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In this research, an artificial chattering free adaptive fuzzy sliding mode control design and application to uncertain robotic manipulator has proposed in order to design high performance nonlinear controller in the presence of uncertainties. Regarding to the positive points in sliding mode controller, fuzzy logic controller and adaptive method, the output has improved. Each method by adding to the previous controller has covered negative points. The main target in this research is design of model free estimator on-line sliding mode fuzzy algorithm for robot manipulator to reach an acceptable performance. Robot manipulators are highly nonlinear, and a number of parameters are uncertain, therefore design model free controller using both analytical and empirical paradigms are the main goal. Although classical sliding mode methodology has acceptable performance with known dynamic parameters such as stability and robustness but there are two important disadvantages as below: chattering phenomenon and mathematical nonlinear dynamic equivalent controller part. To solve the chattering fuzzy logic inference applied instead of dead zone function. To solve the equivalent problems in classical sliding mode controller this paper focuses on applied fuzzy logic method in classical controller. This algorithm works very well in certain environment but in uncertain or various dynamic parameters, it has slight chattering phenomenon. The system performance in sliding mode controller and fuzzy sliding mode controller are sensitive to the sliding function. Therefore, compute the optimum value of sliding function for a system is the next challenge. This problem has solved by adjusting sliding function of the adaptive method continuously in real-time. In this way, the overall system performance has improved with respect to the classical sliding mode controller. This controller solved chattering phenomenon as well as mathematical nonlinear equivalent part by applied fuzzy supervisory method in sliding mode fuzzy controller and tuning the sliding function.

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Gavahian

Uncertain System: Applied in Robot Manipulator

Farzin Piltan

SSP.ROBOTIC@yahoo.com

Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia 43400

Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

N. Sulaiman

nasri@eng.upm.edu.my

Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia 43400

Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Samira Soltani

SSP.ROBOTIC@yahoo.com

SanatkadeheSabze Pasargad. CO (S.S.P. Co), NO:16 ,

PO.Code 71347-66773, Fourth floor Dena Apr , Seven Tir

Ave , Shiraz , Iran

Samaneh Roosta

SSP.ROBOTIC@yahoo.com

SanatkadeheSabze Pasargad. CO (S.S.P. Co), NO:16 ,

PO.Code 71347-66773, Fourth floor Dena Apr , Seven Tir

Ave , Shiraz , Iran

Atefeh Gavahian

SSP.ROBOTIC@yahoo.com

SanatkadeheSabze Pasargad. CO (S.S.P. Co), NO:16 ,

PO.Code 71347-66773, Fourth floor Dena Apr , Seven Tir

Ave , Shiraz , Iran

Abstract

In this research, an artificial chattering free adaptive fuzzy sliding mode control design and application to

uncertain robotic manipulator has proposed in order to design high performance nonlinear controller in the

presence of uncertainties. Regarding to the positive points in sliding mode controller, fuzzy logic controller

and adaptive method, the output has improved. Each method by adding to the previous controller has

covered negative points. The main target in this research is design of model free estimator on-line sliding

mode fuzzy algorithm for robot manipulator to reach an acceptable performance. Robot manipulators are

highly nonlinear, and a number of parameters are uncertain, therefore design model free controller using

both analytical and empirical paradigms are the main goal. Although classical sliding mode methodology

has acceptable performance with known dynamic parameters such as stability and robustness but there

are two important disadvantages as below: chattering phenomenon and mathematical nonlinear dynamic

equivalent controller part. To solve the chattering fuzzy logic inference applied instead of dead zone

function. To solve the equivalent problems in classical sliding mode controller this paper focuses on

applied fuzzy logic method in classical controller. This algorithm works very well in certain environment but

in uncertain or various dynamic parameters, it has slight chattering phenomenon. The system performance

in sliding mode controller and fuzzy sliding mode controller are sensitive to the sliding function. Therefore,

compute the optimum value of sliding function for a system is the next challenge. This problem has solved

by adjusting sliding function of the adaptive method continuously in real-time. In this way, the overall

system performance has improved with respect to the classical sliding mode controller. This controller

solved chattering phenomenon as well as mathematical nonlinear equivalent part by applied fuzzy

supervisory method in sliding mode fuzzy controller and tuning the sliding function.

360

Keywords: chattering phenomenon, chattering free adaptive sliding mode fuzzy control, nonlinear

controller, fuzzy logic controller, sliding mode controller, mathematical nonlinear dynamic equivalent

controller part.

1.

INTRODUCTION

A robot system without any controllers does not to have any benefits, because controller is the main part in

this sophisticated system. The main objectives to control robot manipulators are stability and robustness.

