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Farzin Piltan, N. Sulaiman, S. Soltani, S. Roosta & A.

Gavahian

Artificial Chattering Free on-line Fuzzy Sliding Mode Algorithm for


Uncertain System: Applied in Robot Manipulator
Farzin Piltan

SSP.ROBOTIC@yahoo.com

Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering,


Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia 43400
Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

N. Sulaiman

nasri@eng.upm.edu.my

Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering,


Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia 43400
Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Samira Soltani

SSP.ROBOTIC@yahoo.com

Industrial Electrical and Electronic Engineering


SanatkadeheSabze Pasargad. CO (S.S.P. Co), NO:16 ,
PO.Code 71347-66773, Fourth floor Dena Apr , Seven Tir
Ave , Shiraz , Iran

Samaneh Roosta

SSP.ROBOTIC@yahoo.com

Industrial Electrical and Electronic Engineering


SanatkadeheSabze Pasargad. CO (S.S.P. Co), NO:16 ,
PO.Code 71347-66773, Fourth floor Dena Apr , Seven Tir
Ave , Shiraz , Iran

Atefeh Gavahian

SSP.ROBOTIC@yahoo.com

Industrial Electrical and Electronic Engineering


SanatkadeheSabze Pasargad. CO (S.S.P. Co), NO:16 ,
PO.Code 71347-66773, Fourth floor Dena Apr , Seven Tir
Ave , Shiraz , Iran

Abstract
In this research, an artificial chattering free adaptive fuzzy sliding mode control design and application to
uncertain robotic manipulator has proposed in order to design high performance nonlinear controller in the
presence of uncertainties. Regarding to the positive points in sliding mode controller, fuzzy logic controller
and adaptive method, the output has improved. Each method by adding to the previous controller has
covered negative points. The main target in this research is design of model free estimator on-line sliding
mode fuzzy algorithm for robot manipulator to reach an acceptable performance. Robot manipulators are
highly nonlinear, and a number of parameters are uncertain, therefore design model free controller using
both analytical and empirical paradigms are the main goal. Although classical sliding mode methodology
has acceptable performance with known dynamic parameters such as stability and robustness but there
are two important disadvantages as below: chattering phenomenon and mathematical nonlinear dynamic
equivalent controller part. To solve the chattering fuzzy logic inference applied instead of dead zone
function. To solve the equivalent problems in classical sliding mode controller this paper focuses on
applied fuzzy logic method in classical controller. This algorithm works very well in certain environment but
in uncertain or various dynamic parameters, it has slight chattering phenomenon. The system performance
in sliding mode controller and fuzzy sliding mode controller are sensitive to the sliding function. Therefore,
compute the optimum value of sliding function for a system is the next challenge. This problem has solved
by adjusting sliding function of the adaptive method continuously in real-time. In this way, the overall
system performance has improved with respect to the classical sliding mode controller. This controller
solved chattering phenomenon as well as mathematical nonlinear equivalent part by applied fuzzy
supervisory method in sliding mode fuzzy controller and tuning the sliding function.

International Journal of Engineering (IJE), Volume (5) : Issue (5) : 2011

360

Farzin Piltan, N. Sulaiman, S. Soltani, S. Roosta & A. Gavahian

Keywords: chattering phenomenon, chattering free adaptive sliding mode fuzzy control, nonlinear
controller, fuzzy logic controller, sliding mode controller, mathematical nonlinear dynamic equivalent
controller part.

1.

