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INDIAN HIGHWAYS

A REVIEW OF ROAD AND ROAD TRANSPORT DEVELOPMENT


Volume 42

Number 4

April 2014

Contents

ISSN 0376-7256

Page
2-3

From the Editors Desk - CSR Boost to Road Sector

Subgrade Charactertistics of Soil Mixed with Foundry Sand and Randomly Distributed Steel Chips
R.K. Sharma

12

Reclaimed Asphalt Pavements in Bituminous Mixes


K. Kranthi Kumar, R. Rajasekhar, M. Amaranatha Reddy and B.B. Pandey

20

Identification of Mass Transit Corridors - A Case Study for Hyderabad City


H.S. Sathish, H.S. Jagadeesh, R. Sathya Murthy, Shruthi. S and Phaneendra. B

33

Laboratory Evaluation for the Use of Moorum and Ganga Sand in Wet Mix Macadam Unbound Base Course
G.D. Ransinchung R.N., Praveen Kumar, Brind Kumar, Aditya Kumar Anupam and Arun Prakash Chauhan

40

Field Investigations and 3DFE Analysis on Plain Jointed High Volume Fly Ash Concrete Pavements for Thermal
and Wheel Loads
Aravindkumar B. Harwalkar and S.S. Awanti

54

Quality Control of Grout for Post Tensioning Structure


S.K. Bagui, Binod Sharma and Rajeev Gupta

65

Is Bus Fare the Only Concern to Urban Trip Makers'? An Experience in Kolkata
Saurabh Dandapat, Bhargab Maitra and C.V. Phanikumar

74-76 Circular Issued by MORT&H


77

Tender Notice of NH Circle, Tirunelveli

78

Tender Notice of NH Circle, Madurai

79

Tender Notice of NH Circle, Madurai

80

Tender Notice of NH Circle, Madurai

81

Tender Notice of NH Circle, Bareilly

82

Tender Notice of NH Circle, Bareilly

83

Tender Notice of NH Circle, Salem

84

Tender Notice of NH Circle, Madurai

85-86 IRC Membership Form A-1

The Indian Roads Congress


E-mail: secretarygen@irc.org.in/indianhighways@irc.org.in

Founded : December 1934


IRC Website: www.irc.org.in

Jamnagar House, Shahjahan Road,


New Delhi - 110 011
Tel : Secretary General: +91 (11) 2338 6486
Sectt. : (11) 2338 5395, 2338 7140, 2338 4543, 2338 6274
Fax : +91 (11) 2338 1649

Kama Koti Marg, Sector 6, R.K. Puram


New Delhi - 110 022
Tel : Secretary General : +91 (11) 2618 5303
Sectt. : (11) 2618 5273, 2617 1548, 2671 6778,
2618 5315, 2618 5319, Fax : +91 (11) 2618 3669

No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without prior written permission from the Secretary General, IRC.
Edited and Published by Shri Vishnu Shankar Prasad on behalf of the Indian Roads Congress (IRC), New Delhi. The responsibility of the
contents and the opinions expressed in Indian Highways is exclusively of the author/s concerned. IRC and the Editor disclaim responsibility
and liability for any statement or opinion, originality of contents and of any copyright violations by the authors. The opinions expressed in the
papers and contents published in the Indian Highways do not necessarily represent the views of the Editor or IRC.

From the Editors Desk

CSR BOOST TO ROAD SECTOR


Dear Readers,
The new Companies Act 2013 have prescribed the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) concept
which opens up new doors of providing user friendly facilities along the roads. The need is to
channelize the available resources from CSR for such accountable social & environmental causes.
This may also help the sectorial companies to carry out their responsibilities towards people in the
community where they are operating as well as earning their bread & butter.
The new Companies Act 2013, a land mark legislation in itself, mandates the companies with a
net worth of Rs.500 crores or minimum turnover of Rs.1000 crores or net profit of Rs.5 Crore in
a year to spend 2% of the average profit of the last 3 years on CSR. Mainly it is aimed at building
capacity, empowering the community, uplifting the marginalized & weaker sections of the society,
ensuring the inclusive socio economic development, etc. All these causes if broadly seen, fall under
the category of noble tasks. The Indian philosophy has been the supporter and propagator of genesis
of carrying out variety of noble tasks as well as promoting ethical principles while doing business
activities. The CSR has a mandate under the act is to do these charitable noble tasks in the right way,
at the right time and through the right person(s)/organization(s).
The roads, persay, are the most common public facility which is utilized by the people at large. In
addition, it is also the strategic economic infrastructure through which the growth potential of an
area/region can viably be achieved. However, along most of the roads in the country, there is lack of
road side furniture & facilities. This lack of road side furniture and facilities to some extent comes
in the way of optimized utilization of the resources of the region/areas, thereby providing a much
larger opportunity for undertaking CSR sponsored activities.
The road and the CSR sponsored activities have a good scope of mutual synergization of efforts.
Both are required for building a secure future, for tiding over vagaries of global economic scenario
for ensuring a sturdy & sound consumer base and most importantly for building the nation. The way
the roads are not considered as a status symbol, similarly the CSR spending should not be considered
as an status symbol but as a way needed for the survival as well as progression of business. As a large
number of road sector players have diversified business interests, their spending of CSR on road side
furniture facilities may perhaps result into win-win situation for not only to their own enterprise(s)
but also for the government & the public.
There is a need to improve the lives of the people not through freebies but helping them also to stand
on their feet by providing them employment opportunities as well as by providing a more livable
world in a better environment. The spending of CSR on road side furniture infrastructural facilities
provides ample scope to meet the above in a more sustainable way.

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, April 2014

EDITORIAL
The issue of health and hygiene along the roads deserve a renewed attention and such noble projects
having long term good social positive effect may help in boosting social standing of an enterprise
and may also help in creating better goodwill. The road side solar operated waterless toilets may be
one such example and similarly there may be many more activities including that of reduction of
greenhouse gas emission, etc. which can be taken along the roads under CSR.
The onus of the development of our society lies on all of us. It is not the government alone which can
develop the society but all should chip-in their contribution to the extent possible in the development
of the society. As the responsibility goes up many fold in developing countries like ours, effective
contribution under CSR by the business enterprises may go a long way in adding significant movement
to Indias economic & social development, thereby leading to equitable and sustainable growth of
the country.
With CSR becoming mandatory, the need is also to put in place proper utilization system of the huge
amount coming in the shape of CSR contribution. Therefore, innovative CSR activities, processes
as well as good practices to execute CSR initiatives attain strategic importance. Simultaneously,
social impact assessment of the CSR spending may assume major significance in the coming years.
The road sector provides ample scope of utilization of CSR contribution. Proper partnership of the
Govt./private enterprises with apex institutions like Indian Roads Congress, etc. can be forged for
developing road side social infrastructure ensuring healthy & livable atmosphere while simultaneously
avoiding duplication of the governmental efforts. The common pool of resources can be created to
ensure uniformity of process and activities across the country. The sponsored CSR activities in the
road sector may perhaps create the much needed ripple effect.

Familiarity with books is not knowledge.


Ones entire life is a continuous process of learning
His Holliness Sri Satya Sai Baba Ji

Place : New Delhi 


Dated : 22nd March, 2014

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, April 2014

Vishnu Shankar Prasad


Secretary General

SUBGRADE CHARACTERTISTICS OF SOIL MIXED WITH


FOUNDRY SAND AND RANDOMLY DISTRIBUTED STEEL CHIPS
R.K. Sharma*
ABSTRACT
Foundry sand is a waste material imposing hazardous effect
on environment and human health. It cannot be disposed of
properly and its disposal is not economically viable. The inherent
properties of foundry sand can be used to make this material
as environmental friendly to solve the problem of its disposal.
Similarly, steel chips are industrial wastes which can be reused.
This paper discusses about the improvement of compaction
and sub-grade characteristics of clayey soil by blending it with
foundry sand and randomly distributed steel chips. The influence
of different mix proportions of clayey soil and foundry sand on
compaction characteristics and California Bearing Ratio (CBR)
values has been studied. The results show that with the addition
of foundry sand in sandy clayey soil the Maximum Dry Density
(MDD) and CBR value of the mixture increase initially and with
further addition of foundry sand, the MDD and CBR value of
mixture start decreasing. Similar results were obtained with the
inclusion of the steel chips in selected soil- foundry sand mixture.
The designed mix with optimum percentage of clayey soil, foundry
sand and steel chips can be effectively used in the construction of
sub-grade of roads and embankments thus presenting a solution to
construct good roads at low cost.

INTRODUCTION

Metal foundries use large amounts of sand as a part


of the metal casting process. Foundries successfully
recycle and reuse the sand many times in a foundry.
When the sand can no longer be reused in the foundry,
it is removed from the foundry and is termed foundry
sand. Foundry sand is high quality silica sand that is
a by product from the production of both ferrous and
nonferrous metal castings. The physical and chemical
characteristics of foundry sand will depend in great
part on the type of casting process and the industry
sector from which it originates.
Foundries purchase high quality size-specific silica
sands for use in their molding and casting operations.
There are two basic types of foundry sand available,
green sand (often referred to as molding sand) that
*

uses clay as the binder material, and chemically


bonded sand that uses polymers to bind the sand
grains together (FIRST, 2004). Green sand consists
of 85-95% silica, 0-12% clay, 2-10% carbonaceous
additives, such as sea coal, and 2-5% water. Green
sand is the most commonly used molding media by
foundries. The silica sand is the bulk medium that
resists high temperatures while the coating of clay
binds the sand together. The water adds plasticity and
the carbonaceous additives prevent the burn-on or
fusing of sand onto the casting surface.
Green sands also contain trace chemicals such as
MgO2, K2O, and TiO2. Chemically bonded sand
consists of 93-99% silica and 1-3% chemical binder.
Silica sand is thoroughly mixed with the chemicals; a
catalyst initiates the reaction that cures and hardens the
mass. There is various chemical binder systems used
in the foundry industry. The most common chemical
binder systems used are phenolic-urethanes, epoxyresins, phenyl alcohol, and sodium silicates.
Foundry sand is basically fine aggregate. It can
be used in many of the same ways as natural or
manufactured sands. This includes many civil
engineering applications such as embankments, flow
able fill, hot mix asphalt and Plain Cement Concrete
(PCC). Foundry sands have also been used extensively
agriculturally as topsoil. Currently, approximately
500,000 to 700,000 tonnes of foundry sand is used
annually in engineering applications.
In India, there is a requirement of constructing good
roads with minimum expenditure. Due to lack of funds
especially for the village roads, cheaper materials
for the construction of sub-base are required. So, for
village roads or for stage-constructed roads the waste
foundry sand and steel chips can be used in mix with

Professor, NIT, Hamirpur (H.P.), E-mail: rksnithp61@gmail.com

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, April 2014

TECHNICAL PAPERS
the locally available soil. Therefore, large volume of
foundry sand can be used in embankments and subbases of roads.
Significant efforts have been made in recent years to
use foundry sand in civil engineering construction.
Some of the application areas included highway bases
and retaining structures (Kirk, 1998; Mast and Fox,
1998; Goodhue et al., 2001), landfill liners (Abichou
et al., 1998, 2004), asphalt concrete (Javed and Lovell,
1995), flow able fill (Bhat and Lovell, 1996), and
pavement bases (Kleven et al., 2000). Other studies
have shown that the thermal or biological remediation
of the foundry sands provides an opportunity for their
land applications (Leidel and Novakowski, 1994;
Reddi et al., 1996). Existing research has shown that
foundry sand can be effectively used in geotechnical
construction due to its comparable properties with
sand-bentonite mixtures (Abichou et al., 2004).
However, limited information exists about the use
of foundry sand as a component in base, sub-base or
sub-grade layers of highway pavements. Roadway
applications provide an opportunity for high volume
reuse of the excess material. Moreover, the effect of
different factors on the mechanical properties of the
sub base or sub-grade layers constructed with foundry
sand need to be evaluated. These factors are mainly
due to differences in constructional operations (e.g.,
compaction conditions), material homogeneity, and
the selection of different materials amended with
foundry sand. Limited literature is available about
reinforcement of foundry sand and soil mixture with
steel chips.
1.1

Need for Utilization of Foundry Sand

It is estimated around 7000 foundries are operating all


over India with a total casting output of approximately
3 million tonnes consisting of 2.36 million tonnes of
Iron casting 4,00,000 tonnes of steel castings 2,68,000
tones of malleable and SG Iron castings and 20,000
tones of Non ferrous castings. The annual production
is worth of Rs. 10,000 crores. India is one of leading
producer of castings in the world. The foundry
units in India are mostly located in clusters notable
INDIAN HIGHWAYS, April 2014

among them are Howrah, Rajkot, Agra, Jamnagar,


Belgaum, Kolhapur, Coimbatur and Hyderabad. A
number of units range from 100 to 700 at different
foundry cluster. The foundry produce a wide variety
of castings used in Automobile Industry, Flour Mill
Parts & Components, Electric Motor, Manhole
Covers, Oil engine, Pump sets, Sanitary items, Pipe
and Pipe fittings, Sugar Machinery etc. Over 9 million
tonnes of Waste Foundry Sands (WFS) is produced
annually in the United States as aby-product of the
metal casting industry. In India, approximately 2
million tonnes of Waste Foundry Sand (WFS) is
produced annually (Singh and Siddique, 2012). The
majority of WFS are deposited in restricted or sanitary
waste landfills. Considerable saving is available to the
metal casting industry through the development of
reuse applications for their WFS and generators are
often willing to provide WFS to a job site at no cost to
the end user. Departments of Transportation (DOTs)
as well are facing increased pressure from waste
generators, national associations, state legislatures, and
an environmentally conscious general public to find
acceptable reuse applications for waste materials in
transportation construction. Laboratory investigations
indicate that WFS from ferrous foundries can provide
the necessary engineering properties for a highway
embankment and bioassay test can be used to screen the
toxicity of WFS to prevent a negative environmental
impact (Edil et al, 2002).
2 SCOPE AND OBJECTIVES
In the present study, an attempt is made to study how
foundry sand and steel chips may be effectively utilized
in combination with the soil to get an improved soil
material which may be used in various soil structures.
Foundry sand is obtained from Nahan foundry. Locally
available soil has been used in this experimental
investigation. Following are the objectives of the
present work:

1.

Clay and foundry sand were mixed in


varying percentages and optimized for
maximum dry density.
5

TECHNICAL PAPERS

2.

Foundry sand content is varied from 0 to


40% to optimize its value on maximum
dry density and CBR value of suitable
clay-foundry sand mixes.

3.

The CBR value of the most appropriate


combination of the clay and foundry sand
with varying percentage of steel chips
has been studied at the optimum moisture
content and maximum dry density.

4.

The most appropriate composition of the


mix has been worked out on the basis of
maximum dry density and CBR values.

3 ENGINEERING
PROPERTIES
MATERIALS USED

lathe in workshops which are usually wasted as scrap.


The properties of the chips are those of mild steel
(composition having 2% carbon, 1.65% manganese,
0.6% copper and 0.6% silicon with specific gravity of
7.85 and Youngs modulus E = 2.1 x 105 N/mm2). The
chips are crushed to a maximum size of 6 mm and a
minimum size of 3 mm to be used as reinforcement in
clay-foundry sand mix.

OF

The soil used in the study was locally available soil


and Foundry Sand (FS) obtained from Nahan (H.P.)
foundry. According to IS soil classification system,
the soil was classified as Sandy Clay (SC).
Table 1 Basic Properties of Soil and Foundry Sand
Particulars of test

Soil

FS

2.66

2.55

Coefficient of uniformity, Cu

1.86

Coefficient of curvature, Cc

0.95

IS soil classification

SC

SP

Liquid Limit (%)


IS:2720 (Part V) 1975

29.0

NP

Plastic Limit (%)

19.3

NP

Maximum Dry Density (g/cc)


IS:2720 (Part VII) 1980

1.79

1.77

Optimum moisture content,%


IS:2720 (Part VII) 1980

12.9

9.5

CBR (%)

6.06

16.0

Specific Gravity
IS:2720 (Part 3) 1980

The particle size distribution curves for the soil


and foundry sand are shown in Fig.1 (IS:2720
(Part IV) 1975).
The steel chips were obtained from mild steel
chippings produced by metal working operations on
6

Fig. 1 Particle Size Distribution of Soil, Foundry Sand

3.1 Method of Testing


The laboratory studies were carried out in two
phases:

1.

Modification of soil with foundry sand


in varying percentages of 20%, 30% and
40% by weight.

2.

Modification of soil with 20% foundry


sand for varying steel chip content in
range of 1-4% with increment of 1%; all
the ingredients mixed by weight.

The blending operation was carried out manually and


care was taken for uniform mixing as per the procedure
given in IS:2720 (Part VII). Laboratory tests are
carried out in accordance with the specification of
relevant Indian Standards. The laboratory studies
were carried out in two phases:
In the first phase, the properties like moisture-density
relation (IS light compaction) and CBR are evaluated
for the soil blended with varying percentage of foundry
sand. In the second phase of investigation, effect of
steel chip content for the soil blended with 20% of
INDIAN HIGHWAYS, April 2014

TECHNICAL PAPERS
foundry sand content on the properties like moisturedensity relation (IS light compaction) and CBR
(un-soaked) are evaluated.
4

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1

Compaction Characteristics

IS Light compaction tests were carried out on different


proportions of foundry sand and soil in accordance
with the procedure laid in IS:2720 (Part VII) so as to
study their moisture density relationship.
Figs. 2 and 3 shows the variation of Optimum
Moisture Content (OMC) and corresponding
maximum dry density respectively for different
percentages of foundry sand.
Fig. 2 shows that the variation of dry density of soil
with water content for soil, foundry sand and different
combinations of soil and foundry sand. The maximum
dry density is obtained for 80% soil and 20% foundry
sand combination.

Fig. 3 Variation of Optimum Moisture Content (OMC)


with Foundry Sand

From Fig. 4, it can be seen that the Maximum Dry


Density (MDD) is increased initially and then it started
decreasing. The MDD was found to be the maximum
for 80% soil and 20% foundry sand proportion.

Fig. 3 shows that the value of Optimum Moisture


Content (OMC) decreases with increase in foundry
sand content and then it becomes nearly constant for
increased percentages of foundry sand.

Fig. 4 Variation of the Maximum Dry Density (MDD) with


Foundry Sand

Fig. 2 Variation of Dry Density of Soil with


Foundry Sand Content

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, April 2014

Fig. 5 shows that the variation of dry density of 80%


soil and 20% foundry sand combination without and
with percentage of steel chips varying from 1% to 4%.
It is observed that the maximum dry density is obtained
for 80% soil and 20% foundry sand combination with
3% steel chips.
7

TECHNICAL PAPERS
increased beyond the optimum value more void spaces
were created resulting decrease in value of MDD. For
3% steel chips content in the mixture of 80% soil and
20% foundry sand, the MDD value was found to be
the maximum.

Fig. 5 Variation of Dry Density of 80% Soil + 20% Foundry


Sand with Steel Chips

Fig. 6 shows that with the addition of steel chips in the


mixture of 80% soil and 20% foundry sand proportion,
the OMC value initially decreases and then it increased
with the increasing content of the steel chips.

Fig. 7 Variation of MDD with Steel Chips Content


for 80% Soil + 20% FS

4.2 Strength Characteristics


California Bearing Ratio (CBR) tests were carried out
under un-soaked and soaked conditions on soil mixed
with different proportions of foundry sand so as to
study their load bearing capacity.

Fig. 6 Variation of OMC with Steel Chips Content


for 80% Soil + 20% FS

From Fig. 7, it can be seen that the value of MDD is


initially increased and then it decreases. When steel
chips content was increased beyond the optimum
value the MDD value decreased. The steel chips are
having more surface area so when chips content is
8

Fig. 8 Variation of California Bearing Ratio (CBR) Value


for Soil + FS

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, April 2014

TECHNICAL PAPERS
The CBR values for different compositions were
obtained by compaction of mixture at optimum
moisture content to achieve maximum dry density as
per standard Proctor compaction test given in IS:2720
(Part VII) (may be taken as equivalent to 12 passes
of 20 ton dual drum roller for 150 mm compaction
lifts). Figure 8 shows the variation of CBR values
with increased percentage of foundry sand in soil.
CBR value is initially increased with increase in
foundry sand content and then it started decreasing.
The maximum CBR value was obtained for 80% soil
and 20% foundry sand mixture. The CBR values for
different percentage of steel chips in 80% soil and 20%
Foundry Sand (FS) were obtained by compacting the
mixture to the maximum dry density and Optimum
Moisture Content (OMC) corresponding to IS light
compaction and testing under un-soaked and soaked
conditions. From Fig. 9, it is observed that the value
of California Bearing Ratio (CBR) first increases and
then it starts decreasing with the increase in steel chips
content. The maximum value of CBR was obtained
for 3% steel chips content under both soaked and unsoaked conditions.

cumulative traffic has been decided. The sub-grade


made of composite material has been considered in
the design for cumulative traffic of 1, 5 and 10 msa
(million standard axles) on the basis of location from
which soil is collected and traffic range in the region.
The soaked CBR value of soil is 4.2% and CBR
value for stabilized composite consisting of 80% soil,
20% foundry sand and 3% steel chips is 11.8%.
IRC specifications for design of sub-grades are
available for 10% soaked CBR value only. Hence,
the soaked CBR of stabilized soil sub-grade has
been considered as 10% instead of 11.8%. The waste
materials used with the soil have some basic source
cost which is also to be included in the final cost. The
cost of steel chips was Rupees 4 per kg and waste
foundry sand is available free of cost. Fig. 10 shows
the cumulative traffic - pavement thickness variation
for soil and soil+waste composite for cumulative
traffic 1, 5 and 10 msa. Cost analysis has been
conducted on the basis of Standard Schedule of
Rates (SSR). Based on the specifications given in
IRC, material costs for wearing coat, base coat, subbase course and sub-grade were calculated. The cost
of flexible pavement construction per square meter
varies from 806 to 1752 Rupees using soil sub-grade
and from 672 to 1396 Rupees using stabilized soil
sub-grade with cumulative traffic of 1, 5 and 10 msa
as shown in Fig. 11.

Fig. 9 Variation of CBR with Steel Chips Content for 80%


Soil+20% FS

4.3

Cost Implications

Indian Roads Congress (IRC:37-2001) has given the


specifications for the design of flexible pavements
with different cumulative traffic ranges. Based on the
soaked CBR value and material properties, the design
INDIAN HIGHWAYS, April 2014

Fig. 10 Cumulative Traffic - Pavement Thickness Variation

TECHNICAL PAPERS
and CBR value of mixture started decreasing.
Based on above, it was concluded that there
is optimum percentage of foundry sand which
increases strength of soil.

Fig. 11 Cost of Pavement - Cumulative Traffic Variation

The variation of percentage cost savings - cumulative


traffic for soil and soil+waste composite for
cumulative traffic of 1, 5 and 10 msa is shown in
Fig. 12. It is observed that the saving in cost for
the flexible pavement constructed with soil + waste
composite sub-grade varies from 16.6% to 20.32% for
cumulative traffic of 1 msa to 10 msa respectively.

2.

With the addition of steel chips content in


soil- foundry sand mixture the MDD and
CBR value of the mixture initially increased.
With further addition of steel chips contentin
soil- foundry sand mixture the MDD and CBR
value of mixture started decreasing. Thus, there
is optimum percentage of steel chips content
which increases strength of soil.

3.

Addition of steel chips upto 3% in soil-foundry


sand mixture increased CBR value from 7.16%
to 20% for un-soaked condition and from
5.35% to 11.8% for soaked conditions. This
leads to the conclusion that steel chips can in
used in improving the strength of soil.

4.

Based on the study conducted it is concluded


that foundry sand and steel chips which are
waste materials can be used for the stabilization
of expansive soil and can be used in the sub
grade material to improve the strength.

5.

The mixture having 80% soil, 20% FS and 3%


steel chips was found to be the best combination
having maximum CBR and MDD value. Hence,
this mix can be considered to be suitable for
construction of sub-grades particularly in rural
roads with lesser traffic volume.

6.

The cost analysis shows that percentage savings


in cost for the flexible pavement constructed
with stabilized soil sub-grade varies from
16.6% to 20.32% for cumulative traffic of 1
msa to 10 msa.The conclusions of the research
are based upon laboratory investigations only
and need to be tried in the field with different
types of soils.

Fig. 12 Percentage Cost Savings Cumulative Traffic Variation

CONCLUSIONS

Based upon the above study following conclusions


can be drawn.
1.

10

With the addition of foundry sand in sandy clay


soil, the MDD and CBR value of the mixture
initially increased. With further addition of
foundry sand in the sandy clay soil, the MDD

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INDIAN HIGHWAYS, April 2014

TECHNICAL PAPERS
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5.

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7.

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8.

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10.

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11.

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Record,1486, pp. 109113.

13.

Kirk, P.B. (1998). Field Demonstration of Highway


Embankment Constructed using Waste Foundry Sand.
Ph.D. Dissertation, Purdue University, West Lafayette,
IN, 202 p.

