on the Move from 11 to 17 July 2010 in
Gothenburg, Sweden.)
Introduction

The 2006 national census indicated that over 35% of the


Irans population were aged from 15 to 29 almost 25

Box 11: Youth Policy in Iran


Youth policy in post-revolutionary Iran has been shaped by various discourses which have been affected by the broader characteristics of five distinct
historical phases. In the early post-revolution phase (1979-1981), young people played a unique role in the establishment of the Islamic Republic
(invention, management and control of various new structures, policies and procedures) as pioneers of the revolution. The second phase, Holy
Defence, coincided with the Iraq-Iran war (1981-88) and every aspect of youth life was affected by the related discourse of youth as vanguards of the
Holy Defence. The establishment of the Supreme Council of Cultural Revolution and a complete revision in the educational system and other public
spheres was another main event of this phase. With the appearance of some signs of western inspired youth life-styles and culture in the third phase
(Reconstruction: 1989-97), the youth as victims of western culture discourse dominated youth policy and the Supreme Council of Youth (1992) was
established and various policies were adopted to combat it. The fourth phase (Reforms: 1997-2005) was influenced by the youth as agents of social
change and development discourse. The expansion of youth NGOs, the establishment of several youth related national bodies and the formulation
of various youth policies took place under this discourse. The President Ahmadinejad introduced the youth as agents and beneficiaries of social
justice discourse. Existing youth policies were revised to conform to the revolutionary principles and new policy initiatives were introduced based on
this orientation.

CHAPTER-3

million young people. Youth population rates have shown a


steady growth during recent decades, increasing from
23.4% in 1956 to 35.5% in 2006, although it is estimated
that this trend will reverse in the coming decades with the
youth population rate falling to around 20% in 2025 and
17% in 2050.

The current strikingly high proportion of young people within


the overall population has been one of the major catalysts
for the special policy attention paid to young people in Iran
over the past 30 years. However, analysis of the main policy
initiatives in the field of youth affairs indicates that these
Title of the phase

efforts have been shaped to a great extent by the main


political agenda of each era rather than by any real
evidence-based account of youth needs and priorities. This
article endeavours to map the main discourses which have
shaped youth policy in Iran in the three decades since the
Islamic Revolution in 1979.

Years

Main youth discourse

1979-81

Youth as pioneers of revolution

Imposed war (holy defence)

1981-88

Youth as vanguards of holy defence

Reconstruction

1989-97

Youth as victims of western culture

Principle-ism

1997-2005

Youth as agents of social change and development

2005-present

Youth as agents and beneficiaries of social justice

nationalist sentiments, the adopted practices in using them


in the war (especially through Basij a paramilitary
volunteer force subordinate to the Islamic Revolutionary
Guard have been criticised by international human rights
organisations (notably Amnesty International) on grounds
such as underage recruitment and the reliance on human
wave attacks. The Supreme Council of Cultural Revolution
was established and activated to implement the related
decree issued in the previous phase. A complete revision in
the educational system (for example, in procedures and
textbooks for schools and universities) and other public
spheres was one of the main features. This phase, too, did
not have any cross-sectoral structure for youth affairs.

Youth as Pioneers of the Revolution

Young people played a unique role in the revolution and


were considered to be pioneers of the revolution in the
early years immediately after it. Youth involvement in the
establishment of the Islamic Republic (the invention,
management and control of various new structures, policies
and procedures) was endorsed at the highest levels and
young people were given strategic responsibilities and
posts. Perhaps the most notable policy development with
direct impact for youth affairs in this phase was the
issuance of Ayatollah Khomeinis mandate to undertake a
Cultural Revolution in various aspects of Iranian society.
The establishment of Basij2 was the other important event
during this phase, which has continued to have a
significant influence in subsequent phases up to the
present day, with young people playing a prominent role on
this platform. There was no cross-sectoral structure for
youth in this phase.

Youth as Vanguards of the Holy Defence

The past thirty years can be divided into five distinct


historical phases, each with their own characteristics and
discourses. The titles of these phases alongside their time
period and the main youth discourse identified with them are
outlined in the following table:

Early post-revolution

Reforms

The second phase was marked by the beginning and


continuation of the Iraq-Iran war (1981-88) known in Iran as
the Imposed War or Holy Defence. Again, the active
involvement of young people in the administration of this
event was a prominent feature and every aspect of youth life
was affected by the related discourse of youth as
vanguards of the Holy Defence. However, despite the fact
that young people were taking part in the defence voluntarily
and enthusiastically based on their religious beliefs and

105

Youth as Victims of Western Culture

With the ceasefire with Iraq in 1988, the reconstruction


phase began. In this third phase (1989-97), the First and
Second Five Year Development Plans were formulated and
implemented with a focus on reconstruction, economic
adjustment and privatisation. Little attention was paid to the
diverse range of economic and social youth-related issues
(such as employment, housing, health, and delinquency) in
these plans and it was mainly based on a cultural approach
(focusing on the moral upbringing of young people). With
the appearance of some signs of western inspired youth
life-styles and culture and the perceived weakening of
revolutionary values (after the end of highly value loaded
phase of the Holy Defence), the issue of western cultural
invasion and how to combat it was raised at various policy

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platforms especially the Supreme Council of Cultural


Revolution which seized the opportunity to establish the
Supreme Council of Youth (1992) to handle the situation.
The latter immediately formulated and adopted the
Educationa Charter of Young Generation and
subsequently formulated the Strategy of the Islamic
Republic of Iran on Youth based on the charter and obliged
various governmental bodies to devise their action
programmes on youth according to its framework. Its
secretariat undertook some national studies on youth
affairs. Both policy instruments and youth studies adopted
an explicit cultural approach.
Youth as Agents of Social Change and Development

The fourth phase started with the election of the reformist


president Mohammad Khatami in 1997. This phase can be
divided into two distinct sub-phases. The first sub-phase
(1997-2003) was marked by a change in the approach to
youth affairs from a merely cultural to a socio-cultural one. A
focus on youth participation especially through youth NGOs
alongside Youth Dialogue and youth leisure time were
among the main features of this period. In 1999, a National
Youth Centre was established as a coordinating body
subject to the Supreme Council of Youth. This sub-phase
also coincided with the formulation of the Third Five Year
Development Plan, which paid more attention to youth
issues based on a socio-cultural approach. The National
Youth Centre was changed and upgraded into the National
Youth Organisation (2000) according to this plan and a
National Youth NGOs Network was established.

which the most notable were the formulation of the national


instrument of Youth Situation in 20-Year Vision of the
Country, the formulation and adoption of the National
Cross-Sectoral Instrument of Youth Affairs Development in
accordance with the Fourth Five Year Development Plan,
and the formulation and adoption of seven of 13 national
programmes to organise and facilitate youth affairs based
on the national cross-sectoral instrument mentioned above.
A National Headquarters to Organise Youth Affairs, with
several subcommittees composed of the related deputies of
the main youth related bodies, was formed in order to
achieve further coordination and joined-up action towards
the implementation of these policy initiatives.
Youth as Agents and Beneficiaries of Social Justice

The second sub-phase (2003-05) was characterised by a


notable change in youth policy through adopting a
cross-sectoral and multidimensional approach. More
emphasis was placed on the importance of youth policy.
Firstly, a biennial National Youth Programme (2003-2004)
was adopted through which the National Youth Assembly
(as an umbrella platform for youth NGOs) was established
and the National Charter of Youth Rights was adopted.
This period also coincided with important policy
development and implementation at national level, which
had a considerable impact on the youth field. The adoption
of the National Instrument of 20-Year Vision of the Country,
Title of the phase
Years
the Fourth Five Year Development Plan (which paid more
attention to youth issues based on a cross-sectoral
approach) and the General Policies of Article 44 of the
Constitution (a reinterpretation of the article which allowed
for the private sector and civil society to play a more active
role) were the main general policy developments. Alongside
them were specific policy initiatives in the youth field of

The administration of Mahmud Ahmadinejad, the fifth phase


in our analysis, began a new phase in public and social
policy development. The main policy approach of the new
administration was a return to the values and principles of
the Islamic Revolution which were considered to have been
ignored during 16 years of Reconstruction and Reforms
administrations. Existing policies (especially the Fourth Five
Year Development Plan), programmes, and practices were
revised and new policies and action plans were devised.
The same approach was adopted in the field of youth policy.
Although the other six of 13 National Programmes to
organise and facilitate youth affairs based on the national
cross-sectoral instrument of youth affairs development were
formulated and the existing seven programmes were
revised to match the new approach, they did not form the
basis of the youth-related measures of the government.
Instead, the intentions of the new administration were
realised and implemented through new policy initiatives like
the establishment of the Mehr-e Reza Fund (providing
facilities for youth marriage, employment and housing), the
Maskan-e Mehr Fund (Compassion Housing Fund), the
Justice Share, and an explicit support for youth religious
activities and organisations (like Basij and cultural centres of
mosques). These initiatives furnished President
Ahmadinejad with a significant number of votes in the 2009
election from more traditional and religious youth,
disadvantaged rural and urban youth as well as young
members of organisations such as Basij.
Other notable measures taken during this phase were the
upgrading of the Head of the National Youth Organisation
from Advisor to the President into Deputy President and
giving him Cabinet membership, and the appointment of the
Presidents Young Advisors Committee consisting of young
advisors to all ministers and heads of governmental bodies.

CHAPTER-3

Conclusion

One of the major issues with regard to youth policy is that


despite the almost global rhetoric of evidenced-based policy
making, the reality ideological and political reasons. This is
clearly the case in Iran and this article has illustrated this
through identifying the main youth discourses in
post-revolutionary Iran that have shaped youth policy priorities
over the past three decades. In a synthesis report on youth
policy in a number of European countries, it is noted that the
conceptualisation, delivery mechanisms and grounded
practice of youth policy is invariably contingent on a shifting set
of relationships between political dogma and ideology and
professional (academic and practitioner) experience and
rationality. The prevailing rhetoric of a magic triangle dynamic
between youth research, youth policy and evolving practice
with young people, in order to more effectively secure youth
policy objectives is still a long way from reality in many, if not
most countries, including Iran. Ideological and political
imperatives often continue to subordinate more
rationally-based youth policy making grounded in the
evidenced needs and aspirations of young people.

Some of the objectives of the study include establishing a Lao


adolescent and youth profile, identifying and mapping the current
availability of services and programmes (health, educational,
vocational, livelihood, recreational, protective, voluntary and
networks) for adolescents and young people, Identifying their
critical needs and mapping current legislation, policies,
international commitments and government structures in Lao PDR.

Malaysia
National Youth Development Policy
Introduction

Lao PDR
Situation Analysis of Youth
(The Lao Youth Union with support from the United Nations
Population Fund (UNFPA) conducted a planning workshop for
the upcoming Adolescents and Youth Situation Analysis)
The workshop held in Vientiane on March 2013 saw the
participation of government officials, UN agencies, development
partners and young people.
"We have to invest in young people and create an enabling
environment for them so that they can make informed choices and
fulfil their potential" said Ms. Rizvina De Alwis, UNFPA's Deputy
Representative.
During the meeting, the participants discussed potential
methodologies for the study and discussed next steps as well as a
road map to start its implementation.
Lao PDR has one of the youngest populations in Southeast Asia,
with more than 50% of the population under the age of 20. With the
recent socio-economic and political changes taking place in the
country traditional lifestyles, attitudes and values are increasingly
being challenged.
In order to respond to these challenges, the Lao Youth Union, with
support from the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and
other partners is carrying out the adolescent and youth situation
analysis in Lao PDR.

Youth constitute a resource of tremendous potential and


they can contribute significantly to the overall development
of the nation.
The ability to harness the potentials of youths will determine
our strength and resilience in pursuing social, economic and
political development.

Status of Young Pelople

Laos Prepares Study for Adolescent and Youth

107

Young people between the age range of 15 40 assume the


status of youth. Nevertheless, the main focus of youth
development programmes and activities involve young
people from 18 25 years of age.

Objective

To establish a holistic and harmonious Malaysian youth


force imbued with strong spiritual and moral values, who are
responsible, independent and patriotic thus serving as a
stimulus to the development and prosperity of the nation in
consonance with the vision 2020.

Strategies
In order to realise the National Youth Development Policy, the
following strategies will be implemented:
Knowledge Development
Efforts will be geared towards enhancing the knowledge base in
various subjects, hence functioning as a foundation for the
competence of youth.
Attitudinal Development
As a response and future challenges, effort will focus on the
inculcation of moral values and the development of a positive and
creative attitude.
Vocational and Entrepreneurial Development
Efforts will be made to equip youth with state-of-art technical
knowledge and vocational skills, as well as involving them in
entrepreneurial activities in line with the demands of nation-building.

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Inculcation of a Healthy Lifestyle

Youths are encouraged to engage in social an voluntary activities


that lead to a healthy, active and dynamic lifestyle. This lifestyle will
nurture our youth into responsible leaders of high calibre.

Facilities for Social Interaction


Upgrade relevant facilities that contribute towards promoting
healthy interactions and social activities amongst youth and
communities.
Partnership in Development

Utilise partnership and cooperation amongst governmental


agencies, NGOs and the private sector for the benefit of youth
development.
International Relations and Networking
To encourage youth to further promote closer ties and international
networking with international communities.
Plan of Action
The following of action will be used to achieve the National Youth
Development Policy:

To provide knowledge-based training programmes jointly


organised by public agencies, youth organisations, NGOs
and the private sector;
To strengthen leadership and self-development
programmes that can further develop self-resilience,
familial, religious and social institutions; thus enhancing the
efficiency of rules played by our youth;
To upgrade skills developments training and create
entrepreneurial and commercial opportunities that will
propel youth to be independent, competent and capable of
pursuing successful careers;

To empower youth organisations so that they capture the


interest, commitment and enthusiasm of young people and
activities planned by the society;
To provide opportunities and facilities for the
self-development of the young people in social and
economic functions;
To enhance the spirit of volunteerism and patriotism through
social, welfare and voluntary works;
To ensure the understanding of youth in matters of
globalisation, the importance of partnership with
governments agencies, NGOs, the private sector and
international networking; and
To provide the necessary infrastructure and mechanism for
youth activities relating to research, assessment and
evaluation.

Implementation Principles
All programmes and activities will be co-ordinated in accordance
with strategies and action plan founded upon the principles of
the Rukun Negara (Pillars of the Nation) and other relevant
national policies.
Conclusion
The National Youth Development Policy serves as a guide to
enable all parties to plan and undertake programmes that
galvanise efforts in youth development.
(According to the Youth and Sports Minister Datuk Seri Ahmad
Shabery Cheek, there is a proposal to change the definition of
youth. In keeping with the international standards, youth will be
defined as those between the age 18 and 25 years in the
revised national youth policy that will replace the existing one.
Reports The Star Online, November 17, 2011)

CHAPTER-3

109

Box 12: Moulding Youth to Become Dynamic and Inspired Future Leaders, Malaysia
Youth participation is a critical driver of the nations growth as a key source of capable talent to support the human capital needs of the economy. The
youth population comprises those in the 15-40 age-group, which has grown from 11.1 million in 2005 to 11.9 million in 2009 constituting 41.5% of the
population. In 2009, the number of youth employed stood at 7.1 million.
Youth unemployment increased from 10.5% to 10.9% between 2001 and 2008, accounting for 62.0% of total unemployment in 2008. The
employment-to-population ratio of youth aged 15-24 reduced from 42.7% in 2001 to 36.7% in 2008. This may indicate that a larger proportion of youth
choosing to further their studies, particularly as the number of the young labour force (aged 25 29 years) who have completed tertiary education also
increased from 333,800 in 2001 to 571,600 in 2008.
The government recognises the vital importance of youth in the economy, therefore the Plan aims to better prepare them to undertake their roles in
contributing towards national development, through instilling the right skills set, values and positive mind-set to help them succeed. The youth
population will need to be proactive and dynamic in order to adapt to the evolving landscape of the market economy
In order to mould the youth to continue its important role in the national development agenda, a Cabinet Committee on Youth Development chaired by
the Deputy Prime Minister has been established. This committee will coordinate and update the delivery system for youth development programmes
as well as to streamline the roles and responsibilities of the ministries involved.
The objective of youth development programmes will be to produce a youth population that is capable in the areas of skills, entrepreneurship and
leadership. The government will nurture positive attitudes towards patriotism and volunteerism to produce youth that love the nation and appreciate the
spirit of solidarity amongst all Malaysians - in line with the Malaysia concept. Programmes for youth will be focused to establish a competitive culture
based on merit and ability.
Youth development programmes will be set up to create a generation of youth that is forward looking and driven towards academic and career
achievements. Programmes will be tailored to recognise and reward high performing individuals in order to instil strong character and self-belief
including providing monetary incentives as well as overseas study and internship programmes. The National Youth Award will continue to be used to
recognise outstanding youth achievements in various categories including leadership and volunteerism. In addition, youths that have outstanding
leadership qualities and active participation in societies will be given the opportunity to attend various international conferences and forums such as the
Global Model UN Programme where they will be able to interact with youths from other countries on a wide range of global issues.
To improve the employability of youth, more balance will be sought in developing both technical as well as soft skills. The National Youth Skills Institute
(IKBN), which offers skills courses that have high market demand, will be expanded to provide greater options for youth in various fields of study. The
courses offered will be fully accredited under the Malaysian Skills Certificate. IKBN will also provide soft skills training such as leadership courses to its
students. Greater exposure to capital-intensive sports such as golf and motorsports, will be provided through courses by IKBN with the objective of
enhancing youth participation in potentially lucrative sports sectors. Entrepreneurship training and awareness programmes will be expanded through
various institutions including the Malaysia Youth Development Academy, INSKEN and MARA.
Leadership skills, particularly among youth leaders, will be strengthened through internship programmes at government departments, companies and
NGOs for up to one year. Volunteerism will be promoted among youths. The RELA Youth Squad will be expanded to encourage greater sense of
volunteerism and discipline. To promote greater unity among youths, activities will be tailored to ensure more inclusive participation such as sports
competitions. The Government will also strengthen and develop youth associations through leadership and management courses to ensure the
associations are financially independent. The transfer of registration of youth associations from Registrar of Societies to Registrar of Youth Societies
under the Ministry of Youth and Sports will ensure a more effective delivery and monitoring of youth-related development programmes. During the Plan
period, the number of youth associations is expected to increase from 5,000 to 11,500.
Preventive and rehabilitative programmes will be improved and broadened to better shape the identity of youth and enhance their outlook on life whilst
strengthening their discipline to avoid social ills such as crime and drug addiction and associating with groups involved with such social ills. Awareness
programmes which focus on discouraging youth involvement in criminal activities will be expanded to support the reduction of street crime.
(Source: 10th Malaysia Plan 2011)

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Myanmar

Developing a National Youth Policy


The Global Platform (a youth training center based here) is looking
for experts on developing a national youth policy. It sounds like just
the kind of thing a UWCer might know about. So if you would like
a trip to Yangon to share your experiences, then get in touch. See
details below:
"So far, Myanmar does not have a national youth policy. Given the
current political development, the coordination group of the
upcoming Myanmar Youth Forum is looking into starting up the
process that will lead to the establishment of a national youth
policy in Myanmar. For this purpose, we are looking for individuals
from other Asian countries, who have been/are involved in setting
up national youth parliaments/ministries and implementing
national youth policies in their home countries. We want to invite
them to Myanmar, to attend in a 2-day seminar in November, in
order for us to learn from their experiences and get concrete ideas
on how to approach this challenge in Myanmar".

(Source: UWC South East Asia October 04, 2012)

Nepal
The youth force is an invaluable asset of the nation. The youth is
not only a vital source of the state but also a change agent. The
youths are pioneers of economic, social, political and cultural
transformation and change driving force. This class remains as an
important asset of the nation because of courage, innovativeness,
inquisitiveness and high level of self-confidence, which is also
considered to be a main source of nation building. Population of
16-40 age group in Nepal accounts for 38.8 per cent of the total
population. Given that the youth is the backbone of the nation from
both qualitative and quantitative perspectives, it is necessary to
make overall development of the youth and include their capacity
in the mainstream of national development. This policy is framed
with a view to imparting loyalty of youths to the nation, nationality
and the people, fulfilling the basic needs of the youths and
promoting basic values and norms such as the principles of
equality and equitable distribution, constitutional supremacy,
individual freedom, universal principles of human rights,
democratic values and norms, protection and promotion of ethnic,
linguistic and environmental heritages and co-existence
Need for the Youth Policy

Young people have made outstanding contribution to every


political change, founding of democracy, and other social
movements in Nepal. The peaceful popular movement;
decade-long armed conflict; Madhesh,, Tharuhat and other
movements for identity and recognition, have raised a demand
to specially address the existing situation of the youths. The
need of a policy on youths has, therefore, increased.

While on the one hand, there is a need to address issues


such as class, race, language, religion and gender in
recognition of the significant contribution rendered by the
youth to the establishment of Federal Democratic Republic
in Nepal, on the other hand, it is also necessary to specially
address the youth belonging to minorities, marginalised
communities and from backward regions, and those who
are physically and mentally challenged. The state has to
pursue a concrete policy in order to institutionalise federal
democratic republic in consonance with the inclusive,
proportional and equal development principles, to maintain
independence and sovereignty of Nepal, materialise the
potentiality of youth leadership in the economic, social,
political and cultural transformation and ensure the active
participation of the youth in each and every process of state.
In the context that the Interim Constitution of Nepal, 2007
directs the State to pursue a special policy to mobilise the
youth human resources in the development of the country,
the need for a national youth policy has further increased.
The issues and priorities of the youth who are pursuing
education, who are in search of employment, or who are in
the process of career development are obviously different.
It is an obligation on the part of the state to guide the
various aspects of livelihood, taking into consideration the
sensitivities of the young people. It is, therefore,
necessary to launch programmes targeted to different
sections of youth.
Youth are the important human resources of the nation. The
need of a national youth policy has, therefore, been further
intensified in order to forge the involvement of the youth in
nation building by developing their capacity in all spheres of
life including economic, social, political and cultural spheres.
It is also necessary to build up capacity inherent in them in
order to develop clean social life founded on justice and
morality, by developing creativity, systematic behaviour,
responsible behaviour, entrepreneurship, civic sense and
responsibility on the part of youth.
The youth policy is also necessary with a view to rendering
appropriate support to the vulnerable youth, bringing out the
capacity inherent in them, making appropriate management
to prevent brain drain of youth and developing further
potentiality, while ensuring the access of the Nepalese
youths to opportunities generated globally.

Vision
The long-term vision of this National Youth Policy shall be to
prepare capable, entrepreneurial, creative and competent youth
with scientific and positive vision and establish the youth of the
country in the leadership role so that they can render a meaningful
contribution to the economic, social, political and cultural spheres

CHAPTER-3

of the nation, while guaranteeing the basic rights of the youth and
also taking into consideration of the sensitiveness of the younger
age through youth empowerment.

Goal
The main goal of this policy shall be to make qualitative the role of
youth and capacity inherent in them for building prosperous,
modern and just Nepal, while integrating the youth in the
mainstream of national development, through meaningful
participation, capacity and leadership development.
Objectives

Develop and expand the role and potentiality of the youth in


the nation building and national development;
Enhance the sense of accountability and responsibility, while
making the youth dedicated and committed to the nation and
nationality, people and federal democratic republic;
Develop the youth as the basic energy of development by
developing creativeness, entrepreneurship and innovative
aptitude on the youth, and bring out the capacity inherent in them;
Prepare the youth by making proper development of their
physical, mental, intellectual, moral and emotional aspects,
while developing the culture of respect for labour;
Establish youth as the driving force of national development
by developing the leadership capacity through
gender-sensitivity based meaningful participation in the
policy formulation, decision making and implementation
process at all levels in the economic, social, political and
cultural fields of the nation, by enhancing the access of the
youth to the means of production, while ensuring the basic
rights of the youth;

Support individual and social development including


education, employment and career of the youth who are in
the course of imparting education and in the sensitive stage
of establishing their identity in the society; and
Bring the youth falling in the priority group and the special
priority group into the mainstream of development through
positive discrimination.

Policies

Programmes for making the youth understand the basic


principles, values and norms of the nation, nationality,
national unity, national independence, democracy and
human rights, in order to develop the youth as the change
agent, will be launched.
Youth shall be encouraged to render meaningful
contribution to the policy making of the country, through
economic, social, political and cultural empowerment.

111

Special programmes shall be launched in order to transform


the youth into a dedicated, active, innovative and
constructive strength in the society, and make them
accountable and responsible to the society and committed
to the democratic system.
Special focus shall be given to launch programmes targeted, in
particular, to the youth who are in the process of imparting
education and in search of career opportunity, while taking into
consideration of the needs of their age groups.
There shall be developed the culture of realisation of duty to
the state and society and respect for labour by launching
awareness programmes, in order to develop morality,
quality of character and discipline among the youth.
A policy shall be pursued to mobilise youth in order to do
away with problems such as poverty, illiteracy,
untouchability, malpractices, discrimination and disparity.
The youth shall de developed as a driving force of social
change, through collaboration with the private,
non-governmental and local bodies as well.
Various programmes shall be launched to prepare
conscious youth force free from distortions noticed in the
economic, social, cultural and political fields.
There shall be created an environment that is conducive to
the utilisation of diversity, by generating equal opportunities
for the empowerment and development of the youths of all
races, castes, religions, colours, sexes classes and regions.
The youth talents who have rendered special contribution to
various fields of life shall be honoured by the state.
Appropriate investment shall be made also with participation
of the private sector for the development of knowledge,
skills and capacity of the youth, in order to empower and
institutionalise the search for youth talents, and boost up the
talent latent in the youth, develop their skills and capacity
and utilise the same in the productive area.
Various programmes shall be launched in order to develop
entrepreneurship on the youth.
Priority shall be accorded to the activities designed to forge
participation of the youth as volunteers in the development
of nation, while providing them with information as to the
geographical, social and economic conditions of the country
Appropriate opportunities of quality education, training,
study and research shall be generated and developed for
the development of the role and potentiality of the youth in
the national development.
The activeness of the youth shall be enhanced through
youth mobilisation programmes by creating the study,

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research and youth friendly programmes to develop positive


and scientific thinking and idea on the youth.

Environment shall be created to prevent brain drain by


creating opportunities of career development within the
country for talented youth in various sectors.
Involvement of the youth in creative fields such as literature,
arts, culture, music, acting and sports shall be encouraged.
The youth involved in these fields shall be motivated and
encouraged to elevate national pride.
Sports shall be professionalised, modernised and
systematised and taken as an integral part of development,
the youth shall be made competent in international
competitions through the mobilisation of appropriate means
and resources, and development of career and
professionalism of sportspersons shall be focused.
There shall be developed a policy of coordinating, in an
integrated manner, the programmes launched by various
bodies of the state for the youth.

made competent to earn normal livelihood post the school


living certificate level examination.

Programmes to promote health awareness by enhancing


the access of the youth to health shall be encouraged.
Social efforts shall be targeted towards the development of
positive thinking and culture on the youth, while freeing the
Nepalese youth from addictive and non-social activities
being expanded globally.
Programmes shall be launched, according special priority to
the services and facilities provided by the state to the youth
falling in the priority group and the special priority group.

Main Working Policies


The following working policies shall be adopted in harmony with the
sectorial policies of the state for the implementation of the policy:

Basic Rights of Livelihood

Programmes shall be launched in a coordinated manner in


order to establish the rights of food, shelter, clothing,
education, health, employment and security of the youth.
There shall be ensured the right of the youth to live with
dignity in an environment that is free from fear and
discrimination made on grounds of class, ethnicity,
profession, language, religion, region, gender and disability.

Education

Technical human resources shall be prepared by


establishing technical schools, focusing on matters such as
water resources, forest resources, tourism resources,
agriculture, animal husbandry and herbs.
Higher education shall be made easily and widely available
for talented youth, and special programmes targeted to the
special priority group shall be launched.
There shall be launched educational programmes of such
nature as to orient the youth towards sustainable peace,
nation, nationality, democratic values and norms, rule of law,
civil rights and duties.
Provision of special scholarship shall be made for the
enhancement of the opportunity of education for the youth
falling in the special priority groups.
Such educational programmes as to develop skilled human
resources required at the national and international labour
markets shall be launched. Special educational
programmes shall be launched, targeting the youth involved
in foreign labour market.
Programmes shall be launched to forge participation of the
interested youth studying or having studied higher
education as volunteers in the development of rural areas in
order to provide them with practical knowledge.
Skills-oriented training and literacy programmes as
required for the youth who are deprived of formal education
shall be launched.
Skills training centres shall be established and training
imparted on tourism, cottage industry and agro-industry in a
manner to utilise the natural resources of Nepal, and
investment being made by the government and
non-government sectors in education shall be centred for
the development of appropriate technology in the fields
including agriculture, tourism, animal husbandry, forestry,
herbs production and processing and hydro-power.
Initiative shall be made to provide for special education
targeting the youth who have dropped formal education due
to various reasons including conflict, disregard and scarcity.

Health and Family Welfare

Access of the youth to education shall be ensured, while


taking initiation to make education up to higher secondary
level free and compulsory in a gradual manner.

Education shall be made scientific, empirical and


skills-oriented and linked with labour, and youth shall be

The access of the youth to health information shall be


maintained, while making the basic health services easily
available for the youth.
Health education shall be incorporated in the curriculum
right from that of elementary level, and education shall be

CHAPTER-3

imported about clean drinking water, health life style,


nutrition, healthy environment and hazardous works, among
others.

The youth shall be encouraged to have safe and positive


sexual activities, while providing them with education on
sexual health safety and freeing them from all kinds of
sexual violence.
A strategy shall be adopted to keep the Nepalese youth in
general from HIV/AIDS, making them aware about possible
risks of HIV/AIDS through public awareness programmes.
In addition, environment shall be created for the youth who
are infected from HIV/AIDS to live a dignified and easy life in
the society, by running special counselling service centres,
regularly providing anti-retroviral medicines to such youth in
an easily accessible manner, and providing the infected
youth with skills-oriented education, while freeing such
youth from all kinds of social discrimination.
Health counselling service centres shall be established in
order to have the youth free from risks of diseases of deadly
nature.