INTRODUCTION

A robot system without any controllers does not to have any benefits, because controller is the main part in
this sophisticated system. The main objectives to control robot manipulators are stability and robustness.
Many researchers work on designing the controller for robotic manipulators in order to have the best
performance. Control of any systems divided in two main groups: linear and nonlinear controller [1].
However, one of the important challenge in control algorithms is to have linear controller behavior for easy
implementation of nonlinear systems but these algorithms however have some limitation such as controller
working area must to be near system operating point and this adjustment is very difficult especially when
the system dynamic parameters have large variations and when the system has hard nonlinearities [1].
Most of robot manipulators which work in industry are usually controlled by linear PID controllers. But the
robot manipulator dynamic functions are, nonlinear with strong coupling between joints (low gear ratio),
structure and unstructured uncertainty and Multi-Inputs Multi-Outputs (MIMO) which, design linear
controller is very difficult especially if the velocity and acceleration of robot manipulator be high and also
when the ratio between joints gear be small [2]. To eliminate above problems in physical systems most of
control researcher go toward to select nonlinear robust controller.
One of the most important powerful nonlinear robust controllers is Sliding Mode Controller (SMC). Sliding
mode control methodology was first proposed in the 1950 [3, 4]. This controller has been analyzed by
many researchers in recent years. Many papers about the main theory of SMC are proposed such as
references [1, 5, 6]. This controller has been recently used in wide range of areas such as in robotics,
process control, aerospace applications and in power converters. The main reason to opt for this controller
is its acceptable control performance wide range and solves some main challenging topics in control such
as resistivity to the external disturbance and uncertainty. However pure sliding mode controller has some
disadvantages. First, chattering problem can caused the high frequency oscillation of the controllers
output.
Secondly, sensitive where this controller is very sensitive to the noise when the input signals is very close
to zero. Equivalent dynamic formulation is another disadvantage where calculation of equivalent control
formulation is difficult since it is depending on the nonlinear dynamic equation [7]. Many papers were
presented to solve these problems as reported in [8-11].
Since the invention of fuzzy logic theory in 1965 by Zadeh, it has been used in many areas. Fuzzy Logic
Controller (FLC) is one of the most important applications of fuzzy logic theory [12]. This controller can be
used to control nonlinear, uncertain and noisy systems. Fuzzy logic control systems, do not use complex
mathematically models of plant for analysis. This method is free of some model-based techniques as in
classical controllers. It must be noted here that the application of fuzzy logic is not limited only to modeling
of nonlinear systems [13-17] but also this method can help engineers to design easier controller. However
pure FLC works in many engineering applications but, it cannot guarantee two most important challenges
in control, namely, stability and acceptable performance [18].
Some researchers had applied fuzzy logic methodology in sliding mode controllers (FSMC) in order to
reduce the chattering and to solve the nonlinear dynamic equivalent problems in pure sliding mode
controller (FSMC) [19-23, 63-68] and the other researchers applied sliding mode methodology in fuzzy
logic controller (SMFC) as to improve the stability of the systems [24-28].
Adaptive control used in systems whose dynamic parameters are varying and need to be trained on line. In
general states adaptive control can be classified into two main groups: traditional adaptive method and
fuzzy adaptive method, where traditional adaptive method need to have some information about dynamic

International Journal of Engineering (IJE), Volume (5) : Issue (5) : 2011

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Farzin Piltan, N. Sulaiman, S. Soltani, S. Roosta & A. Gavahian

plant and some dynamic parameters must be known but fuzzy adaptive method can train the variation of
parameters by expert knowledge. Adaptive fuzzy inference system provide a good knowledge tools to
adjust a complex uncertain nonlinear system with changing dynamics to have an acceptable performance
[29] Combined adaptive method to artificial sliding mode controllers can help the controllers to have a
better performance by online tuning the nonlinear and time variant parameters [30-35, 61-68].
This paper is organized as follows: In section 2, main subject of proposed methodology is presented.
Detail of fuzzy logic controllers and fuzzy rule base, the main subject of sliding mode controller and
formulation, the main subject of designing fuzzy sliding mode controller and the design of sliding mode
fuzzy artificial chatter free fuzzy sliding mode controller are presented which this method is used to reduce
the chattering and estimate the equivalent part. In section 3, modeling robot manipulator and PUMA robot
manipulator formulation are presented. This section covers the following details, introducing the dynamic
formulation of robot manipulator and calculates the dynamic equation of PUMA robot manipulator. the
simulation result is presented in section 4 and finally in section 5, the conclusion is presented.