14.

Kleven, J.R., Edil, T.B. & Benson, C. H.(2000). Evaluation


of Excess Foundry System Sands for Use as Sub-base
Material. Proceedings of the 79th Annual Meeting,
Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC.

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, April 2014

15.

Leidel, D.S. & Novakowski M. (1994). Beneficial Sand


Reuse: Making it Work. Modern Casting, 84 (8), 2831.

16.

Mast, D.G. & Fox, P.J.(1998). Geotechnical Performance


of Highway Embankment Constructed using Waste
Foundry Sand. In: Vipulanandan, C. & Elton, D. (Eds.),
Recycled Materials in Geotechnical Applications,
Geotechnical Special Publication 79. ASCE, Boston, MA,
pp. 6685.

17.

Reddi, L.N., Rieck, G.P., Schwab, A.P., Chou, S.T. & Fan,
L.T.(1996). Stabilization of Phenolics in Foundry Waste
using Cementitious Materials. Journal of Hazardous
Materials 4 (23), pp. 89106.

18.

Singh, G. & Siddique, R. (2012). Effect of Waste Foundry


Sand (WFS) as Partial Replacement of Sand on the
Strength, UPV and Permeability of Concrete. Construction
and Building Materials, Vol. 26(1), pp. 416-422.

19.

IRC:37-2001. Guidelines for the Design of Flexible


Pavements. Indian Roads Congress, New Delhi, India.

__________

11

RECLAIMED ASPHALT PAVEMENTS IN BITUMINOUS MIXES


K. Kranthi Kumar*, R. Rajasekhar*, M. Amaranatha Reddy** and B.B. Pandey***

ABSTRACT
Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) obtained from damaged or
abandoned pavements needs to be used to save the environment.
This paper describes a laboratory investigation on RAP obtained
from one of the road construction sites from Gujarat state to
examine its use in hot bituminous as well as in cold bituminous
mixes for the construction of road pavements. From this study, it
is found that RAP can be effectively used in hot as well as cold
bituminous mixes for construction of surface as well as base
layers.

INTRODUCTION

Use of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP), obtained


from milling of existing distressed bituminous
surfacing in pavement construction and rehabilitation
works is being routinely used in developed countries
for conserving natural resources. Economy, ecology,
and energy conservation are all served when asphalt
and aggregate the two most frequently used
pavement construction materials are reused to provide
a strengthened and improved pavement. The major
advantages of use of RAP are (a) Lower cost (b)
Reduction in use of natural resources (c) Reduction of
damage to other roads for transportation of materials
from quarry site (d) No increase in pavement thickness,
very important for city streets and major highways and
(e) Less dependence on diesel due to energy crisis.
During the early days of implementation of National
Highway Development Project (NHDP), miles and
miles of distressed thick bituminous layers of National
Highways were removed to the adjoining land since
they could not be effectively used for lack of proven
technology, experience and perceived risk. Up to 50%
of RAP has been used as part replacement of granular
sub base and Wet Mix Macadam base in India.
*

Former M. Tech Student

**

Associate Professor, E-mail: manreddy@iitkgp.ac.in

Use of cold and hot recycling of the milled bituminous


material has been gaining popularity in India in recent
times due to several successful trials in selected
stretches (1, 2). However, addition of RAP in Hot
Mix Asphalt (HMA) and Cold Asphalt Mix (CAM)
requires detailed laboratory investigation to ensure
that the mixes have the necessary minimum strength
and durability for acceptability. The present paper
describes the results of a laboratory investigation of
RAP obtained from a highway project near Rajkot
in Gujarat state for examination of its suitability
for hot as well as cold mixes. Maximum amount of
RAP that can be used in BC-1 with VG30 bitumen
was investigated. Use of large amount of RAP is not
acceptable to users currently for lack of research.
2 LITERATURE REVIEW
Numerous studies have reported that Reclaimed
Asphalt Pavement (RAP) can be reused as an aggregate
in Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) as well as in cold mix
asphalt, granular base, sub-base, and subgrade
courses. Large amount of literature is available
(3-12) on use of RAP in HMA. Research findings
indicate that bituminous mixes containing RAP
and a rejuvenator produced mechanical and rutting
properties that were as good as or even better than
those using the conventional binder. The amount of
RAP used successfully in hot recycled mixtures range
from 15% to 70%. Only minor changes are needed in
the production process of hot asphalt mixes when both
RAP and virgin aggregates are used.
Cold recycling technology, like hot mix technology,
has also become popular in different countries for
rehabilitation of damaged bituminous pavements.

*** Adviser, SRIC and Former Professor, E-mail: braj@civil.iitkgp.ernet.in

12

Transportation Engineering, Civil Engineering


Deptt, IIT Kharagpur

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, April 2014

TECHNICAL PAPERS
RAP stabilized with bitumen emulsion and foamed
bitumen has been extensively used as a base
layer. Details of mix design, construction and
post construction behaviour are widely reported
in the available literature (1, 13-17). Laboratory
investigation is vital for use of RAP in hot and cold
mixes for the rehabilitation of pavements.
It is thus clear that both cold as well as hot recycling
of RAP are possible and research efforts are needed to
maximize its use.
3 LABORATORY INVESTIGATION
In the present investigation, RAP was collected from
a National Highway near Rajkot of Gujarat state. The
RAP aggregate gradation was determined before and
after the extraction of bitumen by solvent extraction.
RAP was proposed to be used in the surface layer as

a hot mix and in the base layer as a cold mix with


bitumen emulsion. Details of various laboratory
investigations are given in the following sections.
3.1 Use of RAP in Hot Mix Asphalt
Bitumen from the RAP mixture was extracted by
solvent extraction method using trichloroethylene
using the procedure given in ASTM D 2172 (18).
The bitumen and aggregate were then separated using
a centrifuge and the aggregate was weighed. The
bitumen content in the RAP was found to be 2.65%
by weight of mix. Complex Modulus, G*, and phase
angle of the recovered bitumen were determined by
Dynamic Shear Rheometer to grade the bitumen as
per the Superpave Performance Grading (19). The
penetration, softening point and grade of binder of
the recovered binder is shown in Table 1.

Table 1 Properties of the Extracted Bitumen from RAP

Name of the Property

Method of Testing

Value Obtained

Penetration value, 25C, 100 gm, 5 sec

IS:1203 1978

Softening point value, C

IS:1205 1978

79

Superpave performance grading


(high temperature part)

AASHTO T 315 (2007)

82

From the test results of binder as shown in


Table 1, it is clear that the bitumen in the existing
bituminous layer is in a highly oxidised state. The
high temperature Performance Grading (PG) of
recovered bitumen was 82 against 64 for the normal
VG 30 binder. Determination of absolute viscosity
of the hard oxidised bitumen by the conventional
U-tube manometer was difficult and was not done.
The aggregates after extraction of the bitumen were
sieved and the gradation of the RAP material is
given in Table 2. The gradation of the RAP
aggregates falls marginally outside the BC-1
gradation limits for the sieve sizes 19 mm, 4.75 mm
and 1.18 mm.
INDIAN HIGHWAYS, April 2014

Table 2 Sieve Analysis of Aggregates from RAP after


Solvent Extraction
Sieve Size, mm
26.5
19
13.2
9.5
4.75
2.36
1.18
0.6
0.3
0.15
0.075

% Passing by wt of Aggregates
Extracted from RAP
100
75
65
52
29
17
12
10
8
6
5

13

TECHNICAL PAPERS
Aggregates for Bituminous Concrete (BC-1) mix
containing 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% RAP and fresh
aggregates were blended and it is found that all the
blends has the gradation lying within the upper and
lower limits of the gradation of Bituminous Concrete-1
as per MoRTH Specifications, 4th Revision (Fig. 1).
Hence aggregates were not adjusted to meet to mid
point gradation requirement of BC-1 keeping in mind
the practical variation in grading.

Fig. 1 Gradation of BC Mixes with Different Proportion of RAP

A control mix without RAP having the midpoint


gradation of BC-1 was also prepared for comparing
the results of mixes having different proportions of
RAP. VG 30 binder is used for preparing the control
mix. Bitumen extracted from the blend of RAP was
used to determine the complex modulus (G*) and
phase angle () using Dynamic Shear Rheometer
(DSR) as per AASHTO T 315 (20). Effective grade of
the binder obtained by modification of VG 30 by the
hard oxidised binder of the RAP after mixing was also
determined by same method.
The complex modulus (G*) and phase angles () of the
recovered binder from different proportions of RAP
and fresh aggregates are shown in Table 3. Viscosity
of VG30 only is given in the Table since the viscosity
of recovered binder does not give much information
about the state of binder as compared to PG grading
system.

Table 3 G* and Values of the Binders Recovered from the BC Mixes Containing Different Proportions of RAP
% RAP in BC
Mixes

10

20

30

40

Temp, C

G*(kPa)

Phase Angle()

Grade of Binder
(High Temperature)

80(158F)

1955

84.77

PG 64

64(147F)

3961

82.98

58(136F)

10300

79.36

Viscosity of VG30 at
60C = 2550 poise

80(158F)

2116

77.16

64(147F)

4598

75.86

58(136F)

11300

74.11

80(158F)

2863

76.65

64(147F)

5676

74.33

58(136F)

16500

72.22

80(158F)

5155

65.95

64(147F)

9545

65.2

58(136F)

18700

64.59

80(158F)

6841

63.65

64(147F)

11900

64.34

58136F

22700

62.13

Tests on Marshall specimens containing different


amount of RAP were carried out and the volumetric
14

PG 70

PG 70

----

PG 82

and other parameters, important for mix design are


shown in Table 4.
INDIAN HIGHWAYS, April 2014

TECHNICAL PAPERS
Table 4 Physical Properties of Different Mixes with RAP

Mix Parameters
Fresh bitumen content (% total mix)
Bulk density, kg/m3
Voids in Mineral Aggregates (VMA)
Voids Filled with Bitumen (VFB)
Air Voids %

0
5.00
2444
13.06
72.44
3.59

Optimum binder content of the bituminous concrete


mix with VG 30 bitumen and fresh aggregates was
found to be 5.0% by weight of mix. Fresh binder
contents in the blend of fresh aggregates and RAP
were proportionately decreased keeping the total
binder content of 5.0% in all the mixes. The RAP and
fresh aggregates were heated separately and mixed at
about 160C. It is seen that the mixes up to 20% RAP
using 75 blows Marshall compaction satisfies the air
void and voids in mineral aggregates requirement. All
the samples have the minimum Marshall stability of
9 kN at 60C. The effective binder in the mix is stiffer
than the fresh binder due to very stiff binder in the
RAP and the mix with RAP is likely to provide a rut
resistant layer. The Air Void (AV) content of 4.2%,
Voids in Mineral Aggregates (VMA) of 13.5% and
Voids Filled with Asphalt (VFB) of 68.9% with a
RAP content of 20% appear to be the best option for
application in bituminous construction using standard
plants with lateral entry of RAP. Aggregates may
have to be heated to higher temperatures before the
cold RAP is added so that the mix has the necessary
temperature for mixing, laying and compaction. A few
trials are necessary before full scale implementation.
Aggregates with higher amount of RAP with VG 30
bitumen do not satisfy the mix design requirement. 15
to 20% RAP is routinely used in asphalt hot mixes in
many states of USA. Softer bitumen or rejuvenating
agent may have to be added for higher percentage of
RAP.
3.2

Resilient Modulus of RAP Mixes

Repeated indirect tensile strength test was performed


on RAP mixes to estimate the resilient modulus value
which is the input parameter to a mechanisticempirical
pavement design. The repeated indirect tension test
INDIAN HIGHWAYS, April 2014

10
4.73
2439
14.22
74.05
3.69

RAP (%)
20
4.47
2443
13.49
68.93
4.19

30
4.21
2379
15.19
48.71
7.79

40
3.96
2376
14.71
39.98
8.84

for resilient modulus of bituminous mixes is the most


commonly adopted test method for characterizing the
modulus (stiffness) of the bituminous mixes. ASTM
D 4123 (21) procedure was adopted for the resilient
modulus test using the repeated load Universal
Testing System (UTS) available in the transportation
engineering laboratory of IIT Kharagpur. This
apparatus consists of Control and Data Acquisition
System (CDAS), personal computer and related
integrated software.
Compressive load with a haversine wave form was
applied on Marshall specimens of bituminous mixes.
All specimens were conditioned for about 100 cycles
prior to data acquisition. The horizontal and vertical
deformations under pulse loading were recorded. Tests
were conducted under repeated cyclic stress of fixed
magnitude with duration of 0.1 s and cyclic duration
of 1.0 s. Pulse count of 5 and peak loading force of
1000 N were given as additional inputs for the test.
The data collected was used to calculate the resilient
modulus values of bituminous mix samples. All the
tests were carried out at 25C.
Fig.2 indicates that the modulus increases with
increase in percentage of RAP and then decreases
because of poor mix parameter. Mix with 30% RAP
has higher modulus but it has higher air void also
and it may give a brittle mix with a lower durability
due to high air void content. The stiff binder formed
due to interaction of oxidised binder in RAP and
fresh bitumen during the normal mixing has resulted
in high modulus values of mixes. However at 40%
RAP, values decreased due to high percentage of aged
binder that does not contribute towards cohesion and
internal friction of the mix.
15

TECHNICAL PAPERS

Fig. 2 Effect of RAP Content on Resilient Modulus of BC Mixes

3.3 Likely Performance of Hot Bituminous Mixes


Containing RAP
An analysis was carried out to predict performance
of the pavement containing different proportions of
RAP in hot bituminous concrete using Mechanistic
Empirical Pavement Design Guide (23). It was found
that the BC mixes with 20% RAP has the (i) least
potential for rutting (ii) lowest area of bottom up
cracking and (iii) lowest reduction in International
Roughness Index (IRI) for a given design traffic (24).

(a) Effect % RAP in Mix on Total Rutting

(c) Effect % RAP in Mix on IRI Value


Fig. 4 Effect of RAP on Performance of Hot Mix

3.4 Use of RAP in Cold Mix in Bases


Use of RAP stabilised with bitumen emulsion as cold
mix in base course was also examined and the details
are described in the following. Since RAP is coated
with oxidised bitumen resulting in relatively smooth
surface, it is necessary to add fresh aggregates to
impart additional angle of internal friction. Soaked
CBR value of RAP without any fresh aggregates is
close to 30 which rules out its use as a base course
material or even as granular subbase. The cold RAP
compacted in a Marshall mould does not have any
indirect tensile strength as found by the authors.
The fines in the milled RAP are in the form of
conglomerate bound by oxidised bitumen. It is found
that if 10 to 20 percent crusher dust is added to the
RAP, the grading of the resulting material is close
to the upper limit of Wet Mix Macadam (WMM) of
MoRTH guidelines. TG2 (22) of the South African
guidelines recommend such gradations for use in cold
bituminous stabilised bases provided they meet the
dry and wet minimum strength requirement. While
crusher dust gives internal friction, the bitumen
emulsion provides cohesion to the RAP mix Gradation
of crusher dust is given in Table 5.
Table 5 Gradation of Crusher Dust

(b) Effect % RAP in Mix on Bottom Up Cracking

16

Stone Dust Gradation


Sieve Size (mm)
Percentage of Passing
13.6
100
4.75
96
2.36
70
0.3
25
0.075
20

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, April 2014

TECHNICAL PAPERS
Fig. 4 shows the upper and lower limits of WMM as
per MoRTH guidelines as well as two gradations of
blend of RAP and stone dust considered in the present
study.

samples also at a temperature of 25C. The resilient


moduli values are shown in Fig. 5. 10% and 20% RAP
in the cold mix give almost same moduli at each of the
emulsion contents. Long term modulus will only be a
fraction of the above values considering the variability
in construction and possibility of moisture damage.
Effective in-service modulus of cold mixes can be
determined by Falling Weight Deflectometer.

Fig. 4 Chart Showing the Gradation of Mixes used in


Base Course

4 EVALUATION OF COLD MIX


4.1

Fig. 5 Effect of RAP on Resilient Modulus of


Base Course Material

Resilient Modulus Test

Two types cold mixes were made using (i) 80% RAP,
20% Stone dust and (ii) 90% RAP,10% stone dust
whose gradations are close to the upper limits of
the WMM of MoRTH specifications. Slow Setting
emulsions are usually used for stabilising granular
materials having fines so that there is no breaking of
emulsion during mixing. Readily available Medium
Setting emulsion was used in the present investigation
since there was no breaking of the emulsion during
the trial mix design. Emulsion contents of 3 and
4 percent, one per cent cement and a water content
of 2.5 percent all by weight of the total aggregates
consisting of RAP and stone dust were used for casting
the Marshall samples using 75 blow compaction on
each face. Water content of 2.5% is needed to give
maximum dry density as determined from compaction
test over several water contents. Cement helps in
uniform distribution of bitumen emulsion and it
also provides initial strength gain. Greater amount
of cement makes the RAP brittle and susceptible to
cracking (22). The samples were cured at 60C for
two days to simulate long term curing before carrying
out tests. Procedure used for the determination of
modulus of BC mixes was used for the cold mix
INDIAN HIGHWAYS, April 2014

4.2

Indirect Tensile Strength Test

Compressive load was applied along a diametrical


plane through two opposite loading strips in the
resilient modulus test. This type of loading produces
a relatively uniform tensile stress which is
perpendicular to the applied load plane, and the
specimen usually fails by splitting along the loaded
plane. The test procedure is simple and the load
on the Marshall Specimens is applied at the rate of
50.8 mm/min at a temperature of 25C. Duration
of load and deformation values till breaking point
is recorded. The samples were cured in an oven for
2 days at 60C and then soaked in water for 24 hours
before the test. Results of Indirect Tensile Strength
(ITS) are shown in Fig. 6. Higher emulsion content
gave higher Indirect Tensile Strength. ITS values after
24 hours immersion in water are close to 215 kPa even
for 3% emulsion content, the minimum specified ITS
being 100 kPa for soaked samples recommended by
south African specification (22) while the minimum
ITS value recommended for unsoaked specimens are
225 kPa. Though ITS does not indicate the contribution
of higher amount of stone dust from consideration of
indirect tensile test reflected in Fig. 5 and 6, overall
17

TECHNICAL PAPERS
strength with higher amount of stone dust will be
higher under triaxial condition due to higher angle of
internal friction. ITS gives only the cohesion behaviour
of the mix. Tri-axial test on bitumen emulsion treated
RAP sample is desirable to determine contribution
of the angle of internal friction and cohesion to the
shear strength of the treated RAP. High shear strength
materials will undergo lower rutting.

than the minimum of 100 kPa recommended for


Marshall samples soaked for 24 hours.
5.

REFERENCES
1.

Amar Kumar, Kishore., Amaranatha Reddy, M and


Sudhakar Reddy, K (2007) . Investigation of Cold inPlace Recycled Mixes in India, International Journal of
Pavement Engineering, October.

2.

Report- Recycling work of Kolkata Municipal Corporation


Roads using Foamed Bitumen, Transportation Engineering
Section, IIT Kharagpur, 2010.

3.

Federal Highway Administration. (2001). Reclaimed


Asphalt Pavement User Guideline: Asphalt Concrete (Hot
Recycling). Web page on the Turner-Fairbanks Highway
Research Center. http://www.tfhrc.gov/hnr20/recycle/
waste/rap132.htm.

4.

Ziari, H and Khabiri M.M (2005), Effect of Bitumen and


RAP Content on Resilient Modulus of Asphalt Concrete,
Iran Science and Technology University, Tehran.

5.

Cosentino, P.J and Edward Kalajian, E (2003), Developing


Specifications for Using Recycled Asphalt Pavement
as Base, Subbase or General Fill Materials, Phase II of
Final Report, Florida Institute of Technology, Gainesville,
Florida.

6.

Clyne, T.R., Marasteanu, M.O and Arindam Basu, A(2003)


Evaluation of Asphalt Binders Used for Emulsions,
Minnesota Local Road Research Board, University of
Minnesota.

7.

Jacobson, T (2001), Cold Recycling of Asphalt Pavement


- Mix In Plant, Swedish National Road and Transport
Research Institute. Linkoping.

8.

Shen, J , Amirkhanian, S and Miller J. A ( 2007). Effects of


Rejuvenating Agents on Superpave Mixtures Containing
Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement, Journal of Materials in
Civil Engineering, Volume 19 , Issue 5,pp 376-384.

9.

Kandhal, P.S. Brown E.R., and Cross, S(1989). Guidelines


for Hot Mix Recycling in State of Georgia , Georgia
Department of Transportation

10.

h t t p : / / w w w. f h w a . d o t . g o v / p u b l i c a t i o n s / r e s e a r c h /
infrastructure/structures/97148/rap132.cfm

11.

Epps, J.A., Little, D.N., Holmgreen,R.J., Terrel R.L


and Ledbetter W.B (1980). Guidelines for Recycling
Pavement Materials, Transportation Research Record,
Transportation Research Board, USA.

12.

Asphalt Institute (1986)..Asphalt Hot-Mix Recycling,


Manual Series No.20, Second Edition, Lexington,
Kentucky.

Fig. 6 Effect of RAP on ITS Values of Base Course Material

CONCLUSIONS

From the evaluation of RAP mixes with different RAP


and virgin aggregates, the following conclusions can
be made.
1.

Up to 20% of RAP can be routinely used in BC


and DBM layers with VG30 bitumen.

2.

Computation as per MEPDG indicates that


the BC mixes with 20% RAP considered in
the investigation may give equal or a better
performance than a mix with fresh aggregates
and VG30 bitumen from considerations of
rutting, cracking and International roughness
index because of higher temperatures in plains
of India.

3.

4.

18

Indirect tensile test indicates that the resilient


moduli as well as indirect tensile strengths of
cold mixes are not affected by changing the
percentage of stone dust from 10% to 20% for
3% and 4% bitumen emulsion respectively.
RAP mixes containing 4% bitumen emulsion
have higher resilient moduli as well ITS than for
3% bitumen emulsion. All ITS values are higher

RAP can be completely used when used in both


hot and cold mixes.

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, April 2014

TECHNICAL PAPERS
19.

Zaniewski, J.P. and Pumphrey, M.E. (2004), Evaluation


of Performance Graded Asphalt Binder Equipment
and Testing Protocol, Asphalt Technology Program,
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering,
West Virginia.

20.

AASHTO T 315. (2009). Standard Method of Test for


Determining the Rheological Properties of Asphalt Binder
Using a Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR), American
Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials,
Washington, DC.

21.

Kim, Y., Lee, H. D and Heitzman M (2009), Dynamic


Modulus and Repeated Load Tests of Cold In-Place
Recycling Mixtures Using Foamed Asphalt, Journal of
Materials in Civil Engineering , Volume 22, Issue 1.

ASTM D 4123 (1982), Standard Test Method for Indirect


Tension Test for Resilient Modulus of Bituminous
Mixtures, Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Road and
Paving Materials, Philadelphia.

22.

Fu, P., Jones, D and Harvey, J.T, and Halles F. A(2009),


Investigation of the Curing Mechanism of Foamed
Asphalt Mixes Based on Micromechanics Principles,
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, Volume 21,
Issue 6.

TG 2 (2009),A guideline for the Design and Construction


of Bitumen Emulsion and Foamed Bitumen Stabilised
Materials, Asphalt Academy, CSIR Built Environment,
Pretoria.

23.

MEPDG- Guide for Mechanistic- Empirical Pavement


Design Guide for New and Rehabilitated Pavements
Structures (2004), NCHRP, Transportation Research
Board, USA.

24.

Kranthi Kumar K (2011). Evaluation of Design Input


Parameters for Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design,
M. Tech Thesis (Unpublished), IIT Kharagpur.

13.

Kim,Y. and Hosin David Lee (2005), Development of


Mix Design Procedure for Cold In-Place Recycling with
Foamed Asphalt, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering,
ASCE, Vol 18, Issue 1.

14.

Kim, Y., and Lee, H. (2007). Validation of New Mix


Design Procedure for Cold In-Place Recycling with
Foamed Asphalt., Journal of Material in Civil Engineering
Vol 19(11), ASCE, 10001010.

15.

16.

17.

18.

Kim,Y. and Lee H .D (2011). Influence of Reclaimed


Asphalt Pavement Temperature on Mix Design Process of
Cold In-Place Recycling Using Foamed Asphalt, Journal
of Materials in Civil Engineering , Volume 23, Issue 7.

ASTM D 2172 (2005) Standard Test Methods for


Quantitative Extraction of Bitumen from Bituminous
Paving Mixtures, ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor,
USA.