Social Security

Youth affected from famine and malnutrition shall be


identified and special programmes targeted to them
launched.

Initiative shall be taken to make health insurance provision


in order to secure protection by the state of the right of youth
to health.
The youth shall be trained, in coordination with health
institutions, on matters such as family planning, maternal
child care, right to motherhood, and child delivery gap.
Special programmes shall be launched in order to bring
about improvement in the status of reproductive health of
women, while establishing the right of women to
reproductive health.
Programmes shall be launched towards the establishment
of the pregnancy and delivery time care as the obligation of
the state.
Youth shall be made vigilant about mental health by
launching nationwide awareness programmes for the
enhancement of the mental health of the youth.

The matter of providing social protection to unemployed


youth pending the provision of employment to them shall be
forwarded on the basis of study.
Provisions shall be made to provide consultancy service to
the youth on areas such as health and career development.
Public opinion shall be forged against domestic violence
and sexual violence, while encouraging the youth to make
their family life easy and cordial.
Youth shall be mobilised to do away with ill-practices such
as child marriage and polygamy.
Priority shall be accorded to the youth falling in the special
priority group on matters of social security.

Employment

The youth shall be educated to develop health habits and


pay attention to foods and sanitation in order to save them
from malnutrition, while securing their right to food.

Youth information and consultancy service shall be


established to provide consultancy services to the youth on
conjugal life, psychological and other sensitive matters.

113

Development of rural and agro-industry shall be focused on,


by providing entrepreneurship and other vocational training,
in order to enhance employment.
For the development of professionalism and
entrepreneurship and generation of employment for the
youth, steps shall be taken to establish and develop
financial institutions, as required. In order to develop
entrepreneurship on the youths who have technical
knowledge and skills, programmes shall be launched to
provide youth friendly loans and seed money on the basis
of certificate.
Generation of youth human resources according to the need
of labour market shall be focused on, while mitigating
disharmony noticed in the labour market and labour force
production.
Appropriate strategies shall be prepared in order to attract
the youth to public services, and requisite facilities shall be
made to that end.
The youth shall be encouraged to establish cooperatives in
rural and urban areas for economic and social
transformation.
The youth shall be encouraged to engage in employment of
the agriculture sector by providing, inter alia, agricultural
inputs and seeds, and loans as required for the
modernisation and professionalisation of that sector.
The youth employment programme shall be expanded up to
the local level in a coordinated manner by establishing the
"youth employment promotion centre."
Motivation of youth shall be enhanced in order to modernise
the traditional profession, the youth involved in this sector

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shall be encouraged and honoured; and appropriate


environment shall be created for market management.

Environment shall be created for skilled youth engaged in


foreign employment to return to home and engage in
self-employment and entrepreneurship.
Programmes to send the youth for foreign employment after
providing them with formal and technical training within the
country according to the demand for human resources prior
to going for foreign employment shall be promoted.
Necessary mechanisms shall be built to resolve various
problems of the youth when abroad and prevent the youth
from being cheated in the name of foreign employment.
Security and employment generating programmes shall be
focused on in order to ensure quality and decent foreign
employment for women.
An action plan on employment shall be prepared and
implemented gradually for the promotion of youth
employment.
Appropriate step shall be taken for the provision of
compensation to those youth who die, become disabled, are
subjected to physical or mental exploitation and
discrimination in the course of foreign employment, and
programmes to rescue them and rehabilitate them in Nepal.
Steps shall be taken to provide legal services through the
concerned Nepalese Embassy to the youth, who face
injustice for various reasons, are imprisoned, evicted from
work and deprived of facilities, and thereby protect their
labour right.
Eight-hour working days and minimum wages shall be
determined for labour youth; physical and mental
exploitation and discrimination against youth labour at
workplace shall be ended.
Development of youth labour shall be focused on, while
guaranteeing safe, healthy and decent work and
encouraging programmes establishing the labour right.
Programmes shall be launched in harmony with the policy
on safe and decent work so as to free the youth from
hazardous work.
Legal and social initiatives shall be taken to end all kinds of
bonded labour practice.

Youth awareness and orientation programmes shall be


launched for the economic, social, political and cultural
empowerment of youth.

Programmes shall be launched through local bodies for the


individual and social capacity building of youth.
Youth exchange, study tour, country visit and youth
campaign programmes shall be launched in order to provide
the youth with experience within and outside the country.
Programmes to reward and honour the youth who gain
reputation by undertaking creative works at the national and
international levels shall be launched.
Youth awareness and public awareness campaigns shall
be carried so as to develop the culture of equality, justice
and fairness and bring about positive change in the attitude
of youth.
Special programmes shall be launched in order to
enhance the capacity of organisations and institutions led
by the youth.
Counselling and service centres shall be established for the
career and leadership development of youth.

Participation and Mobilisation

Equal pay for equal work system shall be enforced.

Youth Empowerment and Leadership Development

The meaningful participation of youth in the peace process


of Nepal, restructuring of the state and constitution making
and post-nation building activities shall be enhanced and
the pioneer role of youth in the implementation thereof shall
be focused on.
Promotional programmes shall be launched in order to
create such environment as to ensure the participation of
youth in international forums.
Participation of youth in policy making, planning and
implementation processes, with priority, shall be forged.
Programmes on business incubation shall be launched to
develop entrepreneurship on the youth.
Motivational programmes shall be launched in order to
make the youth actively participate in the policy and
decision making processes in the economic field.
Such programmes as to maintain the access of
communities to balanced use of natural resources of the
country and mobilise the youths in that activity shall be
launched.
The meaningful participation of youth in social processes at
all levels shall be promoted.
There shall be pursued a policy to get the youth involved in
school management, social development activities, road
building, community management and community based
various organisations.

CHAPTER-3

Accountability promotion programmes shall be launched so


as to make the youth responsible to the society and mobilise
them as an agent of social transformation.
Such environment as to bear social accountability and
responsibility by having the youth actively participate, as
partners, in social programmes shall be created.
Given that the youth are themselves an agent of culture and
tradition, all Nepalese youth shall be freed from cultural
deviation and got involved in building a people-oriented and
progressive culture.
Youth shall be mobilised in awareness programmes
designed to establish a people-oriented and democratic
culture, while mobilising youths in general against culture
deeply rooted in ill-traditions, superstition and thinking such
as untouchability, Jhuma, Deuki, Badi, Kamara Kamari,
Haliya, Haruwa, bonded labour, dowry and Chhaupadi.
Youth shall be mobilised as volunteers in various aspects of
social services.
Awareness programmes shall be launched by mobilising
youth for the purpose of development of the culture of
equality between men and women.
Youth shall be mobilised intensively against social and
cultural ill practices and tradition for fairness and decency,
by creating an environment conducive to the building and
making of valid opinions and positive ideas.
There shall be pursued a policy of providing training to, and
engaging, youth as volunteers in the economic and social
transformation and development of the country and
mobilising them in rescue works in times of calamity,
accident and emergency situation.
Youth shall be mobilised in the development and promotion
of democratic values, norms and culture.

Arts, Culture, Sports and Entertainment

Youth shall be trained and mobilised to protect and promote


various artistic and cultural heritages in Nepal.
Focus shall be given to the institutional development of the
sports sector in such a manner as to elevate the glory and
prestige of the nation, while having regard to the
maintenance of mental and physical fitness of the people so
as to motivate them to serve the nation and people.
There shall be pursued a policy of training youth right from
the school and campus level in a planned manner for the
development of sports, arts and literature, and developing
then as national level sportspersons, artists and litterateurs
through fair competition.

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Programmes shall be launched to provide attractive prize,


honour and economic and physical facilities so as to
encourage various literary organisations, cultural groups,
dance groups and sports clubs.
Youth shall be encouraged to engage in sports,
creativeness, and arts of expression through training,
competition and motivation, and the glory of the nation shall
be elevated by increasing competitive participation in
international competitions.
Youth shall be encouraged to open cultural and sports
centres at the village, town and district levels, and local
bodies shall be mobilised to develop culture, arts and
sports.
Various competitions shall be organised in order to expand
womens participation in sports.
Entertaining activities shall be promoted by organising
friendly matched between the youth with disability.

Control of Narcotics Addiction

The government sector, private sector, political


organisations and nongovernmental organisations shall be
mobilised extensively for the operation of preventive and
curative programmes so as to discourage addiction and
deformity in the youths.
Counselling and rehabilitation centres shall be operated for
the rehabilitation of narcotic drug addict youth.
Such programmes as to make easier the social life of
narcotic drug users by making provision of their
rehabilitation and employment.
Provisions shall be made to prevent youth below 18 years of
age from having access to purchase and sale of liquors and
tobacco products.

Control of Trafficking in and Sale of Human Beings

Legal provisions shall be enforced more strictly in order to


prevent trafficking in Nepalese youth taking place in
various countries.
Necessary arrangements shall be made to prevent
Nepalese youth from reaching illegal and unsafe
destinations.
Special programmes shall be launched to prevent human
trafficking, particularly women trafficking, within and outside
the country; and special priority shall be accorded for
education and employment to the communities with such risks.
Special arrangements shall be made to return the youth
subjected to trafficking and cheated in the name of foreign

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employment to Nepal and such environment shall be created


as to enable them live an easy life in the Nepalese society.

Youth particularly women shall be organised and mobilised


in the prevention and control of trafficking in and sale of
human beings along international border areas.

Youth Participation in Environment Protection and


Sustainable Development

Training programmes on environment protection shall be


launched for youths in order to prevent global climate
change, increase in heat, space pollution, climate pollution
and unplanned excessive exploitation of natural resources.
Programmes shall be launched to have the youth in general
participate in the protection, maintenance and promotion of
the environment.
Priority shall be accorded to the programmes enhancing the
participation of the youth groups in sustainable development
and environment protection.

Access of Youth to Science and Information Technology

Such environment shall be created as to encourage brighter


youth talents in the field of science and technology and
provide them with respectable position in Nepal, by
providing them with opportunities for study and training in
other countries.
Special scholarship shall be provided so as to attract
brighter youth towards the development of modern
technology in the fields including the use of resources,
agriculture, animal husbandry, herbs production and
processing and hydro-power.
Programmes shall be operated in a coordinated manner for
ensuring the access of the youth in rural areas to
information and communication technology.
Training on information and technology shall be launched
for the youth of special priority groups.
Programmes shall be put forward for making the Nepalese
youth in general competent in information and
communication technology and success in competition at
the world market, at this era of globalisation.

Free Youth from Involvement in Crime and Violence

Special programmes shall be launched for the purpose of


discouraging the involvement of youth in various kinds of violence.
Special arrangements shall be made to discourage the
involvement of youth in crime, violence, illegal and
anti-social activities.

Programmes shall be launched in a coordinated manner to


reform the youth involved in crime, violence, illegal and
anti-social activities and rehabilitate them after reformation,
and make such an environment as to enable them to live an
easy life in the society.

Participation of Youth in Sustainable Peace Building and


Conflict Resolution

Meaningful participation of youth in the peace building, truth


and reconciliation processes shall be ensured.
Youth organisations and institutions shall be involved in
peace building and conflict resolution.
Such programmes as to train and mobilise youth with a view
to mitigating divisions appearing on grounds of class,
ethnicity, language, region and sex shall be encouraged.
The youth shall be encouraged to maintain national unity
while respecting diversity.

Equitable Development

Special programmes shall be operated for the


implementation of the policy of social inclusion, having
regard to the youth falling in the special priority groups.
The state shall put forward such programmes as to identify
the poor youth talents undergoing economic deplorability
and support their development.
The youth falling in the priority groups and living below the
poverty line shall be brought into the national mainstream
through positive discrimination programmes in the field of
study and scholarship.
Educated and competent youth shall be mobilised as driving
force for making publicity of education to the youth falling in
the priority groups.

Special Group Priorities

Schools and education centres with facilities shall be


established, while adopting special teaching methods so
that the youth with disability may inculcate education easily.
Employment where persons with disabilities can be
engaged in shall be identified and necessary arrangements
shall be made, while providing skills and vocational
education according to their capacity. Provisions shall be
made to make public places or areas including public
transportation, building and toilets disabled-friendly.
Moreover, provisions shall be made for making available the
materials required for the youth with disability, in an easy
and widely accessible manner.

CHAPTER-3

There shall be pursued a policy of rehabilitating the


vulnerable youth in the society by providing for appropriate
employment by imparting skill-oriented and vocational
education, while launching programmes for treatment and
rehabilitation of such youth.
Rehabilitation programmes shall be initiated by arranging
for special priority to the youth who are victims from
conflict in the fields of education, health and employment.
In addition, programmes on making appropriate
arrangement for employment by way of skill-oriented
training shall be launched.
Special programmes shall be launched to enable the
minority and marginalised youths to have access to natural,
social, cultural and traditional resources. In addition, special
focus shall be given to the protection, promotion and
modernisation of traditional occupation and skills. The youth
falling in this group shall be incorporated in the mainstream
of national development through empowerment and
orientation, while according special priority to these youth.

Partnership

Various programmes shall be launched in partnerships


between the government, local bodies, youth organisations,
donor communities, non-governmental organisations and
the private sector for the development of the the youth
community.
Appropriate programmes shall be launched in order to
implement the commitments made by Nepal at the
international level.
Non-residential Nepalese youth shall be attracted to make
investment in Nepal, while making appropriate policy and
environment for investment.
Partnership shall be established with the youth in the fields
of peace and development, in partnership with the
governmental and non-governmental bodies, and a fund
shall be established, as required, for the operation of
programmes relating to youth.
Provisions shall be made to set aside certain budget to run
programmes for the development of youth, out of the
programmes to be operated by the local bodies.
Such programmes as to encourage the investment made in
the sectors prioritised by this policy shall be launched.

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Institutional Arrangements
Governmental Sector
An autonomous and executive National Youth Council shall be
formed by a separate act for the implementation of this policy. This
council shall consist of representatives of the concerned bodies,
representatives of youth organisations of political parties and
office-bearers appointed by the Government of Nepal. The council
shall have organisational structure from the centre to the local
level. Provisions shall be made that in appointing office-bearers by
the Government of Nepal to the council, there shall be proportional
inclusive representation of the Madhesi, indigenous peoples, Dalit,
backward region, the disabled and minority communities. In
addition, participation of 33 per cent women at all levels shall be
ensured. The council shall coordinate, harmonise and facilitate
programmes relating to youth launched by the governmental,
non-governmental and private sector. Structures such as youth
information and research centre, youth counselling and service
centre, youth employment promotion centre shall be established in
pursuance of this policy, as per the need of youth at the local level.
Law, as required, shall be made for the operation of business of
the council and the sub-ordinate bodies, and financial and
administrative provisions shall be made.
Non-governmental Sector
Youth organisations, national and international non-governmental
organisations, private sector, civil society and local bodies shall be
encouraged and mobilised for the operation of programmes
relating to youths, and appropriate environment shall be created to
that end. Such organisations shall be mobilised as partners so that
their resources can be mobilised in programmes relating to youth.
The National Youth Council shall direct and coordinate this activity.
Monitoring and Evaluation
The Youth and Sports Ministry of the Government of Nepal shall
serve as a mechanism to monitor and evaluate whether the
outputs and objectives to be achieved with the implementation of
this National Youth Policy have been achieved or fulfilled, fully or
partly. To this end, provisions shall be made to enhance the
institutional capacity of the ministry, as required. There shall be
pursued a policy of adopting the participatory monitoring system
for monitoring and evaluation. This policy shall be regularly
reviewed, revised and improved every five years. Since a
comprehensive national youth survey has not yet been completed
at the time of formulation of this policy, necessary revision shall be
made in this policy after the adolescent and youth survey being
carried out by the Central Bureau of Statistics

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Pakistan

Definition of Youth
Youth is defined as a period during which a person prepares
himself/herself to be an active and fully, responsible member of the
society. It is a period of transformation from family dependant
childhood to independent adulthood and integration in the society
as a responsible citizen.
Various countries use different age groups for defining the population
of youth. In Pakistan, the population in the age group of 15-29 years
is taken as the young population. This age group is consistent with
the definition of youth adopted by the Commonwealth.
Demographic Context
According to the Population Labour Force Survey 2006, the
population of youth in the country was 41.81 million which
represented about 27% of the total population of the country.
Salient characteristics of the youth population are:

Proportion of males and females is about 50% each;

About 63% of the young population (26.27 million) is literate.


Out of the 37% illiterate population (15.57 million) about
65% (10.13 million) are females;
About 49% (20.32 million) of the population constitutes
labour force while 51% (21.51 million) is out of labour
force. The out of labour force population comprises of
6.89 million students and 14.03 million (including 13.82
million females) as households;
The labour force is engaged in:

Agriculture (about 37% of L.F.);


Manufacturing (about 17%);
Wholesale, retail trade and restaurants etc. (about
15% of L.F.);
Community, social and personal services (about 11%
of L.F.);
Construction (about 7% of L.F.); and
Transport, storage and communications (about 6%).

The Challenges

Groom and guide the youth of Pakistan to live in peace and


harmony following the cardinal principles given by the
founder of the nation; unity, faith and discipline;
Convert the demographic increase in the population of
youth (demographic dividend) into an economic dividend by
engaging the youth in economic activities, enabling gainful
engagements in income generation (domestically and
abroad) to propel the growth of Pakistan in the 21st century;

Address the gender imbalance in the access to facilities and


economic opportunities between men and women;
Provide and facilitate education and youth literacy
programmes for those who have missed childhood education.

The National Youth Policy has been prepared to address the


above challenges in concert with the economic and social sector
policies of Pakistan.
Principles of National Youth Policy
Reinforce the Sense of Pride, Awareness and Motivation

Approximately 67% of the young population lives in the


rural areas;

Provide an environment to facilitate the youth in exploiting


their full potential.

Reinforce the sense of pride by creating awareness about


our history, heritage and achievements;
Expose youth to work and examples of high achievers in the
world in various walks of life and to instil a passion to excel
and achieve excellence; and
Develop amongst the youth an international outlook, a
desire to compete, an insight into other cultures and desire
to learn lessons from achievements and errors of others.

Promote National Integration

National integration and harmony;


Mutual friendship;
Tolerance, understanding and values; and
Social interactions.

Harnessing the Youth Dividend


Consistent with the policies of the Government for rapid economic
growth which will create opportunities of income generation for
Pakistani youth, following specific measures be taken:
Skill Development
Undertake target oriented programmes for development of new and
enhancement of existing skill to cater for the need of the youth in the
specific area/regions (e.g. coastal, agriculture, industrial, urban,
rural areas etc.). These programmes will also envisage training for
foreign job markets where Pakistani youth can find jobs.
Entrepreneurship
Assist and support the youth in establishing self-employment
businesses and start-up of new companies/ventures.
Micro Finance
Provide financial resources for small scale income generation
ventures.
Internship and Job Counselling
Enhance internship programmes and provide job counselling in
collaboration with corporate sector and universities etc.

CHAPTER-3

Address Issues of Marginalised and Vulnerable Groups of


Youth
Eradicate disparities related to access to social and economic
opportunities and resources for youth development by adopting
rights base approaches.
Support Character Building

Inspire the youth with:

Islamic values,
Ideology of Pakistan, aspiration for Pakistan,
Sense of good citizenship, high standards of morality,
Discipline,
Respect for basic human values, laws and religions, and
Educate, motivate and guide against extremism,
terrorism, anti-state and inhuman activities.

Promotion of Sports and Recreation


Patronise sports and recreation activities, sports competition,
expansion of sports facilities at all administrative levels on
sustainable basis with special emphasis for young females.
Academic and Intellectual Development

Take steps to promote scholarship, enhance availability and


access to academic material, participation in conferences
and undertake talent forming programmes.
Special emphasis is given to mainstreaming of youth
studying in Madrassas.
Youth will be given representations in think tanks, policy
formation and implementation fora.

Youth Health
Create awareness about responsible and safe behaviour, provide
youth friendly and health care counselling and guidance facilities.
Social Volunteerism

Youth will be encouraged to undertake voluntary social service.


Incentives for talented and high performing youth.
Talented and high performing youth will be given recognition
reward and incentive at the national level. Efforts are made
to motivate and attract them towards service for the nation.

Special Youth
Special consideration will be given to promote the participation of
special and handicapped youth in all activities.
Gender Balance
Work towards gender equity and provide greater opportunities and
decent environment for the female youth to play their role in
socio-economic development of the country.
Youth in Prison
Special programmes for rehabilitation, mentoring, training and
education and incentives for youth in prison will be evolved so that
their time in the prison is utilised to become good citizens capable
of integrating in social economic activities.
Plan of Action
A number of ministries and institutions in Pakistan are already
engaged in various programmes benefiting the youth. The
National Youth Policy aims at creating a youth centric focus by
integrating and coordinating the programmes of various
ministries and institutions and providing overall guidance to
develop the youth in Pakistan to meet the challenges of the future
in building Pakistan. The plan of action proposed in pursuance of
the policy, thus, builds upon the existing infrastructure and
programmes besides additional programmes and dimensions
wherever necessary.
Priority Areas and Plan of Action
The plan of action for each point of the National Youth Policy is
described below:
Sense of Pride, Awareness and Motivation
It is proposed to reinforce a sense of pride of being Pakistani or
having association with Pakistan, motivate the youth for
achievement of excellence, and learn from local, national and
international icons and to be aware of the development in the
world. Accordingly, the plan envisages:

Using various means of communication and media, lift the


morale of our youth by the following projecting activities:

Youth Marriage, Family and Life Skills


Facilitating the youth (above 18 years) in the formation and
planning of a healthy family on a sustainable basis.
Youth Mentoring
Supporting and guiding the youth in identifying their potentials,
overcoming their failures, adopting the traits of good citizens and
boosting their morale for high achievements in life.

119

Projecting Pakistans heritage to our youth through


visits and participation in events to see various areas,
economic centres, monuments, museums dwellings,
cities of historical importance, renowned facilities,
universities etc.
Interacting with high achievers, corporate, leaders,
researchers, academicians, social workers and other
icons through visits, meetings, seminars, chat
programmes, video conferences, other means of
communication;

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Enabling interaction with high achievers and icons on


the pattern of the initiative taken by Higher Education
Commission and Pakistan Science Foundation by
arranging interaction with Nobel Laureates;
Youth are made aware of Pakistans geographical
importance in the economic and geopolitical context
of the world;

facilitate low cost tours. For this purpose a scheme of back


pack lodging will be launched in cooperation with
educational institutions.

Involving youth in national policy formulation; and


Youth may be invited to programmes organised by the
President/Prime Minister/Governor/Chief Minister
Secretariat and Nazims.

National Integration
Promote national integration and harmony amongst the youth from
various walks of life in the country. These bonds created at a
young age will go a long way to nourish future relationships.
Programmes include:

See Pakistan visits: Participants from all over the country


would be invited to come together for organised visits to
various areas. The participants will live and get together as
they see sites of historical importance, explore the life,
history and natural endowments and meet leaders in various
walks of life. These programmes will be based on selection
of youth on merit from various regions of the country so that
the objective of cross cultural learning is achieved.
See city tours: Cause local administration to run special
transport on weekends to conduct city visits to expose youth
to different parts of the city they live in.
Arrange national youth conventions: Organise national
youth conventions where various cultural, social competitive
events are held. Corporations and leading companies will
beinvited to set up stalls to exhibit their products and
business practices giving the youth an opportunity to
interact with them and build relations.
Arrange country-wide tours and run youth trains: Provide
concession on railway tickets to youth during the period of
summer vacations of June to September to promote
excursion travel.
Arrange in-cities tours: To enable visits of students in local
institutions to venues of interest, museums and monuments
etc. For this purpose resources will be made available
through Ministry of Youth Affairs to public sector educational
institutions, to undertake such activities. The Ministry of
Youth Affairs will promote these efforts.
Arrange interschool, inter college and inter universities debates
and conventions etc.: To promote such activities, the Ministry of
Youth Affairs will provide resources to public sectors.
Facilitate student camping/lodging facilities: in premises of
selected educational institutions during summer period to

Cause or construct youth hostels: In various cities and


tourist spots in the country for providing decent and
economical accommodation for youth to facilitate there
visits. Also establish relations with the members of
international youth associations and travel agents.
Mainstreaming the youth from backward and special areas:
Under this programme, young people from backward areas
will be invited to live in major cities and get the exposure of
city life, exposure for development in the country, visit to
major development projects and institutions of learning.
Special scholarships will be offered to students from
backward and special areas to live in urban universities,
colleges, schools and vocational centres. This will provide
opportunities for learning and interaction with their
contemporaries in urban areas, experience the urban
environment and build the bonds amongst the youth and
share their value. This is to create inspiration in the youth of
such areas to improve their own environments and play
constructive role in their areas.
Youth Rural Urban Exchange Programmes: It is proposed to
provide opportunities for living and exposure to urban youth
of the rural areas and vice versa. This will widen the
perspective of the youth.

Harnessing the Youth Dividend


There is a great need to enhance the existing programmes of skill
development and vocational training in the country as it has a
tremendous potential to provide employment to our youth in rural
and urban areas as well as the job market abroad. The plan of
action being prepared (and being implemented) in coordination
and collaboration with the relevant government divisions/agencies
envisages:
Skill Development and Vocational Training

It is proposed to carry out an assessment of the demand/


requirements and capacity of the skills development facilities
in the country. In this respect, NAVTEC has already prepared
a strategy for Skilling Pakistan and Federal bureau of
statistics is also planning to undertake a demand supply
summary for various occupations. Based on the assessment
of needs, technical and skill development programmes will
be enhanced. It is proposed that existing schools may be
inducted in this programme and a substantial number of
schools in public and private sector may start regular
evening and weekend programmes for skill development
and technical training for which funds would be provided by
the federal and provincial governments.

CHAPTER-3

National and international job market analysis would be


carried out to identify the requirements of skills in various
target markets and our youth be trained in the relevant
fields. Besides, support will be extended to our youth to seek
jobs and placements locally and in foreign markets. The
overseas Pakistani Division of Ministry of Labour and
Manpower is already working in this direction. This
programme will be further enhanced.
The vocational training institutes in the country will update a
curriculum in accordance with current requirements and job
opportunities in the agriculture/industrial and services
sectors and prepare a phased expansion programme of
such training facilities in rural/urban areas keeping in view
regional considerations regarding youth population,
prevailing skill-levels, and unemployment. This will be
undertaken in coordination with NAVTEC and concerned
provincial departments.
Specialised institutions for providing training in area specific
needs will be opened e.g. training of agriculture labour,
maintenance of agriculture implements, agriculture
businesses, and agricultural practices in agricultural areas.
Similarly training to support tanneries, fans, cutlery,
garments industries in relevant industrial areas etc.

Institute a programme of certification of informally acquired


skills by technicians and workers to enable them acquire
suitable jobs and financing.

Entrepreneurship

venture activities. Such incubators may be set up in


universities and also by corporate sector for which suitable
incentives would be given.

Youth in Pakistan has great inspiration for new ideas but are
usually handicapped because of lack of resources to
experiment these ideas and develop these to enter the
market. To mitigate risks in new ventures, it is necessary
that the risk of trying bright ideas be underwritten by
entrepreneurs and our talent is given a chance to succeed.
For this purpose the programme envisages creation of a
youth venture capital fund to support new developments
and implementation of new ideas. This fund can be
subscribed by the government, entrepreneurs, corporations,
donors, beneficiaries etc.
Creation of small incubator offices equipped with all office
facilities for young graduates so that they may work in
these incubators to polish up their ideas and implement to

Facilitate and guide young entrepreneurs regarding


procedures for opening of new companies and provide legal
advice as needed.
Arrange entrepreneurship and corporate leadership training
programmes to enable youth to learn from existing enterprises
and the companies. Learn the art of making business plans
and selling it to the venture capital and other funds.
Enhance the outreach of programmes of Small and Medium
Enterprise Development Agency (SMEDA).
Guide and train youth to do business, to innovate and
expand business.
Guide and train small and poor service providers to grow
from small occupations into large enterprise.
Create respect for poor and small entrepreneurship (rag to
riches empowerment).
Arrange youth entrepreneurship competition.

Microfinance

Facilitate placement of youth in appropriate jobs. Establish


placement support centres at district levels.
Establish and encourage local crafts based youth
enterprises for income generation at village and urban
neighbourhood level and provide professional assistance
for marketing of such enterprise products.

121

Provide financial resources/loans to increase access of


poor/low income youths to training institutions and facilitate
those seeking self-employment;
Expand of microfinance sector in terms of outlets, products
and access by the young; and
Create a centralised Information-System/Data base on job
opportunities for Youth in public and private sector to guide
and counsel job-seeking youth.

Internships: On Campus Job and Job Placements

Expand and improve national internship programmes;


In addition the government programme, require large public
and private organisations, companies and enterprises to
provide internship opportunities equal to at least 5% of their
sanctioned/approved strength of officers to young
people/graduates with stipends equal to or more than the
government programme;
Require all universities to provide on campus jobs equal to
at least 5% of their full time student population;
Encourage all universities to set up offices for awaiting
graduates in job placements. The government may also
support programmes for job counselling and placement
services; and
New programmes of internships (or shared salaries) in
partnership with corporate sector (public and private) with

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commitments of the latter to provide employment to most of


the internees.
Marginalised and Vulnerable Youth
Special and proactive measures financing and programmes for
mainstreaming e.g.

Welfare Centres and facilities to attract marginalised out of


school and vulnerable youth from loitering, begging, whiling
away time by clinging to shrines etc.
Through support of NGOs/civil society and support
programmes of the Ministry of Social Welfare and
education for mainstreaming of marginalised and
vulnerable youth groups.