2. PROPOSED METHODOLOGY
Sliding Mode Controller: This section provides a review of classical sliding mode control and the problem
of formulation based on [4]; [37-39, 61-68]. Basically formulation of a nonlinear single input dynamic
system is:
(1)
Where u is the vector of control input,
is the
derivation of ,
is the state
vector,
is unknown or uncertainty, and
is of known sign function. The control input has the
following form:
(2)
The control problem is truck to the desired state it means that
acceptable error which is given by:

, and have an
(3)

A time-varying sliding surface

is given by the following equation [61-68]:


(4)

where is the constant and it is positive. The main derivative of

is
(5)

The Lyapunov function

is defined as:
(6)

Based on the above discussion, the control law for a multi

robot manipulator can be written as:


(7)

Where, the model-based component


can be calculated as follows:

compensate for the nominal dynamics of the systems. So

(8)

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Farzin Piltan, N. Sulaiman, S. Soltani, S. Roosta & A. Gavahian

A simple solution to get the sliding condition when the dynamic parameters have uncertainty is the
switching control law:
(9)

Where the
is the positive constant. Since the control input U has to be a discontinuous term, the
control switching could not to be perfect and this will have chattering. Chattering can caused the high
frequency oscillation of the controllers output and fast breakdown of mechanical elements in actuators.
Chattering is one of the most important challenging in sliding mode controllers which, many papers have
been presented to solve this problems [39]. To reduce chattering many researchers introduced the
boundary layer methods, which in this method the basic idea is to replace the discontinuous method by
saturation (linear) method with small neighbourhood of the switching surface. Several papers have been
presented about reduce the chattering [27]; [18]; [40]. Therefore the saturation function
added to
the control law:
(10)

where

is the width of the boundary layer, therefore the control output can be write as
(11)

Suppose that the dynamic formulation of robot manipulate is written by the following equation [61-68]:
(12)
the lyapunov formulation can be written as follows,
(13)
the derivation of

can be determined as,


(14)

the dynamic equation of robot manipulator can be written based on the sliding surface as
(15)
it is assumed that
(16)
by substituting (15) in (14)
(17)
suppose the control input is written as follows
(18)
by replacing the equation (18) in (17)
(19)

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Farzin Piltan, N. Sulaiman, S. Soltani, S. Roosta & A. Gavahian

it is obvious that
(20)
the Lemma equation in robot manipulator system can be written as follows
(21)
the equation (33) can be written as
(22)
therefore, it can be shown that [63-68]
(23)

Consequently the equation (40) guaranties the stability of the Lyapunov equation
Combinations of fuzzy logic systems with sliding mode method have been proposed by several
researchers. As mention previously, SMFC is fuzzy controller based on sliding mode method for easy
implementation, stability, and robustness. The SMFC initially proposed by Palm to design nonlinear
approximation boundary layer instead of linear approximation [27]. The main drawback of SMFC is the
value of sliding surface which must be pre-defined. The most important advantage of SMFC compare to
pure SMC is design a nonlinearity boundary layer. The system performance is sensitive to the sliding
surface sloop for both sliding mode controller and sliding mode fuzzy controller application. For instance,
if large value of are chosen the response is very fast but the system is very unstable and conversely, if
small value of is considered the response of the system is very slow but the system is usually stable.
Therefore, calculation the optimum value of for a system is one of the most important challenges. Even
though most of time the control performance of FLC and SMFC is similar, the SMFC has two most
important advantages;
The number of rule base is smaller and
better robustness and stability.
Several papers have been proposed on this method and several researchers works in this area [41-46].
To compensate the nonlinearity for dynamic equivalent control several researchers used model base fuzzy
controller instead of classical equivalent controller that was employed to obtain the desired control
behaviour and a fuzzy switching control was applied to reinforce system performance. In the proposed
fuzzy sliding mode control fuzzy rule base was designed to estimate the dynamic equivalent part. A block
diagram for proposed fuzzy sliding mode controller is shown in Figure 1. In this method fuzzy rule for
sliding surface (S) to design fuzzy error base-like equivalent control was obtained the rules whereused
instead of nonlinear dynamic equation of equivalent control to reduce the chattering and also to eliminate
the nonlinear formulation of dynamic equivalent control term.
(24)

In FSMC the tracking error is defined as:


(25)
where
is desired output and
surface is defined as follows:

is an actual output. The sliding


(26)

where
is chosen as the bandwidth of the robot manipulator controller. The time
derivative of S can be calculated by the following equation