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, April 2014

19

IDENTIFICATION OF MASS TRANSIT CORRIDORS - A CASE


STUDY FOR HYDERABAD CITY
H.S. Sathish*, H.S. Jagadeesh**, R. Sathya Murthy**, Shruthi. S***, and Phaneendra. B***
ABSTRACT
Hyderabad is the capital of the State of Andhra Pradesh. Hyderabad
Metropolitan Area is the sixth largest metropolitan area in India.
Greater Hyderabad has an estimated metropolitan population
of 10 million, making it an A-1 status city. Hyderabad City is
experiencing rapid growth and transportation issues have assumed
critical importance.
The main objective of the study is to develop and validate an urban
transport model for the Hyderabad Urban Development Authority
(HUDA) area and to identify a Mass Transit corridor using the
software TRANSCAD 5.0.
An advantage of Trans CAD is that it fully integrates Geographic
Information System (GIS) and demand modeling capabilities
required for travel demand forecasting. The model focuses on
peak period conditions because these conditions include the
most important recurrent congestion period and tend to guide
transportation system design in the urban scenario. Peak period
models provide much more accurate indications of directional
travel patterns during design conditions than do daily models.
Year 2008 is considered as the base year. Transport network for
the study area comprising of the road network (major arterial and
some minor roads) was built. The data was collected through
inventory surveys. The travel demand for the study area was
estimated in terms of passenger trips by different modes.
The base year trip end models have been calibrated for total
passenger travel (internal) using the validated peak periods travel
patterns and using the planning variables of 2008.
The Multinomial log it model for mode choice has been calibrated
by using the disaggregate travel choice data derived from observed
modal share (revealed preference) with their respective travel
characteristics (Time and Cost) in the base year.
The calibrated models have been used together with projected land
use variables and networks to make the forecasts. The calibrated
and validated model along with future planning variables and
transport networks were used to predict the future travel demand
in the study area. Calibrated Trip End models were used to predict
the number of trips generated/attracted from/to each of the zones in
the study area. Under each of the land use and network scenarios,

Associate Professor

**

Professor

*** Former Postgraduate Students

20

Car, Two Wheeler, Auto and Public Transport matrices were


assigned on respective highway and transit networks iteratively
till the flows on the links stabilize. After each iteration the cost and
time skims were updated and were used to re-distribute the further
split of trips with respect to different modes. Once convergence
was reached the transit passenger ridership (Passengers Per Hour
Per Direction- PPHPD) figures were extracted on all the major
corridors. The corridors having high PPHPD and satisfy minimum
ridership for mass transit operation are selected as the Mass Transit
Corridors.

INTRODUCTION

1.1

General

Increase in migration to urban areas is a result of


inadequacies in employment opportunities, education
facilities in rural areas and the development of
employment opportunities in the urban areas. This
increase and spatial separation between employment
locations require adequate travel modes/systems
to satisfy the travel needs. This is indicated by the
exponential growth of motor vehicles in various States
of India.
Normally cities are provided with bus systems and
some cities have suburban rail system to satisfy the
travel needs of the society. The demand for these
modes of travel is always show increasing trends.
1.2 Scope
The main objective of the study is to demonstrate
the transport planning process by developing and
validating an urban transport model to identify Mass
Transit Corridors for the Hyderabad Urban Area. The
scope of the work includes:

Transportation Engineering and Management, Department of Civil Engineering,


BMS College of Engineering, Basavanagudi, Bangalore.

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, April 2014

TECHNICAL PAPERS

Review existing transportation and landuse data and past studies pertaining to the
Study area.

more in the west/south direction of Hyderabad. There


are three National Highways passing through the city.
They are:

Collect relevant secondary data required


for the Estimation and Projection of
traffic.

NH 9 (connecting Vijayawada in the east


and Mumbai in the west),

NH 7 (connecting Hyderabad in south


and Nagpur in north) and

NH 202 (connecting Hyderabad to


Warangal).

Conduct primary traffic surveys such


as Roadside Interview Survey, Traffic
Volume count, speed and delay survey,
limited household survey and road
network inventory survey.

Develop and validate Urban Transport


(Gravity) Model for the Study Area

Five State Highways namely SH1, SH2, SH4, SH5


and SH6 start from the city centre and diverge radially
connecting several towns and district headquarters
within the State in all directions.

Estimate directional passenger demand


on the identified transit corridors.

Identify Mass Transit Corridors and


Identify different Transit System
Alternatives.

2 STUDY AREA
Hyderabad is currently ranked as the sixth
largest urban agglomeration in the country. The
Hyderabad Urban Agglomeration (HUA) consists
of the Municipal Corporation of Hyderabad
(MCH), 12-peripheral municipalities, Secunderabad
Cantonment, Osmania University and other areas.
The total area of HUA is about 778 sq. kms, including
172 sq. kms. under Hyderabad Municipal corporation
Area and 419 sq. kms. under 12 Municipalities, and
187 sqkms of other areas.
2.1

Transport Characteristics

Hyderabad is experiencing rapid growth and


transportation issues have assumed critical importance.
Since the proportionate road length in the HUDA area
has been almost static, traffic congestion has increased
leading to endless transportation gridlocks
2.2

Road Network

Hyderabad has radial and circular form of road


network development. The recent growth trend is
INDIAN HIGHWAYS, April 2014

TRAFFIC CHARACTERISTICS

Major transportation issue faced is the numerous


commuters getting into the central core (MCH area)
from its hinterland through a high capacity radial
network with the low capacity carriageway in the
core area being unable to accept the influx of these
flows leading to traffic constrictions. The major areas
of trip attractions are identified for the analysis. Peak
hour flow on major travel corridor is more than 9000
passenger car units. The present average speed is just
12 km per hour and it is still likely to reduce if there
is no improvement in the situation. The high volume
corridors identified based on the surveys.
3.1 Public Transport System
Public Transport System (PTS) in Hyderabad is
primarily road-based bus transport, until the recent
addition of rail-based Multi Modal Transit System
(MMTS) train services in 2003. The current mode
share of public transport in the city of Hyderabad is
about 42% of the estimated 71 lakh person trips per
day. APSRTC buses capture about 98.3% of all the
trips made by public transport whereas MMTS serves
the remaining 1.7% of commuting passengers. The
total share of public transport is less than 44% against
the minimum desired 80%, as per the guidelines issued
by the Ministry of Urban Development, GoI in 1998.
Bus Transport.
21

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Currently, the city division of APSRTC has a fleet
size of 2,800 buses and operates 2,669 schedules per
day, making more than 36,000 trips across the city,
covering 7.1 lakh vehicle kilometers each day. While
the mode split of APSRTC is around 3.5%, the modal
split share caters to more than 42%. This is shown in
Fig. 1.

The fleet size and patronage for the past seven years
from 1995 to 2001 are given in Table 1. It can be
observed that the patronage of buses has remained
stable over the years even though the fleet size is
increased over the years. The important reason for
this could be deteriorating service especially in the
peak hours and a concomitant proliferation of seven
seated Para transit modes providing convenient
accessibility.
Table 1 Fleet and Number of Passengers Carried
Bus Occupancy No of Passengers
Fleet
Rate
Carried Per Day
in Millions

1995-96

2018

74

2.981

1996-97

2122

75

3.177

1997-98

2217

69

3.054

1998-99

2328

70

3.253

1999-2000

2425

63

3.05

2000-2001

2480

58

2.872

2001-2002

2605

59

3.068

Average Annual
growth (%)

4.3

22

The para-transit operators, mainly in the form of autorickshaws (3-seater and 7-seater) have mushroomed in
the recent years to capture the peak hour demand and
are emerging as unhealthy competitors to the APSRTC
buses. A total of 80,000 auto-rickshaws ply on the city
roads and cater to an estimated 10% of the 71 lakh
person trips each day. While a proper integration of
para-transit can actually complement the bus system,
this has not happened due to the much unorganized
nature of the sector with too many independent owners
of auto rickshaws. The high degree of maneuverability
of the auto rickshaws and frequent stopping on the
carriageway to serve the passengers have resulted in
the severe problem to smooth flow of road traffic in
the city.
3.3 Multi Modal Transport System (MMTS)

Fig. 1 Vehicle Type and Mode Share


(Source: APSRTC-2001)

Year

3.2 Para Transit

0.5

The local train operations in the city have been


introduced under the banner of MMTS in a limited
way as a joint venture between GoAP and Ministry
of Railways (MoR) in 2003. The current network
extends to about 50 kilometers with 26 stations,
served by 10 rakes. In spite of the severe demand for
faster public transport modes, MMTS train operates
very much below the actual carrying capacity and
cater to about 35,000 passenger trips per day. This is
primarily because of very low frequency of about 40 to
80 minutes (headway) between two successive days.
This is primarily because of very low frequency of
about 40 to 80 minutes (headway) between two
successive.
4

TRANSPORTATION
ANALYSIS

STUDIES

AND

The objective of the primary traffic surveys is to


obtain current demand on the transportation network
of the city, operating characteristics of the urban
transport systems, socio-economic profile of the
citys population, and characteristics of various
elements of urban transport. The following surveys
were undertaken to develop/update the traffic and
transportation data for the study: Inner and Outer
Cordon Survey, Road Side Interview, Speed & Delay,
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Road Network Inventory and Household Interview.
The standard survey formats for all the surveys
were used. The findings are detailed in the following
sections.
4.1

Traffic Studies

Traffic studies were conducted at 13 locations as


shown in Fig. 2 and summary is given in Table 2.
During eight hours of a normal day, a total of about
6,01,935 vehicles (about 6, 52,164 PCU) move in and
out through the cordon points. Of which Vijayawada
road carries highest volume of traffic equivalent to
72,967 PCU per eight hours of a normal day. In the
composition of traffic, the percent of two wheelers are
predominant on all the selected corridors followed by
auto rickshaws and cars as indicated in Fig. 3.

Fig. 3 Average Composition of Traffic

4.2

Peak Hour Traffic

ECIL X Road is carrying maximum peak hour


traffic of 12,219 PCU followed by 11,799 PCU
at Vijayawada Road and 10,945 PCU at Mumbai
road 2 and Mumbai road 3. The peak hour traffic for
the selected locations are given in Table 3.
Table 3 Peak Hour Traffic of all Survey Locations
Road Name

Fig. 2 Traffic Study Area

Table 2 Details of 8-Hour Traffic at Selected Locations


Sl. No.

Name of the Road

Total 8 hr Traffic
in PCU

Peak Hour

Peak Hour Peak Hour


Vehicles
PCU

Bollaram Road

6.00-7.00

2598

2624

Mumai Road 1

8.00-9.00

8293

8775

Bowenpally Road

5.30-6.30

5646

6633

Chikkadapally Road

4.00-5.00

9988

9745

Ecil X Road

4.30-5.30

8904

12219

Kaldikali X Road

8.15-9.15

4033

5646

Malakpet Road

9.15-10.15

8928

9480

8.00-9.00

9410

10580

Bollaram Road

12413

Medak Road

Mumbai Road 1

39856

Mumbai Road 2

5.00-6.00

10127

10945

Bowenpally Road

36819

Osman Sagar Road

9.15-10.15

7472

7406

Chikkadapally Road

50598

Panjagutta Road

8.00-9.00

10856

9947

Mumbai Road 3

5.00-6.00

10127

10945

Vijayawada Road

8.00-9.00

10634

11799

ECIL X Road

64493

Kaldikali X Road

27139

Mumbai Road 2

65403

4.3 Origin and Destination Survey

Osman Sagar Road

41295

Panjagutta Road

62445

10

Mumbai Road 3

65403

11

Vijayawada Road

72967

This survey was conducted to find-out the trip


pattern, trip frequency and trip purposes of the
Hyderabad city traffic thereby passenger travel pattern
is determined.

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, April 2014

23

TECHNICAL PAPERS
The zoning scheme has been designed based on the
municipal ward boundaries so that the zoning system is
in coherence with those adopted by the local planning
bodies and those by used the past studies. The zone
system of study area comprised of 85 internal zones
and 6 external zones outside Hyderabad city area,
making a total of 91 zones.
5

TRIP FREQUENCY

The average trip frequency distribution is as shown


in Fig. 4. Analysis of trip frequency shows that daily
Road Name
peak Hour
trips are more with 50% followed by multiple trips a
day and weekly trips having a frequency of 30% and
Bollaram Road
6.00-7.00
10% respectively.
Mumbai Road 1

Vehicles

pCu

2598

2624

8293

8775

Fig. 5 Purpose Wise Distribution of Trips

5.30-6.30

5646

Chikkadapally Road

4.00-5.00

9988

ECIL X Road

4.30-5.30

8904
Vehicle Type12219

Kaldikali X Road

8.15-9.15

4033
Truck

5646

1.5

Malakpet Road

9.15-10.15

8928
MAV

9480

3.9

Medak Road

8.00-9.00

9410
LCV

10580

1.0

Mumbai Road 2

5.00-6.00

10127
Car

10945

3.2

Osman sagar Road

9.15-10.15

7472
Auto-rikshaw

7406

3.6

Panjagutta Road

8.00-9.00

Two
wheelers
10856

9949

1.5

Mumbai Road 3

5.00-6.00

Bus
10127

10945

62

Vijayawada Road

8.00-9.00

10634

11799

JOURNEY PURPOSE

Analysis of purpose of trips revealed that the average


work trips are 42% followed by Business trips 37%
and other trips with 13%. The average journey purpose
distribution is as shown in Fig.5.
7 OCCUPANCY RATE
The average occupancy rates of various modes are as
shown in Table 4. The occupancy of car, auto and two
wheelers is 3.2, 3.6, 1.5 and bus 62 respectively.
24

peak Hour

Bowenpally Road

Fig. 4 Trip Frequency

8.00-9.00

peak Hour

6633

Table 9745
4 Occupancy Rate

Avg. Occupancy

8 SPEED AND DELAY SURVEY


The purpose of this survey is to evaluate the existing
speeds on the network and to use the data in the
calibration of the speed flow curves. The data is used
in developing the speed flow relationships in building
the Transport Model and to validate journey speeds
predicted by the transport model.The surveys were
conducted during peak and off-peak hours on any
normal day on selected major corridors. The delays
and corresponding causative factors at intersections/
major activity centers etc. were collected to identify
major bottlenecks on the road.
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9

ROAD
SURVEY

NETWORK

INVENTORY

A database on the road features is collected by


inventorying selected roads in the study area.
The database is used in developing the base year
network facilitating both qualitative and quantitative
evaluation of the present sufficiency of road networks
vis--vis existing standards and usage pattern.
The following data were collected during the field
inventory survey: Effective Road width, No of
lanes, Availability of median, shoulder etc. and
Encroachments along the city roads. Based on the
cross sectional measurements taken at 30 locations
on the road network. About 42% of the primary road
length has carriage way width between 21.0-28.0 m
and 50% of the secondary road length has carriage
way width between 5.5-7.0 m. Classifying these
roads by type of the carriage way, it is observed
that 85% of the primary road network have divided
carriageway, out of which most of the roads are 6 lane
divided carriageway. About 98% of the secondary
road network have undivided carriage way, from
which most of the roads are 2 lane undivided carriage
way.
10 SUMMARY OF HHI SURVEY FINDINGS

Table 5 Summary of HHI Survey


Parameters

Year 2006

No. of households for HHI

1000

Average family size

3.25

Per capita trip rate


PCTR(all)

0.963

PCTR(motorized)

0.827

Household monthly income in Rs.

9060

Average vehicle ownership/HH


Two wheeler

1.4

Car

0.54
Mode distribution (%)

Walk

10.2

Pedal Cycle/Pillion Rider

2.1

Scooter/mc

35.3

Public transport

42.3

Car/van/jeep

4.5

Auto

5.6

Travel Demand model can be used for testing


different scenarios before implementing the projects.
For example, one can see the impact of adding mass
transport like BRT. Similarly impact on transportation
network due to changes in the land use patterns can
be analyzed. The broad framework for the transport
modeling for Hyderabad city is given in the Fig. 6.

The figure on various planning parameters in respect


of the city as per the survey are given in Table 5.
11 BASE YEAR MODEL DEVELOPMENT
11.1 Introduction
A travel Demand model for Hyderabad has been
calibrated for evaluating existing travel conditions
and forecasting future travel demand. The model
analyzes the present and future land use patterns
to estimate the origins and destinations of trips. It
then assigns these trips to different travel routes and
travel modes based on the type and quality of the
transportation network.
INDIAN HIGHWAYS, April 2014

Fig. 6 Framework for Transport Modeling

Several software programs are available for developing


travel demand models. The Hyderabad transport model
25

TECHNICAL PAPERS
has been developed using Trans CAD (a state-of-theart Travel Demand Modeling software).

Non-Motorized Transport and Commercial vehicles


were considered as a Preload.

11.2 Model Structure

11.5 Network Development

The model is based on a conventional 4-stage


transport model approach. Once the model is
calibrated, it can be used to predict the future travel
patterns under different land use transport scenarios.
The model is responsive to:

Transport network developed for the model comprises


of two components: Highway Network for vehicles
and Transit Network for public transport system i.e.
buses, rail and any new public transportation system.
Each of the networks is described in detail below.

11.6 Highway Network

Street congestion, travel costs, availability


of competing transport modes including
other Public Transport systems and the
growth of the city.
Generalized costs that include out of
pocket costs i.e. fare, vehicle operating
cost etc. and perceived user costs such as
value of travel time, cost of waiting time
for transit etc.

The model focuses on morning journey to work


peak period conditions. Peak period models provide
much more accurate indications of directional travel
patterns during design conditions than do daily
models. However, the daily traffic forecasts can be
estimated using peak-to-day expansion factor which
is obtained from the traffic survey. From the surveys
it was observed that the city morning peak hour is
during 8.00 AM to 9.00 AM. So the model was built
for this duration.

The coded highway network for the study area


represents the nodes (intersections), linkages between
them and characteristics of the street and highway
system in order to support estimation of traffic
volumes, speeds and vehicle travel times on individual
links of the system plus zone-to-zone travel times. The
road network was properly connected to all the zone
centroids by means of centroid connectors. Study area
Zoning Map shown in Fig. 7.

11.3 Planning Period


The year 2008 is taken as the base year. Demand
forecasting on the network and on any proposed
mass transit system is required over a 25 year period.
In order to analyze the travel demand in the study
area and estimate the likely traffic patronage on any
proposed system, all relevant data have been collated
for the base year 2008, the horizon year 2031 and the
two intermediate years (2011 & 2021).
11.4 Modes
The modes that are modeled in the study include two
wheeler, car, auto rickshaw and public transport. The
26

Fig. 7 Study Area Zoning Map

The BPR (Bureau of Public Roads) formulation is


used as link performance function. The BPR function,
given below, relates link travel time and the volume/
capacity ratio:

t = tf [1 + (V/C)]

... 1

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TECHNICAL PAPERS
Where,

= Congested link travel time,

t f

= Link free-flow travel time,

= Link volume,

= Link capacity,

, = Calibration parameters

12

TRANSIT NETWORK

lines adopted for the study area. Table 7 gives the


comparison of assigned flows with the traffic volume
observed on the road. Fig. 8 shows the desire line
diagram for the study area.
Table 6 Summary of Estimated Base Year
(2008, Peak Hour Travel Demand
Sl. No

The transit network represents the connectivity, head


ways, speeds and accessibility of transit services.
Hyderabads bus transport system is included in
the models transit network. The transit routes are
specified as those using the transport links and having
stops/stations at determined locations. The access to
the stops/stations from zone centroids and other nodes
is provided either by existing highway links or by
defining exclusive walk links. About 120 bus routes
are operated in the study area. Information on the
same was collected and coded in to the system. Fare
structure and frequency for each of these services are
also included.
13 BASE YEAR TRAVEL (2008) PATTERN

Mode

Internal
Trips

External
Trips

Total
Trips

T/W
Passengers

194377

36772

231149

Car
Passengers

52654

5063

57717

Auto
Passengers

35795

3322

39117

Public Transit
Passengers

299358

13668

313025

Table 7 Results of Observed OD Validation


on Screen Lines
Mode

Hyderabad
Observed

Assigned

% Difference

T/W

30932

32427

-5%

CAR

20341

19199

6%

AUTO

18153

16738

8%

PT (Buses)

10094

11120

10%

We have synthetic trips using trip distribution and mode


choice models from past studies. The trip matrices
are significantly updated using fresh household
survey and roadside interview. The external trips for
the car, two wheeler, auto and public transport were
constructed based on the O-D survey conducted at
the outer cordon. The trip matrices thus derived were
then compared with the per capita trip rate for study
area derived from the household interview data. The
results of the travel demand estimation for base year
and trip rate analysis is summarized in the Table 6.
Fig. 8 Desire Line Diagram

14

ASSIGNMENT AND
VALIDATION

OBSERVED

O-D

These mode-wise base matrices were assigned on the


network. The assigned volume on the network was
compared with the observed volume on the screen
INDIAN HIGHWAYS, April 2014

15 BASE YEAR RESULTS


The traffic characteristics of the study area in terms of
average network speed, volume to capacity ratio, etc.
are given in Table 8.
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TECHNICAL PAPERS
Table 8 Traffic Characteristics

collated from the base year mode-wise matrices in the


form of total trips produced from and attracted to the
85 internal zones during peak period.

The volume to capacity ratio for the selected corridors,


average journey speed and the passengers per hour per
direction (all modes) are presented in Table 9.
Table 9 Traffic Characteristics of the
Selected Corridors
Sl. No.

Corridor

PPHPD V/C

Speed
(kmph)

BHEL to Kukatpally

38515

1.9

18

Kukatpally to Koti

75320

1.8

21

Nehru zoological park


road to Koti

41665

1.4

22

Koti to Secunderabad
Railway station

60067

1.1

18

Narayanaguda to
Tarnaka

54835

1.06

26

Panjagutta to
Mehdipatnam

66480

1.2

22

Tank bund road

76330

1.63

19

16

CALIBRATION

16.1 Trip Generation


Mode-wise trips, the total trips by all modes were
modeled. Therefore, in order to forecast the total
volume of trips in future more reliably, the base year
mode-wise trips were combined together and total
trips by all modes were modeled using the planning
variables. The total trip ends of the peak period were
28

The zonal planning variables i.e. population and


employment of base year (2008) were used to generate
the trip end models using Multiple Regression Analysis.
In order to understand the capability of these variables
in explaining the travel pattern, first a correlation
matrix between independent (zonal planning variables)
and dependent (trip ends) variables was prepared. It
was observed from the matrix that total employment
was significantly correlated to trip attractions, while
the zonal population has high correlation with trip
production.
On the basis of goodness of fit as represented by the
R2 values, F-test values, and t-test values were tested
for their significance and found to be significant at the
desired confidence.

Fij = aCbij ecCi-j

... 2

Where,

a, b and c are the calibration function and C is


the generalized cost of travel between zones.

The parameters for the deterrence function, an


empirically derived travel time factor which expresses
the average area-wide effect of spatial separation on
trip interchange between zones i and j were calibrated.
It was found that the combined Gamma function fitted
best forthe study area. The calibrated parameters
for the deterrence function (Gamma Function) are
provided in the Table 10 below.
Table 10 Calibrated Parameters for Deterrence
Function

a
1.4357

b
-0.7282

c
0.0557

17 MODE CHOICE
A multinomial mode choice model of the form shown
below is calibrated in order to split the trips among
the modes, public transport, car, and two-wheeler
and auto rickshaw. The public transport assignment
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TECHNICAL PAPERS
module shall achieve the modal split among the
public-transport modes i.e., Bus, and Rail. Utility
functions (VM) for each mode were calibrated using
the disaggregate person trip and mode choice data
derived from the observed o-d, travel time and travel
cost for each individual.

VM = TTM + TCM

... 3

Where,

TTM - Travel Time by Mode M

TCM - Travel Cost by Mode M

and are modal calibration parameters

The information on the alternate modes, i.e., travel


time and travel cost, available to user, was generated
from the time and cost skims obtained in public
transport and highway assignment procedures. The
calibrated parameters are given in Table 11.
Table 11 Calibrated Mode Choice Parameters

Mode
Two Wheeler
Car
Auto
Public
Transport

0.028827
-0.007659
0.008080
0.013137

-0.039631
-00011820
-0.0059658
0.046076

18

The strategic Urban Travel Demand Model


developed under this study is used to predict the travel
patterns and modal shares in the horizon year i.e.
2031 under respective land-use and transport network
scenarios.
Trip End models have been used to predict the number
of trips generated from and attracted to each of the
zones in the study area. Projected trip ends along with
the network options in the future were provided as
inputs to the distribution and modal split models to
arrive at future trip matrices for Car, Two Wheeler,
Auto-rickshaw and Public Transport.
18.1 Horizon Year Land-Use Scenario
The projected population and employment for 2011,
2021 and 2031 were used for estimating trip ends
in the corresponding years. The population and
employment projections are given in Table 13 and
Table 14 respectively.
Table 13 Projected Employment in the Study Area
Name of the
Area

17.1 Validation- Average Trip Length


To assure the reliability of the model, the average trip
length by mode from the model is compared with the
results obtained from the Household interview survey.
It was observed that the average trip length from the
model is closely matching with House hold interview
survey. Table 12 presents the comparison of average
trip length obtained from the model and the House
Hold Survey.