Academic and Intellectual Development


There is no dearth of hard working and talented youth of
Pakistan. Given the opportunity, they can rise to the highest
ranks in academic and intellectual pursuits. Many talented
students, however, are handicapped because of lack of financial
support, compromise on merit, limited opportunities, ignorance
about opportunities and lack of availability or access to books,
literature and other academic resources. To promote young
academics to pursue excellence and critical thinking, the
programmes include:

Character Building
Propagation of true islamic values, ideology of Pakistan, good
citizenship, gender equality, human values and respect for other
religions through:

TV/Radio/media programmes and talk shows, debates,


essay, competitions and discussions involving the youth
and elders.

Films, dramas advertisement and documentaries etc.,


leading to good moral lessons.

Promotion of Sports and Recreation


The plan of action for the promotion of sports and recreational
facilities is as follows:

Distinguished persons such as president, prime minister,


ministers, nazims, leading icons in society, corporate
leaders and other known personalities to become patrons of
sports organisations in urban and rural areas;
Arrange competitive sports, trekking, scouting events at all
administrative levels. Make tent villages/camping facilities,
wherever feasible and necessary;

Ensure proper media coverage and appreciation of the


sports activities;
Enhance training for various sports through training centres,
schools and educational institutions and media;
Enable expansion of sports facilities, play grounds, proper
maintenance and sustenance of the sports facilities; create
youth activity centres (comprising of reading rooms,
computers, indoor and outdoor sports etc.) with priority to
small towns. This may be done through public sector, public
private partnership or through private sector/corporate
resources; and
Special emphasis will be given to facilities for females.

Enhancing the availability of scholarships to carry out


studies at higher secondary, under graduate and graduate
levels in country and abroad. A special emphasis will be
given for scholarships at higher secondary and under
graduate levels to dovetail with a similar programme being
run by the Higher Education Commission. Transparent
criteria for selection of deserving youth for these
scholarships will be prepared and widely publicised;
In order to reduce the gap of level and quality of education
for rural population, it is proposed to launch a special
scheme of scholarships for rural youth studying in schools in
rural and underdeveloped areas in class 9 to graduation in
quality education institutions in urban areas;
Starting and augmenting programmes for educational loans
and Qarz-e-Hasna for students who do not get merit
scholarships for studies both in Pakistan and abroad. These
loans can be advanced by the governments and banks and
well publicised;
Special funds will be created to facilitate participation of
young students and professionals in conferences in-country
and abroad. Transparent criteria for selection of deserving
youth will be prepared and widely publicised;
In order to prepare students for getting admissions for the
world renowned institutions at under graduate and graduate
levels, special tutorials and guidance sessions would be
arranged on internet and various local institutions would be
encouraged to run trainings on subsidised rates;
Books and research and development materials and
facilities would be made available to the young researchers
through internet access, libraries, book banks or book
loaning programmes;
The government will provide support for mainstreaming of
youth studying in Madrassas in collaboration with the
Ministries of Religious Affairs and Education;
Educational institutions will be advised to provide hostel
accommodation to 100% students from far flung and
backward areas;

CHAPTER-3

Support access to information technology including easy


access to internet, satellite/televised information technology
and audio-visual electronic informative data; and

Incentives for Talented and High Performing Youth

Youth will be given representation in think tanks, policy


formulation and implementation for academic programmes.

Youth Health
Support the Ministry of Health

In extension and up gradation of facilitation for physical and


mental health, public health, preventive health care,
population welfare and rehabilitation care; and
In undertaking awareness, preventive campaigns and
programmes against drug abuse, drug addiction, smoking,
HIV/AIDS, communicable diseases, nutritional imbalance,
hepatitis, accidental injuries, psychological and mental
illnesses, maternal mortality, infant mortality and
environmental hazards.

Youth friendly confidential counselling help line would also be


established with the help of the Ministry of Health.

Social Volunteerism

Youth volunteer corps will be promoted to assist in practical


work for the social and economic development of the
country. Areas of youth volunteer activity will cover all vital
sectors related to service to humanity including but not
limited to social security, health, education, environment,
gender, sports; disaster/crises management and community
uplift. Using existing volunteer activity in the country, the
programme will be based on methodology, principles and
best practices adopted internationally and acquire
necessary foreign professional expertise to establish and
help this vital initiative gain initial momentum.
Pakistan Boy Scouts / Girl Guides Association will be
invigorated to, activate the work and ethos of these
organisations at grass root level in educational institutions
and at community level.
Encourage young people to undertake social and economic
activities in rural areas.
Youth volunteer awards will be instituted to give incentives
for volunteerism.
Encourage youth to participate in communal activities in
relation to their community for safety, welfare and mutually
beneficial tasks.

A merit and competition based National Youth Award will be


instituted. For this purpose nominations will be solicited from
various institutions as well as through national
advertisements. These awards will be given in the fields of
academics, social work, outstanding achievements of
national importance, inventions, innovations, bravery,
dedication, profession, art and culture etc. An elaborate
system of selection on merit will be devised so that the
deserving candidates, irrespective of their social background
(poor, rich, rural, urban, political, family status etc.) are
selected. This award will be made a permanent feature.

Youth, Marriage, Family and Life Skills

Programmes for guidance of youth in adolescence age group


would be undertaken.

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Facilitating the youth (above 18 years) in the formation and


planning of family on a sustainable basis;
Facilitating marriage through providing the necessary
financial resources to the needy and accredited counselling
services;
Providing necessary life skills for youth through university
and school curriculum and in the non-formal education
sector in order to make youth capable of coping with their
problems in the early years of marriage. They will be
provided training to develop skills in communication,
resisting peer undue pressures etc;
Raising the awareness in youth about marriage law (e.g.
minimum age of marriage, nikah nama etc.), reproductive
health, Islamic tradition and values in the realm of family; and
Strengthening the institution of family by promoting family
values.

Youth Mentoring

Strengthening the institution of family to provide guidance to


youth.
Educating parents, senior citizens, teachers, professionals
and leaders in the art of mentoring and guiding young
people.
Promoting and encouraging youth counselling centres in
universities, hospitals, large enterprises etc.
Young prisoners will be provided special facilities for
mentoring and guidance to improve their lives.

Special Youth

Special and handicapped youth may be given the same


quota in all youth activities as has been approved by the
government in respect of special education and
rehabilitation of disabled persons.

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Wheel chair accesses and special toilets for the disable youth
be made compulsory in construction of all future buildings.
Special quota/opportunity for studying in all educational
institutions including those for higher education both at
home and abroad.

Gender Balance
The government has already decided that the quota for female
candidates for employment in the public sector will be 10%. This
proportion is proposed to be gradually enhanced. It is proposed to
take measures to facilitate and enhance the participation of female
youth in all walks of life including but not limited to:

Improving workplace environments in the back drop of


suitable legal framework;
Providing specific incentives to females to come forward in
seeking jobs and entrepreneurship; and
Specific programme to enhance female education and skill
development.

Youth in Prison
In coordination with the concerned authorities, special
programmes will be undertaken to provide various skills and
trainings so that the young prisoners can lead a respectable life
upon leaving the prison. Similarly, interactions with senior citizens
will be organised to provide mentoring support. Competitive and
creative activities will be promoted. The measures and
programmes envisaged under this policy will be made available
inside the prisons also.
Institutional Implementation Plan
National Youth Council
The plan of action cuts across many disciplines. A number of
ministries, provincial departments, organisations, NGOs, various
international donors, UN agencies, philanthropists, corporate
bodies, NGOs and CBOs are already engaged in various
disciplines envisaged in the plan of action. The implementation of
the plan will thus heavily rely on the existing institutions.
Essentially it will require these institutions to pay specific attention
to youth development by enhancing and augmenting existing
programmes, capacity building and increased financing in
consonance with the National Youth Policy. To guide, create
synergy, harmony and increased coordination in programmes of
various institutions, a National Youth Council will be set up under
the chairmanship of the prime minister.
The Ministry of Youth Affairs will form its secretariat. The main
function of this council will be to give impetus to harmonious
implementation of the National Youth Policy, monitoring of
performance and to provide overall guidance. The council may
meet at least twice a year.

For operational coordination with all stakeholders and leadership


an executive committee of the National Youth Council will be
formed under the Minister, Youth Affairs Division with secretaries
of federal ministries concerned, provincial ministers and
non-official members of the National Youth Council. The executive
committee may meet on bi-monthly basis.
Role of the Ministry of Youth Affairs
The Ministry of Youth Affairs will play the role of a catalyst,
coordinator, enabler and monitor of the implementation of the
National Youth Policy. It will also undertake a number of youth
centric projects, programmes and campaigns in accordance with
National Youth Policy. In doing so, the ministry will largely bank
upon the infrastructure and the existing out reach of the
specialised ministries and organisations that are already involved
in youth related activities. Funds will also be provided to qualified
NGOs for undertaking programmes and projects in various
districts to expand the outreach of the youth activities. The ministry
will supplement the existing programmes and develop joint
projects. Wherever necessary it will also embark upon a number
of activities, studies, seminars/workshops, and programmes of
youth development. It will also develop partnership with private
sector corporate bodies, philanthropists, NGOs, donors and
other national and international bodies to promote cause of
youth and sponsor various activities. Jointly financed
programmes/events will also be executed where ever feasible in
line with the policy. Print and electronic media will be used to
enhance the coverage and quick dissemination of programmes.
The Ministry of Youth Affairs will be adequately strengthened to
undertake the responsibilities of consonance with needs of the
National Youth Policy.
Implementation of the Policy at the Provincial and District
Level
At present there is no separate department of Youth Affairs at the
Provincial level, in AJK, FATA or Northern Areas. Youth affairs are
being looked after in conjunction with culture/sports/tourism. In
view of the much wider vision given under the Youth Policy, it is
recommended that the provinces may create separate
ministries/departments for Youth Affairs to perform similar
functions as the Ministry of Youth Affairs at the Federal level. It is
also recommended that Provincial Youth Councils headed by the
chief ministers of the provinces be also constituted. Similar
councils are also formed in AJK, NA and FATA. The membership
of the councils is decided by the respective governments/
administrations. The council may meet twice a year. The council
may review performance of departments/districts in respect of
each policy area and plan of action.
executive committee of Provincial Youth Council should also be
formed on the pattern recommended for the federal government.

CHAPTER-3

Role of NGOs
The NGOs are expected to play a very important role in carrying
forward the objectives of the National Youth Policy. Wherever
feasible, the NGOs with track record of activities related to Youth
Policy will be invited to submit their proposals through a
competitive process for carrying out activities/projects in
accordance with the National Youth Policy. Those NGOs, who
submit their proposals which are accepted, will be provided
finances from PSDP. The NGOs that contribute, partially or
wholly, for the activities/projects from their own resources will be
given preference.
Role of Media
All public and private media are expected to play an important role
in various initiatives envisaged under the policy. They will be
persuaded to undertake Youth programmes of prime times and
start Youth Channels, if possible. Media would be advised to
allocate prime time for youth programmes on regular basis while
PTV may set up a specific youth channel.

The fund is proposed to be managed by a Board of Governors


comprising of five largest subscribers to the fund from corporate
sector, philanthropists, banks etc., a representative of international
donors, seven youth representatives (from the four provinces,
AJK, NA, and FATA) and two nominees of the federal government.
A managing director will be appointed with a small secretariat to
manage the fund. Its detailed charter, rules and organisational
structure be finalised by the Board of Governors within three
months of approval of this Policy
Youth Programmes through Corporate Sector

National Youth scholarships for mainstreaming of youth


from backward and special areas and rural urban exchange
programme;
Youth internship;

Honorary Youth Ambassadors and Councillors Abroad

It is also proposed to create a national youth fund with the support


of international donors, corporate bodies, banks, philanthropists
and some seed money from the government to support the
National Youth Policy. To begin with, the fund will support the
following activities:

It is proposed that the campaign for fund raising may be initiated


by the president/prime minister.

Social responsibility is a cardinal principle of all good corporate


bodies. Usually various programmes and allocation of funds are
envisaged in corporate programmes. Besides seeking donation of
funds from corporate bodies for the National Youth Fund, and
undertaking joint public private programmes, it is proposed that
they may be requested to undertake various programmes under
their own management and control. For this purpose various
programme packages will be developed by the Ministry of Youth
Affairs and offered to various corporations and companies. The
corporations and companies may implement these programmes
with suitable modifications under their banner in consultation with
the Ministry of Youth Affairs. It will secure the twin objectives of
promoting company/corporations image and at the same time
efficient implementation of their programmes without the
bureaucratic rigmarole.

National Youth Fund

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Development of Youth Centres/Academies where ever


building and space is made available by local
communities/NGOs/ administrative authorities;

Youth competitions in entrepreneurships, innovation, sports,


essays, debates, leadership, exhibitions, fairs;

A large number of Pakistans youth lives abroad and is engaged in


the fields of education, services, commerce, industry and labour.
They are exposed and influenced to various cultures and schools
of thoughts in the communities they inhabit. Pakistanis have
formed societies and fora in various countries but there is no forum
specifically for Pakistani youth where they deliberate about future
strategies and progression of Pakistan in the modern world,
communicate and network with each other and undertake youth
activities. To fill this gap, it is proposed to organise the Pakistani
youth living abroad as follows:

Youth entrepreneurship, ventures fund and incubators;

City Youth Council

Scholarships for undergraduate students for education


abroad in the world best universities to be selected on merit
through GRE/ SAT/TOEFEL Programmes;

The city youth council will be formed in each major city


comprising of 10 councillors representing different occupations
amongst the youth living in the city. These occupations may
include students, businessmen, traders, entrepreneurs, labour
and shopkeepers etc. Each youth council may be headed by an
honorary youth councillor.

Specific programmes for handicapped youth;


Youth seminars, studies on youth related topics conventions
etc;
Youth magazine to be published by Ministry of Youth Affairs
on quarterly basis;

Merit scholarships for studies at undergraduate level in


Pakistan; and
Other activities as approved by the Board of Governors.

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Central Youth Council


A central youth council may be formed at the country level
comprising of the Honorary Youth Councillors and nominees of the
government with a total strength of 15 members from the youth
living in the country. The central youth council may be headed by
an honorary youth ambassador.
This policy review consisted of analyses on the existence of policies
related to Indonesian youth, including how the state viewed its
youth as policy instruments, and the problems in the existing
policies accompanied by recommendations. This review aimed
to obtain an overview of the policy development on
Indonesian youth and present recommendations based on
youth needs and problems. This report explained analysis
results from materials acquired through interviews with various
related parties and relevant literary.

Philippines
Medium Term Youth Development Plan (2005-10): National
Framework for Youth Development
In an imperfect world, where we will always have to deal with
limited resources, time constraints, and budget cuts, planning
becomes necessary to ensure that we maximise all available
resources and minimise costly mistakes. It is a process that needs
a substantial commitment of time and effort, but it is necessary for
us to properly respond to our constituencies varied needs. Our
programmes will work only if we do them in an organised and
concerted manner, and if we follow a strategic framework that
considers urgent needs, priority issues, available resources, and
other psycho-social factors.
This document aims to help you do just that by providing you with a
framework for prioritising, planning, implementing, and monitoring
youth centred programmes all over the country, we at the National
Youth Commission (NYC) hope to help your organisation become
more responsive to our youths ever-increasing needs. We
admittedly cannot fulfil these needs alone, so we need you to help
us work more efficiently to fill the gaps that have kept young
Filipinos from achieving their highest potential.

We need the government to help us in the planning process


and to review and reform existing policies and laws - or to
create new ones - to protect our rights and enable us to fulfil
our responsibilities. We also need it to convene the various
stakeholders and to implement various programs that
respond to the Filipino youths issues and concerns.
We need civil society (including NGOs, religious
organisations, and the academe) to help us reach
vulnerable communities, to complement the government in
providing a wider range of services to young Filipinos, to
share their knowledge and skills, to gain more influence on
crucial matters, or to broaden successful pilot projects.

We need the business sectors support (especially with


regard to much-needed skills and material/financial
resources) to improve the quality of our projects and to
encourage the business.
Community to take on social leadership roles - especially
where we, the youth (and their consumers!), are concerned.
We need the medias support and strong backbone to help
us raise greater awareness on important issues, to promote
values-driven messages to the youth, and to enable us to
reach a wider audience.
Finally, we need our fellow youth to believe in this cause, to
participate in the planning process, and to work
passionately on important programmes and projects that will
improve the quality of life of young Filipinos all over the
world. After all, it is only by doing our share would we be
able to leverage the support that our partners and mentors
are offering us!

The National Framework for Youth Development (also known as


the Medium-Term Youth Development Plan (MTYDP) 2005-2010)
is anchored on, and consistent with, the Philippine Medium-Term
Development Plan (MTPDP) 2005-2010 and the Philippine
National Development Plan (Plan 21), which is the development
plan of the Philippine national government until the year 2025. It is
the result of a nationwide consultation process that sought to get
the ideas and concerns of different youth-serving sectors from all
over the country. The drafting of the National Framework for Youth
Development began with the conduct of the Youth Attributes,
Participation, and Service-Providers (YAPS) study, and
culminated in a dialogue among the delegates of the National
Youth Parliament to ensure that the goals, issues, and strategies
embodied in this document are truly representative of the youth.
The YAPS involved youth participants and representatives of
regional and local youth-serving organisations in nine regions of
the country. It analysed the social and economic characteristics of
youth in the country and identified trends in youth participation,
dimensions of vulnerability, and other issues confronting young
Filipinos. It also assessed the services and institutional capacities
of various government and non-government agencies that
implement youth policies and programmes. The National
Framework for Youth Development takes off from issues and
challenges highlighted by the YAPS.
The National Framework for Youth Development is not just for
youth-serving organisations with nation-wide coverage. It is
meant for all kinds of youth-serving organisations (whether in the
government, private sector, civil society, or youth sector) that
seek to do youth development work anywhere and everywhere in
the country.

CHAPTER-3

The NYC purposely consulted with various youth-serving sectors


from all 16 regions of the country to uncover issues that need to be
addressed at the national level, as well as to highlight policies,
programmes, and projects that may be implemented at the local
level. The strength of this document lies in its ability to guide local
actions, but with an eye towards national progress.

Defining Young Filipinos Issues and Concerns


Education

Involves the knowledge, skills, and learning processes of


the youth.

Employment
Involves the youths engagement in economic activities.

Filipino Youth Vision for 2010

Empowered and Enlightened Youth

Health

Actively participating in governance and decision-making;

Self-reliant and confident;

Recognised as agents of change;

Globally competitive, productive, and well informed;

Patriotic, with a strong love for country and culture; and

Physically, mentally, and spiritually healthy.

Rights and Responsibilities of Filipino Youth


Right to:

Quality education;

Employment and social protection;

Basic health services;

Participate in youth policy decision-making;

Be free from all forms of abuse and exploitation;

Be free from any form of discrimination;

Be informed and to avail ourselves of basic services and


opportunities;
Live in a peaceful and sound environment; and
Privacy and freedom of choice (to practice our respective
religions).

Responsibility to:

Perform our duties well as students, workers, etc;

Represent the youth in policy-making bodies;

Participate in community development, and also in


environment-related activities;

Establish health-seeking behaviour;

Be law-abiding citizens;

Help maintain peace and order;

Maintain a healthy lifestyle;

Develop and maximise the use of our talents and potentials; and

Practice self-discipline and social responsibility.

127

Involves the intellectual, emotional, psychological, spiritual


and physical well-being of the youth.

Special Youth Groups (SYGs)

Involves youth sub-sectors who have experienced and/or


are vulnerable to experience discrimination, exploitation,
abuse, and disintegration in society.

Participation

Involves the youths involvement in decisions and actions


that affect their lives.

Values Formation

Involves the character-building of the youth.

Institutional Responses

Involves organised support systems of the youth.

Sri Lanka
Rationale
The formulation of the National Youth Policy is an attempt to
foreground youth development in policy initiatives. This considers
youth as constituency with certain rights and obligations. It
recognises the potential of youth to contribute meaningfully to the
development of the country and it also identifies key actors and
institutions that have a duty to ensure an enabling and ensuring
environment where youth can flourish. It considers the important
sectors that have an impact on the situation of youth and suggests
certain key strategy areas for development as well as identifying
specific target groups requiring special attention. It also provides
an institutional framework to coordinate youth development
initiatives. Importantly, it is an attempt to provide a contextually
relevant and grounded approach to youth development that can
form the basis for diverse interventions which will enable youth to
meet the challenges of today and of the future.
Vision
To develop the full potential of young people to enable their
active participation in national development for a just and
equitable society.

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Goals and Objectives

Build the Capacity of Young People to Meaningfully Engage


in the National Development Process

Develop their knowledge, skills and attitudes through


education and training;

Create awareness about environmental challenges arising


out of increasing use of non-renewable resources, climate
changes, and natural disasters.

Mobilise youth to engage in national reconstruction,


reconciliation and developmen;

Develop the Potential of Youth to Challenge all Forms of


Discrimination and Exploitation

Establish mechanisms for youth participation in planning,


decision making and implementation of development
programmes;
Provide equitable opportunities for young people to develop
relevant skills which will help them to become responsible
and independent members of the community;
Develop the spirit of volunteerism and establish
mechanisms for youth to engage in community service; and
Create awareness about the importance of sustainability
and about environmental challenges arising out of
increasing use of non-renewable resources, climate change
and natural disasters.

Enhance Participation of Youth in Economy

Create conditions for effective transition of youth from


education to work through tertiary education;

Enhance employment opportunities with fairness and


equity;
Promote entrepreneurial culture and supportive resources
for the economic advancement of youth;

Enhance equitable and fair distribution of employment


opportunities.

Promote awareness of the multiple histories and traditions


of Sri Lankan society;
Develop understanding of universal values of inclusiveness
and tolerance;
Promote respect for spiritual and ethical values

Create space for youth to articulate perceived injustices,


forms of discrimination and exploitation in order to
collectively challenge and respond to such issues;
Develop ability of young people to seek information and
think critically and independently; and
Strengthen institutions and mechanisms that safeguard
social justice.

Strengthen social protection measures for families and


communities;
Promote safe and supportive family and community
environments in which young people are protected from
violence, neglect, exploitation and discrimination; and
Strengthen community level mechanisms that protect youth
from abuse.

Promote Health and Well-being among Young People

Promote entrepreneurial culture and supportive resources


for the economic advancement of youth; and

Promote understanding among young people on issues of


difference and diversity;

Create conditions for young people to fulfil leadership roles


in society;

Develop Supportive Families and Communities for the


Protection, Growth and Development of Youth

Eliminate barriers and evolve opportunities to meet higher


educational aspirations equitably;

Instil a Sense of Social Responsibility and Social Cohesion


among Young People while Recognising and Respecting
Diversities of Ethnicity, Culture, Religion, Language and
Life Styles in the Country

Promote a culture of non-violence and peaceful resolution of


conflicts both inter-personal and intercommunity; and

Provide access to youth friendly services that promote


health and wellbeing;
Promote awareness on the factors that promote physical
and mental wellbeing;
Provide opportunities for recreation, leisure and healthy
lifestyles;
Ensure access to information on health and wellbeing
including reproductive and sexual health, substance abuse,
communicable
and
non-communicable
diseases
prevention;
Promote awareness and engagement in art and cultural
activities; and
Provide professional counselling services in educational
and vocational training institutions at all levels by integrating
the relevant services of delivered by various government
and non-governmental organisations.

CHAPTER-3

Facilitate a Coordinated Response to Youth Development


and Youth Work among State, Non-state Organisations as
well as Families and Communities

Establish an institutional framework to effectively coordinate


youth work;
Establish a framework for ensuring coherence and synergy
between sectors in areas affecting youth development such
as education, health, employment, etc;
Establish a system for consistently monitoring and
evaluating outcomes for youth through the various youth
development initiatives;
Facilitate research, education and training in youth work and
youth development and to establish a body of knowledge in
this area; and
Create a mechanism for youth consultation on issues facing
youth and wider issues facing the country.

Priority Target Groups


Youth are not a homogenous group and it is important to identify
specific groups that require specialised services and attention.
This section is meant to draw the attention of state and non-state
agencies to youth groups who should be prioritized in youth
development and youth work initiatives.
Unemployed Youth
With regard to employment of young people, there had been a
gradual decline in the unemployment rate of those in the age
group of 20-29 in the last decade with from 20.1% in 2002 to
12.3% in 2015.
Youth from War Affected Communities
As Sri Lanka moves towards peace and reconciliation, it is
important that youth who have been affected by the war are
instantaneously integrated into the community as fast as possible.
Excluded, Discriminated and Exploited Youth Groups
Programmes intended for youth need to ensure that
discriminated and exploited youth groups are not excluded. This
involves being sensitive to marginalised youth groups. This
includes youth of minority ethnic and religious groups, disabled
youth and former militants.
Youth at Different Education Levels
Recognising that there are different exit points from the formal
education system, it is necessary to provide varying options for
those exit points. For instance, post ordinary level and post
advanced level are two critical points at which youth training and
education needs must be addressed. Attention also needs to be
paid to school drop outs (those who do not complete at least the
minimum formal education).

129

Young Women
While Sri Lanka performs reasonably well in the gender
development indices there are certain serious problems affecting
young women. Incidents of gender-based violence and sexual
harassment are worryingly high. Numbers of teenage pregnancies
and sexual abuse also suggest that young women are vulnerable
to exploitation, harassment and violence.
Rural Youth
Education, employment and leisure activities are still heavily
concentrated in urban areas. This growing regional disparity has
several consequences: youth are pushed out of their communities
to seek their fortunes elsewhere leading to other social problems.
At the same time, rural communities are deprived of their most
vibrant and energetic resources.
Urban Low-Income Youth
An often neglected group, urban low-income youth face many
challenges. Usually stigmatised as prone to criminal behaviour,
they are a target of the law-enforcement authorities and excluded
by many service providers.
Youth in Conflict with the Law
While media reports of youth in conflict with the law are on the
increase, there is urgent need to ensure that the judiciary
responds appropriately to young people. The existing Children and
Young Persons Ordinance does not cover those over 16 years of
age. While the Ministry of Justice is taking steps to rectify this
issue, it is important to explore alternative ways of dealing with
youth in shelters due to abuse, remand homes, prisoners and sex
workers who are in conflict with the law.
Estate Sector Youth
Estate sector youth are governed by very specific economic
systems which inhibits their development in very unique ways. All
policies need to pay attention to these unique conditions and
develop specific ways of addressing the concerns of this group.
Differently-Abled Youth
Differently-abled youth have special needs which should be
prioritised in order to ensure their equal access, opportunities and
participation. Allocating sufficient resources for this group of youth
is also essential.
Key Strategy Areas, Policy Intervention
This chapter identifies areas and recommendations for policy
intervention. Since issues that affect youth are multi-sectoral,
certain identified policy interventions are addressed to specific
sectors.

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Education

Critical Issues Include

Growing disparity in terms of resources and quality among


educational and training institutions at all levels;
Access to education is constrained due to increasing costs
of education;

Growing industry of unregulated, private educational


institutes;

Inability to meet the growing demand for tertiary and higher


education;
Poor standards in career guidance;
Relevance and quality of curricula including highly
competitive and stressful nature of current curricula;

Politicisation and militarisation of education management


and administration;
Lack of professionalism and declining status of the teaching
profession;

Knowledge and skills of teachers not being updating in a


rapidly changing educational environment;

Loss of faith by the public in state education due to growing


perceptions that the state education system is plagued by
inefficiency, poor quality and frequent disruptions; and
Trust in the exam system being eroded due to various
reasons.

The New Education Act for General Education in Sri Lanka


formulated in 2009 needs to be implemented;

Standardise recruitment and strengthen professionalism of


education management and administration;
Improve facilities in disadvantaged educational institutions
to reduce disparities;
Strengthen and provide adequate resources of improving
competencies in the English language and other national
languages;
Implement recommendations for inclusive education as
outlined in the National Policy for Disability in Sri Lanka, 2003;
Strengthen alternative educational mediums such as
distance education to increase opportunities for higher
education;

Promote a culture of critical thinking and civic engagement


within educational institutions;
Establish career guidance and academic counselling by
adequately trained professionals in schools/universities with
inputs and links to potential employers. This includes
assessing a young persons interests, strengths and
capacities and guiding education and training choices
regarding career options;
Strengthen of non-formal educational activities in
communities for out of school youth especially school drop
outs and providing alternative training options of quality and
support for continuing education;
Ensure adequate soft skills programmes at all levels of
educational and training programmes; and
Promote non-profit private sector participation in education
and training.

Critical Issues Include

Extend age of compulsory education to 16 years;


Increase allocation of resources for education to meet
global standards agreed to by the Government of Sri Lanka;

Increase participation of youth in decision making in


educational institutions through strengthening student
associations while ensuring that external interference and
influence is minimised;

Skills Development and Vocational Training

Policy Interventions

Use new technologies for educational communication;

Lack of recognition and social status for skilled labour work;


Existing vocational training in the regions are not geared
towards employment in the formal sector;
Gaps in implementing the National Competency Standards;
Lack of minimal labour standards such as minimum wage,
occupational and health standards in skilled labour work;
Lack of coordination among vocational training institutes
and lack of standards; and
Low salaries for technical and vocational instructors.

Policy Interventions

Promote awareness on skilled labour and non-traditional


occupations;
Introduce subsidized fee structures for TVET courses;
Ensure that vocational training institutes are accredited and
conduct competency based training;
Establish acceptable labour standard for skilled labour work;
and
Recruiting qualified vocational instructors
introducing an attractive salary scheme.

through

CHAPTER-3

Youth Employment

Critical issues include

Underemployment among educated youth;


High levels of unemployment among women and rural
youth;

131

Establish a minimum wage for all sectors; and


Promote financial support, information and technology for
small scale entrepreneurs and self-employed persons.

Civics and Citizenship


Critical Issues Include

Lack of transparency in recruitment procedures;

Declining participation of youth in civil society initiatives;

Societal attitudes limiting career options for young people;

Political manipulation of youth movements

Regional disparities in employment opportunities; and

Shrinking opportunities for civic and social engagement;

Lack of protection in informal economic sector where there


is a high degree of youth participation.