Many researchers work on designing the controller for robotic manipulators in order to have the best

performance. Control of any systems divided in two main groups: linear and nonlinear controller [1].

However, one of the important challenge in control algorithms is to have linear controller behavior for easy

implementation of nonlinear systems but these algorithms however have some limitation such as controller

working area must to be near system operating point and this adjustment is very difficult especially when

the system dynamic parameters have large variations and when the system has hard nonlinearities [1].

Most of robot manipulators which work in industry are usually controlled by linear PID controllers. But the

robot manipulator dynamic functions are, nonlinear with strong coupling between joints (low gear ratio),

structure and unstructured uncertainty and Multi-Inputs Multi-Outputs (MIMO) which, design linear

controller is very difficult especially if the velocity and acceleration of robot manipulator be high and also

when the ratio between joints gear be small [2]. To eliminate above problems in physical systems most of

control researcher go toward to select nonlinear robust controller.

One of the most important powerful nonlinear robust controllers is Sliding Mode Controller (SMC). Sliding

mode control methodology was first proposed in the 1950 [3, 4]. This controller has been analyzed by

many researchers in recent years. Many papers about the main theory of SMC are proposed such as

references [1, 5, 6]. This controller has been recently used in wide range of areas such as in robotics,

process control, aerospace applications and in power converters. The main reason to opt for this controller

is its acceptable control performance wide range and solves some main challenging topics in control such

as resistivity to the external disturbance and uncertainty. However pure sliding mode controller has some

disadvantages. First, chattering problem can caused the high frequency oscillation of the controllers

output.

Secondly, sensitive where this controller is very sensitive to the noise when the input signals is very close

to zero. Equivalent dynamic formulation is another disadvantage where calculation of equivalent control

formulation is difficult since it is depending on the nonlinear dynamic equation [7]. Many papers were

presented to solve these problems as reported in [8-11].

Since the invention of fuzzy logic theory in 1965 by Zadeh, it has been used in many areas. Fuzzy Logic

Controller (FLC) is one of the most important applications of fuzzy logic theory [12]. This controller can be

used to control nonlinear, uncertain and noisy systems. Fuzzy logic control systems, do not use complex

mathematically models of plant for analysis. This method is free of some model-based techniques as in

classical controllers. It must be noted here that the application of fuzzy logic is not limited only to modeling

of nonlinear systems [13-17] but also this method can help engineers to design easier controller. However

pure FLC works in many engineering applications but, it cannot guarantee two most important challenges

in control, namely, stability and acceptable performance [18].

Some researchers had applied fuzzy logic methodology in sliding mode controllers (FSMC) in order to

reduce the chattering and to solve the nonlinear dynamic equivalent problems in pure sliding mode

controller (FSMC) [19-23, 63-68] and the other researchers applied sliding mode methodology in fuzzy

logic controller (SMFC) as to improve the stability of the systems [24-28].

Adaptive control used in systems whose dynamic parameters are varying and need to be trained on line. In

general states adaptive control can be classified into two main groups: traditional adaptive method and

fuzzy adaptive method, where traditional adaptive method need to have some information about dynamic

361

plant and some dynamic parameters must be known but fuzzy adaptive method can train the variation of

parameters by expert knowledge. Adaptive fuzzy inference system provide a good knowledge tools to

adjust a complex uncertain nonlinear system with changing dynamics to have an acceptable performance

[29] Combined adaptive method to artificial sliding mode controllers can help the controllers to have a

better performance by online tuning the nonlinear and time variant parameters [30-35, 61-68].

This paper is organized as follows: In section 2, main subject of proposed methodology is presented.

Detail of fuzzy logic controllers and fuzzy rule base, the main subject of sliding mode controller and

formulation, the main subject of designing fuzzy sliding mode controller and the design of sliding mode

fuzzy artificial chatter free fuzzy sliding mode controller are presented which this method is used to reduce

the chattering and estimate the equivalent part. In section 3, modeling robot manipulator and PUMA robot

manipulator formulation are presented. This section covers the following details, introducing the dynamic

formulation of robot manipulator and calculates the dynamic equation of PUMA robot manipulator. the

simulation result is presented in section 4 and finally in section 5, the conclusion is presented.