HUDA

Mode
PV
PT

Model
9.34
11.40

Household Survey
9.01
10.98

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, April 2014

Projected Employment in the


Study Area (Lahks)
2007

2011

2021

2031

27.696

28.775

40.941

55.123

Table 14 Projected Employment in the Study Area


Name of the
Area

HUDA

19
Table 12 Mode wise Trip Length

TRAVEL DEMAND FORECAST

Projected Employment in the


Study Area (Lahks)
2007

2011

2021

2031

74.028

76.912

102.085

120.928

TRAFFIC FORECAST
NOTHING SCENARIO

UNDER

DO-

The summary of the projected peak hour passenger


travel demand in the study area and the corresponding
modal share are given in Table 15.
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Table 15 Traffic Characteristics
Trips assigned (Peak hour),
PCU
Trips assigned-TW (Peak hour),
PCU
Trips assigned-Car (Peak hour)
PCU
Trips assigned Auto (Peak hour),
PCU
Trips assigned-PT (Peak hour)
PCU
Average Network Speed

Table 17 Major Road Traffic Forecasts 2031- Do


Nothing Scenario

: 582184

Sl. No.

Corridor

BHEL to Kukatpally

65090

3.9

Kukatpally to Koti

113733

3.6

12

Nehru Zoological
Park Road to Koti

68747

2.9

14

: 299358 (51%)

Koti to Secunderabad
Railway station

83493

4.6

10

: 19 kmph

Narayanaguda to
Tarnaka

86639

2.6

Panjagutta to
Mehdipatnam

108362

4.1

11

Tank Bund Road

110679

3.6

: 194377 (33%)
: 52654 (9%)
: 35795 (6%)

The traffic characteristics of the study area are


extracted from the model in terms of average network
speed, volume to capacity ratio, etc. and the volume
to capacity ratio for the major roads; average journey
speed and the passengers per hour per direction
(All modes) are presented in Table 16 and 17
respectively.
Table 16 Summary of Forecast of Peak Hour
Passenger Demand
Year

Mode

2011 Two Wheeler

40449

38%

Car

64050

7088

10%

Auto

42596

4153

7%

Public
Transport

281160

16402

45%

Total

625891

68092

100%

385133

52584

41%

Car

109512

10278

12%

Auto

81354

5398

9%

Public
Transport

364476

19846

39%

Total

940475

88106

100%

525569

68359

42%

Car

183361

14903

15%

Auto

133319

7018

11%

Public
Transport

395602

24014

Total

1237852

114293

2031 Two Wheeler

30

Internal External Percentage


238085

2021 Two Wheeler

PPHPD V/C

Speed
(kmph)

19.1 Choice of Corridor


While selecting the corridors, the following issues were
considered: Better Access to land-use, Connectivity to
prime areas and other transport modes, User benefits
like saving on fuel, Minimal travel time, and Minimal
land acquisition, Minimal conflict with existing
and proposed structure and Better integration with
proposed developments.
19.2 Ridership Forecast
The carrying capacities expressed in terms of
PPHPD, on the sections of major corridors based on
traffic forecast from the Trans CAD model are given
in the Table 18 below:
Table 18 Ridership (PPHPD) Forecast
No.

Corridor

2011

2021

2031
65090

BHEL to Kukatpally

41981

53536

Kukatpally to Koti

80330

97032 113733

Nehru zoological park


road to Koti

45197

56972

68747

Koti to Secunderabad
Railway station

63123

73308

83493

Narayanaguda to
Tarnaka

58983

72811

86639

32%

Panjagutta to
Mehdipatnam

71943

90152 108362

100%

Tank bund road

80810

95744 110679

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, April 2014

TECHNICAL PAPERS
The numbers are based on the normal scenario and
indicate that a mass transit system facility is needed.
However, with a policy intervention, according due
allocation of anticipated trips with a greater share for
mass transport modes as suggested in the National
urban transport Policy, the PPHPD on the identified
corridorsare estimated as shown in the Table 18.
20

The mode-wise average trip length from the


model is compared with theresults obtained
from the Household Interview Survey in order
to assure the reliability of the model. It was
observed that the average trip length from the
model is closely matching with House hold
interview survey.

Traffic Characteristics such as PPHPD, V/C


ratio and Speed (kmph) of major road network
for the base year (2008) and the horizon year
(2031) are presented.

The summary of the projected peak hour


passenger travel demand in the study area
and the corresponding modal share is given in
Table 15.

The current public transport captures about


50% of the total trips. Whereas in the horizon
year 2031 public transport captures about 32%
of the total trips. This is due to the increase of
private vehicle trips (Cars and Two Wheelers).

In the absence of a mass transport system


traffic congestion and mobility will continue to
deteriorate over the years.

The identified Mass Transit Corridors are shown


in Table 3. The ridership forecast in terms of
PPHPD is presented in Table 18.

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

20.1 Discussion

By the year 2031 Hyderabad city is projected


to have a population of about 12.1 million with
employment of 5.5 million. This translates into
a travel demand of approximately 12.37 lakhs
trips during peak hours of the day.

It is observed that Two Wheelers contributes


about 30% followed by Auto rickshaws with
19% and Cars with 17% during peak hour.

V/C ratio on all the major roads in Hyderabad


City exceeds 1.0 indicating traffic congestion,
low speed and high delays. The average network
speed in the base year (2008) and Horizon
Year (2031) under the Do-Nothing Scenario is
19kmph and 10kmph respectively.

The analysis of the Household Interview Survey


indicates that average family size of Hyderabad
City is 3.25, the overall Per Capita Trip Rate
(PCTR) is 0.963 and the motorized Per Capita
Trip Rate (PCTR) is 0.827.

Following conclusions
discussions:

can

be

drawn

from

The comparison of assigned flows with the


traffic volume observed on selected road and
difference in vehicle-wise PCU at the screenline
was observed to be within the acceptable range
of 15%.

i.

The calibrated Urban Travel Demand


Model can be used to predict the traffic
and transport supplies in the horizon
years in the study area.

ii.

There exist a linear relationship between


Population and Trip Production and Trip
Attraction. The co-efficient of correlation R2
value was found to be 0.629 for Trip Production
and 0.538 for Trip Attraction.

Thereexist a linear relationship between


Population and Trip Production and Trip
Attraction. Hence there exist reasonably
good correlation between dependent and
independent variables.

The base desire lines connecting the origin


points with the destinations are shown in Fig.8.
The widths of these desire lines are proportional
to the number of trips in both the directions
during the peak hour.

iii.

Calibrated Trip End Models can be used


for forecasting the travel characteristics
in the study area as well as to understand
the impact of any proposed improvements
and Mass Transit System in the study
area.

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, April 2014

31

TECHNICAL PAPERS

iv.

The maximum Peak Passenger Hourly


Volume Per Direction (PPHPD) on the
identified transit corridors is in the range
model with Table 3 it can be concluded of
30,000 to 80,000. Hence by comparing the
PPHPD obtained from travel demand that
all the seven identified transit corridors
warrant a Mass Transit System.

REFERENCES
1.

Kadiyali L.R, (2002), Traffic Engineering and Transport


Planning, Third Edition, Khanna Publishers, New Delhi.

2.

Khanna S.K. and Justo C.E.G, (2007) Highway


Engineering, Eight Edition, Nem Chand & Bros,
Roorkee.

3.

Syed Anisuddin, (1998), Mass Transit System Planning


And Scheduling For An Identified Corridor Incorporating
On-Line Congestion Effects Through Optimization
Techniques, October, Department of Civil Engineering,
Regional Engineering College, Warangal, (Un Published
PhD Thisis).

4.

32

John Bates, (2008), History of Demand Modelling,


Handbook of Transport Modelling, Vol.1, Elsevier.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.
11.
12.

Papacostas, C.S. and Prevedouros, (2001), Transportation


Engineering and Planning, University of Hawaii, Third
Edition, Prentice Hall.
Edward A. Beimborn, (2006), Inside the Black box,
Making Transportation Models Work for Livable
Communities, Center for Urban Transportation Studies
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, June.
Prem Pangotra and Somesh Sharma, (2006), Modeling
Travel Demand for Metropolitan City, http://www.
iimahd.ernet.in/assets/snippets/workingpaperpdf/200603-06pangotra.pdf.
Markus Friedrich, (2004), Prospects of Transportation
Modelling, Proceedings of 2nd International Symposium
Networks for Mobility, Stuttgart, University Stuttgart.
Chandra R. Bhatet al, (2007), Passenger Travel Demand
Forecasting, A1C02: Committee on Passenger Travel
Demand Forecasting, TRB.
City Development Plan, Jawaharlal Nehru National
Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM), (2006), Municipal
Corporation of Hyderabad.
Wilbur Smith Associates, (2008), Study on Traffic and
Transportation Policies and Strategies in Urban Areas in
India, Ministry of Urban Development India.
Wilbur Smith Associates, (2007) Comprehensive Traffic
and Transportation Study for the Town of Nellore,
Andhra Pradesh Urban Services for the Poor (APUSP).

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, April 2014

LABORATORY EVALUATION FOR THE USE OF MOORUM AND


GANGA SAND IN WET MIX MACADAM UNBOUND BASE COURSE
G.D. Ransinchung R.N*, Praveen Kumar**, Brind Kumar***, Aditya Kumar Anupam****
and Arun Prakash Chauhan*****
ABSTRACT
Moorum is fragmented weathered rock naturally occurring with
varying proportions of silt and clay. It is considered as a low
grade marginal material for road construction by codes and has
generally low bearing capacity and high water absorption value
in comparison to conventional aggregates. It finds application
in the construction of Water Bound Macadam as binders at such
locations where it abundantly available within short hauling
distances. Quality of moorum varies significantly from one
location to another in terms of its crushing and impact value,
grain size, clay and deleterious content. Sukrut in Sonebhadra
district of Uttar Pradesh has abundant good quality moorum.
This gravelly material has been found to be well graded and has
CBR value of 40%, ten percent fines value of 56 kN, crushing
and impact values were less than 30%. Ganga sand is locally
available fine sand at Varanasi. Therefore, the present work seeks
to study the suitability of using moorum and local Ganga sand by
part replacing the stone dust proportion of conventional Wet Mix
Macadam (WMM) mix. Secondly, ordinary Portland cement was
used as stabilizer with moorum in proportions varying from 3% to
9% to study its suitability as WMM layer. A total of seven WMM
mix proportions were considered including the conventional mix.
Results show that incorporation of Ganga sand to replace 20%
proportion of stone dust of conventional WMM mix was found
to improve the CBR value from 121% for conventional mix to
169%. This was while the same level of replacement with moorum
had decreased the CBR value of WMM mix to a value of 94%.
However, when moorum was used with OPC in incremental rate
of 3%, significant increase was observed for dry density, CBR and
unconfined compressive strength. This was achieved at the cost of
loss of permeability of the mix. Moorum admixed with 3% OPC
is preferable on account of being comparable to the conventional
WMM mix in terms of CBR value, retaining its permeability
and affording maximum cost savings. Cost comparisons show
significant savings on admixing as compared to the conventional
WMM mix.

INTRODUCTION

Most developing countries are witnessing a steep


rise in consumption of aggregates to support their
*

Asstt. Professor, E-mail: gdranfce@iitr.ernet.in

**

Professor, E-mail: pkaerfce@iitr.ernet.in

road construction activities. Demand of good quality


crushed aggregates is on a continuous rise against
the backdrop of its ever rising costs and depleting
availability. Newer quarries are continuously being
established with increasing lead distances from the
consumption points under growing environmental
concerns. Locally available materials with abundant
availability at cheaper cost may help tide over the
situation. Material engineers of the highway industry
are continuously looking for such alternative materials
that may substitute the use of conventional aggregates
without compromising on strength and durability
while causing a reduction in the construction costs.
The unbound granular base is a structural component
of the flexible pavement that plays an important role
in imparting stability and durability to the upper layers
[Darter & Von Quintus, 1997]. It plays a major role in
spreading the wheel loads incident on the surface in
a manner that the stresses transmitted to the sub-base
and sub-grade do not exceed their bearing capacity
[Zagreb, 1989; Brandl, 1977]. A well-designed and
constructed base increases the foundation support,
helps reduce stresses and improves load transfer. All
these leads to a significant reduction in the cracking
and faulting potential of the pavement [Barber &
Sawyer, 1952]. Construction of a permeable base
rapidly removes water from the pavement structure
[US Corps Engineering Manual EM1110-2-1906,
1970].
India faces an increasingly urgent need for building
and expanding its road infrastructure at the earliest.
The increasing gap between the supply and demand
of conventional good quality crushed aggregates

Department of Civil Engineering, IIT-Roorkee

*** Asstt. Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT-BHU, Varanasi, E-mail: kumar_brind.civ@itbhu.ac.in
**** Ph.D. Scholar, E-mail: addiknit03@gmail.com
***** M.Tech. Student, E-mail: arunppce@iitr.ernet.in

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, April 2014

Department of Civil Engineering, IIT-Roorkee

33

TECHNICAL PAPERS
is already evident. A maximization of alternate
sustainable materials as partial replacement of
conventional crushed aggregates would play a vital
role not only in achieving the quantity requirements for
speedy construction, but also significant improvements
in quality and economy under sustained scientific
innovations. The demand for construction aggregates
in India was 1.1 billion metric tons in 2006, making
the country the third biggest aggregates market in
the Asia-Pacific region and fourth largest market
in the world after China, the US and Japan (www.
freedoniagroup.com, 2007). Considering the highway
sector alone, about 15,000 tonnes of aggregates are
required per kilometer (www.equipmentIndia.com).
Moorum is fragmented weathered rock naturally
occurring with varying proportions of silt and clay. It
is considered as a low grade marginal material for road
construction by codes. It has generally low bearing
capacity and high water absorption value in comparison
to conventional aggregates. It finds application in the
construction of Water Bound Macadam as binders at
such locations where the same is abundantly available
in short hauling distances. Quality of moorum varies
significantly from one location to another in terms
of its crushing and impact value, grain size, clay
and deleterious content. Its application in Wet Mix
Macadam (WMM) unbound base course becomes a
matter of study for its eventual use.

Pradesh in India. It seeks to study the suitability of


using moorum and local Ganga sand by part replacing
the stone dust proportion of conventional Wet Mix
Macadam (WMM) mix as per the specifications set
out in the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways
(MoRT&H), IV Revision, envisaging comparable
material quality and overall reduction in construction
cost. Secondly, Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) was
used as stabilizer with moorum in proportions varying
from 3% to 9% to study its suitability as WMM
layer.
2 MATERIALS USED
2.1 Moorum
Moorum was collected from Sukrut in Sonebhadhra
district of Uttar Pradesh. This quarry is located at a
distance of about 40 km from Varanasi on VaranasiShaktinagar road. Its physical properties are shown in
Table 1.
Table 1 Physical Properties of Moorum
Physical Properties
Aggregate crushing value, %

28.0

Aggregate impact value, %

27.0

Specific gravity (IS:2720, Part-3)


20 mm

2.617

10 mm

2.620

Secondly, stone dust is gradually becoming costlier


due to consistent rise in its demand. Its application is
necessary to achieve the desired gradation of WMM
as per MoRT&H (IV Revision). Several attempts have
been made earlier to substitute or partially replace the
same with other similar type of material. Local sand
is also a fine material and studies are necessary to
determine its potential for replacing stone dust.

Water absorption (IS:2720, Part-2), %

The present laboratory investigation was conducted


with a view to evaluate Ganga sand and moorum
being abundantly available and cheap local material
in and around Varanasi district of the state of Uttar
34

Results

20 mm

2.890

10 mm

3.896

Ten percent fines value (BS:812, Part-111), kN

56

Liquid limit (IS:2720, Part-5), %

35

Plastic limit (IS:2720, Part-5), %

25

Plasticity index (IS:2720, Part-5), %

10

Maximum dry density (IS:2720, Part-8), g/cc

2.1

Optimum moisture content (IS:2720, Part-8), %

8.05

Coefficient of permeability (k) (IS:2720, Part-17), 1.24x103


cm/sec
California bearing ratio (IS:2720, Part-16), %

40

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, April 2014

TECHNICAL PAPERS
2.2

Ganga Sand

2.4 Ordinary Portland Cement

Local Ganga sand collected from Varanasi having


fineness modulus of 1.95 was used. Its physical
properties are presented in Table 2.

Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) 43 grade conforming


to IS:8112 was used as a stabilizer. Its specific gravity
was 3.13.

Table 2 Physical Properties of Ganga Sand at Varanasi

3
Physical Properties

Results

WMM
MIX
PROPORTIONS
LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS

AND

Grain size distribution (IS:2720, Part-4)


Gravel, %

--

Sand, %

65.00

Silt, %

30.00

Clay, %

5.00

Specific gravity (IS:2720, Part-3)

3.02

Water absorption (IS:2720, Part-2), %

1.06

Plasticity index (IS:2720, Part-5), %

Non-plastic

California bearing ratio (IS:2720, Part-16), %

2.3

80.0

Crushed Stone Aggregates and Stone Dust

Crushed stone aggregates and stone dust were collected


from Dalla in Sonebhadhra district of Uttar Pradesh.
Its lead from Varanasi is about 125 km. Their physical
properties are shown in Table 3.
Table 3 Physical Properties of Crushed
Aggregates and Stone Dust
Physical Properties

Crushed Aggregates
40 mm 20 mm 10 mm
NMAS NMAS NMAS

Specific gravity as per


IS:2386 (Part-3)

2.698

2.672

2.615

Stone
Dust

2.600

Aggregate crushing value


as per IS:2386 (Part-4), %

18

Aggregate impact value as


per IS:2386 (Part-4), %

16

Combined flakiness and


elongation indices as per
IS:2386 (Part-4), %

35

Los Angeles abrasion value


as per IS:2386 (Part-4), %

17

18

21

0.75

0.80

0.90

1.10

Water absorption as per


IS:2386 (Part-3), %

38

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, April 2014

45

As outlined in the objectives, the study entails


evaluation of abundantly available and cheap local
material like Ganga sand and moorum in and around
Varanasi for partial replacement of conventional
crushed aggregates and stone dust for construction of
Wet Mix Macadam (WMM) unbound base course as
per MoRT&H specifications (IV revision). In order
to achieve this, relevant laboratory investigations
like grain size analysis (IS:2720, Part-4), Proctors
modified compaction (IS:2720, Part-8), permeability
(IS:2720, Part-36), California Bearing Ratio (CBR)
(IS:2720, Part-16) and unconfined compressive
strength (UCC) (IS:4332, Part-5 and IS:9143) were
conducted on seven set of WMM mix proportions as
shown in Table 4.
The referral mix (M1) comprised of 40 mm,
20 mm, 10 mm crushed stone aggregates and stone
dust proportioned at 24%, 16%, 32% and 28%
respectively by weight of total mix so as to
conform within the grading limits of MoRT&H
(IV revision), Section 406. 20% by weight of
total mix of stone dust proportion of the referral
mix was replaced once with Ganga sand for the mix
designation M2, and next with moorum for mix
designation M3.
Another set of mixes were prepared using 100%
moorum for mix designation M4. OPC as stabilizer
was used to replace moorum at 3%, 6% and 9% by
weight for the mix designations M5, M6 and M7
respectively.
35

TECHNICAL PAPERS
Table 4 Proportioning of WMM Mix Designations
Mix
Designation

Percentage by Weight of
40 mm NMAS

20 mm NMAS

10 mm NMAS

Stone Dust

Ganga Sand

Moorum

OPC

M1

24

16

32

28

M2

24

16

32

20

M3

24

16

32

20
(< 9.5 mm)

M4

100

M5

97

M6

94

M7

91

Three set of moulds were prepared for each mix


designation for Proctors test, permeability test, CBR
and UCC tests. The tests were conducted as per the
relevant standard specifications in the laboratory. For
mix designations M1, M2, M3 and M4 the specimen
were cast at respective OMC and tested. For mix
designations M5, M6 and M7 the specimen were cast
at OMC and left 7 days for curing prior to test. Curing
was done to complete the stabilizing action of OPC by
placing the specimen in humid curing chamber.
4

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

4.1

Grain Size of WMM Mixes

Grain size analysis of WMM mixes were evaluated


with respect to the gradations specified in Section
406 of MoRT&H (IV Revision). All the mixes

were proportioned in a manner that their combined


gradations were close to the mid-gradation. Efforts
were also made to incorporate Ganga sand and
moorum to the maximum extent possible in the mix.
The results are shown in Table 5 and their gradation
envelope is shown in Fig. 1. The referral mix M1
mostly follows the mid gradation of the grading limits.
The same trend was observed for mix designations
M2 and M3 wherein the stone dust proportion was
partially replaced by Ganga sand and moorum
respectively. Combined gradation of mix designation
M2 utilising 20% Ganga sand and 8% stone dust was
arguably closer to the mid-gradation as compared to
the referral mix (M1). Mix designation M3 using 20%
moorum and 8% stone dust had combined gradation
marginally coarser than the referral mix (M1).

Table 5 Achieved Gradations of WMM Mixes with Respect to MoRT&H, IV Revision, (% Passing)

IS Sieve
(mm)

Gradation
Limits

M1

M2

M3

M4

M5

M6

M7

53

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

45

95-100

98.96

98.96

98.96

100

100

100

100

22.4

60-80

76.00

76.00

76.00

95.0

95.0

95.0

95.0

11.2

40-60

54.56

57.04

54.56

67.7

67.7

67.7

67.7

4.75

25-40

27.80

26.95

27.95

27.8

27.8

27.8

27.8

2.36

15-30

21.64

24.31

19.49

18.6

18.6

18.6

18.6

0.6

8-22

14.22

17.95

11.19

10.1

10.1

10.1

10.1

0.075

0-8

0.89

1.32

0.79

0.80

0.80

0.80

0.80

36

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, April 2014

TECHNICAL PAPERS

Fig. 1 Grain Size Distribution of WMM Mix Designations

Fig. 2 MDD and OMC of WMM Mix Designations

WMM mix utilizing moorum alone (M4), and moorum


in combination with OPC in mix designation M5, M6
and M7, had particles assertively finer than the upper
limit of gradation limits within sieve sizes of 22.4 mm
and 11.2 mm. The same mixes were however within
their gradation limits between sieve sizes of 4.75 mm
and 0.075 mm, but were close to the lower side of
control limits.

Increase in dry density of mixes M5, M6 & M7 as


compared to M4 is due to the stabilizing action of OPC.
OPC is likely to act as pore filler as well as hydration
reaction initiator. Pore filling leads to higher surface
area and subsequently more moisture, and hydration
itself leads to consumption of water. For these reasons,
the OMC of the mix would be higher.

Laboratory tests had already indicated that the


aggregate impact value and crushing value of moorum
were less than 30%. This material has ten percent fines
value of more than 50 kN.
4.2 Proctor Test
Fig. 2 shows that maximum dry density of 2.28g/
cc was offered by referral mix M1 followed by M2
(2.265 g/cc), M3 (2.260 g/cc) and M4 (2.075 g/cc).
This shows that maximum dry density decreases
after incorporation of Ganga sand or moorum while
the optimum moisture increases. For mixes utilizing
moorum and OPC as stabilizer (M5, M6 & M7),
significant increase of dry density and OMC were
observed with the increase in OPC proportion in
comparison to 100% moorum mix (M4).
Decrease in dry density due to incorporation of Ganga
sand (M2) and moorum (M3) with respect to referral
mix is attributed to the lower unit weight of sand and
moorum in comparison to crushed stone aggregates
and higher moisture content is due to increase in
surface area of matrix contributed by finer particles of
Ganga sand and moorum.
INDIAN HIGHWAYS, April 2014

4.3 Permeability Test


Fig. 3 shows that coefficient of permeability (k)
values for M1 to M5 ranges from 8.45 x 10-3 cm/sec
to 1.05 x 10-4 cm/sec. For mix designations M6 &
M7, the specimens could not be fully saturated and
therefore, their coefficients of permeability values
were not ascertained.

Fig. 3 Coefficient of Permeability of WMM Mix Designations

In general, WMM mixtures may have coefficient of


permeability in the range of 10-3 cm/sec to 10-4 cm/sec
depending upon particle shape, sizes and type of aggregates
used. In the present case, mix designations M1, M2, M3,
M4 and M5 have attained sufficient level of permeability to

37

TECHNICAL PAPERS

4.4 CBR Test


Fig. 4 shows the CBR values of all 7 mix designations.
M4 having 100% moorum has lowest CBR value of 40%
followed by M3 when compared with the referral mix.

shown in Fig. 5. Load was applied uniaxially until failure


of the specimen as shown in Fig. 6. This test provides a
good assessment of the shearing strength of cohesive
soils. Its application in granular soils is somewhat limited,
nevertheless, it does provide a good supplementary test as
compared to other complex strength tests. The test shows
that the failure cracks were generated from top of the
specimen. The unconfined compressive strength increases
monotonically for mix designations M5, M6 and M7. This
test has also confirmed the results of the CBR test in terms
of OPC being an effective stabilizer to moorum.