Policy Interventions

Revisit and implement the National Action Plan for Youth


Employment formulated in 2007 with necessary
amendments;
Diversify employment opportunities across public, private as
well as non-governmental, humanitarian and development
sectors, and strengthen initiatives such as jobs-net and
create awareness among youth about diverse and
innovative job opportunities;
Integrate youth needs in national level initiatives such as
poverty alleviation, human resource development and
economic development;

Establish a merit-based and rational system of employment


to the public sector;

Establish a complaint mechanism for those who have been


discriminated by recruitment procedures as well as
strengthening the independence of Public Services
Commission for checks and balances;

Establish a job market information and job forecasting


network under the state monitoring system;

Enhance career guidance services for selecting training and jobs;

Lack of a civic education across educational and training


institutions.
Establish community service for youth and promote
volunteerism;
Establish a reward system for recognising outstanding
community service among youth at national level;
Promote and encourage independent, youth focused civil
society initiatives;
Review Juvenile Justice systems and propose amendments
to include supervised community service in lieu of
institutionalisation;
Take steps to ensure the freedom of movement and
association of youth groups;
Establish youth mentoring and youth leadership programs
focusing on civil and political rights, responsibilities and
obligations; and
Enhance the wider representation of young people in the
Youth Parliament and make use of their suggestions at
regional and national levels.

Professionalisation of the Youth Work Sector


Critical Issues Include

Introduce new courses based on foreign job markets;


Initiate discussions with the private sector regarding
constraints faced by young people in entering the private
sector: these include cultural constraints as well as the
concentration of private sector job opportunities in certain
urban locations, particularly the western province;

Lack of mentoring process in terms of leadership building; and

Policy Interventions

Establish labour standards and protection for youth in


informal sector job security;

Promote self-employment and entrepreneurship through


facilitating links with regional chambers of commerce so
that young people have access to mentoring and other
forms of support;

Declining trust and confidence in civic and political


institutions among young people;

Youth work is still to be recognised as a distinctive


professional category;
Youth services continue to adopt a top down approach;
Lack of focus on empowerment related issues within the
current youth service;
Lack of opportunities for continuous professional education
of youth workers; and
Injustice caused by class, caste, religion, ethnicity etc.

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Policy Interventions

Recognise and promote youth work as a distinctive


professional category;
Establish a professional association for youth workers
independently managed by professionals;
Promote youth work education and training, and make youth
work education as a requirement to be recruited as a youth
worker;
Steps should be taken to develop occupational standards
relating to youth work and introduce licensing system for
youth workers based on their professional qualification
status; and
Promote high standards of professionalism, integrity,
accountability and transparency by all involved in youth
work.

Health and Wellbeing


Critical Issues Include

Increasing prevalence of risk factors for non-communicable


diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and
cardio-vascular diseases;
Lack of information and access to youth friendly services on
sexual and reproductive health;

Provide protection and support services for young people


who have experienced sexual violence, domestic abuse and
mental illness;
Develop awareness among youths on lifestyle associated
diseases and promote physical activity, healthy lifestyles
and healthy dietary habits; and
Enhance life skills specially on decision making and critical
thinking to avoid risk behaviours.

Social Exclusion and Discrimination


Young people believe that there is a high level of social
exclusion and discrimination in Sri Lanka. Exclusion and
discrimination is not based simply on age but in a combination
of other factors such as gender, ethnicity, political affiliation etc.
which seriously impacts on young people from less influential
socio-economic backgrounds.
Critical Issues Include

Increased risk of mental health issues thereby increasing


the risk of self-harm and suicide among young people;

Socially conformist practices that limits young peoples


cultural choices;
Increased reliance on patronage in almost all forms of social
engagement;
Deterioration of the independence of public institutions;
Declining trust of young people in key public institutions
such as law enforcement, state bureaucracy and the
judiciary; and
Injustice caused by class, caste, religion, ethnicity and etc.
for youth.

Increasing in substance use among young people; and

Lack of awareness about existing services and inadequate


professional counselling services for young people.

Policy Interventions

Policy Interventions

Adopt and implement the National Policy and the Strategy


on Health of Young Persons (2011) and the National
Strategic Plan on Adolescent Health (2013 - 2017);
Improve quality and access to youth-friendly health
programmes and services;
Review and improve school health programmes and
expand and strengthen physical, mental including sexual
and reproductive health education at school level and
continue these services as appropriate to higher education
sector including universities and technical and vocational
training institutes;
Establish psychosocial services including counselling
services at community level;
Build capacity of health professionals to respond to youth
health issues;

Review primary and secondary education curricula for


social discriminatory messages and revise accordingly;
Develop equal opportunity policies in key sectors, especially
with regard to job recruitment and establish systems for
review and implementation;
Strengthen transparency, accountability and access to
information in the public sector
Establish a youth ombudsmen to respond to instances of
discrimination and exclusion;
Create spaces for youth to participate meaningfully at
family, community and national level;
Identify and increase opportunities to fulfil the aspirations of
disabled and differently-abled youth; and
Review and update the existing policies for differently abled
people and facilitate the need of differently-abled youth.

CHAPTER-3

Peace and Reconciliation


As Sri Lanka moves into the post-war era, it is important to focus
on social cohesion, develop a sense of belongingness and
connections. Youth must imbibe a system of shared values based
on the concepts of respect and dignity for self and others.

Critical Issues Include

Critical Issues Include

Minority youth not having a voice in the national


reconciliation process;
Youth in war-affected communities lagging behind in
development due to disruptions during the last several decades;
Problems with demobilisation and reintegration of youth
involved in conflict including youth in the military;
Lack of opportunities for interaction among youth of different
communities due to language, religion and sex segregation
in educational institutions and other constraints;
Lack of commitment to social cohesion in society; and
Young peoples mobility and other activities constrained due
to delays in normalising civilian administration in war
affected communities.

Policy Interventions

Peace education and social cohesion to be included in


educational curriculum;
Special youth development initiatives to be implemented
and resources allocated for war-affected areas so that they
are on par with other regions;
Extend opportunities for youth engagement and interaction
between different communities;
Explore and enhance opportunities for youth to interact and
communicate with each other through art, sports and culture;
Ensure that the National Language policy is implemented in
public and private sectors, especially in law enforcement
agencies; and
Promote educational institutions which are not segregated
on gender, ethnicity, language and religion.

Arts, Recreation, Sports and Leisure


There are wide disparities with regard to opportunities and
resources in arts and sports and recreational and leisure
opportunities for youth. At the same time, a highly competitive
education system has resulted in many young people not having
the time for such activities. At another level, such activities have
also become highly competitive with the pleasure of participation
lost. Cultural and social constraints result in youth-led activities to
be frowned upon or requiring close adult supervision which is
sometimes not welcomed.

133

Over emphasis on examinations and academic excellence


in educational institutes ignore the importance of leisure
activities;
Undue emphasis in achievement and success in sports and
leisure activities;
Lack of opportunities for youth to initiate and organise
leisure and sports activities;
Significant regional and socio-economic disparities in the
availability of opportunities and resources for arts, sports
and leisure activities; and
Lack of institutional support for youth to pursue careers in
arts and sports.

Policy Interventions

Strengthen state support and reward system for


participation in sports at national and international level and
implement the National Sports Policy;
Encourage private sector participation in the promotion of
arts and sports sectors for young people;
Review global best practices in youth recreational
programmes and adapt for national context;
Strengthen and promote extra-curricular activities in
educational institutions;
Identify and promote regional and local recreational
opportunities such as outdoor activities, sports and
opportunities for enhancing creativity;
Establish institutions to promote diverse arts and cultural
activities; and
Reward for the excellence in Arts and Sports when providing
educational and employment opportunities.

Institutional Framework, Monitoring and Review System


In order for policy to be successfully implemented, it is important
to have in place a proper institutional framework. At the same
time, it is vital that mechanisms are in place to review the policy
and its impact in order to make appropriate changes and
adjustments. A coordinated and youth focused approach in
national policy is essential for the recommendations of this policy
initiative to be fruitful. This chapter outlines the proposed
institutional mechanism for implementing, monitoring and
reviewing the NYP.
Institutional Framework
The multi-sectoral focus of the NYP means that coordination
among different organs of the state is an essential factor for the

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success of the NYP. The main focus of coordination should be to


ensure that:

All national policies and plans integrate youth development


principles in the planning process.
National policies and plans affecting youth are aligned with
the principles, values, objectives and recommendations of
the NYP.

In order to facilitate this approach, it is proposed that a presidential


youth development commission be established under the Ministry
of Youth Affairs and Skills Development.
Presidential Youth Development Commission
Establish a Youth Development Secretariat based at the Ministry
of Youth Affairs and Skills Development to coordinate and facilitate
the work of the Presidential Youth Development Commission.
Responsibilities of the Commission

To monitor implementation of NYP;


To ensure independent evaluation of the impact of NYP at
regular intervals and renew accordingly;
To review state policy in alignment with NYP and to
advocate the objectives of NYP with relevant state
organs; and
Promote Research and Development (R and D) in the
youth sector.

Youth Ombudsman
In response to the specific political and social history and context
of Sri Lanka in relation to youth, it is proposed that an independent
youth ombudsman be appointed. This will serve as an
independent body to advocate on behalf of youth issues. The
primary responsibility of the youth ombudsman will be to deal with
complaints regarding the delivery of services to youth and
instances of discrimination faced by youth. The youth
ombudsmans office will also provide information on the services
available to youth as well as their rights and obligations. Regional
level youth ombudsman offices should be established to facilitate
its work.
Implementation of NYP
The main institution responsible for the implementation of the NYP
will be the Ministry of Youth Affairs and Skills Development through
the National Youth Development Secretariat. To ensure continued
relevance due to the changing nature of the socio-economic,
political and demographic profile of the country the NYP should be
reviewed every five years.
To ensure continued relevance due to the changing nature of the
socio-economic, political and demographic profile of the country.

Thailand
Rationale
The National Child and Youth Development Plan of B.E. 2555 2559 (2012 - 2016) focuses on age-appropriate development of
children and youth; protection and development of children in
need of special protection measures; strengthening of Child and
Youth Councils; establishment of alliance for the promotion of child
and youth; and improvement of administrative systems for child
and youth protection and development.
The national plan will provide a framework for the development of
the plan of action and for monitoring and evaluation of the
implementation to ensure achievement of the goal and vision
therein.
Definition

Child means any person below 18 years of age.

Youth means any person from 18 years 25 years of age.

The National Child and Youth Development Plan B.E. 2555 - 2559
(2012 - 2016) sets out a direction in this regard to provide a
framework of cooperation among the government agencies, NGOs,
and the peoples organisation. The plan envisages the following:
Vision
Children and youth lead secured, healthy, happy and creative lives.
Missions

Develop children physically, mentally, emotionally, socially


and behaviourally;
Strengthen partnership with all sectors at all levels of
society; and
Develop efficient management systems for child and youth
development.

Objectives

To enable children and youth to develop physically,


mentally, intellectually and socially to the fullest of their
potential;
To build a strong partnership in child and youth development
with all sectors of society; and
To enhance the efficiency and unity of interventions and
measures.

Goal
To enable children and youth to lead a secured life; to have
physical and mental well-being; to develop morality, ethical
awareness, civic mind; to express themselves creatively and with
no inhibitions in accordance with the democratic way of life.

CHAPTER-3

Strategies

Primary responsible agencies: MOE, MOL

Strategy 1: Increase Life Immunity among Children and


Youth

Secondary responsible agency: LAOs

Objective
To enable children and youth to develop physically, mentally,
intellectually, emotionally and behaviorally in accordance with their
age and maturity.
Measures
Promote appropriate knowledge and life-skills on sexual
relationship, reproductive health, family life and sexual
health, as well as preparedness for parenting and child
rearing.

Overall Child and Youth Development Measures

Secondary responsible agencies: Local Administrative


Organisations (LAOs), Ministry of Tourism and Sports (MTS)

Focus on the management of data of children in non-formal


education system (drop out children) in every area, in
conjunction with providing necessary assistance to the
children as needed, including education support, vocational
training, skills development, job placement, labour
protection and freelancing opportunities.

Secondary responsible agency: MTS

Secondary responsible agency: LAOs


Determine basic requirements for children completing lower
secondary education nation-wide in such areas as: literacy,
mathematics, swimming, bicycling, computer skills, musical
skills, sporting skills, foreign language skills, career
readiness, environmental awareness, awareness of human
biological and sexual nature.

Secondary responsible agency: MOL

Secondary responsible agency: LAOs

Prepare children and youth for competition and opportunities


when ASEAN turns to ASEAN Community, by promoting
higher education, indigenous culture, contemporary culture,
understanding of world culture, with a particular focus on
language proficiency and specialised skills.
Primary responsible agencies: MOE, MOC

Youth 18 - 25 years
Promote alternative education at all levels, including formal,
non-formal and vocational streams, in response to social
and economic needs; and promote the love of life-long
learning.

Develop the learning process to focus on lifelong


development, positive attitude toward work, dignity and
integrity in leading an honest life, focus on the participation
of learners in the process to promote empirical learning and
ability to manage own knowledge holistically.
Primary responsible agency: MOE

Primary responsible agency: MOE

Encourage and facilitate children to explore and express


themselves, to know their own strengths and capabilities.
Primary responsible agencies: MOE, MOL, National
Institute for Child and Family Development, Children and
Youth Council

Primary responsible agencies: MOE, Ministry of Labour


(MOL)

Promote desirable values, including familial bond, pride in


being Thai, conscience and morality, religious values,
self-sufficiency,
good
citizenship,
democratic
understanding, respectfulness and tolerance, rationality,
civic mind and desire to participate in community and
national development.
Primary responsible agencies: Ministry of Culture (MOC),
MOE, MOL, Ministry of Interior (MOI), MOA, LAOs, Children
and Youth Council

Promote recruitment of professional counselors in every


educational district to provide assistance on school and
non-school matters to children and youth.
Primary responsible agency: MOE

Develop university entrance examination process to give


consideration to charitable activities and volunteerism.
Primary responsible agency: MOE

Primary responsible agencies: Ministry of Education (MOE),


Ministry of Public Health (MOPH)

Promote agricultural professions with commercial and


industrial linkages, and instill in children plant and livestock
conservation values.
Primary responsible agency: Ministry of Agriculture and
Cooperatives (MOA)

Children 13 - 17 years

135

Secondary responsible agencies: MOL, LAOs

Build knowledge and understanding of children and youth to


enable them to use their discretion and be selective in
applying technology for the benefits of their own

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RURAL DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2013

development and knowledge enhancement and interaction


within the family and with outside world creatively.
Primary responsible agencies: MOC, Ministry of Science
and Technology (MOST), MOE, Ministry of Social
Development and Human Security (MSDHS), Children and
Youth Council.

Primary responsible agencies: LAOs, MOC, MSDHS

Measures to Promote the Understanding of Needs and


Problems of Children and Youth

Encourage parents, guardians and child minders in both the


public and private sector to have knowledge and
understanding of child development and receive training to
develop necessary skills and attitude to respond positively
and appropriately to the needs and problems at hand.

Secondary responsible agencies: MTS, MSDHS

Encourage communities, society and alliances to develop


better understanding of problems and needs of children and
youth to make better interventions that are responsive to the
reality and situation of children, including keeping alert of
early warning signs.

Capacity building of families to have knowledge of roles and


responsibilities within the families, life-skills, communication
skills, positive relationships; to avoid domestic violence and
to provide good role models for children.
Primary responsible agency: MSDHS

Promote thought leaders and community role model.

Measures to Promote Participation of Children and Youth

Promote youth leaders and volunteer facilitators for child


and youth activities and mentors.
Primary responsible agencies: National Institute for Child
and Family Development, National Council for Child and
Youth Development, MOI, MOE, MSDHS, LAOs

Promote life-long learning at the national, local and


community levels in various forms such as libraries,
museums, learning centers, IT centers, sports and art
centers.
Primary responsible agency: LAOs
Secondary responsible agencies: MOE, MOC, MTS,
Ministry of Information and Communication Technology
(MICT)

Promote the development of civic mind among children and


youth and its integration into school curriculum.
Primary responsible agencies: MOE, MOC, MSDHS, LAOs

Primary responsible agencies: all sectors

Promote security in daily living, focusing on reduction of


crimes, accidents and violence.
Primary responsible agencies: MOE, MOC Ministry of
Transport (MOT), MOI, MSDHS

Secondary responsible agencies: all sectors

Promote and develop safe and creative media and media


role in child and youth development to create knowledge
society and lifelong learning value. Promote creative media
content, such as mental health improvement, cultural
heritage, creative activities performed by children and
youth. Promote participation of children in the production
and dissemination of creative media.
Primary responsible agencies: MOC, MICT, Office of The
National
Broadcasting
and
Telecommunications
Commission, Public Relations Department

Primary responsible agencies: all sectors


Measures to Create Enabling Environment for Child and Youth
Development

Increase role and responsibilities of local administrative


organisations in providing space and activities for children
and youth to use their times constructively and express
themselves creatively and appropriately in accordance with
their maturity.
Primary responsible agency: LAOs

Primary responsible agencies: MOPH, LAOs

Promote social and cultural surveillance and early - warning


systems to protect children and youth from at risk situations.

Promote child and youth association and creative activities to


encourage contributions to society and a sense of self - worth.
Primary responsible agencies: MSDHS, MOE, MOC, LAOs
Secondary responsible agency: MTS

Develop communication process among child and youth


organisations to facilitate knowledge sharing.
Primary responsible agencies: MSDHS, MOE, MOC, MTS,
LAOs

Promote consistent recognition of children and youth who


have made contributions to society and achievements in
various fields, such as academic, sports, arts and culture,
civic work, religious practices.
Primary responsible agencies: MSDHS, MOE, MOC, LAOs.
Second responsible agency: MTS

CHAPTER-3

137

Strategy 2: Capacity-building of Alliances for Child and


Youth Development

Primary responsible agencies: MOI, MSDHS, MOPH, MOE,


MOC, MICT

Objective

Secondary responsible agencies: the private sector,


business community, the peoples sector

Alliances in all sectors and at all levels of society are empowered


and engaged in child and youth development.

Measures
Strengthening of Child and Youth Councils

Develop a set of standards for evaluation of activities and


outcomes;
Improve capacities of the Child and Youth Councils teams;
develop the councils as centres for learning and encourage
organisation of educational, sports and cultural activities for
children in their localities; and provide opportunities to
participate in policy making;

Improve laws and regulations to facilitate activities and


efforts of the councils to act as the central mechanism for
mobilisation of child and youth groups in school and outside
school, as well as relevant agencies in the public and private
sectors;

Secondary responsible agency: MSDHS

Promote systematic integration of activities of child and


youth alliances from local up to national levels.
Primary responsible agency: MSDHS

Strategy 3: Improvement of the Administration and


Management System for Child and Youth Protection and
Development
Objective

Primary responsible agencies: MSDHS, MOE, Children and


Youth Council

Have an integrated system of child and youth protection and


development.

Secondary responsible agencies: MOC, MTS, MOI, LAOs,


private sector, business community

Measures

Support the implementation of corporate social


responsibility among the private sector and business
community.
Encourage the public and private sectors to increase their
quotas for recruiting children and youth to gain working
experience.

Improvement of the Administration and Management System for


Child and Youth Protection and Development

Create incentives for all sectors to participate in child and


youth development, including supporting the role of
volunteers.
Primary responsible agencies: MSDHS, MOI, MOC, MOE,
MOL, MTS, Public Relations Department
Secondary responsible agencies: Thai Health Promotion
Foundation, private sector, business community

Promote the establishment of child and family division in the


organisational structure of the TAOs and promote
cooperation with counterpart agencies from the public and
private sectors, and academic institutes.
Primary responsible agencies: MOI, LAOs

Support resources, knowledge and implementation of the


Child and Youth Councils;

Capacity-building of Alliances for Child and Youth Development

Improve the knowledge and understanding of TAOs on the


importance of child and youth development, particularly the
organisation and functions of local child and youth councils.

Encourage every province to include child - friendly city


agenda in its development plan, addressing various aspects
of the concept, including safety, health and well-being,
protection of rights, participation, etc.

Ensure integration of national mechanisms relating to the


protection and development of children and youth and their
compliance with the national policy.
Ensure that laws and regulations concerning children and
families are consistent and supportive of each other,
particularly the Child Protection Act of 2003, the Victims of
Domestic Violence Protection Act of 2007 and the National
Child and Youth Development Promotion Act of 2007, and
that they are enforced strictly and effectively.
Primary responsible agency: MSDHS

Develop a body of knowledge, research and data on children


and youth at every level, from local to national, particularly
those concerning their situations, life capitals, services
provided, human and technical resources, to improve and
evaluate programmes and activities in this regard.
Primary responsible agencies: MSDHS, MOI, MOL, MOE,
MOPH, MOC, MICT, National Statistical Office, LAOs

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Capacity-building of child and youth development


practitioners to become professionals in their areas,
including child minders and child protection officers.
Incentives will be given in the form of career advancement
and job security. Provide technical support to child
protection officers through cooperation with experts and
mult-disciplinary team and standard supervision.

corresponding programmes and projects, according to


indicators specified.

Primary responsible agencies: MSDHS, MOI, MOE, MOJ,


RTP, local administrative organisations

Establish a central body to coordinate, manage, supervise


and develop mechanisms for enforcement of relevant laws
to ensure tangible outcome.

Primary responsible agency: MSDHS


Access to Social Welfare, Services and Protection Systems

Ensure children and youth everywhere in Thailand,


particularly those in the remote areas, are able to access the
said services, including health care, education,
employment, and social participation.

Primary responsible agencies: all sectors


Development of Systems and Mechanisms to Safeguard Children
and Youth from Risk Factors (Substance abuse, unsafe sexual
behaviours, inappropriate living arrangements, etc.).

Implementation, Monitoring and Evaluation


To ensure that the goals set forth under the National Child and
Youth Development Plan 2012 2016 are met, mechanisms and
guidelines have been established as follows:
Management Mechanisms for the National Plan
Policy Level

The National Commission on the Promotion of Child and


Youth Development is responsible for setting the agenda
and mobilise support from all sectors of society.
The Provincial Child Protection Committee is tasked with
supporting and promoting the implementation of the
provincial child and youth development plan that is in line
with the national plan.
Child-friendly City concept is integrated into the provincial
development plan.

Implementation Level

Responsible agencies for each measure of the national plan


are required to produce an annual report which will indicate

The public sectors, private sectors, civil society, local


organisations, academic institutes are encouraged to join
hands to form alliance, manage knowledge and innovations,
and develop participation process in the form of child and
youth assembly at all levels.
Child and Youth Councils at all levels act as learning centers
to disseminate knowledge and organise constructive
activities for the benefits of child and youth development in
line with the local development plan and the national plan of
2012 - 2016.

Implementation, Monitoring and Evaluation Mechanisms

Primary responsible agencies: MSDHS, MOI, MOC, MOE, MOPH,


MOJ, MOL, RTP
Secondary responsible agency: LAOs

The Office of Welfare Promotion, Protection and


Empowerment of Vulnerable Groups, the Ministry of Social
Development and Human Security is required to coordinate
and cooperate with the local administrative organisations and
related agencies in order to prepare the local child and youth
development plan in line with the national plan. Local
administrative organisations are required to set aside budget
for child and youth development projects at the local level.

Develop common understanding with child and youth


development alliances to ensure efficient participation in the
planning process of projects and activities in line with the
national plan.
Support the development of social mapping at the local level
that is linked to the regional and national level to identify
social capital, risk factors and life capital.

Monitoring and evaluation mechanisms are under the supervision


of the National Commission on the Promotion of Child and Youth
Development and the National Child Protection Committee.
Central to these mechanisms are the National Statistical Office,
representatives from key government agencies, and child
development experts. The Provincial Child Protection Committee
provides a linkage through which policy and plan at the national
level are translated into practice at the local level. Monitoring and
evaluation of the national plan to determine progress and
efficiency of the management mechanisms, at the policy and
implementation level, consists of:

Evaluation of goals based on key indicators;

Monitoring and evaluation of the strategic issues;

Monitoring and evaluation of action plans, projects and activities


through self-assessment by responsible agencies; and
Half-term evaluation and full-term evaluation, highlighting
progress made and outcomes by the National Statistical
Office.

CHAPTER-3

The National Commission on the Promotion of Child and Youth


Development and the National Child Protection Committee shall
integrate closely for the monitoring and supervision of policies and
plans as well as the evaluation in cooperation with Bangkok and
Provincial Child Protection Committee. The National and Local
Information Centres for evaluating outcomes shall be established,
and they will function under the supervision and support from
Cabinet Ministers from social ministries and the Economic and
Social Advisory Council.

international integration; and to promote the youths roles and


responsibilities in building and protecting the country.
Objectives

Vietnam
Outlook

The Youth Development Strategy is a vital constituent of the


socio-economic development strategy for 2011 - 2020 that
contributes to fostering and promoting enabling factors and
human resources with a view to building a quality young
workforce, meeting the needs of the industrialisation and
modernisation acceleration era.
Leadership and supervision of various levels of the party
and governments shall be maintained, while integrating and
maximising the role of the family, school, society, institutions
and individuals in the implementation of the Youth
Development Strategy.
The Youth Development Strategy provides the groundwork
for relevant government bodies to introduce appropriate
mechanisms and policies to promote education, training and
development for the youth.
An active role of the youth shall be maintained in the
implementation of the Youth Development Strategy at
various levels and sectors.

Any legitimate resources shall be leveraged to ensure the


success of the Youth Development Strategy.

Goal

To create a generation of Vietnamese youth that is


comprehensively developed, highly patriotic, in possession of
a revolutionary morality, citizenship awareness and socialism
ideology, education, professional skills and employment,
civilised way of living, good health, life skills, the will to
develop one selves, pro-activeness and innovation to master
sciences and advanced technologies; to help engender a
quality young workforce that meets the needs of the era of
accelerating
industrialisation,
modernisation
and

Educate the youth on patriotism, ideology, revolutionary


morality, national way of life and self-respect, awareness of
the need for the rule of law, responsibilities to the society
and respect of community codes of conduct;
Improve education, language proficiency, professional
skills, workmanship and professionalism to meet the needs
for socioeconomic development of the country;
Emphasise training and development of a quality young
workforce, in combination with the use of science and
technology for the countrys development;
Train, nurture, appoint and value young talents; develop a
quality young cadre technical workforce, officials, public
employees, leaders and managers in various government
agencies and other socioeconomic institutions;
Create jobs; improve income; raising the material and
mental living conditions for the youth; over time, solve the
housing concern for young people in industrial parks, export
processing zones and academic institutions; and
Incrementally improve the health, physical strength and
physique for a young generation that is capable of
self-learning, self-training, well-equipped with sufficient life
skills to adapt and thrive in variable living and working
environments.

Key Targets

International cooperation shall be strengthened and


increased to launch Vietnamese young generations to a
development level on par with the region and the world.

Goal and Objectives of the Strategy

139

Annually, 100% of young men and women in uniformed


services; young officials and government employees, young
college and school students; 70% of young rural, urban
dwellers and workers to be regularly updated of the
resolutions of various levels of the party and the
governments policies and laws associated with the youths
living, learning and working;
Every year, 600,000 new jobs to be created for young
people, as more than 80% of young people receive career
and employment advice; The unemployment rate among
the urban youth to be reduced to below 7% and the rural
youth's jobless rate reduced to below 6%;
Guaranteed 100% of young people, prior to their term of
overseas stay as guest workers, to receive orientation
and updates on Vietnamese laws, laws and regulations of
the destination countries and related normative
references pertaining to the rights and obligations of
employees and employers;

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By 2020, at least 80% of Vietnamese young people to be


equipped with sound life skills and awareness of gender
equality, reproductive health, building a happy family,
domestic violence control; every year, training and refresher
training on parenthood skills to be delivered to at least
200,000 young men and women of marital age;
By 2020, 80% of young people to obtain senior secondary
education and equivalent; a ratio of 450 college students in
every 10,000 population to be achieved; 70% of young
members of the workforce being skilled workers; 100% of
young people and school students to receive vocational
training;

governments shall meet and exchange dialogues with the


youth to get situation updates and solve any questions
faced by the youth; and

Strengthening Education on Politics, Ideology, Tradition,


Beliefs, Values and Lifestyles, and the Law for the Youth

Every year, refresher training and capacity building on


public administration to be delivered to at least 20% of
young commune level public officials and employees;

Annually, communication, dissemination and legal


education to be delivered to 500,000 self-employed young
people and young workers in industrial parks and economic
zones; and legal counsels to be provided to 300,000 rural,
upland, ethnic young people; and

Expectedly by 2020, the average height of 18-year young


men and women to measure 1.67 meters and 1.56 meters,
respectively.

Strategy Implementing Responses

Raising the Awareness of Youth Development; Introducing


and Materialising Youth Support Systems and Policies

Promoting strong changes in awareness among all


leadership levels from the central to population levels, public
officials, government employees and the community, of the
importance and meanings of the youth development
strategy, as well as the youths roles and mandates in
building and safeguarding the country;
Stepping up leadership, supervision and monitoring of
various levels of the party and government regarding
youth-related activities and youth development; further
improving the youth-related regulatory and legal system;
integrating youth development objectives and targets in the
formulation and implementation of the strategies, programs
and socioeconomic development plans of the ministries,
sectors and municipalities; monitoring and evaluating
compliance with youth-related laws;
Putting in place a coordinating mechanism between
ministries, sectors and municipalities; and between public
regulators and the youth union, to effectively maintain an
interagency coordinating system in materialising
youth-related mechanisms, policies and laws; On a regular
basis, the leaders of ministries, sectors and municipal

Households, the government and the entire society shall


strengthen awareness communication and education to
help the youth understand their status, roles and
responsibilities and materialise well the rights and
obligations of young people.