International Journal of Engineering (IJE), Volume (5) : Issue (5) : 2011

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Farzin Piltan, N. Sulaiman, S. Soltani, S. Roosta & A. Gavahian

(27)
Based on classical SMC the FSMC can be calculated as
(28)
Where, the model-based component
calculated as

compensate for the nominal dynamics of systems. So

can be
(29)

and

is
(30)

To eliminate the chattering fuzzy inference system is used instead of saturation function to design
nonlinear sliding function which as a summary the design of fuzzy logic controller for FSMC has five steps:
1. Determine inputs and outputs: This controller has one input
and one output ( ). The input is
sliding function
and the output is coefficient which estimate the saturation function
2. Find membership function and linguistic variable: The linguistic variables for sliding surface
are; Negative Big (NB), Negative Medium (NM), Negative Small (NS), Zero (Z), Positive Small
(PS), Positive Medium (PM), Positive Big (PB), and the linguistic variables to find the saturation
coefficient
are; Large Left (LL), Medium Left (ML), Small Left (SL), Zero (Z), Small Right (SR),
Medium Right (MR), Large Right (LR).
3. Choice of shape of membership function: In this work triangular membership function was
selected.
4. Design fuzzy rule table: design the rule base of fuzzy logic controller can play important role to
design best performance FSMC, suppose that two fuzzy rules in this controller are

FIGURE 1: Block diagram of proposed artificial chattering free FSMC with minimum rule base
1
F.R : IF S is Z, THEN is Z.
2
F.R : IF S is (PB) THEN is (LR).

(31)

The complete rule base for this controller is shown in Table 1.

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Farzin Piltan, N. Sulaiman, S. Soltani, S. Roosta & A. Gavahian

TABLE 1: Rule table for proposed FSMC


NB

NM

NS

PS

PM

PB

LL

ML

SL

SR

MR

LR

The control strategy that deduced by Table1 are


 If sliding surface (S) is N.B, the control applied is N.B for moving S to S=0.
 If sliding surface (S) is Z, the control applied is Z for moving S to S=0.
5. Defuzzification: The final step to design fuzzy logic controller is deffuzification , there are many
deffuzzification methods in the literature, in this controller the COG method will be used, where this
is given by
(32)

The fuzzy system can be defined as below


(33)
where
(34)
where
is adjustable parameter in (B.1) and
error base fuzzy controller can be defined as

is membership function.
(35)

According to the formulation (43)


(36)
the fuzzy division can be reached the best state when
formulation

and the error is minimum by the following


(37)

Where is the minimum error,


shown the fuzzy instead of saturation function.

is the minimum approximation error. Figure 2 is

International Journal of Engineering (IJE), Volume (5) : Issue (5) : 2011

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Farzin Piltan, N. Sulaiman, S. Soltani, S. Roosta & A. Gavahian

FIGURE 2: Nonlinear fuzzy inference system instead of saturation function


The system performance in FSMC is sensitive to sliding surface slope, . Thus, determination of an
optimum value for a system is an important problem. If the system parameters are unknown or uncertain,
the problem becomes more highlighted. This problem may be solved by adjusting the surface slope and
boundary layer thickness of the sliding mode controller continuously in real-time. Several researchers
works on adaptive sliding mode control and their applications in robotic manipulator has been investigated
in [30-35]; [47-58]. In this way, the performance of the overall system can be improved with respect to the
classical sliding mode controller.
This section focuses on, self tuning gain updating factor for two most important factor in FSMC, namely,
sliding surface slop ( ) and boundary layer thickness ( ). Self tuning-FSMC has strong resistance and
can solve the uncertainty problems. Several researchers work on AFSMC in robot manipulator [24-28];
[59-60]. The block diagram for this method is shown in Figure 3. In this controller the actual sliding surface
gain ( ) is obtained by multiplying the sliding surface with gain updating factor . The gain updating
factor
is calculated on-line by fuzzy dynamic model independent which has sliding surface (S) as its
inputs. The gain updating factor is independent of any dynamic model of robotic manipulator parameters.
Assuming that
, following steps used to tune the controller: adjust the value of , and to have an
acceptable performance for any one trajectory by using trial and error. Some researcher design MIMO
adaptive fuzzy sliding mode controller [30-31]; [35] and also someone design SISO adaptive fuzzy sliding
mode controller [32]; [34].