Fig. 4 CBR Values of Various WMM Mix Designations

Fig. 5 Unconfined Compressive Strength of WMM Mixtures

function as WMM layer. The permeability levels achieved


by them may be termed as medium to high. A permeable
WMM layer would facilitate drainage of moisture from
upper layers of pavement and shoulder side-ways to the
Granular Sub-Base (GSB) which functions as drainage
layer.

Mix designation M2 replacing 20% stone dust with Ganga


sand has CBR value of 169% which is about 4 times higher
than that of the referral mix. This may be on account of
better void filling rendered by Ganga sand in WMM matrix
as compared to stone dust.
Mix designation M3 has also maintained the same level
of replacement of 20% stone dust with moorum and has
CBR value of 94% which is lower than the referral mix.
This was possibly due to excess of coarser material in the
matrix that was deficient in finer particles. Obviously, the
gradation of moorum and stone dust do not compare well
for inter-substitution, while the same was possible with
Ganga sand.

4.6

Cost Comparison

For analysis of rates, the cost involvement of materials only


was considered excluding cost of labour and machineries.
The unit rates for different items were taken from Uttar
Pradesh Schedule of Rates for Varanasi. The percentage
saving of cost for mix designations M2 to M6 with respect
to referral mix are shown in Table 6. Based on this analysis,
mix designation M2 would be cheaper by 37% while mixes
M5 to M7 would be cheaper by 62 to 84%.

Mix designations M5 (3% OPC), M6 (6% OPC) and M7


(9% OPC) had CBR values higher than M4 by 3.45, 4.9
and 10.5 times, and higher than referral by 1.14, 1.6 and 3.5
times. Therefore, OPC is found to be effective stabilizer
for enhancing the load bearing capacity of the WMM layer
using moorum. Pore filling and hydration reaction are
cumulatively responsible for higher CBR values.
4.5 Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS)
The unconfined compression test results on remoulded
samples of cement stabilized moorum for WMM layer are

38

Fig. 6 Failure of UCS Sample Under Uniaxial Loading

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, April 2014

TECHNICAL PAPERS
Table 6 Cost Comparison of Various WMM Mix
Designations (Material Component)
Sl. No. WMM Mix Cost Per 300 Cost Per Percentage
Designation
Cum (Rs)
Cum (Rs)
Saving
1
M1
133320
444.4
----2
M2
83760
279.2
37.17
3
M3
83010
276.7
37.74
4
M4
17997
60.0
86.50
5
M5
21327
71.1
84.00
6
M6
32253
107.5
75.81
7
M7
50805.2
169.4
61.89

CONCLUSIONS

The following conclusions were made out of the results of


this work.
1.

2.

3.

Moorum used for the work is suitable for WMM


since its crushing and impact values are less than
30%. Ten percent fines value was more than 50 kN
and the material was permeable. It has CBR value of
40%. All these parameters make it suitable for lower
unbound courses.
Mix designation M2 where 20% proportion of
stone dust of conventional WMM mix was replaced
by Ganga sand was found to improve the CBR
value from 121% for conventional mix to 169%.
Its gradation after admixing with Ganga sand was
within the grading limits specified by MoRT&H
(IV Revision) and the material was permeable. As
compared to the referral mix containing conventional
stone aggregates the dry density was lower, and the
cost saving on material component was to the tune
of 37%.
Mix designations M5, M6 and M7 having OPC
admixed with moorum at 3%, 6% and 9%
respectively had grain size on the finer side of the
upper gradation limits of MoRT&H for WMM
for sieves coarser than 11.2 mm. With increase of
admixing proportion of OPC to moorum from 3% to
9% the dry density, CBR and unconfined compressive
strength had increased monotonously with respect to
the mix containing moorum alone (M4) for WMM.
At the same time the permeability of the mix has
decreased. There was an overall reduction of cost to
the extent of 84% for M5, 75% for M6 and 62% for
M7 as compared to the referral mix (M1).
Mix designation M5 was preferable on account of
being comparatively permeable as compared to
M6 and M7. While its CBR value was higher than

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, April 2014

conventional WMM mix, the cost saving on material


component was maximum at 84%.
REFERENCES
1.

Barber, E.S. and Sawyer, C.L., Highway Research Board


31 (1952).

2.

Brandl, H., Quality Requirements and Tests for


Earthworks and Granular Bases, only Available in
German, Proceedings of an International Meeting, 1977
(Road Research Society, 1977), pp. 15-43.

3.

Darter, M.I., Von Quintus, H.L., Catalog of


Recommended Pavement Design Features Final
Report, TRB Paper, Part of National Cooperative
Highway Research Program, Project 1997, pp. 1-32.

4.

General Technical Specifications for Road Building


Works, only Available in Croatian, 1st Edn. (Zagreb,
1989).

5.

IS:2386 (Part-III)-1963, Methods of Test for Aggregates


for Concrete, Specific Gravity, Density, Voids, Absorption
and Bulking Bureau of Indian Standards, Manak Bhavan,
9 Bahadur Shah, Zafar Marge, New Delhi-110002.

6.

IS:2386 (Part-IV)-1963, Methods of Test for Aggregates


for Concrete, Mechanical. Properties Bureau of Indian
Standards, Manak Bhavan, 9 Bahadur Shah, Zafar Marge,
New Delhi-110002.

7.

IS:2720 (Part-10)-1973, Methods of Test for Soils:


Determination of Unconfined Compressive Strength
Bureau of Indian Standards, Manak Bhavan, 9 Bahadur
Shah, Zafar Marge, New Delhi-110002.

8.

IS:2720 (Part 16)-1987, Methods of Test for Soils,


Laboratory Determination of CBR, Bureau of Indian
Standards, Manak Bhavan, 9 Bahadur Shah, Zafar Marge,
New Delhi-110002.

9.

IS:2720 (Part-17)-1986, Method of Test for Soils,


Laboratory Determination Permeability Bureau of
Indian Standards, Manak Bhavan, 9 Bahadur Shah, Zafar
Marge, New Delhi-110002.

10.

IS:2720 (Part-8) - 1983, Method of Test for Soils,


Determination of Water Content Dry Density Relation
using heavy Compaction Bureau of Indian Standards,
Manak Bhavan, 9 Bahadur Shah, Zafar Marge,
New Delhi-110002.

11.

Quality Assurance Handbook for Rural Roads (2007)


Volume-2:National Rural Roads Development Agency.

12.

United States Army Corps of Engineers, Appendix VII:


Permeability Tests, Laboratory Soils Testing, Engineering
Manual EM1110-2-1906, November 1970.

13.

www.equipmentIndia.com, Editorial, Indias First


Infrastructure Equipment Magazine, October 2011.

14.

www.freedoniagroup.com, The freedonia Group, Inc.767


Beta Drive, Cleveland, OH. 44143- 2326, USA- Forecast
for Construction Materials (Cement and Aggregates)
Published in 2007.

39

Field Investigations and 3DFE analysis on Plain


Jointed High Volume Fly Ash Concrete Pavements
for Thermal and Wheel Loads
Aravindkumar B. Harwalkar* and S.S. Awanti**
ABSTRACT
Concrete road projects constitute of large investments and have to
serve the society for long time. The investments made have to be
durable at the lowest life cycle cost and have to sustain increasing
traffic loads. Hence to achieve this there is a need for optimization
of materials in the concrete road system by considering ecologically
sound choices. The main goal of this paper is to study the response
of high volume fly ash concrete pavements to wheel loads and
daily temperature variations. Two instrumented test sections, one
of Pavement Quality High Volume Fly Ash Concrete (PQHVFAC)
and another of control concrete (PCC), were constructed. Also
small square slabs of different thicknesses were cast for both
types of concrete to study the temperature variation across the
thickness. A total number of 20 thermistors (embedded type) and
12 number of vibrating wire strain gages were used as sensors.
Three Dimensional Finite Element analysis (3DFE) using ANSYS
was carried out to determine the curling and wheel load stresses.
Analyzed results were validated with classical solution and field
data. The temperature profiles across the different thicknesses of
both types of concrete were non linear. Peak positive and negative
temperature differentials were higher in case of PQHVFAC.
Classical solutions under estimate the wheel load stresses and over
estimate the curling stress values. Evidence of restrained boundary
conditions for plain jointed concrete pavements was established.
Field data of the current study will be a useful resource for other
researchers involved in the analysis and design of high volume fly
ash concrete and conventional concrete pavements.

growth and environmental changes. There is also a


need for optimization of materials used for pavement
system.
As mentioned in the literature1, a concrete having
minimum cement replacement level of 50% by fly
ash is termed as high volume fly ash concrete. Using
high volume fly ash concrete for construction of rigid
pavements will be one of the effective means of fly
ash utilization. A minimum concrete grade of M30
which results in a minimum static flexural strength
of 3.8 N/mm2 has been specified as pavement quality
concrete by Indian Roads Congress2. There is limited
data available on response of high volume fly ash
concrete pavements for thermal and wheel loads in
the published literature. Hence confidence building
process for utilization of high volume fly ash concrete
for pavements can be done by field studies.
1.1 Objectives of Present Work
Following are the objectives of the current work.

Establishing temperature differential


values for Pavement Quality High Volume
Fly Ash Concrete (PQHVFAC) and Plain
Cement Concrete (PCC) pavements for
different thicknesses.

Establishing the temperature profiles


across the different thicknesses of
PQHVFAC and PCC.

Measurement of curling strains and wheel


load strains.

Three dimensional finite element analysis


for curling and wheel load stresses and
strains using ANSYS software.

INTRODUCTION

Future road projects in India will have to be safe,


effective and environmental friendly so that society
at large will be benefited by the huge investments in
road infrastructure. Over the years concrete pavement
design has gained much importance in promoting
the use of concrete roads. Efforts are made to avoid
premature performance failure in concrete pavements,
since rehabilitation techniques are more expensive
than other types of pavements. Hence modern design
methodology should take into account all types of
environmental parameters, future prediction of traffic
*

Associate Professor, E-mail: harwalkar_ab@yahoo.co.in

**

Professor and Head

40

Department of Civil Engineering, P.D.A. College of Engineering,


Gulbarga, Karnataka

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, April 2014

TECHNICAL PAPERS

Validation of analyzed results with field


data, other software results mentioned in
the literature and classical solutions.

1.2 Scope of Present Work


In this work an attempt has been made for predicting
the response of high volume fly ash concrete pavements
and to compare it with the response of conventional
concrete under thermal and wheel loads. The current
work was carried out in two stages. In the first stage
mix proportion of PQHVFAC with optimum fly ash
replacement level was finalized from trial mixes in the
laboratory. Also mix proportion of PCC which gave
equivalent flexural strength to that of PQHVFAC
was established. In the second stage test stretches of
PQHVFAC and PCC were constructed to study the field
response. Temperature variations across the different
thicknesses of concrete slabs of both categories were
measured using embedded thermistors. Thermal and
wheel load strains were measured using embedded
vibrating wire strain gages. A three Dimensional Finite
Element (3DFE) analysis using ANSYS software
was carried out for curling and wheel load stresses.
Analyzed results were validated from field studies,
other published literature and classical solution of
Westergaard.
2

Review of Literature

The development of new design technique involves


the quantifications of different unknown aspects that
are important for pavement performance. One of
important factor being the exact nature of temperature
profile through the thickness of concrete pavement
and the other being the nature of boundary conditions
generated in the field. In recent days mechanistic
procedures are more tempting for various applications
including rigid pavement design offering flexibility
of including many parameters in the analysis and
design.
Lot of published literature is available for determining
wheel load stresses and curling stresses are for plain
INDIAN HIGHWAYS, April 2014

concrete without mineral admixtures. Stresses in


rigid pavement have been studied since 1920s.
Westergaards3 closed form solution has been widely
used in estimating stresses due to axle load and
thermal effects. Bradbury4 developed the equations
for a slab with finite dimensions using Westergaards
analysis to determine curling stresses. Current Indian
codal practice5 for determining the wheel load stresses
is based on edge flexural stress charts developed by
software IITRIGID. The software is developed on
the principles of Picket and Ray influence charts. As
per the Indian code, Curling stresses are determined
using Westergaard-Bradbury equation using a linear
temperature gradient and temperature differentials
which have been established from a limited number
of studies.
The increased computational capabilities of computers
and the usage of finite element method resulted in an
innovation in analysis of rigid pavements. In the initial
years of development several two dimensional finite
element (2DFE) techniques6-8 based on the concept of
thin and medium thick plate on Winkler foundation
were developed. But 2DFE models can not exactly
model the response of pavement especially with
respect to interfacial behavior. But a three dimensional
finite element model can predict the response of rigid
pavement for non linear temperature gradient and axle
loads in a more realistic manner.
Numbers of researchers9-11 have emphasized
significance of non linear temperature gradient in
estimating curling stresses in plain concrete by
carrying out 3DFE analysis. Different types of 3DFE
models12-14 have been developed for analyzing the plain
concrete pavement for both wheel load and thermal
stresses. Varieties of procedures have been developed
for validation of 3DFE analysis in literature. One of
the techniques was to compare with the results of
closed form solutions. The other approach was either
to compare with already verified software results or
with field data. Barenherg et al15 and Samir et al16 have
41

TECHNICAL PAPERS
carried out validation of field data for curling stresses
in concrete pavement.

3 Laboratory Investigations

There are very limited field studies available on rigid


pavement response in Indian scenario. Only few
demonstration road projects have been under taken
in India to familiarize Indian practitioners with high
volume fly ash concrete. Construction of high volume
fly ash concrete road (on experimental basis of about
1 km length) was taken up jointly by Public Works
Department, Raichur, Karnataka State and Central
Road Research Institute. Also Associated Cement
Company has constructed demonstration roads using
high volume fly ash concrete with 50% replacement
at its Greater Noida and Faridabad Ready Mix Plants.
Also Muncipal Corporation Delhi has constructed a
100 m stretch of pavement of 7 m wide at Fatehpur
Beri, Mehrauli, New Delhi, with high volume fly ash
concrete utilizing 50% cement replacement level.

The ordinary Portland cement from single batch has


been used in the present investigation. The coarse
fraction consisted of equal fractions of crushed stones
of maximum size 20 mm and 12 mm. Low calcium fly
ash satisfying the criteria of fineness, lime reactivity
and compressive strength requirements has been used
in the investigation. Properties of fly ash determined
in the laboratory along with codal requirements17 are
shown in Table 1. Fly ash was procured from Raichur
Thermal Power Plant, India. Fine aggregate used was
natural sand with maximum particle size of 4.75 mm.
Polycarboxylic based superplasticizer has been used
as High Range Water Reducing Admixture (HWRA)
to get the desired workability. The optimum dosage
of superplasticizer for both types of concretes was
determined by carrying out compaction factor test.

3.1 Materials

Table 1 Physical Properties of Fly Ash

Characteristics

Laboratory Value

Requirements As Per IS 3812

Particles retained on 45 IS sieve


(wet sieving) in percent

29

Max 34

Lime reactivity in N/mm2

4.9

Min 4.5

Compressive strength at 28 days 88%


of
the
strength
of Minimum of 80% of the strength of
corresponding plain cement mortar corresponding plain cement mortar
cubes
cubes
Specific gravity

2.01

3.2 Mixture Proportions


Trial mixes were developed to achieve M35 grade
PQHVFAC at cement replacement level of 60%, which
was the optimum replacement percentage with water
to cementitious ratio of 0.3. Water to cementitious
ratio utilized in the investigation i.e., 0.3 was the
lowest value that could be used from the limitation
of reduction in water content that can be achieved
using HWRA and conventional means of mixing
and compaction. For conventional PCC pavement
segment and small square slabs, control concrete mix
proportion which gave similar static flexural strength
as that of PQHVFAC was determined. The mixture
42

-------proportions used for PQHVFAC and PCC are shown


in Table 2. The dynamic moduli of elasticity were
established by pulse wave velocity technique. They
were converted to static moduli of elasticity by using
the existing equation for conventional concrete. The
cube compressive strengths, flexural strengths and
moduli of elasticity for the two types of concrete are
tabulated in Table 3. Using the results of CBR test
and codal provisions5 the value of modulus of subgrade reaction was estimated as 0.09 N/mm3. The
coefficient of thermal expansion of conventional
concrete mentioned in IRC code5 i.e., 1010-6/C has
been used for PQHVFAC also in the 3DFE analysis.
Poissons ratio has been assumed as 0.15.
INDIAN HIGHWAYS, April 2014

TECHNICAL PAPERS
Table 2 Mix Proportions of Concrete

Mixture Components
Cement (OPC 53 grade) in kg/m

Class F fly ash in kg/m3


Water in kg/m

Superplasticizer in liters/m

Saturated surface dry sand in kg/m3


Saturated surface dry coarse aggregate in kg/m

PQHVFAC

Conventional PCC

176

440

264

132

154

3.5

9.9

858.2

871.0

1059

1059

Table 3 Mechanical Properties of Concrete

Property of Concrete/
Type of Concrete

28 Day Characteristic Cube


Compressive Strength in MPa

28 Day Characteristic Static


Flexural Strength in MPa

Modulus of
Elasticity in GPa

PQHVFAC

40.8

5.3

42.0

PCC

56.3

5.5

47.0

Field Investigations

In the current work temperature measurements have


been carried out form January 2011 to June 2011
covering winter and summer seasons in the southern
India. Temperature measurements were done on three
PQHVFAC small square slabs of size 500 500 mm
and thicknesses 150 mm, 200 mm and 300 mm. Also
measurements were done on three conventional PCC
small square slabs of plan size 500 mm 500 mm and
thicknesses 150 mm, 200 mm, and 250 mm. A Plain
Jointed Concrete Pavement (PJCP) test stretch of size
3.5 m 18.0 m 0.2 m was cast adjacent to small
slabs. The test stretch consisted of two segments each
of length 4.5 m for PQHVFAC and two segments each
of length 4.5 m for PCC. The test stretch and small
slabs have been cast in November 2010 at Gulbaraga
city, Karnataka State, India.
Thermistors (embedded type) were used for
measurement of temperature distribution across the
thickness of small slabs. For 150mm thick small slabs
3 thermistors (at 38 mm, 75 mm and 112 mm from
top) and for 200 mm thick small slabs 3 thermistors
(at 50 mm, 100 mm and 150 mm from top) have been
used for each type of concrete. For 300 mm thick
PQHVFAC small slab, 4 thermistors (at 50 mm,
INDIAN HIGHWAYS, April 2014

100 mm, 200 mm and 250 mm from top) and for


250 mm thick conventional concrete 4 thermistors (at
50 mm, 100 mm, 150 mm and 200 mm from top) have
been used. Hence a total number of 20 thermistors have
been installed to establish the nature of temperature
profile in both PQHVFAC and conventional PCC.
Vibrating wire strain gages were installed in pavement
test stretch to measure the strain values. A total number
of 12 vibrating wire strain gages were installed for
PQHVFAC and PCC (6 gages for each type of concrete)
test stretch. They were installed at 3 locations i.e.; at
edge, interior and corner. At each location 2 strain
gages i.e.; one at 40 mm from top of slab another at
40mm from bottom were used. A typical plan lay out
of vibrating wire strain gages in the pavement stretch
is shown in Fig. 1. All the thermistors and vibrating
wire strain gages were calibrated before embedding
in the concrete. Data from all these sensors were
acquired continuously by an automatic data logger.
Data logger has got adjustable triggering time which
can be even set in milliseconds. Temperature data
has been acquired continuously at a triggering time
of 30 minutes and wheel load strains were acquired
at triggering time of 3 seconds. Temperature data and
strain data were collected after a curing period of
28 days. Ponding method of curing was adopted.
43

TECHNICAL PAPERS

Fig. 1 Layout of strain gages in test stretch of pavement

4.1

Casting of Pavement Test Stretch

Granular material belonging to WBM Grade 2


classification18 has been used as sub base for the test
stretch. The thickness of sub base layer was kept
at 75 mm and a degree of compaction of 98% was
maintained. A typical view of prepared sub base
is shown in Fig. 2. A polythene sheet was provided
between granular sub base and the pavement slab to
reduce the frictional stresses. For the test stretch of
pavement contraction joints were provided at a spacing
of 4.5m. Joint cutting for the pavement stretch was
done immediately after 24 hours from casting time
since the final setting time of PQHVFAC was higher
than that of PCC. Depth of saw cutting for contraction
joints was maintained at 0.25 times the thickness of
slab. Surface vibrator was used for compaction with
the exception of location of strain gages.

Boxes of 0.5 m 0.5 m 0.2 m were used for


casting at the locations of strain gages. Specially
prepared cover blocks were used for placing the bottom
gages at the required depths. Axes of all the gages
were aligned along the longitudinal direction of the
pavement. The orientation of all the gages and depth
of placement of top gages was ensured by using two
10 reference bars. The reference bars were removed
immediately after compaction of concrete. Placing
and compaction of concrete was done in boxes first.
Boxes were immediately removed after casting which
is followed by concreting in the remaining stretch of
pavement. During the casting precaution was taken
so that joint is not formed between the concrete cast
in the box and the remaining stretch of concrete. A
typical view of placing the vibrating wire strain gages
in pavement slab is shown in Fig. 3.

Fig. 2 View of Prepared Sub Base

Fig. 3 Placing of Vibrating Wire Strain Gage in


Pavement Test Stretch

44

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, April 2014

TECHNICAL PAPERS
4.2

Casting of Small Square Slabs

Casting of small square slabs used for establishing


temperature profile, was done in the boxes of plan
size 0.5 m 0.5 m and the required thicknesses. These
slabs were cast adjacent to test stretch of pavement.
Thermistors were placed at predetermined depths at
the center of the slabs during placing of concrete.
Granular sub base, similar to that provided for test
stretch, was provided for these slabs also. Similar
exposure conditions were maintained for both test
stretch and small slabs. Boxes were removed after
the final setting time of concrete. Typical placing of
thermistor in small slab is shown in Fig. 4.

Fig. 4 Placing of Thermistor in Small Slab

air temperatures on the day were 42.1C and 24.5C


respectively. The PNTD values were almost half
of the PPTD values. Hence it is the maximum
PPTD value which will govern the design of rigid
pavements. The variation of PPTD, PNTD values
in case of PQHVFAC and PCC for the two seasons
are shown in Figs. 7 and 8 respectively. Best
fit temperature profiles across the different
thicknesses of PQHVFAC and PCC for maximum
PPTD and PNTD are shown in Figs. 9 to 12
respectively. Regression analysis has shown that best
fit curve for temperature profile was logarithmic in
all the cases giving highest value of coefficient of
correlation. Hence temperature profiles across the
thicknesses of both types of concretes were nonlinear.
Natures of temperature profiles across the particular
thickness for PPTD values on all the days were
similar. Maximum PPTD for PQHVFAC was
higher than that for PCC for all the thicknesses. The
maximum PPTD value for 300 mm thickness has
shown slight decrease when compared with that of
250 mm thick slab in case of PQHVFAC. In case
of PCC maximum PPTD values for 250 mm and
200 mm thicknesses were almost identical. For
150 mm thick prisms, values of maximum PPTD and
PNTD were nearly half of the corresponding values
for higher thicknesses in both types of concrete.
Variations of maximum PPTD and PNTD values
with thicknesses of concrete are shown in Fig. 13.