Increasing Marxism-Leninism, Ho Chi Minh ideology


education and articulation of the party's resolutions and
government's policies and laws to the youth;
Increasing legal orientation and education to raise young
peoples awareness of the law and their responsibilities to
themselves, the family and society; combining legal
education with ethics education and building a new cultural
way of life among the youth;
Increasing education on ethics and way of life, national
history, traditions, pride and self-respect, preservation of
traditional culture identity and absorption of mankinds elite
cultural features for the youth;
Raising the youths awareness on the countrys status,
world context and typical concerns that adversary forces
might be taking advantage of with relation to young people
against the country; building on the youths spearhead role
in national defense, security and safeguard of the Socialist
Republic of Vietnam; and
Media agencies to launch special programmes and
columns, and regularly refresh the information contents for
the purposes of strengthening the youths revolutionary
beliefs and ideology, and life skills.

Development and Use of Quality Young Human Resources

Emphasising improvement of education and training quality,


with a focus on developing the ability to work independently
and innovatively, practical skills, to build ones own life and
career for the youth; developing zoning plans for education
and training centers for young talents in various areas;
Having in place systems and policies to detect, nurture,
educate, appoint and put in good use local young talents
and attract talented young people who are studying, working
and living overseas to return and make a contribution to the
home country; line agencies and municipalities to develop
plans to find, nurture, train and develop young talents;
Introducing policies to attract college graduate volunteers to
work in areas with disadvantaged socioeconomic

CHAPTER-3

conditions, and remote, hard-to-reach-border, island areas;


review undertaken to introduce policies of training young
leaders and managers through hands-on practice in
agencies of the political system;

Reviewing and introduction of enabling mechanisms and


policies for young generations in learning, working,
entertainment, physical and mental development;
encouraging and motivating young people to nurture their
dreams, ambition, readiness to take the lead, and innovation
in mastering advanced sciences and technologies;
Creating an occupational training breakthrough to upgrade
professional competence and skills, an industrial working
style, workplace discipline for the youth with a view to
formulate over time a quality young workforce; prioritising
occupational training and job creation for rural young
people, discharged members of the military forces, ethnic
young people, young women, handicapped young people
and young people living in urbanised areas;
Providing vocational training for young people through the
academic educational system, regular educational centers
and community educational centers, to help young people
build sound awareness and views about work, career,
jobs, labor market and opportunities for employment and
income improvement;
Putting in place enabling mechanisms and policies to
promote various economic sectors to invest in and develop
production, create jobs and increase income for young
people, and reduce unemployment among the youth;
Introducing policies on detection, selection, education and
capacity building, appointment and compensation for young
and talented leaders and managers, in the principle of
equity, disclosure and transparency; making a breakthrough
in putting into good use young and talented leaders and
managers; and
Fine-tuning and modernising the information system on the
labor market; upgrading the capacity of the job services
system; increasing vocational training and employment
counseling and recommendation to help young people form
a career path and find the right jobs.

disseminated via the internet, telecommunication and mass


media means;

Culture, arts, publishing agencies and the media to create and


disseminate works of high educational and humanity value
targeting the youth; increasing culture-related public
governance; rigorously tackling infringements; deterring in
time unhealthy cultural products, especially those

Concentrating in tackling pressing social issues to make an


evident difference in the fight against crimes and social
evils; severely penalising public officials and employees
committing wrongdoings, corruption, law violation; creating
a healthy social environment; consolidating the trust of
young people;
Increasing investment and renovation of physical activities
and sports and physical training movements in professional
and universal academic institutions to provide opportunities
for young people to actively participate in sports and
physical training activities; putting in place mechanisms and
policies to support top-flight young athletes competing in
regional and global sporting events;
Improving physical and mental health, reproductive health
and premarital education for the youth; continued
implementation of national strategies and target programs
on population, health care, prevention and control of
HIV/AIDS, drugs and prostitution among young people;
Providing an enabling environment and conditions to allow
the youth to participate in community activities to improve
their life skills and employment opportunities; encouraging
young people to protect themselves from social evils,
harmful cultural products, drugs and prostitution; and
Providing opportunities for the Youth Union and other
union-backed civil societies to promote the youth to take the
lead in efforts to combat social evils, prevention and control
of HIV/AIDS, drugs, prostitution, alcohol and tobacco abuse.

Increasing International Cooperation Associated with the


Youth and Youth-related Activities

Development of a Healthy Societal Environment for Young


People to Live in; Improvement of Physical and Mental
Health, Life Skills, Sexual and Reproductive Health
Awareness for the Youth

141

Fostering and raising the youth's awareness of the foreign


relation approach of the party and government in the spirit of
national independence, self-reliance, cooperation,
development and multilateralism to contribute to world
peace and human advancement;
Increasing international cooperation with other countries
and international organisations on public administration in
youth activities and exchange of experience on devising and
materialising youth-related policies; putting to the best use
resources from international organisations for youth
development and activities;
Providing opportunities for the youth union and
union-backed civil societies to widen networking relations
and cooperation with international youth societies in the
region and the world; Building on the roles of the Youth
Union system in education and advocacy targeting young

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people and Vietnamese staying overseas to call on their


contribution to the home country; and

Providing opportunities for Vietnamese students and


workers of young ages overseas to learn and update on a
regular basis current stated policies and vision of the party
and in-country policies and laws.

Leveraging Resources for Youth Development

The state to allocate sufficient resources for youth


development; promoting and harnessing the societys
resources and pooling external resources for youth
development;

Increasing investment and development of skills coaching


centers and field activities for young people, childrens
houses, various culture and entertainment facilities for the
youth; and
Promoting in-country and international institutions and
individuals to participate in the development of culture,
sports, hospital facilities meeting the legitimate needs of the
youth.

Fine-tuning the youth-related public administration system;


streamlining the youth-related hierarchical apparatus;
formulating and developing the staff and public employees
working in youth-related fields, and a youth union staff at
various levels with ethics, education and competence
qualities that meet expected standards;
Further developing and materialising the coordination
mechanism between different ministries, line agencies,
regulators and the youth union for effective adoption of a
multiagency approach in the implementation of the youth
development strategy and building on the role of youth
union members and spearhead role of the youth in
socioeconomic development of safeguard of the country;
Increasing youth-related research on various areas;
developing a national database on the youth and youth
activities to support research and policy making; developing
a monitoring and evaluation indicator kit to measure
performance in the implementation of the Youth Law;

Providing regular training and capacity building for the


dedicated staff and also layman workers in youth activities
and youth-related public administration; and
Stepping up monitoring, audit, redress for complaints and
denunciations and tackling infringements in the
implementation of policies and laws associated with the
youth and youth activities.

Building on the Role of the Fatherland Front, Civil Society


and the Entire Society in the Education, Training and
Development of the youth

Prioritising resources for the training and development of


young intellectuals; incrementally formulating a quality
young workforce in such areas as science, technology,
finance, public policies; and rural, upland, ethic areas, and
young women;

Further Development and Streamlining of the Youth-related


Public Administration System that is Capable of Performing
Well Its Desirable Role

Emphasising the role of the youth union and union-backed


organisations in the implementation of the youth
development strategy; through various advocacy events
and revolutionary action movements, building exemplary
institutional and individual role-models for youth education
and self-training;
Encouraging various institutional and individual employment
service and vocational training providers to press ahead
vocational training and job creation efforts for young people;
The youth union to work closely with various levels of the
government, Fatherland Front and other mass
organisations, bodies and agencies to diversify forms and
approaches of education and communication for young
people on their rights and obligations;
Improving the quality and monitoring role of the People's
Council, Fatherland Front and civil society of various levels
in the implementation of the Youth Development Strategy;
Building on the role of the Fatherland; and
Front, civil society, various organisations, individuals,
families and households in the creation of educational
promotion and talent nurturing foundations for young
people.

Implementation
The Ministry of Home Affairs shall:

As a lead agency, work with other ministries, line agencies


and municipalities to counsel the government on the
implementation of the strategy; review for amendment and
update within its power or recommend to the relevant
authorities amendment and update of the youth-related
regulatory and policy system in response to the changing
socioeconomic development conditions;
Work as a liaison for the government in monitoring and
supervising various ministries, line agencies and
municipalities in developing and incorporating the strategys
objectives and targets in the design of their specific 5-year

CHAPTER-3

and annual socioeconomic


programmes and projects; and

development

plans,

On a regular basis and as a lead agency, collaborate with


relevant ministries and line agencies to regularly monitor,
evaluate the performance of strategy implementation, and
report outcomes to the prime minister; and conduct a
mid-term review of strategy implementation by end of 2015
and a final review by end of 2020.

The Ministry of Planning and Investment shall, as a lead agency,


coordinate other ministries, line agencies and municipalities to set
priority and amass domestic and external resources for youth
development purposes and implementation of the Youth
Development Strategy.
The Ministry of Finance shall, as a lead agency, collaborate with
the Ministry of Planning and Investment in the implementation of
youth development programmes and projects; guide, monitor
and audit use of public funds in the implementation of approved
youth development programmes and projects in accordance with
the provisions of the State Budget Law and other related laws
and regulations.
The Ministry of Education and Training shall integrate the strategy
targets and responses in the Education development strategy in
Vietnam by 2020.
The Ministry of Justice shall, as a lead agency, work with the
Ministry of Home Affairs and other relevant ministries and line
agencies to design and introduce appropriate youth-related legal
frameworks and policies, and take efforts to improve the
effectiveness of legal dissemination and education for young
people.
The Ministry of Labor-Invalids-Social Affairs shall integrate the
strategy targets and responses in the Vocational Training
Development Strategy, Employment Strategy by 2020, and
Gender Equality Strategy for 2011-2020.
The Ministry of Culture-Sports-Tourism shall, as a lead agency,
coordinate other ministries, line agencies and municipalities in
integrating the strategy targets and responses in the Cultural
development strategy by 2020, Vietnamese household
Development Strategy for 2011-2020 once it is approved, Physical
Training and Sports Development Strategy by 2020; and in the
design of the youth cultural institutions network.
The Ministry of Health shall, as a lead agency, work with the
Ministry of Home Affairs and relevant ministries, line agencies and
municipal People's Committees to implement and achieve the
strategy targets on health care and reproductive health for young
people and adolescents.

143

The Ministry of Information-Communication shall, as a lead


agency, work with the Ministry of Home Affairs to guide and
coordinate the media in strengthening and innovating education
and communication of the partys stated policies and
governments policies and laws to the youth; increase monitoring
and audit of youth-related media, press and publication activities;
strictly crack down behaviors of publishing and issuing materials,
products and information that may create negative effects on
young people.
The Ministry of Science and Technology shall, as a lead
agency, work with the Ministry of Home Affairs to design and
provide guiding support to young people for scientific and
technological research and application of technological
advancements in production.
The Ministry of Defense shall, as a lead agency, work with related
ministries and line agencies to raise the youths awareness on the
current country and world context, and any areas of concern which
adversary forces have and are relying on to take advantage of
young people against their home country, vocational training and
employment opportunities for young people completing their
military duties.
The Ministry of Public Security shall, as a lead agency, work
with relevant ministries and line agencies to design and set in
motion activities to counter drugs and crimes among young
people and adolescents.
The Ethnicity Committee shall, as a lead agency, work with the
Ministry of Home Affairs and other related ministries and line
agencies in communicating, educating and promoting compliance
with youth-related policies and laws among ethnic minority groups;
develop and propose to the relevant authorities for enactment and
adoption of policies supporting young people in upland, remote
and indigenous areas.
The Vietnam News Agency, Voice of Vietnam, Vietnam Television
and other mass media agencies shall increase air time, number of
articles, and efforts to educate the youth on ideology, citizenship,
life skills and press ahead communication on the implementation
of the Youth Development Strategy.
Other ministries, ministerial level agencies and governmental
bodies shall participate in the implementation of the strategy within
their respective roles and mandates, develop and implement
annual and 5-year plans of action for the purposes of strategy
implementation, increase interagency coordination, especially in
incorporating the objectives and targets of the Youth Development
Strategy in planning and policy making, monitor and evaluate
internal strategy implementing performance.

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Municipal People's Committees shall make sure that the strategy


is successfully rolled out in the local areas; develop and set in
motion 5-year and annual plans for youth development in
conformity with the local socioeconomic development plan set for
the same period; promote innovation, pro-activeness and
self-motivation in pooling resources for strategy implementation;
successfully integrating the strategy in other related local on-going
strategies; ensuring sufficient staff and public officials doing
youth-related work locally; accelerate interagency collaboration,
especially in incorporating youth development in local
socioeconomic development policy making; regularly monitor
strategy implementation; and maintain the annual reporting
system as required.
The National Youth Committee of Vietnam shall work with the
Ministry of Home Affairs and relevant ministries, line agencies to
monitor and supervise the implementation of the Youth Strategy,
while taking further efforts in developing mechanisms and policies
on the youth and youth-related work.

The central boards of the Fatherland Front of Vietnam, Ho Chi


Minh Communist Youth Union and partnership societies of the
Fatherland Front are expected to, within their respective roles and
mandates, participate in the strategy implementation; accelerate
communication, education and awareness activities on youth
development within their own organizations; participate in
youth-related public administration efforts; monitor and supervise
compliance with youth-related policies and laws.
Enforcement
This decision comes into force from its signing date. In the course
of implementation, should any needs for amendment and update
of the specific parts of the strategy arise, relevant ministries, line
agencies and municipalities shall report of the same to the Ministry
of Home Affairs for compiling and reporting to the Prime Minister.
Ministers, heads of ministerial-level agencies, heads of
governmental agencies, Chairpersons of the People's Committees
of provinces and centrally-affiliated cities, and relevant agencies
and institutions are responsible to implement this decision.

Annexure A

A. Suggested Framework for the National Youth Policy (NYP)


Concept What is NYP?

It is a national policy document serving as a guiding


framework for convergent and coordinated action for youth
development in a country, consistent with the National
Development Agenda and its international commitments.
It signifies the commitment of the nation to the development
and empowerment of young people. It reflects political will.

community by outlining mutual expectations and correcting


distortions in their understanding of each other.

It outlines challenges young people have to face; offers


opportunities; and motivates them for action.
It sets out a framework for increased understanding and
sound relationship between young people, on the one hand,
and the adult community, on the other.

Young people constitute a very substantial and productive


section of a countrys population. By responding to their
needs and areas of concern, the development schema of
the NYP covers a large segment of the society and,
therefore, complements the national agenda of growth and
development.

Though heterogeneous, young people represent a distinctly


identifiable group with special developmental needs,
concerns, vulnerabilities and issues. Therefore, it requires
specific policy and programme interventions to ensure their
holistic development and build their capacities to face up to
the challenges of life.
As youth issues are multi-sectoral and cross-cutting, NYP
presents an approach that helps mainstreaming them into the
development agendas of various ministries, departments,
or agencies.

Benefits

It also sets out a plan of action for optimising young peoples


contribution to national development.

Young people are very important agents of change in the


society: as individuals and through their families and groups.
The NYP creates a path for them to fulfil this role.
Contributes to and places youth at the centre of the National
Development Agenda.
In many ways, it is complementary to national development
plan.
It helps integrate the youth with other sections of the society
and establishes a bond between young people and the adult

It provides opportunities and avenues for the youth to


effectively participate in and contribute to the process of
national development.

Defining Youth

Rationale

It is an instrument for defending and protecting the rights of


the youth, especially those belonging to socially and
economically disadvantaged sections of the society.

While determining the age range for defining youth, the


country should keep in mind its own social and cultural
factors as well as its demographic profile. Together with this,
definitions of youth enunciated by the UN and other
international and regional intergovernmental agencies, such
as, the ASEAN, the Commonwealth, and the SAARC, may
also be taken into consideration.
The country has the option of identifying some distinct
subcategories within the overall wide age-range for youth.
This will, however, depend on a number of social and cultural
factors in the country. The rationale for identifying
subcategories is that it will help the policy makers and
planners to focus on the specific needs and concerns of
these subgroups and design programmes accordingly. For
instance, on the one end of the spectrum may be the
adolescents who may require different action plan while on
the other side of the age-range may be those young people
who have completed their formal education and are now
looking for employment-related opportunities. While the
focus for the first subgroup may be on personal development
and emotional and mental growth, the focus for the latter one
will be on developing necessary job-related competencies.

Identifying Target Youth Groups

Each country may establish its own criteria for identifying


target groups within the overall age-range, including
priority groups for special action. Young people belonging
to socially and economically disadvantaged sections of
the society; ethnic and religious minorities; vulnerable
sections of the society; or groups included for special
attention in the national development agenda may
constitute some of the target groups. Some sections of the
society have been mentioned for special consideration in
various international mandates and resolutions. Many
countries have accepted these recommendations and,

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therefore, young people from these sections of the society


should be included as the target groups for NYP. Further,
differently-abled youth have emerged as an important
target group for special programmes.

It is widely recognised that a considerably large section of


youth population belongs to the unorganised sector and do
not fall within the recognised categories. As a result, they
remain outside the domain of youth development
programmes of the country. It is, therefore, important that
the NYP should include special programme initiatives to
reach out to these young people and address their problems
and areas of concern.

Needs Analysis - Putting Together Quantitative and


Qualitative Data

Sources of Quantitative and Qualitative Data

Quantitative Data
Quantitative data refer to statistical figures and information with
regard to young women and men in the following key areas of
development:

Youth population figures from census reports and other


official documents;
Urban, rural and regional distribution;

Rates of youth crime, including juvenile delinquency;


Facilities for recreation or leisure-time activities in different
areas such as, rural and urban; and

Qualitative Data
Full and authentic information and data on the needs,
problems, concerns and aspirations of different categories
of youth (Related to the age-groups identified earlier as
constituting youth; based on their habitat such as, rural,
urban, tribal, slums; and gender).
Present level of youth participation in political, economic and
social processes and areas in which it can be enhanced.

Focused group discussions with youth groups representing


different sections of youth population. These discussions
should be conducted through well-designed tools and
instruments and through properly trained moderators. It is
also important that the data generated through these
interactive sessions should be professionally analysed and
collated;
Interviews with youth individually or in small groups; and
Case studies of activity-based or gender-based groups such
as young women, self-help groups, and recreational groups.

Establishing the Scope of the NYP

Access to health facilities and services to young women and


men, including expectant young mothers;

It should be ensured that gender desegregated data on the above


are also available.

Need assessment studies and surveys based on views of


representative samples of youth in the country;

It must, however, be ensured that the data collected through


scientific means and appropriately designed tools and instruments
are evidence-based and not derived from perceptions or general
beliefs and notions.

Levels of youth unemployment, including the figures for


socially and economically disadvantaged sections of the
society;

Literacy and educational levels (Including infrastructural and


other facilities, cost of education, especially at primary and
secondary levels).

Census reports and other officially-published documents of


various development-related ministries and departments;

Before the process of drafting the NYP begins, it is


important that the policy documents of other development
sectors of the country such as, education, health,
employment, environment, women and child development
that impact the life of the young people or are youth-related
should be thoroughly studied and analysed. While, on the
one hand, these policies and programmes will be helpful in
formulating the NYP, on the other hand, it must be ensured
that nothing in the NYP runs counter to the agenda of other
ministries, departments and other development bodies. In
other words, it should be consistent with the overall national
development agenda.
The NYP should also take into consideration national
commitments to international agenda such as Millennium
Development Goals (MDGs), Commonwealth Plan of Action
for Youth Empowerment (PAYE-2007-2015) and The World
Programme of Action for Youth (WPAY).

Vision Statement

A powerful vision statement should stretch your


expectations and aspirations. It serves as a challenge,
taking you out of your comfort zone or impelling you to raise
the bar and redefine your comfort zone.
You may not be able to realise the outcomes expressed in
the statement but it sets the target, urging you to make
consistent efforts towards achieving it. It is an idealised
version of desired outcomes.

ANNEXURE A

In the NTP Vision statement, the inner vision for the


growth and development of young people - and the outer
vision defining their role in nation-building and their
participation in various political, economic and social
processes in the country should be integrated to present a
composite vision for youth development.

Generally, the vision statement states a long-term


perspective of action and programmes.

Mission Statement
Mission statement is complementary to the vision statement. It
sets out the course that should be followed to actualise the vision.
Mission statement should be more realistic and flexible enough to
bring in changes, if necessary. It should be responsive to the
situations and needs of the young people as they emerge. It
elaborates on the following:
What do you want to do? (Defining broad areas of activities
and programmes to realise the Vision)

How would you realise the Vision? (General strategy and


the process)

Who would do it? (Institutions, agencies, etc.)

147

Overarching Principles
Each country may set out principles that guide the formulation and
implementation of the NYP. These principles should be consistent
with the political, social and cultural ethos of the country - such as,
inclusive growth (of all sections of the society); promotion of
democratic practices and national values; gender equity; and
respect for plurality and cultural diversities.
Goal
Though a country may have its own goal for the NYP, but in general
terms, it aims at initiating a range of interventions in the form of
policies, programmes, services, and opportunities with appropriate
implementation mechanism to unravel the potential of the young
people and enhance their capacities, enabling them to get actively
engaged in the process of their own growth and development and
contribute meaningfully to national development.
Objectives
The key principles that guide the establishment of NYP objectives
are: they should be specific, measurable and attainable; and in
harmony with the vision and mission statements, and goal of the
NYP. Keeping in view these principles, the country may decide on
the objectives. (See box for common objectives that find mention
in youth policy documents of many countries.

Box 13: Some Common Objectives of Various National Youth Policies

Integrate youth development into the mainstream of national development agenda, policies, and programmes;
Ensure effective and meaningful participation of youth in the process of formulation, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of policies and
programmes that impact their life;
Foster in young people and abiding commitment and adherence to the principles and values enshrined in the Constitution of the country;
Help young people become economically self-reliant and productive units;
Ensure equitable access to education, health, and recreation opportunities for all sections of youth population;
Make youth active partners in eliminating all forms of discrimination and injustice, especially against socially and economically disadvantaged
sections of the society;
Promote gender equity in all areas of development;
Meet the special needs of disadvantaged and marginalised sections of the youth and those at risk;
Strengthen a culture of national pride amongst the youth;
Develop amongst the youth an international perspective on issues of global significance and promote international understanding; and
Foster self-development and leadership skills amongst the youth.

These findings hint at one of the key questions in this weekend's historic election. As the United States leaves Afghanistan,
what lessons will young Afghans - the country's future leaders - draw from the last decade and a half of war and instability?
Will they work to improve Afghan democracy and elect more effective and accountable leaders, or will they spurn the
democratic process in favour of a system they perceive as superior?
(Source: Friedman April 5, 2014)

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RURAL DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2013

Thrust Areas for Action

On the basis of the quantitative and qualitative data, it will be possible


to identify programme areas that are to be included in the NYP for
action. Together with the thrust areas, it will be helpful to indicate the
categories of youth groups that are likely to benefit the most from the
programmes in these areas. Although the NYP may include many
areas for suggested action, it is unlikely that programmes related to
all these areas will be extended similar priority or primacy in the plan
of action. Some considerations that will help the agency, responsible
for formulating the NYP, to decide the priorities are:
The problem merits urgent consideration and focus
otherwise it may lead to adverse situations or conditions;

Education formal, non-formal and continuing education;


Promotion of national unity, values and social harmony;
Environment conservation and preservation;
Gender equity;
Access to youth friendly health services;
Participation of youth in local governance and political, economic and social processes;
Participation of youth in community service volunteerism;
Development of sports and recreation facilities and ensuring access to them by all sections of youth; and
Promotion of arts and crafts both traditional and modern.

Right to education,
Right to health services,
Right to gainful livelihood,
Right to information, and
Right to participate in decision making processes.

Responsibilities

Capacity of the implementing agencies, including the


network of voluntary organisations, that may form part of the
overall implementing mechanism.

Gainful employment through education, training and skill development, youth entrepreneurship;

Rights

Organisational infrastructure and facilities accessible for


executing the plan of action; and

.
Box 14: Priority Areas for Action in NYPs

A country may decide to incorporate a section on rights and


responsibilities of youth in the NYP. This will emphasise the need
to provide safeguards in the form of legislations, administrative
procedures, rules and regulations, etc. - both at the micro and
macro levels, to ensure that the rights of young women and men,
especially of those belonging to vulnerable sections of the society
are not violated. At the same time, it is also important to make
young people aware of their responsibilities towards the
community in which they live and the nation, in general. Taken
together, this will make young people significant partner in the
development processes of the country. Some rights and
responsibilities that may be reflected in the NYP are:

Resources available with the planning and/or implementing


agency;

However, on the basis of the experience of some countries of the


Asian region, it is possible to suggest some priority areas for action
(See box)

Rights and Responsibilities of Youth

The ruling party may have its own agenda of action keeping
in view its political considerations;

Active and responsible citizenship;


Optimising efforts to become productive units for the country

through development of skills and by adopting a work


culture that contributes to national development ;
Respect for the constitution, laws and rules of the country;
Respect for and promotion of the cultural heritage of the
country;
Commitment to serve the community through voluntary
service; and
Promotion of social harmony.

Plan of Action and Implementation


For each thrust area identified earlier, there should be appropriate
policy interventions, programmes and services.
Policy Interventions, Programmes and Services

For each of the thrust areas included in the NYP, there


should be clearly-defined policy interventions. Policy
interventions provide an inclusive framework for action within
which specific programmes and services could be planned.
These will help develop a plan of action for a particular
thrust area. Some examples of policy interventions are:

Help young people enhance their employability for


full-time or part-time jobs, provide access to training and
education facilities in areas that are consistent with the
new emerging possibilities for productive employment;

ANNEXURE A

Develop educational opportunities and ensure that


the benefits reach the deserving and the needy. This
initiative should be a collaborative venture of the state
agencies and civil society organisations;
Establish on-going functional linkages with
specialised agencies government bodies, voluntary
organisations and international agencies dealing
with health issues and seek their support in terms of
financial resources, training and educational
materials, and services of experts;

B. Process of Consultation for the NYP

Mainstream gender concerns in all youth


development policies and programmes and the
functioning of the agencies to bring about qualitative
changes in the attitude towards women, in general,
and young women, in particular; and
Set up a network with specialised agencies for
developing appropriate educational and awareness
programmes for youth and community-based groups
on disaster management and on judicious use and
management of water resources.

Institutional Arrangements and Srategies


Implementation and Monitoring of the NYP

for

the

Identify agencies and bodies, state-sponsored and


voluntary at national, state and local levels - that will
constitute the mechanism for carrying out the Plan of
Action. This should be done keeping in view the
functional capacity and professional expertise available
with the organisation for effective implementation of the
programmes and/or services. Where necessary, special
efforts should be put in place for enhancing the
operational capacity of these organisations;
Develop appropriate strategies for regular consultation
and participation of the stakeholders in the process of
implementation of the Plan of Action;
Set up coordination mechanism at national and sub-national
levels, headed by the appropriate authorities at a sufficiently
higher level for periodic monitoring and review of the
progress made in the implementation of the Plan. Monitoring
should be done through scientifically-developed tools and
on the basis of proper indicators; and
Provide adequate financial resources to the agencies
responsible for the implementation of the Plan of Action.

Review of the NYP

There should be a clear-cut roadmap for the review of the


NYP, including the timetable.

149

Before the process of consultation begins, the agency


responsible for drafting the NYP should collect relevant data
and analyse them by using scientifically sound methods.
This may require conducting special studies to assess the
needs of different categories of young people.
The next task is to identify the stakeholders primary and
secondary. It is also necessary to determine the nature of
stakes each of these stakeholders have in the planning
and/or implementation of the NYP. Among the primary
stakeholders are the young women and men, their families,
and the community in which they live. Among the secondary
stakeholders are: state agencies (law and order, institutions
for promoting democratic culture in the society, and
governance) and civil society groups, including religious
organisations and political parties. It is important that the
views of the agency (responsible for drafting the NYP)
should be in harmony with those of these organisations.
This will help in drafting a policy that is relevant to existing
situations and more realistic; and ensure the cooperation of
these organisations in effective implementation of the NYP.
Consultations should be organised at different levels
sub-regional, regional and national.
Once the consultations with the stakeholders are
completed, it will be necessary to consolidate their views
and prepare a broad framework for the NYP document.
The consolidated report will provide substantial suggestions
about the target groups, and the programme areas that
need to be fully reflected in the NYP.
The next step will be to constitute special thematic
groups that have the following key tasks:
Provide more substance to the framework by identifying
programmes and activities that may be organised to
effectively respond to the developmental needs of the
young people; address their areas of concern;
Suggest measures for making them effective partners in
the national development;
Propose the mechanism for putting into action various
aspects of the NYP at different levels; monitoring the
progress in its implementation; and for its evaluation;
Once these materials are put together, a special committee
may be constituted for preparing the draft for the NYP;
The draft may be placed in the public domain, inviting views
and comments;
The NYP document should be reviewed in the light of
suggestions received from various sources, and finalised;
The NYP may be adopted after getting it endorsed by the
competent authority, as provided in the constitution of the
country; and appropriately disseminated in accordance with
the political and social structure of the country.

Chapter 4
Youth Participation in Development
"Youth should be given a chance to take an active part in the decision-making of local, national and global levels."
Ban Ki-moon, United Nations Secretary-General
This world demands the qualities of youth: not a time of life but a state of mind, a temper of the will, a quality of imagination, a
predominance of courage over timidity, of the appetite for adventure over the love of ease."
Robert Kennedy
The more we increase the active participation and partnership with young people, the better we serve them. And the more
comprehensively we work with them as service partners, the more we increase our public value to the entire community.
Carmen Martinez
If I am young and wrong, then you are right [to look down on my youthful ignorance]. But if I am young and right, what does my age
matter?
Voice of Youth
Our youth are not failing the system; the system is failing our youth. Ironically, the very youth who are being treated the worst are the
young people who are going to lead us out of this nightmare."
Rachel Jackson
The young, free to act on their initiative, can lead their elders in the direction of the unknown... The children, the young, must ask the
questions that we would never think to ask, but enough trust must be re-established so that the elders will be permitted to work with them
on the answers." Margaret Mead
By the year 2015, there will be three billion people under the age of 25. They are the future ... they are also the now.
James D. Wolfensohn, President of the World Bank (2003)
growing momentum in the countries for engaging young
people in dialogue and seeking their participation in all
development activities.