2. PROPOSED METHODOLOGY

Sliding Mode Controller: This section provides a review of classical sliding mode control and the problem

of formulation based on [4]; [37-39, 61-68]. Basically formulation of a nonlinear single input dynamic

system is:

(1)

Where u is the vector of control input,

is the

derivation of ,

is the state

vector,

is unknown or uncertainty, and

is of known sign function. The control input has the

following form:

(2)

The control problem is truck to the desired state it means that

acceptable error which is given by:

, and have an

(3)

(4)

is

(5)

is defined as:

(6)

(7)

can be calculated as follows:

(8)

362

A simple solution to get the sliding condition when the dynamic parameters have uncertainty is the

switching control law:

(9)

Where the

is the positive constant. Since the control input U has to be a discontinuous term, the

control switching could not to be perfect and this will have chattering. Chattering can caused the high

frequency oscillation of the controllers output and fast breakdown of mechanical elements in actuators.

Chattering is one of the most important challenging in sliding mode controllers which, many papers have

been presented to solve this problems [39]. To reduce chattering many researchers introduced the

boundary layer methods, which in this method the basic idea is to replace the discontinuous method by

saturation (linear) method with small neighbourhood of the switching surface. Several papers have been

presented about reduce the chattering [27]; [18]; [40]. Therefore the saturation function

added to

the control law:

(10)

where

is the width of the boundary layer, therefore the control output can be write as

(11)

Suppose that the dynamic formulation of robot manipulate is written by the following equation [61-68]:

(12)

the lyapunov formulation can be written as follows,

(13)

the derivation of

(14)

the dynamic equation of robot manipulator can be written based on the sliding surface as

(15)

it is assumed that

(16)

by substituting (15) in (14)

(17)

suppose the control input is written as follows

(18)

by replacing the equation (18) in (17)

(19)

363

it is obvious that

(20)

the Lemma equation in robot manipulator system can be written as follows

(21)

the equation (33) can be written as

(22)

therefore, it can be shown that [63-68]

(23)

Consequently the equation (40) guaranties the stability of the Lyapunov equation

Combinations of fuzzy logic systems with sliding mode method have been proposed by several

researchers. As mention previously, SMFC is fuzzy controller based on sliding mode method for easy

implementation, stability, and robustness. The SMFC initially proposed by Palm to design nonlinear

approximation boundary layer instead of linear approximation [27]. The main drawback of SMFC is the

value of sliding surface which must be pre-defined. The most important advantage of SMFC compare to

pure SMC is design a nonlinearity boundary layer. The system performance is sensitive to the sliding

surface sloop for both sliding mode controller and sliding mode fuzzy controller application. For instance,

if large value of are chosen the response is very fast but the system is very unstable and conversely, if

small value of is considered the response of the system is very slow but the system is usually stable.

Therefore, calculation the optimum value of for a system is one of the most important challenges. Even

though most of time the control performance of FLC and SMFC is similar, the SMFC has two most

important advantages;

The number of rule base is smaller and

better robustness and stability.

Several papers have been proposed on this method and several researchers works in this area [41-46].

To compensate the nonlinearity for dynamic equivalent control several researchers used model base fuzzy

controller instead of classical equivalent controller that was employed to obtain the desired control

behaviour and a fuzzy switching control was applied to reinforce system performance. In the proposed

fuzzy sliding mode control fuzzy rule base was designed to estimate the dynamic equivalent part. A block

diagram for proposed fuzzy sliding mode controller is shown in Figure 1. In this method fuzzy rule for

sliding surface (S) to design fuzzy error base-like equivalent control was obtained the rules whereused

instead of nonlinear dynamic equation of equivalent control to reduce the chattering and also to eliminate

the nonlinear formulation of dynamic equivalent control term.

(24)

(25)

where

is desired output and

surface is defined as follows:

(26)

where

is chosen as the bandwidth of the robot manipulator controller. The time

derivative of S can be calculated by the following equation

364

(27)

Based on classical SMC the FSMC can be calculated as

(28)

Where, the model-based component

calculated as

can be

(29)

and

is

(30)

To eliminate the chattering fuzzy inference system is used instead of saturation function to design

nonlinear sliding function which as a summary the design of fuzzy logic controller for FSMC has five steps:

1. Determine inputs and outputs: This controller has one input

and one output ( ). The input is

sliding function

and the output is coefficient which estimate the saturation function

2. Find membership function and linguistic variable: The linguistic variables for sliding surface

are; Negative Big (NB), Negative Medium (NM), Negative Small (NS), Zero (Z), Positive Small

(PS), Positive Medium (PM), Positive Big (PB), and the linguistic variables to find the saturation

coefficient

are; Large Left (LL), Medium Left (ML), Small Left (SL), Zero (Z), Small Right (SR),

Medium Right (MR), Large Right (LR).

3. Choice of shape of membership function: In this work triangular membership function was

selected.