Analysis of Results

5.1 Measurement of Temperature Differentials


Peak positive temperature differentials (temperature
at top being higher than at bottom) i.e., PPTD were
obtained in the noon and peak negative temperature
differentials (temperature at bottom being higher than
at top) i.e., PNTD were obtained in early morning.
Both types of concrete, attained peak temperature
differentials at similar timing. Maximum PPTD
value was recorded on 5 May, 2011 at 1.30 PM for
PQHVFAC and for PCC it was recorded on the same
day at 3.00 PM. Typical variations of temperatures
in all the thermistors on 5 May 2011 for 200 mm
thick prisms for PQHVFAC and PCC are shown in
Figs. 5 and 6 respectively. Maximum and minimum
INDIAN HIGHWAYS, April 2014

Fig. 5 Temperature Variation in Thermistors for 200 mm thick


PQHVFAC Prism on May 5, 2011
(Note: The Pattern of Date in the figure is Month/Day/Year)

45

TECHNICAL PAPERS

Fig. 6 Temperature Variation in Thermistors for 200 mm thick


PCC Prism on May 5, 2011

Fig. 9 Temperature Profile Across Different Thicknesses of


PQHVFAC for Maximum PPTD

(Note: The Pattern of Date in the Graph is Month/Day/Year)

Fig. 7 Variation of PPTD and PNTD Values for 200 mm thick


PQHVFAC
(Note: Negative Sign in the Fig. Indicates Only About the Fact that
Temperature Differential is a Negative Temperature Differential)

Fig. 8 Variation of PPTD and PNTD Values for


200 mm thick PCC
(Note: Negative Sign in the Fig. Indicates Only About the Fact that
Temperature Differential is a Negative Temperature Differential)

46

Fig. 10 Temperature Profile Across Different Thicknesses of


PCC for Maximum PPTD

Fig. 11 Temperature Profile Across Different Thicknesses of


PQHVFAC for Maximum PNTD

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, April 2014

TECHNICAL PAPERS
strain). During a day the attainment of peak value
of strain and peak value of temperature differential
(either positive or negative) was not simultaneous
for both types of concrete. Attainment of peak
temperature differential was lagging by 1 to 4 hours
with the timing of attainment of peak value of strain.
This indicates that curling strain development in
concrete is not an instantaneous process.
5.3 Performance Studies on Test Stretch
Fig. 12 Temperature Profile Across Different Thicknesses of
PCC for Maximum PNTD

Fig. 13 Variation of PPTD and PNTD with


Thickness of Concrete

5.2

Curling Strain Measurement

Curling strain values were also recorded at an interval


of 30 minutes simultaneously with temperature
values. Vehicles with different axle configurations
were allowed to move on the pavement, only when
wheel load strains are to be measured. With this it
was possible to measure exclusively, strains due
to temperature effects (neglecting the contribution
of other climatic factor such as moisture gradient).
Strain values showed higher variation at corner (top)
and interior (top) locations for PQHVFAC for both
PPTD and PNTD. For conventional concrete higher
variations in values of strains were observed at interior
and edge locations. The recorded curling strain values
varied between -15 and + 15 (-sign indicating
compressive strain and + sign indicating tensile
INDIAN HIGHWAYS, April 2014

The performance of test stretch has been monitored


continuously for two years. Performance studies
have been done by visual inspection and ultrasonic
pulse velocity test. There were no surface cracks
and also phenomenon of powdering of surface due
to vehicular traffic was not observed. Pulse velocity
was measured at 14 different points (7 points each
for PQHVFAC and PCC segment) by indirect
method. Pulse velocity varied between 3.5 km/sec to
3.93 km/sec for PQHVFAC and 4.2 km/sec to
4.97 km/sec for PCC after 40 days of casting.
Corresponding range of values after two years
were 3.75 km/sec to 4.3 km/sec for PQHVFAC and
3.98 km/sec to 4.75 km/sec for PCC. Hence ultrasonic
pulse velocity test indicated that there is an increase
in the strength of PQHVFAC over the period of two
years and also there are no internal cracks in the
test stretch either in the PQHVFAC or in the PCC
segment. Hence performance of both PQHVFAC
and PCC test stretch was satisfactory.
6

Finite Element Analysis

3 DFE analysis was carried out to estimate the values of


curling stresses, wheel load stresses and corresponding
strains. ANSYS software19 was used for the analysis.
3-D brick element having eight nodes i.e., SOLID45
has been used to model the pavement slab. The slab is
assumed to be founded on a dense liquid foundation.
Hence COMBIN14 spring elements were used to
model the base material. The effective normal stiffness
of the spring element was calculated by multiplying
modulus of sub grade value with influencing area
of the element. For analysis, one pavement segment
47

TECHNICAL PAPERS
between contraction joints i.e., of size 3.5 m 4.5 m
0.2 m has been considered. CONTAC174 interface
element which can support Coulomb and shear stress
friction has been used for representing the interfacial
behavior between slab and the base material. Since
polythene sheet was provided between the pavement
slab and the sub grade, a low value of 1.2 has been
used for the friction factor in the analysis. A typical
meshed pavement model is shown in Fig. 14.

Fig. 14 Meshed Pavement Model

6.1

3DFE Analysis for Curling Stresses and


Strains

Temperature profile determined for maximum PPTD


was applied on the elements for both types of concrete.

For analysis, the temperature values at different


depths were calculated from the curve fitted for the
temperature profile across the thickness. Self weight
of pavement slab and the interfacial contact with the
base were the only restrains used in case of analysis
for curling stresses and strains. Analysis was also
carried out for linear temperature gradient between
top and bottom temperature values using 3DFE and
Westergaard-Bradbury techniques.
The analyzed data of longitudinal strains are tabulated
in Table 4. The recorded strain values at the instant of
corresponding maximum PPTD at different locations
are tabulated in Table 5. Maximum strains of
-15 and + 13.8 were recorded at corner (top) and
interior (bottom) location at 3.00 PM and 7.30 PM
respectively on that day for PQHVFAC. It can be
seen that strain values obtained from 3DFE analysis
matches with the recorded values qualitatively at all
the locations except at corner bottom for PQHVFAC.
For PCC, measured and analyzed values do not match
qualitatively only at bottom locations of interior
and corner portions of the pavement segment. The
magnitudes of recorded strain values were lower
than the analyzed values. This may be due to partial
restrains generated on the side faces of the slab in the
field.

Table 4 Longitudinal Curling Strain Values in Concrete Obtained by 3DFE Analysis for
Non Linear Temperature Gradient

Type of
Concrete

Maximum
PPTD
in C

Longitudinal Curling Strain Valuesa Obtained by


3DFE Analysis in Microns
At Corner

At Edge and Interior

At the Level of
Top Strain Gage

At the Level of
Bottom Strain
Gage

At the Level of
Top Strain Gage

At the Level of
Bottom Strain
Gage

PQHVFAC

20.4

+4.51

-4.33

-36.3

+36.4

PCC

13.4

+2.66

-2.52

-23.9

+24.0

a Tensile strains are indicated by +ve sign and compressive strains are indicated by ve sign.

48

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, April 2014

TECHNICAL PAPERS
Table 5 Recorded Longitudinal Curling Strain Values for Maximum PPTD

Type of
Concrete

Maximum
PPTD
in C

PQHVFAC
PCC

20.4
13.4

Recorded Values of Longitudinal Curling Strainsb


At Corner
At Edge
At Interior
At Top
At Bottom
At Top
At Bottom At Top At Bottom
Gage
Gage
Gage
Gage
Gage
Gage
-2.6
-4.4
-8.9
+1.8
-4.2
+1.0
-3.6
-3.1
-4.8
+1.1
-3.7
-4.0

b Tensile strains are indicated by +ve sign and compressive strains are indicated by ve sign

Curling stress values obtained by 3DFE analysis


for non linear temperature gradient, linear
temperature gradient and that obtained by
Westergaard-Bradbury approach are tabulated in
Table 6. A typical nodal principal stress contour for
PQHVFAC slab for non linear temperature gradient
is shown in Fig. 15. Curling stresses obtained by
3 DFE analysis were of similar magnitude to that

reported in the literature11 for similar conditions


using different softwares. 3DFE analysis resulted
in higher curling stresses for nonlinear temperature
gradient when compared to that for linear temperature
gradient. In case of PQHVFAC increase in curling
stress value was 9.2% for nonlinear positive
temperature gradient. Corresponding increase in case
of PCC was 5.3%.

Table 6 Major Principal Curling Stress Values in Concrete

Type of
Concrete

Thickness of
Concrete in
mm

Maximum
PPTD in C

PQHVFAC

200

20.4

PCC

200

13.4

Major Principal Curling Stress Valuesc in MPa


By 3DFE Analysis
By WestergaardBradbury
For Nonlinear
For Linear
Solution
Temp. Profile
Temp. Profile
+3.21
+2.94
+3.89
+2.37

+2.25

+2.77

c Tensile curling stresses are indicated by +ve sign.

6.2 Parametric Study for Curling Stresses

Fig. 15 Nodal Principal Curling Stress Contour for Non Linear


Temperature Gradient for PQHVFAC

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, April 2014

PQHVFAC pavement segment has been analyzed for


curling stresses in different thicknesses for the linear
temperature gradient of 0.102C/mm and gravity
loading using ANSYS and Westergaard-Bradbury
technique. Results are shown in Fig. 16. It can be
seen that Westergaard-Bradbury technique results in
over estimate of curling stresses especially for higher
thicknesses of pavement slab. This may be due to
consideration of some simplifying assumptions made
and ignoring restrain due to interfacial contact in the
classical approach. Also it can be seen that for a given
temperature gradient curling stress value decreases
with increase in thickness and for thickness above
250 mm the rate of variation of curling stress
decreases significantly.
49

TECHNICAL PAPERS

Fig. 16 Parametric Study for Curling Stresses

6.3

3DFE Analysis for Wheel Load Stresses

In this work a truck having a gross weight of


276.2 kN has been used for measurement wheel load
stresses. Configuration of tyres of the truck is shown
in Fig. 17. The axle load of the truck was measured
using a portable weigh bridge. The rear axle load
was 184.4kN. Strain values were acquired for static
condition. The truck was moved on the pavement
segment during the time interval when PPTD was
predicted on that day. The rear axle of the truck was
positioned at locations of the strain gages successively
and total strain values from each gage were unloaded
from the data logger. At each location truck was
allowed to stand for duration of few seconds only,
until the process of unloading of data is complete.
From these strain values initial thermal strains were
deducted to get exclusively the wheel load strains.

analyzed for restrained side faces. The principal


stress values are tabulated in Table 7. Principal stress
value was much higher for edge loading condition
when compared with corner loading condition. A
typical nodal principal stress contour for edge loading
condition is shown in Fig. 18. For the restrained
condition of side faces in longitudinal and transverse
direction the principal stress values are considerably
less than that of free boundary condition. Analyzed
values of strains for edge loading condition are
tabulated in Table 8. Typical variations of recorded
wheel load strains in PQHVFAC and PCC for the
gages which showed significant change in strain
for different position of the vehicle are shown in
Fig. 19 and 20 respectively. Recorded strain data
match qualitatively with that of analyzed wheel load
strains at all the locations. But the magnitudes of
recorded strains were considerably less than that of
analyzed strain values especially when compared with
the case of free boundary condition. This may be due
to partial restrains that are developed in field for the
pavement slab.
Table 7 Major Principal Stresses Due to a Single Axle
Load of 184.4 kN in PQHVFAC
Major Principal Tensile Stress Values in PQHVFAC from
3DFE Analysis in MPa for Single Axle Load of 184.4 kN
For Free Boundary Condition
for Side Faces

For Restrained Boundary


Condition for Side Faces

For Corner
Loading

For Edge
Loading

For Edge Loading

2.18

5.25

1.95

Fig. 17 Wheel Configuration of the Truck


(All Dimensions are in mm)

3DFE analysis was carried out for edge and corner


loading condition using free boundary condition
for the side faces. Edge loading condition was also
50

Fig. 18 Nodal Principal Stress Contour for Single Axle Load of


184.4 kN for Edge Loading Condition

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, April 2014

TECHNICAL PAPERS
Table 8 Analyzed Longitudinal Strain Values for a Single Axle Load of 184.4 kN

Type of
Concrete

Type of Restrain to Side


Faces

PQHVFAC

Free boundary condition


Restrained boundary condition
Free boundary condition
Restrained boundary condition

PCC

Wheel Load Strains at the Level of Gages in Microns


for Edge Loading at
Corner
Edge
Interior
Top
Bottom
Top Bottom Top Bottom
+1.5
-1.5
-34.8
+35.5
-25.4
+26.1
+6.1
-6.2
-10.7
+11.4
-15.5
+16.2
+1.76
-1.76
-37.7
+38.5
-27.4
+28.2
+5.5
-5.6
-9.7
+10.3
-14.0
+14.6

Fig. 19 Variation of Recorded Wheel Load Strains for Different


Positions of an Axle Load of 184.4 kN for PQHVFAC

condition. The corresponding value when slab was


analyzed for simultaneous application of thermal
and wheel loading worked out to be 8.3 MPa. Hence
conservatively principle of superposition holds good
for stresses due to temperature gradient and wheel
loading. But both the approaches predict cracking
of pavement slab due to combined effect of curling
and wheel load, since the stress level is crossing the
flexural strength of PQHVFAC. But when slab was
inspected there were no cracks observed in the surface
of pavement slab either in PQHVFAC segment or in
the PCC segment. Also ultrasonic pulse wave velocity
test was carried out prior to vehicle loading and also
after the vehicle loading. The pulse wave velocity
was measured at fourteen different locations. The
average value of pulse wave velocity was constant
before and after vehicle loading and its value was
3.78 km/sec for PQHVFAC and 4.65 km/sec for PCC.
Hence ultrasonic pulse wave velocity test suggested
the absence of internal cracks. But when the analyzed
stress values for restrained boundary condition are
used the algebraic sum of curling stresses and wheel
load stresses will be less than the flexural strength of
corresponding concrete. This fact also strengthens the
fact of presence of restrain on the pavement slab other
than due to gravity and interfacial restrain in the case
of plain jointed concrete pavements (PJCP).

Fig. 20 Variation of Recorded Wheel Load Strains for Different


Positions of an Axle Load of 184.4 kN for PCC

6.3.1 Comparison of 3DFE Analysis with Classical



Approaches

Using principle of superposition the maximum stress


in PQHVFAC due to combined effect of temperature
gradient and wheel load is 8.46 MPa for free boundary

3 DFE analysis was carried out for edge wheel load


stresses using a single axle load of 196.2 kN for which
stress charts are available in the IRC code5. Dual wheels

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, April 2014

51

TECHNICAL PAPERS
with spacing of 0.31 m and axle length of 1.81 m was
assumed in the analysis. The modulus of elasticity
was assumed as 29.2 GPa for this parametric study
so as to facilitate the comparison of 3DFE technique
used in the current work with analysis methods
given in IRC code5. The techniques mentioned in the
codal provisions are that due to classical solution of
Westergaard modified by Teller and Sutherland, and
the charts provided by IITRIGID software. Analysis
was carried out for different thicknesses. The results
are presented in the Fig. 21. Both the approaches
mentioned in the IRC code give an under estimate
of edge wheel load stresses since they ignore the
influence of one dual wheel on the other. Hence 3DFE
results give more realistic response of rigid pavement
for the vehicular loading.

3.

The PPTD and PNTD values are higher in


case of PQHVFAC than PCC for similar
exposure conditions. The PPTD values showed
a percentage increase of 52.2 and 72.2 for
200 mm and 150 mm thickness respectively.
The percentage increase in PNTD values are
34.7 and 50.0 for 200 mm and 150 mm thick
prisms respectively.

4.

The maximum PNTD values were half that of


maximum PPTD values for both PQHVFAC
and conventional PCC. This phenomenon may
be due to slab surface temperature being always
higher than the air temperature during day
time.

5.

The values of positive temperature differentials


are dependent on thickness of slabs. The
maximum PPTD values for 150mm thick slab
are about 50% that for higher thickness slabs.

6.

For PQHVFAC the temperature profiles are


similar for PPTD on different days. Similar
trend is observed for PCC also.

7.

The temperature profiles established in this


study will be a useful data for design of rigid
pavements with PQHVFAC and PCC.

8.

Attainment of peak temperature differential


and peak thermal strain is not simultaneous.
Recorded longitudinal strain values match
qualitatively with that of analyzed results at
majority of locations for thermal loading and at
all the locations in case of vehicle loading, for
both types of concrete. In case of both thermal
and vehicular loading the magnitudes of
recorded strains are considerably less than that
obtained by 3DFE analysis with free boundary
condition for the side faces of pavement slab.

9.

Westergaard-Bradbury
approach
overestimate of curling stress values.

10.

Non linear temperature gradient results in


higher curling stresses, the percentage increase
being 9.2 for PQHVFAC and 5.3 for PCC.

Fig. 21 Parametric Study for Wheel Load Stresses

Conclusions

Based on the results following conclusions were


drawn:
1.

High volume fly ash concrete with 60% cement


replacement with class F fly ash can be used for
construction of rigid pavements.

2.

The temperature distributions across all the


thicknesses of slabs are non linear for both
PQHVFAC and conventional concrete. The
natures of distributions are typically logarithmic
for both types of concrete.

52

gives

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, April 2014

TECHNICAL PAPERS
11.

12.

13.

14.

8.

Westergaard technique and influence chart


approach under estimate the wheel load stresses
when compared with that of 3DFE results. This
may be due to effect of ignoring the effect of
axle configuration in the classical solutions.

6.

Huang Y.H., and S.T.Wang, 1973, Finite Element


Analysis of Concrete Slabs and its Implications for Rigid
Pavement Design, Highway Research Record No.466,
Washington,D.C., pp 55-69.

7.

Tabatabaie, A.M., and E.J.Barenberg, 1978, Finite


Element Analysis of Jointed or Cracked Concrete
Pavements, Transportation Research Record 671, TRB,
National Research Council, Washington,D.C., pp 11-19.

8.

Bhatti, M., Molinas-Vega, I., and Stoner, J.W., 1998,


Nonlinear Analysis of Jointed Concrete Pavements,
Transportation Research Record No.1629, pp 50-57.

9.

Choubane, B. and Tia, M., 1992, Nonlinear Temperature


Gradient Effect on Maximum Warping Stresses in Rigid
Pavements, Transportation Research Record 1370.
Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board (TRB),
National Research Council, pp.11-19.

10.

Zhang, J., Fwa, T.W., Tan, K.H. and Shi, X.P., 2003,
Model for Nonlinear Thermal Effect on Pavement
Warping Stresses, Journal of Transportation Engineering,
ASCE 129.6, pp.695-702.

11.

Eyad, M., Taha, R. and Muhunthan, B., 1996, Finite


Element Analysis of Temperature Effects on Plain
Jointed Concrete Pavements, Journal of Transportation
Engineering, ASCE 122.5, pp.388-398.

12.

William.G.Davids., 2001, 3D Finite Element Study on


Load Transfer at Doweled Joints in Flat and Curled Rigid
Pavements, International Journal of Geomechanics,
Vol.1(3), pp.309-323.

13.

S.N.Shoukry, M.Fahmy, J.Prucz, and G.William, 2007,


Validation of 3DFE Analysis of Rigid Pavement
Dynamic Response to Moving Traffic and Nonlinear
Temperature Gradient Effects, International Journal of
Geomechanics, Vol.7(1), pp. 16-24.

14.

A.Qaium Fekrat, 2010, Calibration and Validation of


Ever FE2.24: A Finite Element Analysis Program for
Jointed Plain Concrete Pavements, M.Sc. Thesis, Ohio
University.

15.

Barenherg, E.J. and Zollinger, D.G., 1991, Validation


of Concrete Pavement Responses using Instrumented
Pavements, Transportation Research Record No.1286,
Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C.,
pp. 67-77.

16.

Samir, N.S., Gergis,W.W., and Mourad, Y.R., 2004,


Validation of 3DFE Model of Jointed Concrete Pavement
Response to Temperature Variations, The International
Journal of Pavement Engineering, Vol.5(3), pp.123-136.

17.

Bradbury, R.D., 1938, Reinforced Concrete Pavements,


Wire Reinforced Institute, Washington, DC.

IS:3812 (Part 1): 2003, Pulverized Fuel ash-Specification


for use as Pozzolana in Cement, Cement mortar and
Concrete.

18.

IRC:58-2002, Guidelines for the Design of Rigid


Pavements for Highways. Indian Roads Congress,
New Delhi, India.

Ministry of Road Transport and Highways, India, 2001,


Specifications for Road and Bridge Works, pp.112-120.

19.

ANSYS 10. Users Manual. ANSYS, Inc. Canonsburg,


PA.USA.

Restrain on the side faces has to be considered


in modeling the PJCP slab in case of 3DFE
analysis for getting a more realistic response of
pavement.
The principle of superposition is validated
conservatively for determining stress due to
combined effect of thermal gradient and wheel
loads.
3DFE technique using ANSYS provides a
versatile technique in analyzing pavement slab
for different kinds of restrain, axle configurations
and temperature profiles.
Acknowledgement

The authors wish to acknowledge with thanks the All


India Council for Technical Education, New Delhi,
India for financial support under Research Promotion
Scheme for this research project. Authors would also
wish to thank Indian Meteorological department for
providing the air temperature data for the project site.
References
1.

2.

3.

4.
5.

Mehta, P.K., 2002, High Performance, High Volume Fly


Ash Concrete for Sustainable Development, Proceedings
of International Workshop on Sustainable Development
and Concrete Technology, Ottawa, Canada, 2002,
pp. 3-14.
IRC:SP:62-2004, Guidelines for the Design and
Construction of Cement Concrete Pavements for Rural
Roads.
Westergaard, H.M., 1926, Analysis of Stresses in
Concrete Pavements due to Variations of Temperature,
Proceedings of the Highway Research Board 6,
pp 201-215.

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, April 2014

53

QUALITY CONTROL OF GROUT FOR POST TENSIONING


STRUCTURE
S.K. Bagui*, Binod Sharma** and Rajeev Gupta***
ABSTRACT
Scope of Segmental post tensioning construction in India is
increasing rapidly in India. Grouting of sheathing duct is very
important activity to protect strand from corrosion. Life span of
segmental post tensioning structure depends on the quality control
of grout. Several studies reported that failure of post tensioning
structure due to corrosion of strand. This happened due to presence
of void in air in the grouting duct. Presence of void occurred due to
bad quality control of grout .Very limited tests are recommended
in Indian Roads Congress (IRC) specification. IRC practice is to
be improved to avoid failure of post tensioning structure. Quality
control tests of grout are recommended for improving quality
control of present IRC Practices including air void detection test.

INTRODUCTION

Grout is homogeneous mixture of cement and water. it


may contain admixtures, sand and fly ash.
In post-tensioned priestess concrete construction, the
grouting of tendons is an important operation. The
main function of grouting is to:

Provide protection to the prestressing


steel against corrosion;

Provide a bond between the prestressing


steel and the ducts where required for the
design of the structure;

Allow transfer of compressive stresses in


the structure in a direction transverse to
internal tendons; and

Fill all voids where water may accumulate


and cause damage.

2 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1

General

The main corrosion protection for tendons is the grout.


If the tendon ducts are not completely filled with grout,

if the grout is absent, or if the grout is of poor quality,


the tendon is more susceptible to corrosion. Numerous
research studies and field investigations (Woodward,
R. J, 1989, Clark, L., 1992)1,2 were carried out abroad.
Although most bridge designers would agree that
proper grouting is important, more difficult questions
for many include what materials can be used for good
quality grouting, what materials constitute a highquality grout, and how the quality of the grouting can
be verified.
AASHTO (2008)3 recommended the following tests,
limit of test results and test method as mentioned in
Annexure 1 attached end of the paper.
In the United States, the American Association of
State Highway Transportation Official (AASHTO)
segmental guide specification references the Post
Tensioning Institutes (PTIs) Recommended Practice
for Grouting of Post tensioned Prestressed Concrete
(Recommended Practice for Grouting of Post
tensioned Prestressed Concrete). Unfortunately, there
is minimal guidance on the procedures necessary to
ensure that tendon ducts are fully grouted, nor do the
current PTI recommendations contain requirements
for field verification of grout filling. To ensure the
quality of grouting, it is advisable for specifiers to
require the construction of mockups, complete with
strands, to assess the proposed grouting methods
before their implementation on the project. The use
of mockups will allow for evaluation of the effects
of variables, such as the location of vent pipes, and
different grout materials and delivery systems. After
completion of mockup grouting, sawing or coring of
the duct mockups can be used to verify the grouting
quality.