(This is, in fact, the core theme of this report. The topics are
dealt with under the following four sub-sections:
i. Youth Participation Meaning, Importance and Scope
ii. Reasons for Promoting Youth Participation

iii. Challenges in Promoting Youth Participation


vi. Way Forward Agenda for Action)

4.1 Youth Participation Meaning, Importance


and Scope

The issue of participation of young people in the processes


related to planning and implementation of development
policies and programmes is now being intensely debated,
partly because of the UN interventions at different times and
partly because of a realisation on the part of the countries,
of its value and urgency. The scenario a few decades ago
when youth development focused majorly on providing
services and programmes as a response to their special
needs and problems is changing. Consequently, there is

The World Programme of Action for Youth to the Year 2000


and Beyond recognises that the active engagement of young
people themselves is central to its successful implementation
and, accordingly, affirms the full and effective participation of
youth in society and decision-making as one of its 10 priority
areas for action. Implicit in this commitment is an
acknowledgement that young people are part of the solution
to the difficulties they face, not merely a problem to be
resolved by others. (See box-15)
Though the value of youth participation is now recognised at
levels ranging from the local community to the international
arena, progress in translating this recognition into action,
especially in the area of policy formulation and planning
programmes, has been slow. Even in the countries that have
gone considerable way towards this aim, participation
remains piecemeal and has not been sufficiently integrated

CHAPTER-4

into all areas of young peoples lives. Many organisations are


still unconvinced that youth can play a leading or supportive
role in helping them achieve their programme goals. Initiatives
may be limited to seeking the views of young people on
particular issues; their involvement in decision-making is
rarely sought. Young peoples participation, therefore,
remains somewhat uncertain in democratic processes and
decision-making. Symbolic participation does not carry much
meaning, as it does not empower young people to influence
outcomes and achieve real change.
The frequent and widespread failure of the adult world to act
in ways that promote the welfare of young people is well
documented. Efforts must be made to listen to youth and
engage them in the process of strengthening participatory
democracy. Their involvement can lead to better decisions
and outcomes. Participation promotes the well-being and
development of young people; strengthens their
commitment to and understanding of human rights and
democracy; and provides them a form of security and
assure for their future.

Youth participation is an essential strategy for ensuring


young peoples optimal development - and for achieving
wider development goals for society. The progress made to
date in promoting participation should be sustained and
enhanced. Youth participation must become an integral
component of, local, national and international policies for

151

youth, and should provide the framework for decisions and


actions that affect the daily lives of children and young
people. Only then will the traditional approaches towards
youth begin to evolve and the oft-stated commitment to their
participation begins to have meaning. The approach must
promote respect for them as social, economic, and political
actors; as agents of change in their societies; and as active
and productive citizens of their countries.

The IYY that ended on 12 August 2011 had the theme


International Year of Youth: Dialogue and Mutual
Understanding. The theme emphasised the need for a
healthy and productive dialogue between young people, on
the one hand, and adult community, on the other. Adult
community here will include those who are responsible for
governance of the country. The theme also signifies the need
for greater mutual understanding between young people and
other sections of the society recognition of each others
position on the issues involved; and appreciation of each
others concerns, needs, and constraints. Negative
stereotypes and biases have to be set aside and replaced by
positive perception of each others values, ideals, lifestyle
and aspirations. The adult community has to trust young
people and youth must acknowledge the role of adults in
shaping their future and that of the nation, as a whole. Young
people must be assured that their voice is being heard with
due regard and attention it deserves. The dialogue and
mutual understanding would become the basis for greater

Box 15: World Programme of Action for Youth 2010


Full and Effective Participation of Youth in the Life of Society and in Decision Making
The capacity for progress of our societies is based, among other elements, on their capacity to incorporate the contribution and responsibility of youth
in the building and designing of the future. In addition to their intellectual contribution and their ability to mobilise support, they bring unique perspectives
that need to be taken into account.
Any efforts and proposed actions in the other priority areas considered in this programme are, in a certain way, conditioned by enabling the economic,
social and political participation of youth, as a matter of critical importance. Youth organisations are important forums for developing skills necessary
for effective participation in society, promoting tolerance and increased cooperation and exchanges between youth organisations.
Proposals for Action
a.

Improving access to information in order to enable young people to make better use of their opportunities to participate in decision-making;

b.

Developing and/or strengthening opportunities for young people to learn their rights and responsibilities, promoting their social, political,
developmental and environmental participation, removing obstacles that affect their full contribution to society and respecting, inter alia, freedom
of association;

c.

Encouraging and promoting youth associations through financial, educational and technical support and promotion of their activities;

d.

Taking into account the contribution of youth in designing, implementing and evaluating national policies and plans affecting their concerns;

e.

Encouraging increased national, regional and international cooperation and exchange between youth organisations; and

f.

Inviting governments to strengthen the involvement of young people in international forums, inter alia, by considering the inclusion of youth
representatives in their national delegations to the general assembly.

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and more meaningful participation of young people in all


development activities and programmes. They will be more
realistic and know where their demands must begin and
where they must end. (See box-16)

These global developments have begun to affect young


peoples lives. In some regions of the world there are now
initiatives, projects and programmes in which young people
are participating in decision-making. A number of youth
organisations and their networks are beginning to shape the
world around them, influencing politicians, policy makers,
professionals and the media with their own unique
perspectives. They operate at the local, national, regional
and global levels, demonstrating their capacity for
advocacy, communication, and negotiation, and their
commitment to challenging social and economic injustice.
The transition of youth to adulthood with its multiple
challenges, uncertainties, and anxieties is being made more
arduous or even inhibitive because of lack of appropriate
opportunities to get primed and fully equipped for new roles
and responsibilities. There is also structural exclusion of the
young people from the process of decision making and
meaningful participation in development- related activities at
different levels. There is also a view that the young people
are not competent and ready to participate in a meaningful
way and take this responsibility. This perception is partly
guided by an attitude towards youth. Traditional societies

view young people as not fully equipped to participate in any


development activities. They are seen more as contributors
but not as partners. On the other hand, there is considerable
body of evidence, through studies, demonstrating that
young people who are afforded opportunities for meaningful
participation within their families and communities are more
likely to achieve healthy development becoming more
responsible, and having high level of commitment and
self-confidence.

Notwithstanding the progress that has been made in


providing increased opportunities to young people to
participate in the life of the society, in general, and in
decision making in the areas of social development, in
particular, the task is extremely challenging and we have still
to go a long way, particularly in the Asia-Pacific region.
Democratic participation should be seen more as means
than a goal - means to asserting the rights of all human
beings to participate in processes that impact their life;
realising specific and acceptable objectives in areas such as
economic growth, education, health, social and economic
justice; and preventing or mitigating abuse of power.
Therefore, participation should aim for greater good for the
society and for young people. If national development is to
be made more representative, inclusive, and effective,
participation of young people is imperative. Amartya Sen
has argued that development is a process of expanding the

Box 16: Celebration Internationally


International Year of Youth
Each year, the International Youth Day (IYD) is assigned a new theme; a conceptual slogan that communicates the scope, direction, and
objectives of the years youth initiatives and also provides a unifying banner from under which individuals can draw the inspiration to take action.
Youth deserve our full commitment full access to education, adequate healthcare, employment opportunities, financial services and full
participation in public life.
- Ban Ki-moon, United Nations Secretary-General
International Youth Day 2012 - Building a Better World: Partnering with Youth
In 2012, the International Youth Day was celebrated on the 12 of August. The theme was Building a Better World: Partnering with Youth, relating
to an announcement the Secretary-General made in January, where he committed to address the needs of the largest generation of young
people the world has ever known.
International Year of Youth on Dialogue and Mutual Understanding 2010 2011
The International Year of Youth on Dialogue and Mutual Understanding was celebrated from August 12, 2010 to August 12, 2011. The year coincided with the 25th anniversary
of the first International Youth Year in 1985 on the theme Participation, Development and Peace. The 2010-2011 International Year of Youth aimed to raise awareness about the
need to increase commitment and investment in youth, mobilise and engage for increased youth participation and partnerships, as well as connect and build bridges as a way to
advance intercultural understanding among youths.
In its resolution proclaiming the year, the United Nations General Assembly called on governments, civil society, individuals and communities worldwide to support activities at
local and international levels to mark the event. The year also encouraged young people to dedicate themselves to fostering progress, including the attainment of the UN
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015.

CHAPTER-4

real freedoms that people enjoy. A developed community is,


therefore, one that allows all its members to participate.

that the adults do not want to undertake. Adults who see


youth as recipients usually dictate the terms of youth's
involvement and expect young people to adhere to those
terms. One example might be adults extending an
invitation to one young person to join a board of directors
otherwise comprised solely of adults. In such a milieu, a
young person's voice is seldom raised and little heard.
Adults do not expect the young person to contribute, and
the young person knows that adults deliberately retain all
power and control.

The field of youth and development has four basic elements:

Youth as objects: Young people as beneficiaries of


policies and programmes that address areas of their
special concern such as, employment, education, and
health; mainstreaming youth concerns in national
development agenda.
Youth as subjects: Youth as contributors to activities
and programmes that are part of national
development agenda, at local as well as national
level; promote social and economic justice; further the
ideals of national integrity and social harmony; and
extend service and help in emergent situations;
volunteering.

Youth as partners: As members of the society;


sharing of responsibility; mutuality of action and
collaboration; they have a voice and their views and
perspectives are considered in all phases of
development process planning, implementation and
monitoring; in decision making.
Youth-to-youth interaction: As part of an important
section of the society, with shared interest and
concerns, young people are provided opportunities
and a forum to come together for advocacy on issues
that are central to their well-being and future; positive
reinforcement and peer-mentoring.

Youth as objects - Adults who have this attitude subscribe to


the myth of adult wisdom. They believe adults know what is
best for young people. They attempt to control situations in
which young people are involved. They believe that young
people have little to contribute. Further, they may feel the
need, based on their own prior experiences, to protect
young people from suffering the potential consequences of
mistakes. Adults who see youth as objects seldom permit
more than token youth involvement and usually have no
intention of meaningfully involving youth. One example
might be an adult writing a letter to an elected official
about an issue pertinent to youth and using a young
person's name and signature for impact.
Youth as recipients - Adults who have this attitude believe
that adults must assist youth to adapt to adult society.
They permit young people to take part in making decisions
because they think the experience will be good for them
and assume that youth are not yet "real people" and need
practice to learn to "think like adults." These adults usually
delegate to young people trivial responsibilities and tasks

153

Youth as partners - Adults who have this attitude respect


young people and believe that young people have
significant contributions to make now. These adults
encourage youth to become involved and firmly believe
that youth involvement is critical to a program's success.
These adults accept youth having an equal voice in
decisions. They recognise that youth and adults both
have abilities, strengths, and experience to contribute.
Adults who have this attitude will be as comfortable
working with youth as with adults and enjoy an
environment with both youth and adults. Adults who see
youth as partners believe that genuine participation by
young people enriches adults just as adult participation
enriches youth and that a mutually respectful relationship
recognises the strengths that each offers. One example
might be hiring a young person to participate from the
beginning in developing a proposal to be submitted to a
funding institution.
Participation has to move beyond consultation. Setting up
consultative bodies or mounting surveys to ascertain the
views of young people on issues of prime concern to
them; or promoting national bodies representing youth do
not constitute an adequate or satisfying response to the
call for effective and dynamic participation of young
people in various policy making and planning forums and
engaging them as active citizens in the life of the
community in which they live. This code should be firmly
embedded in political, social and economic processes at
local and national levels.
Participation has to be not only guided by certain
overarching principles, values and ideals but seek to
promote them, especially among members of younger
generation. Among these are: democratic functioning and
practice;
social
and
economic
justice;
and
non-discrimination on the basis of gender, ethnicity, religion
or other such differentials. The approach to participation has
to be a dynamic, constantly evolving and remaining in
harmony with the changing scenario of the society.

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RURAL DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2013

4.2 Reasons for Promoting Participation

Demographic Imperative

Recognising and involving youth in a communitys


decision-making processes is not just about engaging
young people for the sake of inclusivity. It is about
recognising the measurable benefits youth have the
potential to offer to the organisations they belong, the
communities of which they are part, and to the society, of
which they are citizens. Youth need meaning, control and
connectedness to thrive in an adult-youth partnership. Youth
must feel like they are involved in something important,
have a valued say in what happens and the opportunity to
work with other youth and adults in the community.

Country

The Asia-Pacific region contains 60 per cent of the worlds


youth population, or 750 million young persons aged 15 to 24
years. In 2010, India alone had 234 million young people, the
highest number of any country in the world (representing 19 per
cent of the countrys total population), followed by China with
225 million (representing 17 per cent of the total population).
Bangladesh and the Philippines both also had very high shares
of youth around 20 per cent of the total population. (Regional
Overview Asia and the Pacific; UN Youth).
According to the data of Population Reference Bureau
The World Youth 2013 Data Sheet, youth population figures
for CIRDAP member-countries as in 2013 are:

Youth population in millions


2013 (10 24 years)

Percentage of total population


2013 (10 24 years)

Afghanistan

11.8

34

Bangladesh

46.7

30

Fiji

0.2

27

India

362

28

Indonesia

64.3

26

Iran

19.2

25

Laos

2.2

34

Malaysia

8.2

28

Myanmar

12.9

26

Nepal

10.3

33

Pakistan

58.5

32

Philippines

30.4

31

Sri Lanka

48

22

Thailand

15.2

22

Vietnam

23.3

26

Note: As youth are defined with different age brackets in the countries of the Asia - Pacific region, it is not possible to present differently segregated
data for youth population.

While this large mass of human capital can be a challenge to


any country in the context of its developmental agenda, it
also offers an opportunity to the policy makers and planners
to use this vast reservoir of talent, energy, and potential for
the development of the country. Young people, if properly
mobilised can become the driving force behind social and
economic growth for a nation. They can play a crucial and
decisive role in the development at the local, provincial and
national levels. This will be a long-term investment for the
countrys growth and development. However, this is also a
fact that the demographic importance of young people has
not been sufficiently acknowledged in terms of policy

formulation and planning of social development


programmes, even those directed at the welfare of the young
people. The transition of young people to adulthood with
confidence and properly groomed for the task is being either
blocked or slowed down. There is a lack of opportunities and,
admittedly, social exclusion of the young people.

Worldwide almost 30 per cent population is in the age group


of 15-24 years. 50 per cent of the population consist of youth
and children (World Bank 2010). There are 1.2 billion people
between 15-24 years (UN definition of youth) and about 1
billon of them are in developing countries (2005 figures UN

CHAPTER-4

Population Division 2008 Revision). Thus, young people


constitute a large social capital, a huge reservoir of energy,
enthusiasm and talent that is waiting to be appropriately
equipped, activated, and given proper direction for
development.

views on issues and matters that impact their lives, their


present and future well-being and prospects. Their whole
future is at stake and depends on how their life shapes up as
a result of the decisions taken by the adult community and
the state today. Therefore, it is important that their opinions
are given serious consideration and valued by policy makers
and planners. By involving young people in various
decision-making processes at different levels and in diverse
areas of national development agenda, we are only
recognising their right as the citizen of the country.

Assertion of Right as a Citizen

155

All people, including the young, regardless where they live


and to what category or section of society they belong, have
a fundamental right to voice their concerns and express their

Box 17: Participation and Inclusion A Fundamental Human Right


Participation and Inclusion has been included as a right under UN Human Rights Charter. It states, All people have the right to participate in and
access information relating to the decision-making processes that affect their lives and well-being. Rights-based approaches require a high
degree of participation by communities, civil society, minorities, women, young people, indigenous peoples and other identified groups
(Source: UNFPA. Human Rights: Human Rights Principles)

and functioning of democratic institutions through their


participation in democratic processes at different levels
assumes greater significance. Young people need
opportunities to learn what their rights and duties are, how
their freedom is limited by the rights and freedoms of others,
and how their actions can affect the rights of others. They
need opportunities to participate in democratic
decision-making processes within the educational
institutions and local communities, and to learn to abide by
subsequent decisions that are made. This will help mitigate
the perception of a large section of youth population that
their views do not matter, that they cannot influence
outcomes, and that democracy does not work for them.

Advocacy for Themselves

Participation represents an opportunity and an approach for


the young people to present their rights, interests, and
concerns in a strong, committed and assertive manner in all
available forums. They should be able to argue their case,
equipped with complete, authentic and professionally
analysed information on the issues that impact their present
and future life; and should have their views about what path
could be taken to address these issues and transform their
situations. This advocacy will also mean that the concerns
and viewpoints of all sections of the youth population should
be fully reflected in these presentations. However, they
cannot be expected to independently undertake the
advocacy role. The adult community, including state-run
agencies, and civil society organisations, must coordinate
their efforts to provide appropriate conditions and structures
to them to help them articulate their needs and concerns
and develop strategies to enhance their well-being.

Promoting Wellbeing and Development of Young People

Strengthening Commitment to Human Rights, Democracy,


and Rule of Law

In both the well-established and emerging democracies,


there is a need for young people to experience the
implications of democratic decision-making, and respect for
human dignity and rights. It will be evident from the global
scenario that a number of countries are currently facing
internal strife and sectarian hostilities that threaten
democratic institutions and practices and, unfortunately,
young people are the active participants in some of these
crises, whether by choice or by sheer force of
circumstances. To prevent such situations and exploitation
of young people, educating youth in the ideals of democracy

Lack of participation in the affairs of the community and the


nation can lead to a sense of alienation and disaffection
among youth. By involving them in the decision-making
process, the society instils in them a greater sense of
responsibility, acc ountability, and self-worth. This will not
only enhance their control over their lives, but help them in
other ways too. They are likely to be more creative in
problem-solving and in decision-making and this will serve
them well in their life and prepare them for their subsequent
adult role in the society. They will be groomed to take bigger
and more onerous responsibilities.
They will be less vulnerable to pressures of socially and
politically undesirable elements that aim to exploit the
vulnerability of young people to bolster their efforts to
destabilise society and undermine the established
democratic institutions. They will be inclined to respect law
and societal norms of which they are a part. As a result,

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there is greater possibility of reduction in crime and violence


attributed to young people and they will be able to contribute
to national development in a more productive way.

More Integrated Communities

Participation can lead to better bonding between young


people, on the one hand, and the adult community, on the
other. Through regular interaction, they will be able to
appreciate each others standpoint; stereotypes and
prejudices will go away; flawed perceptions will be
corrected; and young people will be able to identify more
with the communities in which they live. This will, inevitably,
lead to building a healthier, more cohesive society.

Participation A Tool for the Empowerment of Youth

Young people need to be empowered to participate in a


productive and effective way and through participation, they
get further empowered. It is a virtuous circle. The more
opportunities young women and men have for meaningful
participation, the more experienced and competent they
become. This allows more effective participation, which in
turn enhances development.

Youth Participation Leads to Better Decisions and Outcomes

Young people have a body of experience unique to their


situation, and they have views and ideas that are derived
from this experience. They are social actors with skills and
capacities to bring about constructive resolutions to their
own problems. Too often, though, there is a failure or even a
refusal to recognise the legitimacy of young peoples
contributions to programmes, policies and decision making.

Unfortunately, much of government policies and


programmes have a direct or indirect impact on young
people lives, yet they are developed and delivered largely in
ignorance or even disregard of how it will affect their
day-to-day lives or their present and future well-being.

4.3 Challenges in Promoting Youth Participation

Participation enhances their awareness and understanding


of issues of development that affect them and the
community in which they live; gets them fully acquainted
with the functioning of institutions that govern the society;
fortifies their commitment to themselves and the society and
to their own decisions; and helps them appreciate the
constraints in resources, manpower and infrastructure in
implementing development programmes, especially those
directed to address their needs, concerns, and problems.
Their expectations from the society become more realistic
and practical.
Participation should also be viewed as devolution of
responsibility to youth for their own growth and development,
making them more accountable to themselves and the
society. In fact, empowerment and devolution are closely
linked. Both lead to their ultimate well-being, building their
confidence and developing their abilities. Their involvement
when valued by the adults enhances their self-esteem. They
can take informed decisions in life.

Decisions taken without proper inputs from young people or


without getting complete information on their perspectives
and views on issues that are central to their growth and
well-being may not be fully responsive to the needs and
concerns of different groups of young women and men
across the country. As a result, adults across the
professional spectrum have been responsible for decisions,
policies, and actions that have been inappropriate and,
sometimes, actively harmful to young people, even when
the underlying intention has been to promote their welfare.

The essence of youth involvement is a partnership between


adults and young people. Effective youth/adult partnerships
work toward solving community problems. Working
partnerships also acknowledge the contributions of all
participants - youth and adults. In theory, creating such
partnerships sounds good and makes a lot of sense, but
putting such partnerships into practice is not always easy. It
is, however, necessary that the challenges that could be
faced when engaging young people in a dialogue should not
become justification for denying or curtailing participation of
young women and men as partners in development. The
society must resolve these difficulties and draw a roadmap
to ensure that young people are given their rightful place in
all developmental processes. Some of these likely
impediments are discussed below:

Traditional Values and Attitudes Towards Young People

The demand for recognition of the right of young people to


be heard, to have their views given serious consideration,
and to play an active role in promoting their own best
interests is far from universally respected. This demand,
therefore, represents a profound challenge to traditional
attitudes towards young people in most societies throughout
the world.
It implies a radical change in youth-adult relationships in all
spheres of life including the family, schools, local
communities, programmes, social services, and local,
regional and national government. A commitment to
respecting the participatory rights of young people is
incompatible with the age-old propensity of adults to take
decisions concerning young people without even consulting
them, let alone involving them. Those who have been

CHAPTER-4

accustomed to authority are being forced to acknowledge


young people as protagonists in the exercise of rights as
active agents in their own lives rather than mere recipients
of adult protection.

Accepting the necessity of their participation does not mean


that adults no longer have a responsibility towards youth.
On the contrary, young people cannot independently
undertake the advocacy necessary to secure their rights.
Structural problems such as poverty, discrimination and
injustice cannot be dealt with through participation alone.
Adults need to learn to work more closely in collaboration
with youth to help them articulate their needs and develop
strategies to enhance their well-being.

Motivating Young People Drawing Them out of Their Apathy

process; and negative stereotypes about politicians and


political parties. Young peoples indifference to voting and
participation in the electoral process has been widely
researched in many developing and developed countries.
According to these findings, among the reasons for this
state of affairs are:

Power dynamics, usually rooted in cultural norms, may


make it difficult for young people and adults to feel
comfortable working together. Years of formal instruction in
school often teach young people to expect answers from
adults. Some youth expect their own ideas to be largely
ignored, derided, or vetoed. Adults frequently underestimate
the knowledge and creativity of young people. Adults are
also accustomed to making decisions without input from
youth, even when youth are directly affected by those
decisions. Therefore, joint efforts toward solving problems
can be difficult, requiring deliberate effort on the part of both
adults and young people.

Generation gap is proverbial. However, the situation gets


further compounded if it is fuelled by mutual negative
stereotypes and prejudices. Some communities react
adversely to their youth, based on poor communication, lack
of understanding of youth culture, or perceived fear of youth.
They are often viewed as rebellious, lethargic, recalcitrant,
and unmanageable. On the other hand, young people
perceive adults as self-regarding, traditionalist, dishonest,
and uncommunicative. Young people who are already
facing social and economic discrimination are particularly
vulnerable to this negative profiling. This damaging labelling
has led to a deep sense of mistrust between young people and
the adult community, leading to disengagement. The task is to
establish channels of healthy and sustained communication,
create a bond, based on recognition of role each section can
play in achieving the objectives of national development
agenda, and promote constructive dialogue. Undesirable
mind-sets have to be replaced by affirmative attitude.

Another challenge is to overcome general apathy of young


people their aversion, distractions, frustration and to a
considerable extent their disempowerment. There is a
certain degree of cynicism about the whole electoral

157

General disinterest in politics;


Negative image of the politicians in the country
many viewing them as remote, untrustworthy,
self-interested, and unrepresentative of aspirations of
young people;
Stance that they have better things to do general
attitude that the activity of voting is not worth their
time and they can use the time of other pursuits of life;
Lack of understanding and knowledge of the electoral
process there is no proper dissemination of
information or education on the dynamics of the
electoral process;
Perception that there is a lack of interest in their views
feeling of alienation and disaffection;
A belief that there is no point in voting because it is
unlikely to bring about change;
A lack of trust by young people in decision-making
systems;
Lack of mutual confidence between young people and
officials manning the decision-making structures; and
Insufficient time due to education and/or work
obligations and family/friend commitments.

Heterogeneity of Youth Population


Understanding the dynamics of youth in every local context is,
therefore, essential. Each generation of youth faces different
challenges, and so when working with, and planning for youth it is
important to ask: which youth?

While it is possible to make some generalisations regarding


their interest, problems and concerns, youth population is
heterogeneous with considerable diversities in their life
experiences, cultural background, education, gender, social
background and economic status, depending on which part
of the country they live in. Most of the countries in Asia and
Pacific region have wide variations in ethnicity, race,
religion, and cultural practices. Therefore, every country has
its own variations in the youth population. Challenges differ
and, therefore, whenever planning with or for young people,
one has to be fully aware of these dissimilarities and
understand the context and dynamics of different

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sub-groups of young people. It is, therefore, a big challenge


to get a thoroughly representative group that will truly
embody the range of views, interests, and concerns of the
sub-groupings within the youth population.

As in larger society, there are sub-groups of youth


population that are socially excluded from the mainstream
youth population. They do not have similar opportunities or
access to services and resources that other sub-groups
have. As a result, it is likely that they may be left out from the
network established for involving young people in
decision-making process in the country. Among these
categories are: young women; youth from religious and
ethnic minorities; youth with disabilities; and migrant youth.

the world over are still struggling to come out with a clear
definition and scope of the role young people can play in
decision-making institutions at different levels and with the
procedures necessary for implementing the strategy. The
situation is further compounded in countries where there is
lack of political will or a consensus across the political and
social spectrum of the society is missing.
Lack of Know How for Participation

It is relatively easy to access young people who are


organised either through state-sponsored or voluntary youth
organisations or community-based youth clubs or womens
clubs. However, it is not easy when you have to reach out to
unorganised youth and get their views on issues that are of
concern to them. And, what is significant is that unorganised
youth constitute a large majority of youth population.
Similarly, it is often difficult to contact young people living in
geographically remote areas.

There is always a danger that more articulate section of


youth population or those who are close to the ruling party of
the day may get places of representation though they may
not signify wider spectrum of views and standpoints held by
young people; they may not characterise diversity of youth
population.
In view of the prevailing inequalities in our societies, young
women and men from economically or socially deprived
sections are reluctant to interact with young people from
privileged sections of the youth population and assume
responsibilities in partnership with them. Therefore, bringing
them together and providing a common platform to these
disparate groups is a challenge.

Young people are not clear about what role they can
perform or what responsibilities they are expected to carry
out in the planning and implementation of national
development agenda, in institutions of governance, or in the
political, social and economic processes of the country.
Even in the countries where there is greater recognition of
participation of young people in decision-making bodies,
guidelines, consistent with their political structures,
economic system, and social dynamics are still being
evolved. Therefore, due to this lack of a body of experience
in this regard, it is reasonable to expect that the countries

Limited access to authentic and complete information


and data on national and/or community-related issues
that are crucial for them and the society, at large;
Lack of competencies in decision-making,
problem-solving,
communication,
interactive
behaviour, and critical thinking;
They are not familiar with the functioning of various
policy making and planning bodies and agencies;
Lack of appropriate opportunities for education and
training, either by the family, academic institutions or
through non-formal avenues; and
As a result, young people are not effectively prepared
for participation. As they themselves are not sure of
their abilities, they are not able to infuse confidence in
the agencies/officials responsible for policy
formulation and planning. They are not in a position to
provide informed, qualitative, and useful inputs to the
process of policy formulation and planning. Thus,
their voice will not carry necessary conviction,
credence, and value.

Lack of Integrated or Coordinated Approach

Lack of Clarity about Role and Responsibilities

In the context of participation, the areas that inhibit young


people or act as deterrents for effective participation are:

If participation of youth people has to be institutionalised


and made a part of planning and governance, coordination
and harmonisation of these efforts at different levels local,
provincial, and national - can prove to be a difficult task. The
need is to develop an integrated strategy. However, the
scenario often is not very encouraging. Each ministry or
department responsible for an area of development has its
own agenda. Each one wants to guard its own turf and is
unwilling to subject its norms and procedures of functioning
to any other agency or body to outside intervention.

Need for Sustained Action

Involving young people as partners in development has to


be a national commitment and not the decision of the

CHAPTER-4

government of the day. If we want to see sustained action,


all political parties and those responsible for effective
functioning of the instrument of governance and
decision-making should also honour this national pledge.
Efforts towards achieving this goal should not be sporadic or
ad-hoc and the approach needs to be holistic and not
selective. There has to be sustained action. This task is not
easy as the political parties have their own agenda to
pursue and the state officials have their typical attitudes and
perceptions about young people that are far from being
positive and helpful. There is bound to be some unease and
there will be areas of discomfort when there is a change of
responsibility and authority.

procedures are also rigid. This will not only severely impede
their ability to connect with the official machinery but also act
as a strong discouraging and demoralising factor. They will
be reluctant to advocate for their rights. Even in the cases
where young people have been successful in influencing
decisions, barriers within the bureaucratic structures have
tended to limit implementation. This destroys young
peoples confidence and trust in such mechanisms.
Lack of Monitoring and Evaluation Tools

Lack of Resources Insufficient Resources

Participation of young people in decision-making processes


in a country comes with a resource tag. Evidently, young
people will not have resources to finance their participation
and they would look to the government agencies to allocate
adequate funds to take care of the travel and other related
expenses of the youth representatives to facilitate their
participation. However, the flip side is that the guardians of
the state coffer may not consider this as a productive
spending. They may look for tangible benefits or outcomes
from this outflow of funds which would not be there. They
may not be able to appreciate the long-term social and
political payback and if the commitment of the government
of the day is not strong enough to outweigh these narrow
considerations of the planners, youth participation may
never become a reality.