4. Design fuzzy rule table: design the rule base of fuzzy logic controller can play important role to

design best performance FSMC, suppose that two fuzzy rules in this controller are

FIGURE 1: Block diagram of proposed artificial chattering free FSMC with minimum rule base

1

F.R : IF S is Z, THEN is Z.

2

F.R : IF S is (PB) THEN is (LR).

(31)

365

NB

NM

NS

PS

PM

PB

LL

ML

SL

SR

MR

LR

If sliding surface (S) is N.B, the control applied is N.B for moving S to S=0.

If sliding surface (S) is Z, the control applied is Z for moving S to S=0.

5. Defuzzification: The final step to design fuzzy logic controller is deffuzification , there are many

deffuzzification methods in the literature, in this controller the COG method will be used, where this

is given by

(32)

(33)

where

(34)

where

is adjustable parameter in (B.1) and

error base fuzzy controller can be defined as

is membership function.

(35)

(36)

the fuzzy division can be reached the best state when

formulation

(37)

shown the fuzzy instead of saturation function.

366

The system performance in FSMC is sensitive to sliding surface slope, . Thus, determination of an

optimum value for a system is an important problem. If the system parameters are unknown or uncertain,

the problem becomes more highlighted. This problem may be solved by adjusting the surface slope and

boundary layer thickness of the sliding mode controller continuously in real-time. Several researchers

works on adaptive sliding mode control and their applications in robotic manipulator has been investigated

in [30-35]; [47-58]. In this way, the performance of the overall system can be improved with respect to the

classical sliding mode controller.

This section focuses on, self tuning gain updating factor for two most important factor in FSMC, namely,

sliding surface slop ( ) and boundary layer thickness ( ). Self tuning-FSMC has strong resistance and

can solve the uncertainty problems. Several researchers work on AFSMC in robot manipulator [24-28];

[59-60]. The block diagram for this method is shown in Figure 3. In this controller the actual sliding surface

gain ( ) is obtained by multiplying the sliding surface with gain updating factor . The gain updating

factor

is calculated on-line by fuzzy dynamic model independent which has sliding surface (S) as its

inputs. The gain updating factor is independent of any dynamic model of robotic manipulator parameters.

Assuming that

, following steps used to tune the controller: adjust the value of , and to have an

acceptable performance for any one trajectory by using trial and error. Some researcher design MIMO

adaptive fuzzy sliding mode controller [30-31]; [35] and also someone design SISO adaptive fuzzy sliding

mode controller [32]; [34].

367

FIGURE 3: Block diagram of proposed artificial chattering free self tuning fuzzy sliding mode controller with

minimum rule base in fuzzy equivalent part and fuzzy supervisory.

The adaptive controller is used to find the minimum errors of

suppose

is defined as follows

(38)

Where

(39)

the adaption low is defined as

(40)

where the is the positive constant.

According to the formulation (11) and (12) in addition from (10) and (40)

(41)

The dynamic equation of robot manipulator can be written based on the sliding

surface as;

(42)

It is supposed that

(43)

it can be shown that

368

(44)

where

as a result

where

consequently

is became

is adaption law,

can be considered by

,

(45)

(46)

is intended as follows

(47)

For continuous function

, and suppose

system in form of (36) such that

(48)

is very small.

(49)

Dynamic modelling of robot manipulators is used to describe the behaviour of robot manipulator, design of

model based controller, and simulation results. The dynamic modelling describe the relationship between

joint motion, velocity, and accelerations to force/torque or current/voltage and also it can be used to

describe the particular dynamic effects (e.g., inertia, coriolios, centrifugal, and the other parameters) to

369

behaviour of system. It is well known that the equation of an n-DOF robot manipulator governed by the

following equation [36]; [2]:

(50)

Where is actuation torque,

) is a symmetric and positive define inertia matrix,

is the vector of

nonlinearity term. This robot manipulator dynamic equation can also be written in a following form:

(51)

Where

is the matrix of coriolios torques,

is the matrix of centrifugal torques, and

is the

vector of gravity force. The dynamic terms in equation (50) are only manipulator position. This is a

decoupled system with simple second order linear differential dynamics. In other words, the component

influences, with a double integrator relationship, only the joint variable , independently of the motion of the

other joints. Therefore, the angular acceleration is found as to be [2]:

(52)

This technique is very attractive from a control point of view. The three degrees of freedom PUMA robot

has the same configuration space equation general form as its 6-DOF convenient. In this type, the last

three joints are blocked, so, only three links of PUMA robot are used in this paper, q4 = q5 = q6 = 0 . The

dynamic equation of PUMA robot manipulator is given by [61-68]

(53)

Where

(54)

(55)

(56)

(57)

Suppose

is written as follows

(58)

and

is introduced as

370

(59)

can be written as

(60)

Therefore for PUMA robot manipulator can be calculated by the following equation

(60)

(61)

(62)

(63)

(64)

(65)

4.