Chief General Manager, ICT Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, E-mail: swapan.bagui@ictonline.com

**

Quality Control Manager, L&T Ltd., Rohtak, Haryana

*** Principal Engineer, Transportation, AECOM, UK

54

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, April 2014

TECHNICAL PAPERS
Guidance on good grouting practice and the use of
grouting trials are presented by U.K. and European
sources (Tilly, G. P., and R. J. Wood ward., 1996)4.
Additional research is needed to develop improved
techniques for grouting, especially the grouting of
vertical tendons.
Tables 1 and 2 show the standards that are currently
used in the United States and the United Kingdom for
grout materials.
Table 1 Current U.K. Grout Requirement
Property

Common
Grout

Special
Grout

0.40

0.35

- 1% to + 5%

0 to 5%

Less Than 1 %

None

27 MPa

27 MPa

Maximum Water Cement Ratio


Volume Change
Bleeding
Strength at 7 Days

Table 2 Current U S Grout Requirement


Property

Common Grout

Maximum Water Cement


Ratio

0.45

Volume Change

Not Specified

Bleeding

Lesser than 2% at 3 Hours


and 4 % Maximum

Strength at 28 Days

27.5 MPa (Not specified,


only suggestive)

Over the past several years (Brett H. Pielstick.,


2006)5 the post tensioned concrete bridge industry
in America has experienced several tendon failures
because of corrosion. These isolated failures resulted
in the conduct of additional investigations in Florida
as well as several other states. Those investigations
have determined that several structures have shown
grouting deficiencies. Some of the areas with grouting
deficiencies had voids with no corrosion present, but
others showed corroded ducts and post tensioning
strands. As a result, the owners and the industry have
evaluated the process of grouting and have developed
a course of action to improve the grouting and thus
the long-term durability of these structures. The
Post-Tensioning Institute Specification for Grouting

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, April 2014

of Post-Tensioned Structures, The Concrete Society


Technical Report 47, as well as the American
Segmental Bridge Institute (ASBI) Interim Statement
on Grouting Practices addresses several areas in which
the grouting process can be improved. ASBI and the
Florida Department of Transportation have created
training and certification programs for inspectors
and grouting technicians. Although no structural
deficiencies on segmental post tensioned bridges in
America have been noted to date, the industry has
mobilized to address the grout problems to further
enhance the durability of these structures.
In the past few years Florida has experienced several
tendon failures caused by corrosion due to poor
grouting, bad design details, and insufficient grout
specifications. The first known problem developed
in the spring of 1999 when a failed external tendon
was found on the Niles Channel Bridge in the Florida
Keys. It was concluded at that time that the corrosion
resulted from the absence of grout because of the
accumulation of bleed water at the anchorages that
left voids.
In August 1999 an additional external tendon failure
occurred on the Mid-Bay Bridge near Destine, Florida.
In that case 11 of the 840 tendons that had been
installed were replaced because of corrosion issues.
In September 2000, two of four vertical loop tendons
in a hollow pier stem on the Sunshine Skyway Bridge
in Tampa failed because of corrosion. Additional
corrosion problems have been detected in other vertical
tendons in the pier stems and footings of this bridge.
The superstructure has shown no signs of damage at
this point.
The presence of voids is a serious (Michael Chajes
et al., 2006)6 problem in grouted post tensioned
bridges because voids greatly reduce the corrosionprotective capabilities of the grout. Current methods
for void detection suffer several significant drawbacks.
A new method utilising Time Domain Reflectometry
(TDR) is recommended. TDR is a well-developed
method for detecting discontinuities in electrical
transmission lines. A recent study has indicated that

55

TECHNICAL PAPERS
TDR can be used as an effective nondestructive
damage detection method for concrete bridges. A void
changes the electrical properties of transmission lines
and therefore introduces electrical discontinuities. It
can be detected and analysed by TDR. Experiments
on short specimens that are used to model grouted
post tensioning ducts with built-in voids have been
conducted and demonstrated the potential of TDR as
a void detection method.
Non-destructive Evaluation Method for Determination
(Larry D. Olson., 2008)7, of Internal Grout Conditions
inside Bridge Post-tensioning Ducts using Rolling
Stress Waves for Continuous Scanning. Posttensioned systems have been widely used for
infrastructure bridge transportation systems since
late 1950s. However, if a good quality control plan
is not implemented during construction, there is the
potential problem during construction that the ducts
which carry the post tensioning cables may not be
fully grouted. This results in voids in some areas
therefore insufficient protection for post-tensioning
steel tendons. Over the long term, water can enter the
tendon ducts in the void areas resulting in corrosion of
the tendon. The collapse of a two bridges in UK and
a corrosion related failure in a bridge in Florida have
shown that it is important to have a reliable method
to practically inspect the quality of grout fill inside
the ducts after the grouting process is complete. It is
equally important to be able to evaluate the condition
of older bridges which were never inspected for
voids.
ASTM recommended following
grouting as mentioned below:

guidelines

for

ASTM C 939 Standard Test Method for


Flow of Grout for Replaced-Aggregate
Concrete (Flow Cone Method)8

ASTM C 942 99 Compressive


Strength of Grouts for PreplacedAggregate Concrete in the Laboratory1Designation9

ASTM: C 940 98 A Standard Test


Method for Expansion and Bleeding of

56

Freshly Mixed Grouts for PreplacedAggregate Concrete in the Laboratory10


ASTM : C 953 87 (Reapproved 1997)


Standard Test Method for Time of Setting
of Grouts for Preplaced-Aggregate
Concrete in the Laboratory11.

The purpose of grouting is to provide (MORT&H,


2001)12 permanent protection to the post tensioning
steel against corrosion and develop bond between steel
and surrounding structure. The compressive strength
of 100 mm cube of the grout at 7 day should not be
less than 17 MPa.
2.2

Quality Control

Grouting is the primary protection for the post


tensioning system. Proper supervision and the use
of a bleed-resistant grout that is properly mixed and
injected into the tendon are all integral parts of a
successful grouting operation. The durability of the
structure is directly affected by the grouting operation.
Prior planning with the proper details and training of
grouting technicians are keys to a successful project.
2.2.1 Grouting Preparation
Before the installation of tendons all (Schokker A.
J., B. D., et. al., 1999)13 open ducts should be sealed
to avoid contamination from the elements as well as
during transport. When the tendon is installed and
stressed, the grout caps should be placed as soon as
the elongations have been approved and the tails of
the tendon have been cut. This is done to keep any
possible construction debris or contamination from
entering the duct system.
The grout manufacturers recommendations for
mixing and pumping of the grout must be followed.
The over- or under mixing of grout can compromise
the consistency and density of the grout and can add
too much or too little water. Grout flow in the tendon
should be in one direction starting from the lowest part
and progressing along the tendon. This requires that
the sequences for the use of inlets and outlet vents be
well defined. Contingencies should be addressed for
blocked tendons or crossover. With corrective actions
INDIAN HIGHWAYS, April 2014

TECHNICAL PAPERS
in place and in the plan, a repair or modified grout
procedure can proceed, making a potential problem a
no problem.
2.2.2 Materials and Grouting Operations
Before the grout is pumped, each duct should be tested
for leaks. This can be done with oil-free compressed
air or potable water. If leaks are found, they should
be sealed before grouting to prevent blockages due
to partially filled ducts. This procedure will detect
crossover or blockage problems within the system.
A crossover results when grout physically crosses
between two adjacent post tensioning tendon ducts
or enters a duct that was not intended to be grouted
at that time, resulting in serious problems if it is not
detected before grouting. As any delay to the grouting
operation can cause problems and potential delays
to the project, it is important that, once a problem is
detected, repairs to be made before grouting. If the
grout does not flow correctly and freely through the
system, the integrity of the grouting will be in question.
In an effort to provide a more consistent grout material,
Florida DOT is requiring the use of a prebagged bleedresistant grout. ASBI and PTI have recommended the
use of antibleed or low-bleed grouts that meet a series
of performance requirements. These grouts reduce
the size and the number of voids due to bleed water.
Although all of these grouts need to be mixed at the
proper watercement ratio with the right equipment.
The type of mixer and the time that the grout is mixed
are factors that determine the quality of the grout.
The manufacturers instructions should be followed,
and a colloidal or shear-type mixer should be used to
obtain a homogeneous mixture. Over mixing of the
grout will result in a variable density grout, whereas
under mixing of the grout will produce an inconsistent
poor grout. Grout should flow from the injection point
to the first vent, with any residual flushing water or
entrapped air removed. That vent should then be closed.
The remaining vents should be closed in sequence in
the same manner. This will provide a continuous flow
of grout throughout the grouting operations. Changes
in the material requirements for the high-density
polyethylene duct systems have been suggested for all
INDIAN HIGHWAYS, April 2014

external post tensioning system (Schokker A. J., B.


D..et.al., 1999)12.
2.2.3 Training
From the problems observed in Florida, the training
of grout personnel was identified as one of the key
components to a good grouting job. The grout foremen,
inspectors, and supervisors must be competent and
knowledgeable in correct grouting.
2.2.4 Inspection Requirements
The training of grout technicians was identified as a
key component to achieving an adequate grouting job.
The use of construction inspectors can improve the
quality of the grout operation. The inspector should
keep records of the tendons that have been grouted,
the date of grouting, flow rates, the lot numbers
for prebagged grout mixes, and all other pertinent
information. The inspector and the Contractor
should perform fluidity and density testing to ensure
that the theoretical properties of the grout meet the
project specifications. Inspectors should work with
the contractor when performing any remedial action
needed during the grouting operation to provide the
highest quality possible.
3 MAJOR FINDINGS
Based on available literatures, following major points
are highlighted:

Grout protects strand from corrosion;

Duct should be free from air

Tendon failure occurred abroad due to


corrosion of strand;

Proper training, supervision guidance


are required for good quality control of
grout;

Very limited research work carried out to


determine void in grouting duct; and

IRC specification recommended very


limited tests for the quality control of
grout.
57

TECHNICAL PAPERS
4 OBJECTIVE AND SCOPE OF PRESeNT
RESEARCH WORK
Based on available literatures, major findings and
draw back of IRC practices, importance of grouting
in post tensioning system and needs of present
works, following quality control tests are identified
considering international practices:

Table 4 Properties of Sand

Test
Sand Zone
Fineness Modulus
Specific Gravity
Water Absorption

Result
Zone II
2.920
2.822
1.18 %

Sieve test

5.1.3 Water

Fluidity;

Bleeding

Volume change;

Locally available water is used for preparation of cube


mould and water is tested as Per IS: 456:2000 and test
results are shown in Table 5.

Strength;

Setting time;

Fluid density.

Table 5 Test Results of Water

5 EXPERIMENTAL TEST SET UP


5.1 Materials for Grout
5.1.1 Cement

Result
20
246
110
125
25

Limit
200 mg/litre
3000 mg/litre
400 mg/litre
3000 mg/litre
2000 mg/litre

5.1.4 Admixture

Ordinary Portland cement, Grade 53 has been used.


The physical and chemical properties were tested and
test results are found within specification limits. Some
important test results are shown in Table 3.
Table 3 Chemical and Physical Properties of Cement

BASF Rehoubuid 819 RM was used and chemical


properties were tested and test results are shown in
Table 6.
Table 6 Properties of Admixture

Test

Chemical Properties
Ratio of Alumina to Iron Oxide

1.56

Insoluble residue

2.40

Total loss on Ignition

2.22

Chloride content

0.018
Physical Properties

Consistency

28 %

Fineness

3.3 %

Initial and Final Setting Time

120 & 190 minutes

Cube Strength (7.5 cm cube)

33,43 and 59 MPa

5.1.2 Sand
Yamuna Nagar sand is used. The sand zone, fineness
modulus, specific gravity and water absorption were
tested and test results reported in Table 4.
58

Characteristic
Organic
Inorganic
Suspended Material
Sulphate
Choloride

PH value
Dry Material Content
Density
Chloride
Ash Content

Result
7.74
38.91 %
1.226 g/cc
0.0036 %
7.1 %

5.2 Brief Description of Tests


5.2.1 Sieve Test
Grout is passing 150 micron sieve and report the
presence of lump in the sieve.
5.2.2 Fluidity
The fluidity of the grout during the injection period is
measured using grout spread method.
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TECHNICAL PAPERS
5.2.6 Setting Time

5.2.3 Bleeding
The bleeding of the grout is sufficiently low to prevent
excessive segregation and sedimentation of the grout
materials. Bleeding is tested by the wick induced
method and average of three results the bleeding is
reported and value not exceed 3% of the initial volume
of the grout after 3 hours kept at rest.

Setting time of grout is determined with Vicat


Apparatus complying with the following:

Initial set of the grout; 3 h.

Final set of the grout; 24 h.

5.2.4 Volume Change

5.2.7 Density

The volume change is determined by wick method.


The volume change of the grout is tested for 24 hours
and reported within the range of 0% and + 5%.

Fluid density is measured using known volume of pot


and reported density in g/cc.

5.2.5 Strength

5.3

The compressive strength of grout assessed at 7 days


with cube size of 100 mm.

The following test frequency shown in Table 7 is


proposed.

Test Frequency

Table 7 Recommended Testing of Grout for Per Day Work

Property
Homogeneity
Fluidity
Bleeding
Volume Change
Setting Time
Density
Compressive Strength

Test Method
Sieve Test
Grout Spread
WickInduced
WickInduced
Weight to Volume
100 mm cube

Frequency of Test
One
One test immediately and two tests after 30 minutes
Two tests
Two tests
One test
Two tests
One test at 7 Days (Three Cubes) for upto 5 m3 grouting,
two test for 6-15 m3 grouting

5.4 Equipment and Testing Procedure

5.4.2 Fluidity Test

5.4.1 Sieve Test

Fluidity test has been carried out by grout spread


method.

The test consists of pouring a quantity of grout through


a sieve to check for the absence/presence of lumps on
the sieve
Apparatus
A 150 mm diameter sieve with an aperture 2 mm.
Procedure

5.4.2.1 Grout Spread Method


Principle of test
The grout spread test measures the fluidity of
thixotropic grouts. The fluidity is measured by the
diameter of the circle of grout spread on a smooth
plate after a fixed period of 30 seconds.

Pour a minimum of one litre of freshly mixed grout


through the sieve.

Apparatus

Reporting

The following apparatus is used for this test:

Report the absence/presence of lumps on the sieve.

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, April 2014

a)

Glass or polished steel plate with a


minimum diameter of 300 mm.
59

TECHNICAL PAPERS

b)

Stiff mould made of steel or plastic with


an internal diameter of 39 mm and a
height of 60 mm.

c)

Stopwatch showing time to 0,1 s.

d)

Thermometer.

e)

Ruler with a minimum length of 300 mm


with 1 mm graduation.

Test procedure
Preparation
The spread test is carried out on the horizontal plate.
Ensure that the surfaces of the mould and plate are
clean and slightly moistened. If necessary apply a
thin film of petroleum jelly (e.g. Vaseline) to the brim
of the mould in contact with the plate to prevent the
mould from leaking during filling with grout.
Procedure
Place the mould on the plate and prevent it from
sliding. Pour the grout slowly into the mould until
the level of the grout has reached the upper brim. The
mould is steadily lifted from the plate and kept above
the spread for a maximum of 30 s before it is taken
away. The spread is measured in two perpendicular
directions at 30 s after the start of lifting the mould.
Reporting of results
Report the spread diameter as the average measured
in the two perpendicular directions across the grout
spread in millimeters.

5.4.3 Bleeding and Volume Change Test


This test has been carried by Wick-induced test
method.
5.4.3.1 Wick-Induced Test
Principle of test
This test provides both volume change and bleeding
measurements. Bleeding is measured as the volume of
water remaining on the surface of the grout which has
been allowed to stand protected from evaporation.
The volume change is measured as a difference in
percentage of the volume of grout between the start
and the end of the test. The volume change is to be
observed after 24 hrs under bleeding volume change.
Equipment
One transparent tube, of approximately 70 mm internal
diameter, and approximately 1 m long, equipped with
caps at each end.
One 7-wire strand approximately 900 mm long which
fits inside the tube and thermometer.
Procedure
Set up tube in a vertical position with its open end at
the top. Provide rigid fixing so that no movement or
vibration can occur. Install the strand inside the tube
as shown in Fig. 2, ensuring that it is firmly located on
the base, and held centred. Pour the grout into the tube
at a steady flow rate to ensure there is no trapped air.
Fill the tube to a height, ho, about 10 mm above top
of the steel. Seal top of tube to minimise evaporation.
Record the temperature of the grout and ambient air
temperature.
Record starting time t0 and height h0 of the grout.
Record height of grout, hg, at 15 min intervals for first
hour and subsequently at 2h, 3h and 24h.

Fig. 1 Grout Spread Test


1 Cylinder (steel or plastic tube)

2 Smooth plate

60

Record height of bleed water, hw, at the same times


as for the grout (see Fig. 2). Record in homogeneities
that may develop in the appearance of the grout as
seen through the transparent tube. Examples of in
homogeneities are:

formation of lenses of bleed water below


top of grout;
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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Segregations leading to areas of different


coloured grout.

Reporting of results

Bleeding is expressed as :

hw/ho x 100%

5.4.6 Air Void Detection Test

Volume change is expressed as:

(h0 hg)/ho x 100%

An indirect method is proposed. Theoretical volume of


duct has to be estimated. The actual volume of grout is
calculated by adding certain percentage of theoretical
volume for accounting leakage to the theoretical
volume. This theoretical volume is compared with
the actual volume of grout used to the grout cable.
When the grout starts flowing from other end, it shall
be allowed to flow for one minute. After one minute
the outlet is closed and the pressure is allowed to build
up to 0.5 MPa. This pressure is maintained for one
minute and then the operation shall be stopped and the
actual consumption of the grout used in the operation
shall be estimated and compared with theoretical
volume. This is an in accurate method and it does not
ensure the actual condition of grouting. Hence this
method should be updated/replaced with the latest
development taken place in the developed countries.
Following methods are proposed:

Fig. 2 Wick-Induced Test Set-Up

5.4.4 Compressive Strength Test

Reporting of results
The method of sampling, measuring weight and
volume, the equipment used and the density determined
is reported in g/cc.

Endoscope,

Pressure Vacuum,

Radiology,

Cubes of 100 mm size have prepared for testing.


Cubes were cured in a moist atmosphere for first
24 hours and subsequently in water.

Percussive,

Diamond Core Drilling,

The compressive testing was tested in compressive


testing machine at 7 days and measured on at least
three specimens.

High Pressure Water Jetting,

Grit Blasted Hole,

Radar,

Reporting of results
The average of all results of the compressive cubes
expressed, in N/mm2.

The methods of void detection can be non destructive


and a guide line mentioned in B S 1881-201, 198614
shall be used.

5.4.5 Density Test

5.5 Mix Design

The density is measured as the ratio of mass to volume


in the fluid state. The apparatus comprises calibrated
equipment for weight and volume measurement.

Mix design is prepared using cement, water and


admixture.

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, April 2014

Cebex 100 is used as Cementitious grout admixture.


61

TECHNICAL PAPERS
Mix design has been finalized by trial and error
method. Water cement ratio was found 0.37.

All pozzolanic materials used as separate ingredients


are included in the calculation of W/C ratio.

Cebex 100 is used 0.45% eight of cement as declared


by the manufacturer.

Mixing has been carried out mechanically with suitable


equipment to obtain a homogeneous and stable grout
with the plastic properties.

Plasticizer is used as 0.3% weight of cement as


declared by the manufacturer.
Flow found 165 mm initially and 155 after 30 minutes
and Bleeding found 0%. Flow in Marsh cone was
found 9.4 seconds initially and 9.9 seconds after
30 minutes. Detail trial for finalization of mix design
is shown in Table 8.
7 days cube (100 mm size) was found 36.9 MPa > 17
MPa.
All materials have been batched by mass. The accuracy
of batching was 0 2 % for cement, dry admixtures
and 0 1 % for water and liquid admixtures, of
the quantities specified. Water contained in liquid
admixtures is included in the calculation of W/C
ratio.

Following information are declared by the grout


manufacturer:

Mix proportions of materials:

W/C ratio and its acceptable tolerance;

Sequence of introducing the materials,


type of mixer and mixing time;

Range of temperature for which the grout


complies with the European standard.

5.6

Test Results

Test results are found satisfactory. Summary of the


test results mentioned in Table 8.Volume change in
all tests is found zero. Other test results are reported
in Table 8.

Table 8 Summary of Test Results


S. No.

W/C Cement Cebex


Ratio Content
100
in g
in g

Super
Sieve
Plasticizer Test
in g

Density
(g/cc)

Water
in g

Flow in mm

Bleeding
at 3 h in
%
Initial After 30 Initial After 30
Minutes
Minutes

0.45

2000

4.96

2.010

900

225

200

0.44

2000

5.208

2.002

880

215

0.43

2000

5.456

1.993

860

210

0.42

2000

5.952

1.981

840

0.41

2000

6.448

1.970

0.4

2000

6.944

1.962

0.39

2000

7.192

0.38

2000

7.44

0.37

2000

7.44

Compressive
Strength at
7 Days in
MPa

6.37

8.4

4.76

28.5

195

9.1

3.61

29.6

190

7.4

8.8

31.6

200

185

8.2

9.1

2.9

33.1

820

195

175

8.6

2.6

33.6

800

185

175

8.9

9.2

1.4

34.1

1.955

780

178

170

9.1

9.6

34.5

1.949

760

170

165

9.3

9.8

0.8

36.1

1.941

740

165

155

9.4

9.9

36.9

CONCLUSIONS AND
RECOMMENDATIONS

6.1 Several design details have been changed to


improve the characteristics and performance of the
post tensioning systems.
6.2 Several changes to the grout material have been
recommended. The use of antibleed or no-bleed grouts
is recommended.
62

Marsh Cone
Flow in Sec

6.3 Improvement of the grout equipment will


provide a consistent mix and uniform density for the
grout.
6.4 It is recommended that training and certification
for grouting technicians and inspectors be required.
Government agency will be authorized to conduct
such training.
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TECHNICAL PAPERS
6.5 New code to be developed/Specification of
present IRC needs to be revised including void
detection methodology to be identified.
6.6 No bleeding grout is to be used for better
quality control and longer life span of post tensioning
structure.

Detection in Grouted Post tensioned Bridges, TRB,


1845, 2006, Page 148-152.
7.

Larry D. Olson, Applications and Limitations of ImpactEcho Scanning for Void Detection in Post-Tensioned
Bridge Ducts,TRB,2008,Annual Meeting,CD ROM.

8.

ASTM C 939 Standard Test Method for Flow of Grout


for Preplaced-Aggregate Concrete (Flow Cone Method)

9.

ASTM C 942 99 Compressive Strength of Grouts


for Preplaced-Aggregate Concrete in the Laboratory1Designation.

10.

ASTM:C 940 98 A Standard Test Method for Expansion


and Bleeding of Freshly Mixed Grouts for PreplacedAggregate Concrete in the Laboratory.

REFERENCES
1.

Woodward, R. J. Collapse of a Segmental Post-Tensioned


Concrete Bridge. In Transportation Research Record
1211, TRB, National Research Council, Washington,
D.C. 1989, pp. 3859.

2.

Clark, L. Performance in Service of Post tensioned


Concrete Bridges. Report. British Cement Association,
Crowthorne, Berkshire, UK,October 1992.

11.

ASTM : C 953 87 (Reapproved 1997) Standard Test


Method for Time of Setting of Grouts for PreplacedAggregate Concrete in the Laboratory.

3.

AASHTO (2008), AASHTO LRFD Bridge Construction


Specifications, Interim Revision pp. 10- 25.

12.

Ministry of Road Transport and Highway. Specification


for Roads and Bridges, Indian Roads Congress, 2001.

4.

Tilly, G. P., and R. J. Woodward. Development of Improved


Grouting for Post tensioned Bridges. In FIP Symposium
on Post tensioned Concrete Structures, Vol. 1, 1996,
pp. 5564.

13.

5.

Brett H. Pielstick, Grouting of Segmental Post Tensioned


Bridges in America, TRB 1813,2006, Page, 235-241.

Schokker A.J., B.D. Koester, J.E. Breen, and M.E. Kreger.


Development of High Performance Grouts for Bonded
Post-Tensioned Structures. Research Report 1405-2.
Center for Transportation Research, University of Texas
at Austin, Oct. 1999.

14.

6.

Michael Chajes, Robert Hunsperger, Wei Liu, Jian Li,


and Eric Kunz, Time Domain Reflectometry for Void

BS 1881-201, 1986, Testing Concrete-Part 201-Guide to


the Use of Non-destructive method of test for hardened
concrete.

Annexure 1 Different Tests and Specification


Property

Test Value

Test Method

Total Chloride Ions

Max. 0.08% by weight of


cementitious material

ASTM C 1152/C1I52M

Fine Aggregate (if utilized)

Max. Size<No. 50 Sieve

ASTM C 33

Volume Change at 28 days

0.0% to +0.2% at 24 h and 28 days

ASTM C 1090*

<2.0% for up to 3 h

ASTM C 940

>6 ksi

ASTM C 942

Min. 3 h
Max. 12 h

ASTM C 953

Min. 11s
Max. 30s or
Min. 9s
Max. 20 s

ASTM C 939
ASTM C 939***
ASTM C 939
ASTM C 939***

Expansion
Compressive Strength 28 day
(average of 3 cubes)
Initial Set of Grout
Fluidity Test** Efflux Time from Flow Cone
a) immediately after Mixing
b) 30 min after Mixing with Remixing
for 30s

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63

TECHNICAL PAPERS
Property
Bleeding at 3 h
Permeability at 28 days

Test Value

Test Method

Max. 0.0%

ASTM C 940****

Max. 2500 coulombs at 30 volts


for 6 h

AASHTO T 277 (ASTM C 1202)

Modify ASTM C 1090 to include verification at both 24 h and 28 days.

**

Adjustments to flow rates will be achieved by strict compliance with the Manufacturers recommendations.

***

Grout fluidity shall meet either the standard ASTM C 939 flow cone test or the modified test described herein.
Modify the ASTM C 939 test by filling the cone to the top instead of to the standard level. The efflux time is the
time to fill a 1.0-L container placed directly under the flow cone.

****

Modify ASTM C 940 to conform with the wick induced bleed test described below:

a)

Condition dry ingredients, mixing water, prestressing strand and test apparatus overnight at 70 to 77F.

b)

Insert 800 mL of mixed conditioned grout with conditioned water into the 1000 mL graduated cylinder. Mark the
level of the top of the grout.

c)

Wrap the strand with 2.0-in, wide duct or electrical tape at each end prior to cutting to avoid splaying of the wires
when it is cut.

Degrease (with acetone or hexane solvent) and wire brush to remove any surface rust on the strand before
temperature conditioning. Insert completely a 20.0-in, length of conditioned, cleaned, ASTM A 416/A 416M
seven wire strand 0.5-in, diameter into the 1000 mL graduated cylinder. Center and fasten the strand so it
remains essentially parallel to the vertical axis of the cylinder (possibly using a centralizer). Mark the Level
of the top of the grout,

d)

Store the mixed grout at the temperature range listed above in (a).

e)

Measure the level of the bleed water every 15 mm for the first hour and hourly afterward for 2 h,

f)

Calculate the bleed water, if any, at the end of the 3-h test period and the resulting expansion per the
procedures outlined in ASTM C 940, with the quantity of bleed water expressed as a percent of the initial
grout volume. Note if the bleed water remains above or below the top of the grout.