Inaccessibility to or Disconnect with the Official Machinery

In many countries, young people lack direct access to


institutional systems and structures within governments, the
media, and private and civil society sectors. In some cases,
the official machinery may be so complex and unresponsive
that young people may find it very exasperating and
time-consuming to reach out to the officials who operate and
control the decision-making infrastructure. Often, the

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As we move on the path to provide opportunities to young


people for participation, we need to ensure that there is
positive movement towards the achievement of the goals
that we had set out for this important mission. However, if we
look around in countries where youth participation is taking
definite shape, there is distinct lack of appropriate tools and
instruments to monitor the process and evaluate it against some
expected outcomes. Lack of proper tools and instruments to
assess the progress can render the entire effort unproductive.
As a result, sustainability of action may suffer and we may not
be able to identify the grey areas where corrective action is
necessary. These tools have to be developed both for the
decision-making and implementation stages.

4.4 Way Forward - Agenda for Action

As will be evident, effective and meaningful youth political


participation has one of the three key attributes. First, it can be
consultative, where young peoples voices are heard in an
adult-assigned consultation process, where they have
capacities, a mandate and information to fully perform their
roles, or through a youth-led advocacy initiative. Second, it
can entail youth-led participation, where young people have a
direct impact on decision-making within their own youth
communities, such as through youth-led NGOs, student
councils, youth parliaments with competencies and budgets,
etc. Third, it can involve youth collaborative participation,
where young people effectively take part in regular political
decision-making processes, including as voters, or as
members of parliament, political parties or advocacy groups.

Box 18: Innovative Ideas for Youth Participation


In September 2013, the UN Inter Agency Network for Youth Development (IANYD) and over 100 youth-led organisations, networks and movements
came together at the UN Headquarters in New York to jointly identify ways in which the IANYD could better work with and for young people. The main
goal of the meeting was to come up with innovative ways to strengthen youth participation in the United Nations system overall, and to partner with
young people in the implementation of the System-wide Action Plan on Youth.
The open meeting was an important step towards increased cooperation between the IANYD and youth-led organisations and will lead the way for future
cooperation. The commitment of the network members to closely work with youth-led organisations was reinforced as it has been decided that an open
interaction with youth-led organisations should become a regular part of IANYD meetings. Furthermore, structured ways for partnerships, collaboration
and participation between the IANYD and youth organisations have been discussed, for example, through the establishment of youth advisory boards.

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Box 19: Continuum of Youth Participation (In Ascending Order)

Adults take decisions and young people may be assigned responsibilities for implementing them, where considered appropriate by the adults.
Adults take decisions on issues, including those that directly concern young people, and then they are informed.
Issues are identified by adults and young people are consulted through youth-led bodies or through other available forums but the decisions are
taken by adults.
Decision-making process is initiated and guided by adults but decisions are taken with youth present in the forum.
Youth-initiated process but shared decisions with adults.
Youth and adults jointly identify issues and then sit together and decisions are taken as partners and implemented as partners.

While the aim should be to achieve full participation of


young people in all decision-making bodies, it may be
prudent for a country to start somewhere from the middle
rung of the ladder - Issues are identified by adults and young
people are consulted through youth-led bodies or through
other available forums but the decisions are taken by adults
and progressively move to higher levels of participation.
This will not only enhance the bonds between young people
and the decision-making authorities but also build the
confidence of the young people as they take up more
responsibilities in participation.

Formulation of National Youth Policy (NYP)

Before participation of young people in planning and


implementation of development projects and programmes
becomes a reality, it is necessary for every country to
formulate the National Youth Policy. This should be a priority
for every country of the region. UN World Programme of
Action for Youth (WPAY) 2010 also urges the Governments
of all Member-States to formulate a national youth policy in
order to address the concerns of young people.

Box 20: World Programme of Action for Youth (WPAY) 2010


Governments which have not already done so are urged to formulate and adopt an integrated national youth policy as a means of addressing
youth-related concerns. This should be done as part of a continuing process of review and assessment of the situation of youth, formulation of a
cross-sectoral national youth programme of action in terms of specific, time-bound objectives and a systematic evaluation of progress achieved
and obstacles encountered.
Reinforcing youth-related concerns in development activities can be facilitated through the existence of multilevel mechanisms for consultation,
dissemination of information, coordination, monitoring and evaluation. These should be cross-sectoral in nature and multidisciplinary in
approach and should include the participation of youth-related departments and ministries, national non-governmental youth organisations and
the private sector.
Special and additional efforts may be required to develop and disseminate model frameworks for integrated policies and to identify and organise
an appropriate division of responsibilities among both governmental and nongovernmental entities concerned with youth-related issues. Special
and additional efforts could also be directed towards strengthening national capacities for data collection and dissemination of information,
research and policy studies, planning, implementation and coordination, and training and advisory services.
National coordinating mechanisms should be appropriately strengthened for integrated youth policies and programmes. Where such mechanisms
do not exist, governments are urged to promote their establishment on a multilevel and cross-sectoral basis

Role of Youth in Peace-Building and Social Harmony

In 2009, the UN General Assembly adopted a resolution (64/130), calling member-states to recognise young women and men as important actors
in conflict resolution, peace-building and post-conflict processes.
WPAY 2010 also highlights the need for young people to be involved in activities that promote peace-building. It says Governments should
encourage the involvement of young people, where appropriate, in activities concerning the protection of children and youth affected by armed
conflict, including programmes for reconciliation, peace consolidation and peace-building.

CHAPTER-4

NYP is one step that builds bridges between the adult


community and the young people and puts young people on
the national centre-stage. It is an acknowledgement of the
significance of young people in national development and
their active engagement in national affairs. It underpins the
distinctive and complementary role of different ministries,
the voluntary sector, civil society and youth groups and
provides a framework for action in a spirit of cooperation and
coordination. It is a document of national commitment for
the young people and is a mission for the planners and
policy makers.
It is a framework for youth development across the country.
It endeavours to ensure that all young women and men are
given equal opportunities to realise their full potential. It
seeks to sensitise government institutions, bureaucracy and
civil society on issues that concern young people.

Setting up National Youth Council

It is important that the formulation, implementation and


evaluation of the policy should be an inclusive process,
involving all stakeholders chiefly youth but also civil society
organisations, all related government departments, political
parties, and private sector. The participation of these actors
facilitates the creation of a policy that best fits the needs and
capacities of youth as a distinct population group, and helps
to foster support and understanding of the policy objectives,
which are necessary for the implementation. Cooperation,
institutional support and partnerships contribute to forming
more solid investments in youth.
The National Youth Policy should be known and understood
on the national and local levels to create the necessary
political and societal commitment. Advocacy and outreach are
necessary to inform citizens of the key features of the policy,
its programmes and other measures that are expected to be
put in place for its successful implementation. Establishing
and maintaining communication channels between different
stakeholders help in coordinated action, ensuring better
outcomes. These channels also help improve relationships
between the beneficiaries, on the one hand, and those
responsible for implementing the policy, on the other. While
this multi-facet communication facilitates dissemination of
information, it also helps in getting the necessary feedback
from the field on the implementation of the policy and in
identifying areas that need to be looked into to improve it.
It is also necessary that the NYP is dynamic and is reviewed
periodically, bringing in the new issues of concern for young
people and consistent with the emerging social and
economic changes. It must remain in harmony with the
overall national agenda for development.
(See Annexure A for Suggested Framework of National Youth Policy)

161

Despite their different contexts, structures, and functions


across the world, youth councils are increasingly being
recognised as representing voice of the young people.
Youth council provides a mechanism to connect young
people with the decision-making bodies of the country
and also the communities. It offers a valuable perspective
on how youth practitioners can more effectively engage
with young people in development planning and
programmes. Setting up youth councils should not be
considered as an end in itself, but the beginning of a
process of empowering youth, of enhancing their
participation in decision-making and governance bodies,
and highlighting their indispensable contributions to
sustainable progress and change.
Youth councils may have varying degree of autonomy,
depending on the political, social and cultural dynamics of
the country. They may be youth-driven, meaning that they
function independent of government control and
interference. Local government officials are often wary of
these councils and are unsupportive of them as they may
view them as threat to their position and authority. On the
other, end of the spectrum may be youth councils that are
part of the government structure and closely linked to the
state. However, in most countries where youth councils
have been established, the operational structures and
their working procedures are a combination of these two
positions. CIRDAPs member-country may choose its
own model.
The mission of a youth council often helps determine its
roles, which frequently include consultative and advocacy.
Both these roles allow for young people to voice their
opinions on matters of youth concern and their needs;
suggest measures and necessary interventions to address
them; and contribute to the implementation of policies and
programmes. While, at times, youth councils tend to
assume one role more than the other, they often carry out
functions associated with both roles. In an advocacy role,
youth councils promote specific positions on issues that
impact them or the society as a whole, lobbying for definite,
desired outcomes. In addition to contributing to
decision-making, advising and advocating, a youth council
can also liaise between government and other youth
organisations particularly if it is an umbrella body,
representing numerous youth-focused organisations and
coordinate and manage youth projects.
The goal with which a youth council is established may be
adversely affected if the political parties start using the
council or its members for partisan politics. In such cases,

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the interests of youth will get superseded by the motives and


agenda of the political parties, especially of the one in
power. It is, therefore, necessary to build certain safeguards
against this exploitation of the council by the political parties.

Youth councils need to represent the youth they purport to


serve fairly and inclusively; otherwise they risk losing
legitimacy with those large number of youth who are not
adequately represented in this body. Inclusive
representation helps create a cohesive youth council that
promotes unity among young people from all sections of
youth population, and supports connect with the community.
A lack of fair representation potentially marginalises
under-represented youth, especially from the rural areas. It
is, therefore, important that youth council members should
be from a wide variety of backgrounds and abilities.
Effective youth councils allow young people from different
sections of the youth population to share their ideas and
experiences. However, it must be acknowledged that even
councils dedicated to the goal of inclusive and fair
representation have difficulty achieving it.
Youth councils can also provide youth with opportunities to
acquire new skills, such as public speaking, interpersonal,
problem-solving, and decision-making. Many of these skills
can be transferred to other contexts professional or
personal. Youth councils also offer extensive occasions for
networking, which allows participating youth to expand their
professional opportunities. Young people also gain a better
understanding of local issues and governance structures by
experiencing governance processes first-hand.
An important pre-requisite for effective functioning of the
councils is well-established and functional channels of
communication within the council; and with the
decision-making and governing bodies, young women and
men across the country, civil society organisations, and the
community, at large. A poor communication infrastructure
severely limits its ability to expand outreach, build
partnerships and networks, and collect and disseminate
information from and to its constituency.
A problem that is often faced by the councils is that youth
involved in councils are frequently engaged in other
activities and, sometimes, have competing priorities. They
may not always be available for council work and even their
attendance in meetings may be sporadic. Another issue that
deserves to be looked into by youth councils refers to the
high turnover rate of members who naturally age-out at
some point and exit of some members due to
disillusionment. All these problems can affect long-term
planning and sustained action of the council. In addition, if
youth are not appropriately compensated financially for their

work on the youth council, many may leave because of the


opportunity cost.

Some adults politicians, officials, and community people


may have unrealistic expectations regarding the behaviour
and motivations of youth council members. They expect
youth to be involved for purely altruistic reasons, and are
disappointed if young peoples reasons for participating
appear to be less than service. They then sometimes
discount or even ignore the youth opinions, disregarding the
fact that many adults are involved in governance for a
multitude of reasons, not all altruistic.
Travelling for the youth council work can be expensive
depending on the geographic expanse of the country and
the range of activities the council may organise. Financial
constraints can limit the efficacy of the work of the council.
Finally, as for any similar organisations, sustainability
remains an ever-persistent problem, particularly in
developing nations, where resources are frequently
unreliable and unstable.

Establishing National Youth Forum (NYF)

Another option that the member-countries may consider,


besides the National Youth Council, relates to the
establishment of National Youth Forum.
Several countries across the world have set up Youth
Parliament that aims to familiarise young people with the
parliamentary procedures and democratic practices and
promote democratic values among young women and men.
While these initiatives have their own value and importance,
there is a need for a formal, nationally-recognised, and
permanent mechanism that offers a platform to all sections
of young people to express their views and perspectives on
development issues that affect their present and future. This
platform should also provide opportunities to young people
to interact with the political leadership of the country and
policy-making and planning bodies.
To ensure that all sections of youth population rural, urban,
tribal, ethnic and religious groups, professionals, and youth
activists - are effectively represented, the membership of this
forum should be equally shared by nationally-recognised
political parties, and young people from other organised and
unorganised sectors. Support and cooperation of voluntary
and civil society organisations should be sought in identifying
young representatives from organised and unorganised
sectors. Political parties must also ensure that all sections of
youth get appropriate representation. Setting up of a
Provincial or a State Forum may also be considered, based
on the experiences of the NYF.

CHAPTER-4

While the working procedures and other selection and other


operational details may be finalised by member-countries,
the forum may work through sub-committees. The ministers
should make presentations on the policies and programmes
of their respective ministries and seek the views and
perspectives of the members of the forum.

The key purposes of youth mainstreaming include:

To prepare the members for meaningful participation in the


deliberations of the NYF and for effective interaction with
policy-makers and planners, special training programmes
may be organised for them. A team of professional trainers
may be assembled for the purpose, drawing from the
expertise available with voluntary organisations.

The NYF may nominate members to represent youth in


various policy-making and planning bodies and in
parliamentary sub-committees.
The forum may meet once a year for three days during the
National Youth Week.

Youth Mainstreaming

Generally, youth development is the responsibility of the


government ministry or department where the youth portfolio
lies. However, during the last decades or so, the field of
youth development is receiving wider recognition the world
over and getting prominence in the national development
agenda. As a consequence of these developments, there is
a strong demand for developing an integrated and
coordinated approach that ensures that youth concerns and
their problems are appropriately addressed in policies and
programmes of all development-related ministries and
departments such as, employment, education, health,
labour, industry, rural development, social and economic
justice, and womens welfare.
Youth mainstreaming as a public policy concept has been
defined as the process of assessing the implications (for
youth) of any planned action, including legislation, policies,
and programmes in all areas and at all levels. It is a strategy
for making concerns (youth) and experiences an integral
dimension of the design, implementation, monitoring, and
evaluation of policies and programmes, in all political,
economic and social spheres so that young people benefit
equally and inequality is not perpetuated.
(Source: Commonwealth Youth Programme: Asia Centre)

Mainstreaming is a means to an end and not end in itself. It


ensures that youth perspectives are integrated into policies,
programmes in various sectors of development.
Mainstreaming is an inclusive strategy that does not
discriminate on the basis of religion, ethnicity or any other
such factors.

Avoiding perpetuating and/or


marginalisation of young people;

reinforcing

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the

Maximising the positive impact of policies and/or


projects upon young people;
Investing in young people: realise the benefits of
engaging them as a human resource;
Respecting the right of young people to participate in
decision-making;
Benefiting from young peoples knowledge, skills,
ideas and practical contributions; and
Empowering young people (A Commonwealth
objective under the "Plan of Action for Youth
Empowerment").

By reflecting, ad dressing, being sensitive to, and being


responsive to youth issues, mainstreaming is meant to both
looking at the impact of a policy/project on young women
and men, and involving young women and men in order to
ensure youth participation in the decision-making of those
policies and/or projects that affect them.
Advocates of youth mainstreaming point out that young
people represent a disadvantaged and marginalised social
group, being over-represented among the global poor and
unemployed. As such it is argued that "pro-poor" strategies
must be "pro-youth", and that any development intervention
seeking sustainable impact must address the youth cohort.
Youth mainstreaming is a two-fold strategy for pursuing
youth development. Inspired by the experience of gender
mainstreaming, it involves ensuring youth is reflected in
policy and project stages in various sectors and ensuring
there are specific projects addressing youth. Together these
add up to a youth responsive approach.

Process
As the process for mainstreaming unfolds, it must be ensured that
young people are fully involved at all stages and in all forums and
their inputs and ideas are valued by those who are responsible for
policy making and planning and duly incorporated.

The basic steps in youth mainstreaming are to factor youth


impacts and youth participation into all stages of a project, of
whatever size and sector:

Situation Analysis: While young women and men


constitute the target population for mainstreaming, it
is necessary to ensure that all sub-sections of this
large mass of human capital, with their social,
economic and cultural differentials, are covered. Their

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needs, concerns, and aspirations should be


professionally researched and data should be
properly analysed and authenticated. Suitably trained
young women and men should be given major
responsibility for collection of data from their peers.

Identifying Sectors for Mainstreaming: On the basis


of situation analysis of the needs and problems of
youth and the issues that are central to their growth
and development, the next step for action will be to
identify the development sectors and corresponding
ministries and departments which are most relevant
for addressing these problems. For instance:
education, employment and entrepreneurship, health,
and womens welfare.
Formulating Policies and Planning Programmes:
Once the ministries/departments that should be
included in the mainstreaming have been identified,
the next step will consist of setting up mechanism for
formulating
policies
and
planning
programmes/schemes. Naturally, this mechanism or
structure should comprise of representatives from
these ministries/departments and of young people. As
this process progresses, it will be necessary to
constantly ensure that the proposed policies and
plans are not only responsive to the needs and
concerns of the young people (identified through the
situation analysis), but are also consistent with the
national development agenda. This is the phase
where it is absolutely imperative that the interests and
views of young people are fully integrated in the
policies and plans, if youth participation has to have
meaning and substance. A major task during this
phase will be to draw up a plan of action for the
implementation of these policies and programmes
and to establish focal point in each ministry or
department. These focal points should play an
important role in implementing the policies and plans.
Capacity building of youth for effective participation.
Implementations: Effective implementation of the
policies and programmes incorporated in the plans of
different ministries and departments as part of
mainstreaming is its real test. Implementation will
include: ensuring that the structures and mechanism
are functioning well, developing indicators for effective
monitoring the implementation, established to put the
plan of action into implementation are working in
accordance with the strategy, set up to implement are
functioning with Young people should be maximally
involved, consistent with their informed consent and
their education, livelihoods and leisure needs.

Monitoring and Evaluation: There should be


youth-specific indicators, including those related to
the quantity and quality of youth participation in the
project. Monitoring and evaluation should also involve
asking young peoples view of how much progress
has been made and what the challenges are.
Resources: Budget allocations for the whole exercise
of youth mainstreaming should be ensured in every
ministry or department

Challenges in Implementing Youth Mainstreaming

Lack of information at various levels about:

Youth perspectives on various youth-related issues;

Government mandates on youth;

Policies and programmes targeting youth; and

Comprehensive and fully validated situation analysis


about youth;

Functions-related profile of various stakeholders in


promoting youth development and their efforts in
various youth-related sectors.

Lack of financial resources to support youth participation at


all stages of mainstreaming;
High turnover of officials, especially with regard to the
dedicated focal points, does not allow their assimilation in
the process of mainstreaming or their capacity building;
Establishment of effective and youth-friendly communication
system involving young people as peer communicators;
Development of policy guidelines and youth-specific toolkit;
and
However, youth mainstreaming cannot be achieved without
a credible NYP and an effective strategy to implement it.
Youth participation comprises of four key components:

Political Participating in the political process of the


country by voting and observing the principles and
ideals of democracy; key promoter of democratic
values and practices, especially among young
people; participation in decision-making structures
and forums; participation in youth wings of political
parties;
Social and community affairs Actively engaged in
the activities and programmes of the local community
in which they live; coordinating their efforts with civil
society organisations; participation in local
governance; maintenance of social harmony; cultural
affairs of the community;

CHAPTER-4

Economic Participation in policy formulation on


economic policies of the country, especially related to
employment, skill development, and promotion of
entrepreneurship among youth; and

gender, religion, educational background, and value


attached to political participation may influence a young
persons motivation for political participation.

Advocacy on youth-related issues Participation in


campaign on gender equity; social and economic
justice; fighting archaic social customs, practices, and
values that impede development.

Promoting Political Participation


Present Scenario

As a social category, youth has the largest potential for


benefitting from the democratic politics. Numerous arenas
and institutions have emerged over the last few decades for
involvement of youth in political life of a country. Among
these are: a vast network of youth groups; students
councils; youth wings of the political parties and trade
unions; and, in some countries, youth networks at local,
provincial, and national levels. In all these respects, young
people and their political involvement assume particular
relevance. However, unfortunately, opportunities for their
effective participation have not grown in the same
proportion. On the contrary, many lament considerable
decline in the political involvement of younger generations,
and decreasing levels of youth participation in elections,
political parties and traditional social organisations are seen
to provide ample evidence of this. Therefore, one is
constrained to raise questions: Are these existing structures
and arrangements commensurate with the interests and
needs of young people? Do they promote genuine and
effective participation? Are they relevant in the emerging
political scenario in different countries? Each country has to
find its own answers to these questions.
It is evident that political participation of youth can play a
crucial role for the promotion of development of democracy,
both in shaping its institutions and in embedding and
legitimising them socially. And young people can play a very
important role in furthering democratic values, not just as a
political rhetoric but as a lifestyle in a country, especially that
of the younger generation.
Opportunities for youth to participate in political processes
depend largely on the political, social and cultural milieu of a
country. It has been observed the world over that the
countries with firmly rooted democratic values and traditions
provide more conducive environment for participation, in
general. In such countries, participation is often recognised
as a fundamental democratic right. However, even within
one particular context, practices may differ substantially.
Several factors, such as economic situation, social status,

165

As with adults, motivations for political participation differ


from one person to the other. Some may be driven by a
particular issue or ideology; some by perceived benefits that
may accrue from participation; some may consider it merely
as a social activity; and some may see in it an opportunity to
express their frustration or anger.
If young people believe that formal political processes are
not accessible, do not offer anything substantive to them, or
are dominated by adults, they may be averse to
participation. This perception can shape their attitudes,
individually or as a group, with potentially long-lasting
negative impacts on a countrys political culture and
dynamics. It has been found that in new and emerging
democracies, the inclusion of youth in formal political
processes is important from the start. This is particularly so
in countries which have seen young people spearheading
movements that ousted authoritarian regimes from power. If
young people are neither made part of the new political
regime, nor have any voice in its emerging decision making
structures, frustration is likely to replace the euphoria of
overthrowing the earlier political masters and this can be
destabilising for the country.
A number of studies suggest that participation of young
people in formal, institutionalised political processes such
as, voting is relatively low compared to older citizens across
the globe. Further evidence indicates that youth are more
inclined to participate in informal political processes
campaigns, protests, rallies, political activism, etc. In the
current world and throughout history, there are many
examples of powerful youth-led protest movements.
However, both formal and informal engagement can be
understood as political participation.
Another aspect that needs to be considered while
discussing political participation of young people relates to
youth leadership in the political parties. Truly representative
youth leadership should evolve from young people
themselves. Unfortunately, in some countries of the region,
the scenario is somewhat disturbing. What we see today is
that young family members of well-known politicians get
elected because of the influence of their seniors who are
established leaders of their respective parties. In most of
these cases, they carry the baggage of the political ideology
of their seniors or the political parties that helped them to get
elected. As a result, they do not genuinely represent the
voice of the young people their perspectives, perceptions,
concerns and aspirations.

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parent political parties and some even became ministers,


holding important portfolios.

Youth and Political Parties

To promote participation of young people in the affairs of the


political parties, there is a need for affirmative action or
measures such as, youth and womens quotas within
political parties. In some political parties, it is customary for
a representative of the partys youth wing to have an
advisory seat on the partys board. Other parties grant youth
leaders ex-officio voting rights on the national executive, or
on local associations. This gives youth a voice and an
opportunity to mobilise support for youth candidates and
issues. Such initiatives need to be further strengthened
across the region to provide participatory rights to young
members of the political parties.
It should be the endeavour of the political parties to nurture
young people and help them come up and represent youth
voice. They should ensure that a proper mechanism exists
within the party for effective representation of their views
and concerns.

Every political party should have proper representation of


the young people in their policy-making and decisionmaking bodies.
For many of the political parties, young people constitute an
important constituency of voters and they do everything to
attract them through promises and assurances in their
political agenda or election manifestoes. They also draw on
their energy, enthusiasm and even frustration for their
political campaigns, protests, and rallies. However, they
are less willing to accept them as partners in the
day-to-day functioning of their parties, in developing partys
strategies, or for translating their political agenda into
policies and programmes. They are not considered an
integral part of the party. Key functions remain in the hands
of the senior leadership.

A second important function of youth wings is to train


members. There are plenty of opportunities for young
people to experience decision-making processes and
develop their political skills and viewpoints. The youth wings
may organise skill-building workshops, mentoring
programmes, and policy development activities for its
members. Many political parties provide funds for these
activities, knowing that parties with a vibrant youth wing are
likely to attract more young members.
A third function of youth wings can be to influence party
policy development and leadership selection. Young
members and youth wings can provide fresh and innovative
inputs and challenge outdated policies. Youth wings can
function as incubators for new policies, and as a powerbase
to organise the necessary majorities at party conventions.
Youth wings can extend outreach to young voters and make
parties more credible to them. For election and recruiting
campaigns, youth wings will likely know what language is
most effective with their peers and what kinds of activities
are attractive to youth.
Youth wings can also play an important role in advocating
on behalf of youth population and on issues that are of prime
concern to the young people.

Some Measures to Promote Youth Participation

However, in promoting political participation of youth,


youth/student wings of political parties can play a very
important role. Although youth wings can have diverse
configurations in different countries, broadly speaking, they
can perform the following key functions:

They act as powerbases for their members. Youth wings can


be instrumental in the increased nomination of young
candidates and inclusion of youth issues in party
programmes. Having a powerful youth section over a long
period ensures that there are influential members of the
senior party who are youth wing alumni; they may act as
champions and mentors for the newer generation. One
distinct example from the region is of Malaysia. A
significant number of members from the Malaysian Youth
Council have moved on to occupy senior positions in the

Voting age in most countries in the Asia-Pacific region is 18


years. However, in Indonesia it is 17; and in Pakistan and
Malaysia it is 21.
In the Philippines, there is a stipulation to include youth on
party lists.
In Sri Lanka, until recently, 40 per cent of candidates on
party lists for local government elections had to be between
18 and 35 of age.
In Uganda, five seats in Parliament are reserved for youth
representatives.
In Kenyas National Assembly, 12 seats are reserved for
representatives to be nominated by political parties to
represent special interests, including youth, persons with
disabilities and workers.
In Rwanda, the National Youth Council elects two members
of the Chamber of Deputies.

Youth and Parliamentary Practice

Facilitate youth-led national youth councils and/or


parliaments: Youth parliaments are a useful civic education

CHAPTER-4

exercise for raising awareness about the functions and


procedures of parliament. In some countries, youth
parliaments and councils effectively represent youth and
give them a voice in national decision-making. As
participatory institutions, youth parliaments should have
certain competencies, such as a consultative function on
youth-relevant issues. It can sometimes be unclear whether
the opinions expressed in youth parliaments are taken into
account. Frustration can arise when young people work
hard with no traceable impact. From the beginning, it should
be decided which minister or parliamentary committee is
tasked with responding to resolutions. Youth parliaments
should not be onetime events, but allow for continuous
engagement and follow-up. They can be an important
contribution to overall accountability, if they succeed in
shadowing the national parliaments work.

Youth and Elections

(For reference, see case studies on Youth Parliament in


Bangladesh and Sri Lanka under Section D of this report)

Invite youth groups to visit national parliaments, attend


proceedings, and get familiar with its functioning of the
legislature and that of its various different committees. While
in some countries, politicians are not allowed to come to the
educational institutions for fear of politicising the
environment and take the students away from their
academic pursuit, in some other countries they are specially
invited to share information with students on their political
programmes and the workings of parliament.
Make voices of youth heard in parliament and government:
Apart from youth directly being represented in parliament,
there are several other entry points for increasing their
access to the legislature. Parliaments often engage with
civil society through committee hearings. Specific
parliamentary committees and multi-party groups either
focused on youth or deliberating issues impacting youth
could conduct public consultations and invite youth
organisations to share their views. UNDPs Parliamentary
Development Strategy Note highlights support for these
kinds of activities. Participation in such forums can also
help young people develop their capacity for more
substantive participation in wider national discussions.

In Jamaica, youth organisations founded a National Youth


Parliamentary Watch Committee in 2009, endorsed by the
Ministry of Youth. This committee is charged with reviewing
all bills and policies before Parliament, and critically
[evaluating] them for youth mainstreaming objectives.
The Australian Government consults youth through several
regular channels, such as a National Youth Week as well as
a Youth Forum Steering Committee.

167

Even as the number of youth exercising their voting rights


may have declined, the overall numbers of young voters
have risen, especially in youth bulge societies. In India, the
2014 elections saw around 150 million voters, between the
ages 18-23, head to the voting booths for the first time. As a
voting class, young Indians have traditionally been
apolitical. This year, however, they seemed unequivocal
about change and, therefore, there was a sustained
campaign to encourage young people to vote.
Most campaigns either specifically target young and first-time
voters, or at least have some youth-specific elements. In
some countries, umbrella organisations of political party
youth wings carry out joint young voter campaigns.
In part, voter turnout is shaped by complex and
context-specific factors. Ellis and his colleagues identify
factors such as perceptions of the effectiveness of the vote,
electoral and party systems, voting traditions, voter
registration procedures and physical access to the polls.
They also point to important determinants on the individual
and social level, such as attitudes, knowledge, civic
engagement, social networks and socialisation.
Advertising and information campaigns only target
individual attitudes and knowledge. Even the best campaign
aimed at bringing a significant number of young people out
to vote may not achieve its ultimate goal. A successful
strategy should address social, contextual and systemic
factors as well, including through general civic engagement
and youth political participation activities. For youth to come
to ballot boxes, an enabling environment should empower
them to participate in civic life. Societies need to respect and
accept youth as full-fledged political subjects, and not
mainly as objects of mobilisation campaigns.
Ensure youth participation in all phases of voter education
campaigns: As part of a larger strategy to enhance youth
political participation, information about how and why to vote
can be provided in a youth-friendly manner. Youth
representatives could be included during the design and
validation process of voter education campaigns and
materials, particularly - but not only - for campaigns
targeting youth. This can be done through advisory boards.
The approach, methods and language are more likely to be
appropriate for reaching youth if young voices are included,
starting with the project design phase.
Include youth as poll station workers, on electoral
management body advisory boards and as election
observers: (Example: In collaboration with the Political
Affairs Division of the Commonwealth Secretariat, the

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Commonwealth Youth Programme placed young people as


members of Commonwealth Election Missions in several
countries across the Commonwealth).