RESULTS

Classical sliding mode control (SMC), fuzzy sliding mode control (FSMC) and artificial chattering free

adaptive FSMC are implemented in Matlab/Simulink environment. Changing updating factor performance,

tracking performance, error, and robustness are compared.

For various value of sliding surface slope () in SMC, AFSMC and ASMFC, the error and trajectory

performances are shown in Figures 4 to 7.

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FIGURE 5: Artificial chattering free adaptive FSMC trajectory performance, first; second and third link

Figures 4 and 5 are shown trajectory performance with different sliding function for, Artificial chattering free

adaptive FSMC and SMC. It is shown that the sensitivity in Artificial chattering free adaptive FSMC to

sliding function is lower than SMC. Figures 6 and 7 are shown the error performance with different sliding

surface slope in classical SMC and Artificial chattering free adaptive FSMC. For various sliding surface

slope (), Artificial chattering free adaptive FSMC, has better error performance compare to classical SMC.

The new sliding surface slope coefficient is updated by multiplying the error new coefficient (

predetermined slope value ().

) with

372

FIGURE 7: Error performance: Artificial chattering free adaptive FSMC (first; second and third link)

Tracking Performances

From the simulation for first, second, and third trajectory without any disturbance, it can be seen that

Artificial chattering free adaptive FSMC and classical SMC have same performance. This is primarily due

to the constant parameters in simulation. Figure 8 is shown tracking performance in certain system for

SMC, FSMC and proposed method.

FIGURE 8: Trajectory performance: Artificial chattering free adaptive FSMC, SMC and FSMC (first;

second and third link)

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Disturbance Rejection

A band limited white noise with predefined of 40% the power of input signal is applied to the Sinuse

response. Figure 9 is shown disturbance rejection for Artificial chattering free adaptive FSMC, SMC and

FSMC.

FIGURE 9: Disturbance rejection: Artificial chattering free adaptive FSMC, SMC and FSMC (first;

second and third link)

Although SMC and FSMC have the same error rate (refer to Table:2), they have oscillation tracking which

causes chattering phenomenon at the presence of disturbances. As it is obvious in Table: 2 proposed

methods is a FSMC which tuning on-line and FSMC is a SMC which estimate the equivalent part therefore

FSMC have acceptable performance with regard to SMC in presence of certain and uncertainty but the

best performance is in Artificial chattering free adaptive FSMC.

TABLE 2 : RMS Error Rate of Presented controllers

RMS Error Rate

SMC

FSMC

Without Noise

With Noise

1e-3

0.012

1.2e-3

0.013

Proposed

method

1e-7

1.12e-6

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Chattering Phenomenon

As mentioned in previous, chattering is one of the most important challenges in sliding mode controller

which one of the major objectives in this research is reduce or remove the chattering in systems

output. To reduce the chattering researcher is used fuzzy inference method instead of swithing

function. Figure 10 has shown the power of fuzzy boundary layer (fuzzy saturation) method to reduce

the chattering in proposed method.

FIGURE 10: chattering phenomenon: Artificial chattering free adaptive FSMC with switching function

and fuzzy saturation function (first; second and third link)

5.

CONCLUSION

Refer to the research, a 7 rules Mamdanis artificial sliding mode fuzzy chattering free fuzzy sliding

mode control and this suitability for use in the control of robot manipulator has proposed in order to

design high performance nonlinear controller in the presence of uncertainties and external

disturbances. Sliding mode control methodology is selected as a frame work to construct the control

law and address the stability and robustness of the close-loop system. The proposed approach

effectively combines the design techniques from sliding mode control, fuzzy logic and adaptive control

to improve the performance (e.g., trajectory, disturbance rejection, error and chattering) and enhance

the robustness property of the controller. Each method by adding to the previous controller has

covered negative points. The system performance in sliding mode controller and fuzzy sliding mode

375

controller are sensitive to the sliding function. Therefore, compute the optimum value of sliding

function for a system is the important which this problem has solved by adjusting surface slope of the

sliding function continuously in real-time. The chattering phenomenon is eliminate by fuzzy method

when estimate the saturation function with 7 rule base. In this way, the overall system performance

has improved with respect to the classical sliding mode controller. This controller solved chattering

phenomenon as well as mathematical nonlinear equivalent part by applied fuzzy supervisory method

in fuzzy sliding mode controller and artificial chattering free adaptive FSMC.

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