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Farzin Piltan, N. Sulaiman, S. Soltani, S. Roosta & A. Gavahian

FIGURE 3: Block diagram of proposed artificial chattering free self tuning fuzzy sliding mode controller with
minimum rule base in fuzzy equivalent part and fuzzy supervisory.
The adaptive controller is used to find the minimum errors of
suppose

is defined as follows
(38)

Where
(39)
the adaption low is defined as
(40)
where the is the positive constant.
According to the formulation (11) and (12) in addition from (10) and (40)
(41)
The dynamic equation of robot manipulator can be written based on the sliding
surface as;
(42)
It is supposed that
(43)
it can be shown that

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Farzin Piltan, N. Sulaiman, S. Soltani, S. Roosta & A. Gavahian

(44)
where
as a result

where
consequently

is became

is adaption law,
can be considered by

,
(45)

the minimum error can be defined by


(46)
is intended as follows

(47)
For continuous function
, and suppose
system in form of (36) such that

it is defined the fuzzy logic


(48)

the minimum approximation error

is very small.
(49)

3. APPLICATION: PUMA ROBOT MANIPULATOR


Dynamic modelling of robot manipulators is used to describe the behaviour of robot manipulator, design of
model based controller, and simulation results. The dynamic modelling describe the relationship between
joint motion, velocity, and accelerations to force/torque or current/voltage and also it can be used to
describe the particular dynamic effects (e.g., inertia, coriolios, centrifugal, and the other parameters) to

International Journal of Engineering (IJE), Volume (5) : Issue (5) : 2011

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Farzin Piltan, N. Sulaiman, S. Soltani, S. Roosta & A. Gavahian

behaviour of system. It is well known that the equation of an n-DOF robot manipulator governed by the
following equation [36]; [2]:
(50)
Where is actuation torque,
) is a symmetric and positive define inertia matrix,
is the vector of
nonlinearity term. This robot manipulator dynamic equation can also be written in a following form:
(51)
Where
is the matrix of coriolios torques,
is the matrix of centrifugal torques, and
is the
vector of gravity force. The dynamic terms in equation (50) are only manipulator position. This is a
decoupled system with simple second order linear differential dynamics. In other words, the component
influences, with a double integrator relationship, only the joint variable , independently of the motion of the
other joints. Therefore, the angular acceleration is found as to be [2]:
(52)
This technique is very attractive from a control point of view. The three degrees of freedom PUMA robot
has the same configuration space equation general form as its 6-DOF convenient. In this type, the last
three joints are blocked, so, only three links of PUMA robot are used in this paper, q4 = q5 = q6 = 0 . The
dynamic equation of PUMA robot manipulator is given by [61-68]
(53)

Where
(54)

(55)

(56)

(57)

Suppose

is written as follows
(58)

and

is introduced as

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Farzin Piltan, N. Sulaiman, S. Soltani, S. Roosta & A. Gavahian

(59)
can be written as
(60)
Therefore for PUMA robot manipulator can be calculated by the following equation
(60)
(61)
(62)
(63)
(64)
(65)

4.

RESULTS

Classical sliding mode control (SMC), fuzzy sliding mode control (FSMC) and artificial chattering free
adaptive FSMC are implemented in Matlab/Simulink environment. Changing updating factor performance,
tracking performance, error, and robustness are compared.

Changing Sliding Surface Slope Performance

For various value of sliding surface slope () in SMC, AFSMC and ASMFC, the error and trajectory
performances are shown in Figures 4 to 7.

FIGURE 4: SMC trajectory performance, first; second and third link

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Farzin Piltan, N. Sulaiman, S. Soltani, S. Roosta & A. Gavahian

FIGURE 5: Artificial chattering free adaptive FSMC trajectory performance, first; second and third link
Figures 4 and 5 are shown trajectory performance with different sliding function for, Artificial chattering free
adaptive FSMC and SMC. It is shown that the sensitivity in Artificial chattering free adaptive FSMC to
sliding function is lower than SMC. Figures 6 and 7 are shown the error performance with different sliding
surface slope in classical SMC and Artificial chattering free adaptive FSMC. For various sliding surface
slope (), Artificial chattering free adaptive FSMC, has better error performance compare to classical SMC.