Youth representatives can be involved in all aspects of the


electoral process. Each electoral stakeholder can include
youth in designing and implementing activities, including
those related to election observation and management.
Electoral management bodies need to have sophisticated
knowledge about their youth electorate, and identify the
special electoral needs of young voters.
National Young Voters Day could be part of highlighting
young peoples participation in the electoral process. As part
of celebration of this day, workshops and discussion forums
may be organised to sensitise young voters about the need
and their duty to participate in the electoral process by
casting their vote; educate them on the electoral and
political processes in the country; and make them aware of
the issues and areas of concern for the country. Educational
institutions across the country where the students are either
eligible voters or about to get that right should be
encouraged to participate in this event. This should be
organised as a non-political event, with the collaboration of
the Election Commission of the country, voluntary
organisations and educational institutions.

Stakeholders in Promoting Youth Participation


There are a number of stakeholders in youth participation in
development activities. They are stakeholders because either they
have an important role to play in promoting participation of young
people in decision-making bodies of the country and preparing
them for it or youth participation will have considerable impact on
their functioning, indeed on their decision-making processes.
Accordingly, their stakes is this important initiative and the role
they can play in promoting youth participation and preparing them
for meaningful contribution to the affairs of the society differ
considerably. The key stakeholders are:

Youth-focused or youth-led organisations;


Family and kinship units;
Educational institutions;

Structures and institutions of governance; and

Political parties.

Youth-focused or Youth-led Organisations

These organisations have an important role to play in


sensitising the community on the rights of young people to
be part of its decision-making structures and institutions; in
advocating for youth participation through networking; and
in preparing young women and men for effective
participation through capacity building.

They should provide a forum for regular dialogue between


the adult community, on the one hand, and young women
and men, on the other, for discussion of youth-related issues
that will help remove biases and stereotypes and build
youth-adult partnership and understanding, crucial for
promoting youth participation.
They should aim to build the capacity of young people for
effective participation by organising special leadership training,
workshops and other educational programmes for the young to
train them in decision-making, problem solving, and other such
areas and provide them opportunities for well-informed
exchange of views on youth-related issues. These organisations
can also play a crucial role in positive reinforcement of youth
values through peer education and mentoring.
Youth-focused organisations should move further than
considering young people only as beneficiaries or recipients
of their programmes and services. They should be ready to
play an important role in preparing young people for
meaningful participation by providing opportunities to
engage in organisational matters and its functioning.
Genuine and effective youth involvement, however, require
a serious commitment by an organisation and all staff
members. This may necessitate putting in place structures
and procedures that promote that optimise opportunities for
participation of young functionaries. This experience will
help them develop their competencies in formulating
policies; planning and management of projects and
programmes; decision-making and problem solving;
teamwork; and working with people. However, to achieve
desired objectives, these organisations will have to
overcome their perceived lack of confidence in youth to
make a meaningful contribution to the organisational
functioning. Overcoming scepticism and ambivalence about
youth within the organisation is also a substantial challenge.
Youth organisations should take the lead in collecting data
and information on good practices or successful case
studies in youth participation, nationally and globally, under
different contexts and situations. These documented
experiences will be helpful in more than one way: develop
models and strategies to promote participation of young
people in development programmes at different levels;
provide guidelines to organisations for developing
educational programmes for preparing young people for
effective participation; and canvass support for recognition
of the concept of youth participation.
There should be a sustained and coordinated campaign by
youth organisations, other stakeholders, including human
rights activists for promoting participation by young people.
They should strive to build an environment through advocacy

CHAPTER-4

and political will and consensus on issues related to youth


participation. They must ensure that the political commitment
is reflected in the legislative and administrative measures the
State put in place and the structures and procedures it
establishes to facilitate and promote participation by young
people. The society, in general, should also evolve norms that
facilitate and promise a more significant role for the young in
societal affairs.
Family and Kinship Units

As a key social unit of the society, family offers a wide


variety of ways to its young to participate. It can play a very
important role in empowering young people through
education and guidance and by involving them on issues
that are not only important for them but also impact the
family as a whole. Family is in a uniquely apt situation to
provide an enabling and non-threatening environment for
their growth and development. It has the responsibility to
encourage them to take initiatives and venture into
uncharted territory even when it involves certain degree of
risk, thus, providing them opportunities to learn, even
through mistakes. By building their capacity and
competence, the family prepares them for more effective
participation in larger societal forums of decision-making
and planning.
Family also has the potential for providing opportunities for
peer counselling and mentoring; inculcating essential
societal values in the young people; and promoting a
healthy lifestyle.
Studies have shown that adolescents who reported feeling
connected to parents and their family, and enjoyed good
communication were more self-reliant and had higher
self-esteem; they scored low on depression and anxiety.
This nurturing during this stage of their development would
be helpful to them for participating with confidence and
assertion in any decision-making forum.

Educational Institutions

Educational institutions can play an important role in


developing young people for participation through a
sustained life-skills programme in areas such as
communication, interpersonal relations, decision-making,
problem-solving, and teamwork.
They can also provide education in democratic functioning
by providing experience in working in student committees
and on group-projects where students get opportunities to
express their views not only on matters that concern them
as students but also as growing up individuals and work with
other classmates.

169

Educational institutions can also serve as an important


source for providing information to the students on issues
that impact them, directly or indirectly.
They can provide experience in connecting with the
community and sensitise them to the community living, their
needs and problems through projects such as, socially
useful and productive work, as is being done in some
countries across the world.
Provide co-curricular and extra-curricular activities of civil
engagement.

Structures and Institutions of Governance

Most of those who manage these structures and institutions,


including politicians and bureaucrats, especially at the
provincial and national levels, are not fully convinced about
the capabilities of young people to participate effectively in
decision-making. The first task for the advocates of youth
participation will be to persuade them to value youth
participation and to recognise the benefits that are likely to
accrue through meaningful inputs by young people in policy
formulation, and planning and implementation of
programmes. It is, therefore, in the interest of sound and
inclusive governance that these people facilitate the entry of
young people into these structures and train them in the
intricacies of their functioning.
Young people can make a bigger impact by associating with
structures at the local level as it is easy for them to identify
with the issues that are dealt by these bodies of
governance. They can also relate to the community and he
people who are responsible for running these institutions.

Political Parties
(The role of political parties in promoting youth participation has
been discussed in considerable details in another sub-section of
this section)
National Young Voters Day

Young Voters Day could be part of highlighting young


peoples participation in the electoral process. As part of
celebration of this day, workshops and discussion forums
may be organised to sensitise young voters about the need
and their duty to participate in the electoral process by
casting their vote; educate them on the electoral and
political processes in the country; and make them aware of
the issues and areas of concern for the country. Educational
institutions across the country where the students are either
eligible voters or about to get that right should be
encouraged to participate in this event. This should be
organised as a non-political event, with the collaboration of

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the Election Commission of the country, voluntary


organisations and educational institutions.

In most countries of the region, young people have the


opportunity to vote at the age of 18. However, formal or
informal education in citizenship, and democratic practice
and values should begin long before it. Where possible, this
should form part of the school curriculum.

National Youth Week

To highlight and promote the active role young people can


play in national development, member-countries may
decide to observe National Youth Week, either beginning
with the International Youth Day or ending with it. This will
put the focus on young people for a full week and bring them
on the national centre-stage. The week may include the
following events:

Meeting of National Youth Council, National Youth


Forum or other comparable body (And of provincial
or state bodies, where applicable).

Observance of National Young Voters Day.


Dialogue between representatives drawn from civil
society organisations, including political parties, on
the one hand, and young people, on the other, to
bring about greater mutual understanding and forge
better relations between these two important sections
of the society.
Seminars and workshops on topical themes or
issues.
Cultural events showcasing the diversity of the
multi-cultural societies of member-countries, with
the aim of inculcating respect for other cultures in
the country.

Development Sectors in Which Young People can be


Effective Partners
Role of Youth in Peace-Building and Social Harmony

In 2009, the UN General Assembly adopted a resolution (64/130), calling member-states to recognise young women and men as important actors
in conflict resolution, peace-building and post-conflict processes.
WPAY 2010 also highlights the need for young people to be involved in activities that promote peace-building. It says Governments should
encourage the involvement of young people, where appropriate, in activities concerning the protection of children and youth affected by armed
conflict, including programmes for reconciliation, peace consolidation and peace-building.

Young people are vital stakeholders in conflict and in


peace-building. Armed conflict or internal sectarian strife is
one of the most critical challenges that young people are
facing today. Youth are the main victims of conflicts, not only
because of direct violence perpetuated against them but
also because of their unique vulnerability to getting drawn
into conflict situation, voluntarily or due to compulsion of
circumstances. These assertions have led to a dichotomous
viewpoint of youth as either causal or recipient agents.
However, when we speak of youth participation in societal
affairs, we are inclined to recognise youth as agents for
peace. Youth, in fact, are at the frontlines of peace-building
and are taking on active roles to build peace and prevent
outbreaks of violence across the globe.
In the long run, the marginalisation of youth during a peace
process can create an enabling environment for elements
that are looking for opportunities to destabilise the society
such as, criminal gangs, non-state actors, religious fanatics,
and armed militants - to provide incentives for youth to join
their cause, so that they feel they are appreciated and
valued, despite it being in the wrong way. However, the
reason to involve them in peace processes in not just to
avoid their exploitation by these anti-social or anti-national

elements but to give them a positive role as bridge-builders


and in promoting social harmony among different sections
of the society.

There are situational reasons, emphasising that the social


institutions family, educational institutions, youth clubs,
youth-focused organisations, peer groups, etc. - are
fundamental for a successful peace-building efforts. As
these institutions, individually or collectively, are charged
with the task of communicating and transferring societal
norms and expectations, they are naturally important
breeding grounds for both conflict and peace. Through
these institutions, young women and men can emerge
prepared either to contribute to conflicts or promote peace.
The tenth anniversary of WPAY in 2005 entailed a thorough
review of major developments and achieved progress, in
which youth and conflict was incorporated as a specific
topic. In this context, the review acknowledged that
examples of youth participation in peace-building were
abundant, constituting the evidence that youth are also
agents of peace; with the right educational tools for crisis
prevention and peace-building they can develop the skills
needed to help prevent violent and armed conflicts.
Whereas in the initial World Programme of Action for Youth,

CHAPTER-4

the recommended peacemaking education could have been


seen as a tool to distract youth from armed groups, the 2005
review explicitly acknowledged youths potential to take on
meaningful, if not crucial roles in peace-building.

social and economic disparities. It is, therefore crucial to


recognise the positive role that youth can in peace-building
and conflict transformation, taking into account the close
interrelationship between social justice, sustainable
development, human rights and peace as omnipresent in
the daily life of the worlds youth. This is particularly true of
countries across the world that are multi-religious and/or
multi-ethnic, as is the case with the Asia Pacific region.

Development and peace are inextricably linked. There can


be no development without peace and there can be no
peace if development is not inclusive and there are huge

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Box 21: IANYD Sub-Working Group on Youth Participation in Peace-Building


Recognising that civil society organisations are at the forefront of programmatic and advocacy work on youth participation in peace-building, the Inter
Agency Network for Youth Development (IANYD) sub-working group has made the direct participation of civil society organisations one of its priorities.
Currently, the sub-working group is developing an operational guidance note that will offer concrete assistance to project managers on how to support
youth participation in peace-building programming and ensure that youth are part of peace building processes.
Achievements and Results:

Enhanced coordination and collaboration between the UN and NGOs.


Advocated for youth participation in peace-building in both youth and peace-building forums in the UN.
Organisation of several brown bag events to facilitate discussions among stakeholders.
Contribution to post-2015 agenda discussions.
Developed the guiding principles on young peoples participation in peace-building.

As a follow-up of the mandate of Commonwealth Head of


Governments Meeting and in accordance with the
Commonwealth Plan of Action for Youth Empowerment
2007-15, the Commonwealth Youth Programme (CYP), has
taken a unique initiative in developing a programme that
underscored the role young people can play in promoting
peace and harmony in the communities they live. Aptly, the
programme is called Youth as Ambassadors of Peace. The
CYP: Asia Centre has developed a comprehensive Training
Manual for a 21-day training programme for selected young
women and men as ambassadors for peace-building in
member-countries. Non-Commonwealth countries may also

contact the CYP for implementing this programme and for


the use of the Manual.

Government agencies and civil society organisations,


including political parties, should lend functional support to
the programme for promoting peace and social harmony in
the country.

Youth and Environment

Participation of young people in preserving and conserving


environment is very crucial because the very future of young
people is tied with the manner in which environment issues
are addressed by the country.

UN General Assembly Resolution (64/130) calls upon member-states to strengthen the participation of young people as important actors in the
protection, preservation and improvement of the environment at the local level, national and international levels, as envisaged in Article 21.

Aside from having a greater stake in the more distant future,


young people are especially well-placed to promote
environmental awareness simply because they often have
better access to information about the environment than do
their elders. They are also exposed to more education in
environment issues through educational institutions, at least
in the developed world and perhaps more sporadically
elsewhere. Besides, they have lived all their lives in an era
in which these issues have loomed large. Established
anti-ecological ways of thinking and behaving are not

ingrained in young people, and they can introduce fresh


ideas and outlooks to issues.

However, for them to play a more active and affirmative role


in the environment protection and its conservation, there is a
need to make this information readily accessible and widely
disseminated to all sections of youth, including those living in
rural and remote areas, through youth clubs and other
youth-led organisations. They should also have opportunities
to present their perspectives on environment issues in
various policy-formulating and decision- making bodies.

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Strengthening the participation of youth in environmental


protection is partly a matter of increasing opportunities in
governmental organisations, established NGOs and
restoration projects; partly a matter of youth themselves
devising new forms of action; and partly a question of more
effective environmental education and media presentation
of environmental issues.
Young people should be encouraged to adopt a lifestyle that
is environmentally friendly. They can make their homes,
educational institutions and youth organisations with which
they are associated more environmentally friendly. Among
the measures that will promote this mission are: recycling of
used materials, such as, paper, plastic bottles, cans,
discarded clothes and old mobile phones; discreet and
economic use of water; conserving electricity by turning off
things that are not in use (from bedroom light to the
computer or TV sets); avoiding littering; cutting back on use
of fuel-driven vehicles; and participating actively in
environment-related community projects. Engaging youth
in environmental protection not only creates direct impact on
changing youth behaviour and attitudes, but also influences
their families, social circle, and peers.
In rural areas, young people can play an important role in
helping local organisations in promoting efforts to reclaim
and/or maintain water bodies; making sure that drinking
water is not wasted; encouraging regulated use of irrigation
facilities that ensures equity and non-wastage; and disaster
prevention and management.

falling and surface water is becoming scarcer diminishing


the prospects for increased agricultural production. The
rural poor often lose out when the demands of urban and
industrial uses compete with the needs of rural communities
for sufficient quality water supplies.

The tightening squeeze on rural water supply is another


particularly pressing issue. Due to growing demand for
water in both rural and urban areas, groundwater tables are

Investment in environmental programmes in rural areas will


provide skills and employment for youth, as well as a more
prosperous future. Reforestation, sustainable water use,
fishponds, alternative fuel sources (reduced use of wood)
and improved land use are just a few examples of areas in
which investment will pay huge dividends in terms of a
better future for rural youth.

Advocacy Role for Gender Equity

Aside from political action, there are possibilities for youth


participation in practical environmental projects.
Poverty is both a cause and effect of mismanagement of
environmental resources. Rural youth development efforts
cannot succeed when the physical resources on which they
depend are increasingly degraded. And at the same time,
environmental resources cannot be managed effectively in
the face of issues such as poverty and widespread rural
unemployment. Deforestation is an example of the impact of
poverty in rural areas. The need for more farming land and
fuel sources often leads to the clearing of forests by the rural
poor. However rural poverty is compounded when forests,
which provide medicines, building materials, and food, are
cleared. Deforestation also means the loss of the services
provided by the forest, such as maintenance of water
supplies and protection against erosion. The loss of these
services then undermines the ability of rural communities to
farm their lands sustainably.

More efficient water use by all users is a high priority in order


to enable sustainable rural development.

There is increasing recognition that to reduce gender


inequality a goal fundamental to improving a countrys
overall health and development active involvement of
young people is imperative from early stage. However, there
has been limited engagement of both girls and boys during
early adolescence to challenge and shift gender. This
situation needs to be reversed. Young people should be in
forefront in the campaign to advocate for womens
empowerment and gender equity. (See box for case study)
The importance of education systems in shaping the gender
perspective of boys was underscored in the landmark of the
Dakar Framework for Education for All (UNESCO, 2000). An
explicit goal (goal 5) of the Dakar Framework is to ensure
that education systems contribute to and promote gender
equality, instead of reinforcing gender stereotypes. To
reinforce this further, the United Nations Commission on the
Status of Women in its 48th session in March 2004
specifically focused on the theme: The role of men and
boys in achieving gender equality.
There has to be a sustained multi-media campaign to bring
together young women and men to create avenues for
increased awareness and understanding of issues related
to gender equity and advocate for womens empowerment.
This campaign should be launched by the national youth
body National Youth forum, National Youth Council or a
network of youth-led organisations in collaboration with
civil society organisations, womens bodies, private sector,
and media. The campaign should engage youth in critical
reflections on rigid ideas and norms that contribute to girls
and women not getting equal opportunities for growth. It
should aim to educate the community, especially in rural
areas, against discrimination on the basis of gender and
work to mitigate societal or family restraints on their full

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173

Box 22: Promoting Gender Equity among Adolescents


Gender Equity Movement in Schools (GEMS), Mumbai, India
Gender socialisation of both boys and girls begins early, and it is important to initiate change processes at a young age to shape attitudes and
transform behaviours.
The Gender Equity Movement in Schools programme or GEMS, is a school-based intervention that promotes gender equality by encouraging equal
relationships between girls and boys, examining the social norms that define mens and womens roles, and questioning the use of violence. The GEMS
experience provides evidence of a useful and feasible methodology for creating discussion around gender equality within the school setting.
The findings (GEMS) suggest that a methodology which involves students in self-reflection has the potential to make a positive difference in attitudes
and behaviors. Also, schools, as spaces for learning, have a role beyond giving knowledge to fostering support for gender equality and non-violence.
Gender attitudes and norms, such as those around the roles and responsibilities of women and men, are learned at a young age. Through the Gender
Equity Movement in Schools (GEMS) programme, International Centre for Research on Women (ICRW) has been exploring the potential for
school-based curriculums to influence the formation of more gender-equitable norms among adolescents.
In partnership with the Committee of Resource Organisations for Literacy (CORO) and the Tata Institute for Social Sciences, Mumbai (TISS), ICRW
has developed and implemented a curriculum to engage young girls and boys, age 12-14 years, to discuss and critically reflect on the issues related
to inequitable gender norms and violence. GEMS project was implemented in public schools in Goa, Kota and Mumbai using different approaches.
In Goa and Kota, it was layered with ongoing school curriculum, while in Mumbai, it was implemented as independent pilot project in 45 schools.
Using extracurricular activities, role-playing and games, GEMS began in the sixth grade and works for two years with boys and girls ages 12-14 in
public schools.
The pilot phase in Mumbai demonstrated the potential of GEMS to engage young adolescents on issues of gender and violence and bring attitudinal
change to support equitable norms. The outcome variables that demonstrate the greatest change are clustered around appropriate roles for women
and men and girls and boys. Other key attitudinal and behavioural changes are increased support for a higher age at marriage for girls, greater male
involvement in household work, increased opposition to gender discrimination, and improved reactions to violence.
Following the success of the pilot phase in Mumbai, the Maharashtra state government has integrated key elements of GEMS in the school gender
programme for all of its nearly 25,000 public schools. ICRW, CORO and TISS are supporting the state in designing curriculum and training master
trainers. In addition, GEMS is supporting implementation and documentation of the scale-up phase in Mumbai.
GEMS has also found relevance in Vietnam. PyD is implementing GEMS in 20 schools in DaNang Province in collaboration with the Government of
Vietnam and technical support from ICRW.
(Source: Pilot Phase 2008-11; Scale-up Phase 2011-2014)

participation and opportunities in all spheres of life. There


should be structured dialogues at various levels and with
different sections of the society that result in specific plans of
action. Mixed groups of young people are fundamental in
ensuring that the content of such campaigns is relevant and
engaging to both young women and men.

Besides promoting questioning of gender norms, peer


educators from among young people should become local
resources for the community on sexual and reproductive
health, domestic violence and discrimination against women
and on issues related to women empowerment.

Youth Entrepreneurship and Development of Skills

The issue of youth under- or unemployment is a major


concern for both industrialised and developing countries. It
affects the life and future not only of young people and their
families but also of the society, as a whole.

One of the key concerns that emerged from the analysis of


unemployment situation in the CIRDAP member-countries
relates to an immense mismatch between the professional
and technical skills possessed by young people and the
demands of the labour market, particularly of the private
sector. Many of these countries have initiated comprehensive
programmes of skill development, as a primary means to
enable young people to make a smooth transition to work or
livelihood. The aim is two-fold: improve employability of
young people and help them to secure jobs in areas of their
interest; and to equip them for taking to entrepreneurship, as
an alternative to employment. However, a lot more needs to
be done in this area if the member-countries aim to limit the
increasing rate of youth unemployment.
A comprehensive approach is required to integrate
young women and men in the job market, including

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relevant and quality skills training, career guidance and


employment services,

officials charged with the responsibility of delivering these


programmes are people-friendly and carry out their tasks
sincerely and effectively.

(For details see Section A, Sub-section on Employment)

It is crucial that the skill development institutions, set up by


government, corporate sector or voluntary organisations,
should fully involve young people in decisions on areas of
skill training to improve their employability; strategy to
integrate entrepreneurshipt with training and other
promotional facilities; and effective skills forecasting.
Some countries have chosen to set up high profile skill
development bodies at national level, engaging high profile
experts. However, these countries need to also consider the
views and concerns of young people before formulating
policies and programmes related to skill development. An
important aspect of skill development initiative that has not
received its due attention is about the skills related to
agriculture and agro-based enterprises and integrating them
with entrepreneurship.

Role of Youth in Rural Development Programmes

Optimising Youth Participation at Local Level

Participation of young people at national level is crucial as it


provides policy makers and planners with youth
perspectives on key development issues and also helps
them mainstream youth concerns in all development plans.
The participation also puts young people on national
centre-stage of engagement and action. However, their
involvement in developmental activities can make bigger
impact at the local level, especially in rural areas.
Participation at local level is often more purposeful and
meaningful. A number of experts have explored the
challenges that local authorities face when they seek to
involve young people in local governance and potential
solutions. The studies have reported that young people had
a genuine enthusiasm for playing active role in some key
aspects of decision-making processes at the local level.
They are able to observe the outcomes of their efforts as
action is in their vicinity. This will not only motivate them
further but also establish healthy bonds with the local
community. The young people will realise that their welfare
and well-being is tied with the development and well-being
of the community and vice versa.
Youth organisations run by state or voluntary sector need to
coordinate their efforts to ensure that there is expressive
participation by young people. Local youth clubs should be in
the forefront of promoting development activities at the local
level and educating the community on the details of various
state-run welfare schemes and their implementation. They
can help monitor these programmes and act as watchdogs,
ensuring that the benefits reach the target group/s and the

To give further meaning and substance to youth


participation at local level, there should be a policy decision
for adequate representation of young women and men in
local-level bodies. Steps should be taken to enhance the
ability of youth to collaborate with diverse community
members to identify local issues and develop strategies for
addressing them.

Any successful rural community must have its population of


young people engaged in decision-making and actively
working to grow their local economies. Yet each year,
hundreds of young people move away to pursue higher
education or to take up jobs in towns and cities and never
return to become part of the economic and social life of their
communities. Many who stay feel disconnected from the
mainstream of decision-making and activity. Policy makers
and planners should be mindful of this scenario.
To bring young people into the social and economic
mainstream and encourage them to participate in the
development of their communities, they should be recognised
as active participants in all policy documents and plans on
agriculture and rural development and their role defined
explicitly. Their aspirations and perspectives on development
issues should be mainstreamed into all rural development
policies and programmes. It is important that the promise,
potential and passion that young people represent should be
fully exploited to transform rural communities.
Undoubtedly, if given a chance, young people will generate
opportunities for them. Committed, caring community
mentors for these young people (sponsored by
youth-related voluntary organisations) will enhance the
likelihood of their success.
Some suggested initiatives that can enhance youth
participation in rural development activities are:

Launch formal educational and promotional


campaigns to highlight the role young people can play
in the social and economic development of rural
communities;
Develop mechanism for their participation in rural
development activities. Sustained policy and
commitment at federal, state and local levels must
translate into budgetary provisions and logistic
support in rural communities to bring out the best in
young people;

CHAPTER-4

Remove negative perceptions about agriculture and


demystify myths about it; encourage youth to choose
agriculture as a way of life. This is necessary since
young people develop high status occupational goals
at an early stage of life;
Adopt measures to ensure equitable access for youth
to agriculture production, market facilities, rural credit
schemes, training, etc;
Ensure that youth become important resource for
sustainable community development in their
localities;

Support youth in establishing and maintaining a youth


network in agriculture and other related activities;
Facilitate rural and agriculture entrepreneurship for
rural youth and make it an attractive career option;
and
Include young people in all policy making bodies on
agriculture and rural development; and

Target young farmers.

It is necessary to associate voluntary organisations working


in the field of rural development in translating these
initiatives into action. They have an important and active
role in promoting the involvement of young people in the
development process in rural communities; in guiding them
towards common goals; and motivating them for action and
continued hard work.

Capacity Building
Participation

and

Enabling

Environment

for

Training young individuals is one of the most widely used


strategies to advance youth participation. This has value,
but it may not bring about lasting change if it takes place in
isolation. Interventions need to move beyond the individual
level and include activities to develop youth-related
organisations and the societal environment, along with
elements of direct participation. Thus, the solution to include
youth in decision-making processes cannot lie in the
capacities of individual youth alone. The socio-political
environment, organisations and youth all have to change in
order to move closer together.
Capacity development of the young people has to be an
integral part of any strategy for promoting their meaningful
participation in development-related areas. The UNDP
approach to capacity development reflects the viewpoint
that capacity resides within individuals, as well as at the
level of organisations and within the enabling environment.
These three levels form an integrated system that will help
young people participate more effectively in
development-related programmes.

175

This approach envisages that while it is important to build


the capacity of the young people, at the individual level, it is
equally necessary to ensure that the organisations to which
young people belong or those working for and with young
people should also be empowered and charged with the
responsibility of building the capacity of the young people
through various organisational processes. However, these
two key programmes may not yield desired results if there is
no political commitment to it and the social environment is
not favourable for promoting youth participation.
Once all these three elements are integrated and work in
harmony, the contribution of young women and men will be
both informed and sound. A well-informed young woman or
man with necessary competencies will not only be a
confident and willing partner in decision making processes,
but her/his contribution and inputs will be valued.
Civic education in a democratic society most assuredly
needs to be concerned with promoting understanding of the
ideals of democracy and a reasoned commitment to the
values and principles of democracy. Young people need to
be made familiar with the functioning of the democratic
structures and their norms. This should be included in
curriculum of academic institutions, especially for
adolescents. Thus young persons can become asset to the
society.
Online access to information should be improved. This may
require training in Information and Communication
Technology (ICT).
Networking with other organisations and building consensus
on youth issues especially participation- partnering with
other youth organisations.
In summary:
Enabling Environment Political will; policies and
programmes; decision making structures and forums;
legislative and administrative measures; political dynamics
and power relations; and social norms.
Organisational Role Educational programmes; peer
mentoring; involvement in organisational decision-making,
policy formulation and planning programmes; documented
studies on youth participation; and coordination with other
stakeholders in the society.
Preparation at Individual Level Civil education;
knowledge about the functioning of democratic structures;
inculcation of democratic values; access to information;
skills in information and communication technology;
personal traits.

Annexure B

Resolution Adopted by the General Assembly on 18 December 2013


[On the Report of the Third Committee (A/68/448)]

68/130, Policies and Programmes Involving Youth


The General Assembly,
Recalling the World Programme of Action for Youth, adopted by
the General Assembly in its resolutions 50/81 of 14 December
1995 and 62/126 of 18 December 2007,
Recalling also the outcome document of the high-level meeting of
the General Assembly on Youth: Dialogue and Mutual
Understanding, adopted by the General Assembly on 26 July
2011, (Resolution 65/312)
Welcoming the participation of young representatives in national
delegations at the General Assembly,
Affirming that generating decent work for youth is one of the
biggest challenges that needs to be tackled, emphasising the
priority areas of the World Programme of Action for Youth linked to
the employability of youth, including education, health and access
to information and technology, and bearing in mind that over 73
million young people are unemployed,
Taking note of the resolution and conclusions of the International
Labour Conference, at its 101st session, held in Geneva in 2012,
on the theme The youth employment crisis: a call for action,
which focused on employment and economic policies for youth
employment; employability, educ