OBITUARY
The Indian Roads Congress express their profound sorrow on the sad demise of Late Shri S.K. Garg,
resident of B-21, Sarvodaya Nagar, Kanpur (Uttar Pradesh) and Late Shri A.A. Salam, resident of E-2,
Ullas Nagar, Peroorkada, Trivandrum, Kerala. They were very active members of the
Indian Roads Congress.
May their souls rest in peace.

64

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, April 2014

IS BUS FARE THE ONLY CONCERN TO URBAN TRIP


MAKERS? AN EXPERIENCE IN KOLKATA
Saurabh Dandapat*, Bhargab Maitra** and C.V. Phanikumar***
ABSTRACT
Although bus is the predominant public transport mode, the quality
of bus service is extremely poor in almost all Indian cities. The
poor quality of bus service along with economic progression is
leading to rapid growth of private vehicle ownership and usage in
urban areas. Historically, the bus fare has been considered as the
only socio-political concern in urban India without any emphasis
on the quality of service. The paper presents an investigation on
the perception of trip makers towards quantitative and qualitative
attributes of bus system in the Kolkata metro city. A stated choice
experiment was design and the data collected from trip makers
were analyzed by developing Multinomial Logit and Random
Parameter Logit models. The willingness-to-pay values were also
calculated in order to understand the perception of trip makers
towards bus service attributes. The results indicate that the fare
is not the only concern to trip makers. The work justify the need
for improving the overall quality of bus service to enhance the
attractiveness of bus system and the benefit to bus users.

INTRODUCTION

Bus is the predominant public transport mode in


majority of Indian cities. But, the quality of bus service
is extremely poor in almost all cities. The poor quality
of bus service along with economic progression is
leading to rapid growth of private vehicle ownership
and usage in urban areas. On the other hand, the scope
of capacity augmentation of roads in most of the cities
is limited due to non-availbility of land. As a result,
there is a growing imbalance between the demand and
the supply of transport in urban areas. The growing
imbalance has not only aggravated traffic congestion
but also increased vehicular emissions.
Bus system has the potential to work as an effective
instrument for demand management in urban areas.
Higher bus usage can reduce vehicle volumes and
*

Research scholar, E-mail: saurabhdandapat@gmail.com

**

Associate Professor, E-mail: bhargab@civil.iitkgp.ernet.in

thereby bring down traffic congestion and vehicular


emissions. In fact the role of public transportation
system in urban areas has been recognised in National
Urban Transport Policy (NUTP 2006). Accordingly,
several initiatives have been taken by the Govt. of
India and various State Governments to increase the
supply of buses(1 & 2). For example, Govt. of India
initiated JnNURM scheme(3) which has added nearly
15000 buses in 61 cities in India. But, the overall poor
quality of bus service in urban India is yet to change
significantly.
In the context of bus service, the fare remained as the
only sociopolitical concern. There has been frequent
discussions about the bus fare in public domain without
any emphasis on the quality of service. It would
have been ideal to have a high quality bus service in
urban India with a low fare. But, in reality most of
the Governments are finding it increasingly difficult
even to sustain the existing subsidies on bus transport.
Constraints on subsidy and fare have adversely
affected the quality of bus service in urban India. In
most cases, quality of vehicle is poor, journey time
is long, traffic information is absent, and discomfort
due to overcrowding is high. However, practically
adequate investigation has been done in Indian context
to understand if the fare is the only concern to urban
tripmakers or the overall quality of bus service is also
an important consideration. The present work reports
an investigation on perception of urban trip makers
towards various bus service attributes. The perception
of tripmakers towards bus service attributes has been
captured in terms of their Willingness-To-Pay (WTP).
The work is demondtrated with reference to a case
study of Kolkata metro city.
Civil Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology,
Kharagpur, W.B. India

*** Accent Fellow, Institute for Transport Studies, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK. LS2 9JT

E-mail: v.p.k.chintakayala@its.leeds.ac.uk

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TECHNICAL PAPERS
2 METHODOLOGY
2.1

Approach

Revealed Preference (RP) and/or Stated Preference


(SP) data have been used extensively in diverse fields
for valuation of attributes or estimation of WTP
values(4-7). However, RP data can not accommodate
non-existing parameters and fail to represent
variability of attributes which in-turn does not permit
to establish their influences in the model. On the
other hand, a systematic combination of levels of
each attribute may be considered in SP experiments(8).
Besides, it requires comparatively less number
of observations and also facilitates inclusion of
hypothetical attributes and variability of attributes.
Moreover, SP models are well established and have
been used extensively for calculating marginal WTP
values(9 & 10). Therefore, in the present work SP data are
used for calculating trip makers WTP with respect to
various attributes of bus system in the Kolkata metro
city.
Some of the SP studies have used ranking or ratingbased techniques(11). But, these techniques lack strong
theoretical foundation consistent with economics(12).
As a result, it may not be able to capture the true
choice behavior of respondents. In addition, potential
theoretical and practical obstacles in ranking and
rating techniques lead to difficulty in making
interpersonal comparisons and departure from the
choice contexts that are faced by consumers in
the real world(13). On the other hand, the Discrete
Choice Experiment (DCE) provides a framework for
estimating relative marginal disutility of variations
attributes, and their potential correlations(14). The
method involves consumers, making mutually
exclusive choices from a set of substitutable
alternative. Moreover, DCE is an established approach
with strong theoretical foundation based on economic
theory, for understanding and predicting consumer
tradeoffs and choices in marketing research. DCE
method has also been used extensively in the field
of transportation for modeling individuals behavior
in various contexts such as valuing travel time
66

savings(8 & 15-17), mode choice(18 & 19), route choice(20),


vehicle choice(21), etc. Therefore, the DCE technique
is adopted in the present work for collecting the
preferences of users in the Kolkata metro city.
SP data may be analyzed by different econometric
model specifications. In the present study, it is aimed
to understand trip makers perception towards various
attributes of bus service. Therefore, the data have been
analyzed by developing Multinomial Logit (MNL)
and Random Parameter Logit (RPL) models.
2.2 Econometric Model
The theoretical foundation of MNL and RPL
models have been documented in various
literatures(18, 22-24). However, a brief outline of these
two model specifications are included below in the
context of the present work.
The MNL models are developed on the basis of
Random Utility Theory, where the utility of each
element includes an observed (deterministic)
component (V) and a random (indeterministic)
component ():

U = V + 

... (1)

If the deterministic part V is a function of the


observed attributes (z) of the choice as faced by the
individual, the observed socioeconomic attributes
of the individual (S) and a vector of parameters (),
then

V = V (z, S, )

... (2)

A probabilistic statement can be made (due to presence


of the random component) as, when an individual n
is facing a choice set, Cn, consisting of Jn choices,
the choice probability of alternative i is equal to
the probability that the utility of alternative i, Uin,
is greater than or equal to the utilities of all other
alternatives in the choice set.
For example:

Pn (i) = Pr (Uin Ujn, for all j Cn)

Pn (i) = Pr (Vin + in Vjn + jn, for all j Cn, j i)


INDIAN HIGHWAYS, April 2014

TECHNICAL PAPERS
Assuming IID (Gumbel distribution) for , the
probability (Pn) that an individual chooses i can be
given by the MNL model:


... (3)

This model can be estimated by Maximum Likelihood


techniques. MNL model have some limitations such as
Independence of Irrelevant Alternatives (IIA) property
and Independently and Identically Distributed (IID)
property.
A Random Parameter Logit Model (RPL) was
introduced to overcome the limitations of traditional
Multinomial Logit Model (MNL). It is used to
account for unobserved heterogeneity. In RPL, when
an individual n is facing a choice set Cn, the utility
function of alternative i for individual n be(16):

i = 1, 2, ., m; n = 1, 2, , m

expressed as the integral of the conditional probability


in the following equation over all values of :


... (3)

In general, the integral cannot be evaluated analytically,


and one has to trust on a simulation method for the
probabilities. In RPL method, a simulated maximum
likelihood estimator, using Halton draws is used. This
type of random parameter model is less restrictive
than standard conditional logit models. However, care
should be taken for application of these less restrictive
models. Apart from being more difficult to estimate,
the literature shows that the results can be rather
sensitive to the distributional assumptions and the
number of draws applied in the simulation(8).
In the present paper, marginal WTP values associated
with various bus attributes are estimated using MNL
and RPL models.

... (1)
3 SURVEY INSTRUMENT AND STUDY

Thus, each individuals coefficient vector is the sum


of the population mean I and individual deviation
n . n X in are error components that persuade
heteroskedasticity and correlation over alternatives in
the unobserved portion of the utility. in represents
unobserved factors that affect Uin.
Let, tastes , vary in the population with a distribution
density f ( | ), where is a vector of the true
parameters of the taste distribution. If the error terms
(in) are IID (Independent and identically distributed)
type-I extreme value, it is a random parameter logit
model(25). The conditional probability of observing
a sequence of choices is given by the product of the
conditional probabilities:


... (2)

Where, k (n,t) denotes the sequence of choices from


choice sets that an individual n chooses in situation
t. In the choice experiment, the sequence of choices
is the number of hypothetical choices each respondent
makes in the survey. The unconditional probability
for a sequence of choices for individual n is then
INDIAN HIGHWAYS, April 2014

A stated choice survey instrument was designed


for collecting respondents trip characteristics,
socioeconomic characteristics, and stated preference
choice from the choice sets. The survey instrument
included three parts. The first part (Part A) was designed
with the objective of collecting respondents trip and
socioeconomic characteristics. The trip characteristics
were captured in terms of frequency of using bus, type
of bus predominantly used and the details of the most
recent trip including trip purpose, trip length and fare.
On the other hand, the socioeconomic characteristics
were captured in terms of age, gender, income, car
ownership, etc. The second part (Part B) was designed
to make respondents familiar about various attributes
and their levels used in the stated choice experiment.
This part included description as well as photographs
and sketches. Photographs were included especially
to communicate to respondents about various types of
buses and traffic information systems available. The
third part (Part C) was designed with the objective of
collecting respondents choice with respect to each
choice set. This part included six choice sets with two
hypothetical alternative bus service in each set.
67

TECHNICAL PAPERS
During preliminary investigation in the Kolkata metro
city it was observed that journey speeds for buses
were generally very low (about 8 to 15 kmph), buses
were crowded and headway was often in the range of
5 to 15 minutes. Also, bus schedules were largely not
known to passengers, and no information was available
at bus stops or on-board. Presently, the Kolkata city
is predominantly served by four distinctly different
types of bus called as Mini Bus (BT1), Ordinary
Private Bus (BT2), Ordinary State Bus (BT3) and
Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission
(JnNURM) Bus (BT4). The dimensions, appearance
and comfort offered by these buses are different. The
newly introduced JnNURM buses appear to be most
attractive in terms of appearance and comfort among
all types of bus operating in the Kolkata metro city.
Apart from bus fare five attributes of bus system were
included as attributes in the choice experiment. The
attributes considered in the study can be classified as
quantitative attributes and qualitative attributes. The
quantitative attibutes included average journey speed,
travel cost and waiting time at bus stop. On the other
hand, the qualitative attributes included discomfort
during journey, type of bus, and nature of traffic
information. Each attribute was further described by
four or five levels as mentioned below:

i)

ii)
iii)

iv)

Traffic information:

Traditional way of displaying


bus route/destination information
(TI1)

Displaying bus route/destination


information using LED display
(TI2)

Displaying bus route/destination


information using LED display +
on-board information using LED
display (TI3)

Displaying bus route/destination


information using LED display +
on-board information using LED
display + LED display at bus stop
with bus arrival information (TI4)

v)

In-Vehicle Travel Time (IVTT in minutes)


based on Average Journey Speed (in km/
hour):

The following levels of average


journey speed were included.

For Short Trips (Up to 6 km five


levels): 8, 10, 12, 14, 16

Waiting Time at bus stop ((WT) in


minutes): 3, 6, 9, 12, 15.

For Long Trips (Beyond 6 km five


levels): 10,12,14,16,18

Comfort Condition Inside vehicle:

For Short Trips (Up to 6 km five


levels): 1.1, 1.4, 1.7, 2.0, 2.3

For Long Trips (Beyond 6 km five


levels): 0.5, 0.8, 1.1, 1.4, 1.7

Seat (CC4)

Standing Comfortably (CC3:


number of standee equivalent to
33% of standees under crush load
condition)

68

Standing at crush load condition


(CC1)

Type of Buses : Mini Bus (BT1), Ordinary


Private Bus (BT2), State Bus BT3),
JnNURM Bus/Articulated Bus (BT4).

Standing in congestion (CC2:


number of standee equivalent to
66% of standees under crush load
condition)

vi)

Fare (INR/km)

It may be mentioned that although the choice sets


included bus journey speed as an attribute, the
corresponding journey time was also mentioned during
the data collection. A D-optimal design technique was
used to produce the choice sets of five blocks each
having six paired alternatives. All the alternatives in a
INDIAN HIGHWAYS, April 2014

TECHNICAL PAPERS
choice set were presented in generic form (i.e., Alt-A
and Alt-B).
Pilot surveys were carried out in February 2011 in order
to identify various important aspects of questionnaire
and data collection such as respondents understanding
level, proper explanation of SC experiment, decision

Choice Set:-SC1
Discomfort
Traffic Information

Type of Bus

Waiting
Time

JnNURM/

15 min

Comfortable
Standee

3 min

Congested
Standee

Articulated bus
Ordinary Private
Bus

on the number of choice sets in each questionnaire


considering respondents fatigue, identification of
various strategic locations for intercepting commuters
and also for providing a sort of training to the
interviewers. Necessary changes were incorporated in
the questionnaire based on the pilot studies. A sample
of an SP choice set is presented in Fig. 1.

In-vehicle
travel time

Fare
(Rs.)

Your
Choice

LED display outside


+onboard

60 min

11.00

LED display outside

33 min

14.00

Fig. 1 Sample Choice Set

During data collection, tripmakers were intercepted


at several strategic places in the Kolkata metro city
in order to collect their responses. Paper pencil based
face-to-face interview the chique was adopted during
the survey and the respondents were approached
randomly. During the survey, 350 respondents
covering different age groups, trip purposes, income
levels, etc. were interviewed. Out of the 2100
responses, 1614 refined responses were used for
model development. Other responses were rejected
mainly because of incompleteness of information or
missing data.

4
DATABASE
The database included respondents socioeconomic
characteristics such as age, occupation, personal
income, household size, car ownership, occupation,
education and household income. It also included trip
characteristics such as trip length, purpose, duration
of trip, fare paid, and route characteristics such as
length of route for the most recent trip. Depending
on the trip length, trips were classified as short trip
( 6 Km) or long trip (> 6 km). Out of 1614
observations, 930 (58%) responses were collected
from male respondents. Summary of trip and
socioeconomic characteristics of respondents as per
the refined database is given in Table-1.

Table 1 Summary of Trip and Socioeconomic Characteristics of Respondents

Variable(s)
Trip Purpose
Household
Income per
month (INR)
Age (Years)
Car ownership
(No. of car)

Description
Education Recration
302
111
20k-30K
30K-40K

Levels
Number
Levels
Number

Work
828
10K

Business
173
10k-20K

246

583

422

196

Levels
Number
Levels
Number

20
62
0
1153

21-35
841
1
398

36-55
600
2
63

>55
111

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, April 2014

Shopping
66
40K-60K

Social
75
60K-80K

Other
59
>80K

105

23

39

69

TECHNICAL PAPERS
5 MODEL DESCRIPTION, RESULTS AND
DISCUSSION
Keeping in view the objective of present work, the
quantitative attributes such as In Vehicle Travel Time,
Waiting Time and Fare were entered in the model
in cardinal linear form. On the other hand, dummy
coding was used for three qualitative attributes such as
bus type, traffic information and comfort condition. In
Bus type, BT4 was considered as the base alternative.
In case of Traffic Information, TI4 was considered as
the base alternative and CC4 was considered as the

base alternative for comfort level during travel. Based


on these assumptions, model estimation was carried
out for all other levels of corresponding attributes.
The MNL and RPL models were developed using
LIMDEP 8.0 (Greene 2002). While developing RPL
models, a Constrained Triangular (CT) distribution
(26) for the random parameters(s) where spread of the
random parameter equals its mean, was assumed. The
MNL and RPL models developed in the present study
are presented in Table 2.

Table 2 Coefficient Estimates from MNL and RPL Models

Attributes

MNL
Coefficient (t -Stat)

RPL

IVTT

-0.622 (-14.31)

Coefficient (t -Stat)
-0.745 (-12.21)

WT

-0.041(-5.00)

-0.046 (-4.83)

BT1

-0.801 (-4.61)

-0.922 (-4.49)

BT2

-0.530 (-5.13)

-0.608 (-4.94)

BT3

-0.394 (-2.57)

-0.418 (-2.29)

TI1

-0.893 (-8.55)

-0.985 (-7.86)

TI2

-1.291 (-3.52)

-1.462 (-3.21)

TI3

-0.798 (-2.19)

-0.826 (-2.01)

CC1

-1.098 (-8.96)

-1.254 (-8.27)

CC2

-0.927 (-5.18)

-0.982 (-4.66)

CC3

-0.494 (-2.43)

-0.472 (-1.99)

Fare

-0.007 (-5.70)

-0.008 (-5.61)

ASC

0.099 (1.43)+

0.106 (1.32)+

# of Observation

1614

1614

Log Likelihood Function

-790.861

-789.912

0.28732

0.28819

+ t-value not significant

It may be observed from Table-2 that the coefficient


estimates of all the attributes and levels are statistically
significant. The t-values of coefficient estimates
indicate that all these attributes and levels of bus
70

service are considered as important by trip makers in


the Kolkata metro city. The sign of each coefficient
estimate is also found logical and as per the actual
condition of the bus service in the Kolkata metro city.
INDIAN HIGHWAYS, April 2014

TECHNICAL PAPERS
Negative sign associated with in-vehicle travel time
and waiting time indicates that as the value of these
attributes increases the disutility also increases.
Among four types of bus service, JnNURM buses are
considered superior to other three types of bus. It is
interesting to note that between Mini Bus (BT1) and
Ordinary Private Bus (BT2), the disutility is considered
more for Mini Bus (BT1) which is contrary to the
conventional belief. The fare for Mini Bus (BT1) is
higher as it is assumed to offer a more comfortable
journey. The condition of majority of Mini Buses is
extremely poor, leg-space is inadequate and traveling
as a standee is more inconvenient due to low head
room, which may justify the result in the context of
the Kolkata metro city. It is also interesting to note
that Ordinary State Bus (BT3) is considered superior
to Mini Bus (BT1) and Ordinary Private Bus (BT2).
The results bring out the images of four types of bus,
as perceived by commuters in the Kolkata metro city.
It is interesting to note that TI2 (Displaying bus
route/destination information using LED display) is
considered as more disutility than TI1 (Traditional
way of displaying bus route/destination information)
which is apparently not an expected outcome. A further
investigation reveals that in JnNURM buses which
are presently operating in Kolkata, the font size used
in the LED display is small and there are problems
associated with the visibility during daytime. Also, in
many cases the LED displays are scrolled fast making
it difficult for trip makers to read and understand the
content. Altogether, Kolkata users find LED display in
its present form as more disutility than TI1 (Traditional
way of displaying bus route/destination information).
A comparison of coefficients of TI2 (Displaying bus
route/destination information using LED display) and
TI3 (Displaying bus route/destination information
using LED display + on-board information using LED
display) indicates that on-board information using
LED display is considered as utility by trip makers. A
comparison of coefficient estimate of TI3 (Displaying
bus route/destination information using LED display
+ on-board information using LED display) with the
base alternative clearly indicate that LED display at
INDIAN HIGHWAYS, April 2014

bus stop with bus arrival information is also considered


as utility by trip makers.
The coeeficient estimates assiciated with CC1, CC2
and CC3 indicate that crowding inside buses is
considered as disutility by tripmakers. Also, more
cowding is clearly perceived as more disutility by bus
trip makers in the Kolkata metro city.
It may also be observed from Table-2 that the coefficient
estimates obtained from MNL and RPL models are
consistent in terms of their interpretations. However,
in all cases other than CC3 higher coefficient estimates
are obtained from RPL model. In terms of the overall
goodness-of-fit (i.e. 2), no significant improvement
is observed in RPL model. This may be because of the
assumption of CT distribution of random parameters
in RPL model. No additional parameter is estimated in
the present RPL model.
The marginal WTP values are calculated by taking
ratio of the coefficient of each non-cost attribute and
the coefficient of the cost attribute. The marginal
WTP values estimated from MNL and RPL models
for various attributes/levels are reported in Table 3.
For the qualitative attributes and their levels, WTP
values are reported for a shift from the level under
consideration to the base level. For example, the WTP
for BT2 is for a shift from bus type BT2 to BT4 (base
level).
It may be observed that WTP values obtained from
MNL and RPL model are generally consistent and
comparable. The WTP values clearly indicate that both
quantitative and qualitative attributes of bus service
are considered as important factors by tripmakers in
the Kolkata metro city. The present bus fare in the
Kolkata metro city is different for different types of
bus service. Also, the fare per km varies depending
on the distance travelled. In general, the bus fare per
km varies in the range of INR 1.00 to INR 2.00. A
comparison of the present bus fare and the WTP values
reported in Table-3 clearly indicates that bus fare is
not the only concern to trip makers in the Kolkata
metro city. Rather, as compared to the fare, trip makers
have significant WTP for improvement of various
71

TECHNICAL PAPERS
qualitative and quantitative attributes of bus service.
The results also indicate the need for improving the
overall quality of bus service in the city to enhance the
attractiveness of bus system in the Kolkata metro city
and the benefit to bus users.
Table 3 Willingness-to-Pay Values (INR) for
Different Attributes of Bus System

Attributes
IVTT (INR/min)
WT (INR/min)
BT1 (INR/km)
BT2 (INR/km)
BT3 (INR/km)
TI1 (INR/km)
TI2 (INR/km)
TI3 (INR/km)
CC1 (INR/km)
CC2 (INR/km)
CC3 (INR/km)

WTP
MNL
0.90
0.59
1.16
0.77
0.57
1.30
1.88
1.16
1.60
1.35
0.72

RPL
0.98
0.59
1.20
0.80
0.55
1.29
1.92
1.08
1.64
1.29
0.62

It may be mentioned that the bus system in the


Kolkata metro city is used by both captive and choice
riders. As a significant share of captive riders is
from the economically weaker section of the society,
the WTP for captive riders may be lower than the
values reported in Table-3. A further investigation is
therefore, necessary to capture the difference of WTP,
if any, between captive and choice riders. However,
the present study clearly indicates that the fare is not
the only concern to trip makers. It is imperative that
unless the overall quality of bus system is improved
significantly, the bus system is likely to lose its
patronage in favour of increased car usage which will
further aggravate traffic congestion in the city and
increase the vehicular emissions. The low fare alone
is unlikely to be instrumental in arresting the shift of
commuters to cars.
6

CONCLUSIONS

The present work brings out new evidences on


perception of urban trip makers towards qualitative
72

and quantitative attributes of bus service in the Kolkata


metro city. The work clearly indicates that the fare
is not the only concern to trip makers. Trip makers
are found to have significant WTP for improvement
of various attributes of bus service. The WTP for
improvement of qualitative attributes is meaningful as
qualitative attributes of bus system are generally not
given due considerations in developing countries such
as India. The results justify the need for improving the
overall quality of bus service in the city to enhance
the attractiveness of bus system and the benefit to bus
users. Not the fare alone but an overall improvement
of bus service with due considerations to various
quantitative and qualitative attributes is the need
highlighted in the present work.
There are two interesting case specific findings. First,
the disutility is found more for Mini Bus (BT1) than
Ordinary Private Bus (BT2), which is contrary to
the conventional belief. The condition of majority of
Mini Buses in the city is extremely poor, leg-space
is inadequate and traveling as a standee is more
inconvenient due to low head room, which may
justify the result in the context of the Kolkata metro
city. Secondly, the present system of displaying bus
route/destination information using LED display is
found to cause more disutility than the traditional
way of displaying bus route/destination information
which may be due to the inadequate font size and high
scrolling speed of LED display in the Kolkata metro
city.
The findings from the present work are case specific
but they may encourage similar investigations in other
cities in India. Also, the findings from the work may
encourage the need for a completely different approach
towards the bus system in urban India.
7

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The work presented in the paper is based on the


research project sponsored by HUBNER GmbH,
Germany. The authors express their sincere thanks to
the sponsor.
INDIAN HIGHWAYS, April 2014

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*****
Note :

76

*****

*****

*****

Circular and Annexure-1 is available on Ministry's website (www.morth.nic.in) and same is also available in
Ministry's library

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