FIGURE 6: Error performance: SMC (first; second and third link)


The new sliding surface slope coefficient is updated by multiplying the error new coefficient (
predetermined slope value ().

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) with

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Farzin Piltan, N. Sulaiman, S. Soltani, S. Roosta & A. Gavahian

FIGURE 7: Error performance: Artificial chattering free adaptive FSMC (first; second and third link)
Tracking Performances
From the simulation for first, second, and third trajectory without any disturbance, it can be seen that
Artificial chattering free adaptive FSMC and classical SMC have same performance. This is primarily due
to the constant parameters in simulation. Figure 8 is shown tracking performance in certain system for
SMC, FSMC and proposed method.

FIGURE 8: Trajectory performance: Artificial chattering free adaptive FSMC, SMC and FSMC (first;
second and third link)

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Farzin Piltan, N. Sulaiman, S. Soltani, S. Roosta & A. Gavahian

Disturbance Rejection

A band limited white noise with predefined of 40% the power of input signal is applied to the Sinuse
response. Figure 9 is shown disturbance rejection for Artificial chattering free adaptive FSMC, SMC and
FSMC.

FIGURE 9: Disturbance rejection: Artificial chattering free adaptive FSMC, SMC and FSMC (first;
second and third link)

Errors in the Model

Although SMC and FSMC have the same error rate (refer to Table:2), they have oscillation tracking which
causes chattering phenomenon at the presence of disturbances. As it is obvious in Table: 2 proposed
methods is a FSMC which tuning on-line and FSMC is a SMC which estimate the equivalent part therefore
FSMC have acceptable performance with regard to SMC in presence of certain and uncertainty but the
best performance is in Artificial chattering free adaptive FSMC.
TABLE 2 : RMS Error Rate of Presented controllers
RMS Error Rate

SMC

FSMC

Without Noise
With Noise

1e-3
0.012

1.2e-3
0.013

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Proposed
method
1e-7
1.12e-6

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Farzin Piltan, N. Sulaiman, S. Soltani, S. Roosta & A. Gavahian

Chattering Phenomenon
As mentioned in previous, chattering is one of the most important challenges in sliding mode controller
which one of the major objectives in this research is reduce or remove the chattering in systems
output. To reduce the chattering researcher is used fuzzy inference method instead of swithing
function. Figure 10 has shown the power of fuzzy boundary layer (fuzzy saturation) method to reduce
the chattering in proposed method.

FIGURE 10: chattering phenomenon: Artificial chattering free adaptive FSMC with switching function
and fuzzy saturation function (first; second and third link)

5.

CONCLUSION

Refer to the research, a 7 rules Mamdanis artificial sliding mode fuzzy chattering free fuzzy sliding
mode control and this suitability for use in the control of robot manipulator has proposed in order to
design high performance nonlinear controller in the presence of uncertainties and external
disturbances. Sliding mode control methodology is selected as a frame work to construct the control
law and address the stability and robustness of the close-loop system. The proposed approach
effectively combines the design techniques from sliding mode control, fuzzy logic and adaptive control
to improve the performance (e.g., trajectory, disturbance rejection, error and chattering) and enhance
the robustness property of the controller. Each method by adding to the previous controller has
covered negative points. The system performance in sliding mode controller and fuzzy sliding mode

International Journal of Engineering (IJE), Volume (5) : Issue (5) : 2011

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Farzin Piltan, N. Sulaiman, S. Soltani, S. Roosta & A. Gavahian

controller are sensitive to the sliding function. Therefore, compute the optimum value of sliding
function for a system is the important which this problem has solved by adjusting surface slope of the
sliding function continuously in real-time. The chattering phenomenon is eliminate by fuzzy method
when estimate the saturation function with 7 rule base. In this way, the overall system performance
has improved with respect to the classical sliding mode controller. This controller solved chattering
phenomenon as well as mathematical nonlinear equivalent part by applied fuzzy supervisory method
in fuzzy sliding mode controller and artificial chattering free adaptive FSMC.

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