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Design and analysis of combination press tool for c shaped clamp

CHAPTER 4

PRESS TOOL DESIGN


Tool design is a specialized area of manufacturing engineering comprising of analysis, planning,
design, construction and application of tools, methods and procedures necessary to increase
manufacturing productivity. Making a good die begins with die designer. If the die is designed is
correctly it will work properly and require infrequent, simple repairs. The design process
basically consists of five steps.
1

Statement and analysis of the problem.

2 Analysis of the requirement.


3

Development of initial ideas.

Development of design alternatives.

Finalization of design ideas.

4.1 Design of Combination Press Tool Elements


1. Strip layout (material utilization).
2. Force required.
Cutting or Shearing force required.
Stripping force required.
Bending force required.
Press force required.
3. Press tool elements calculation.
Cutting clearance.
Thickness of die plate.
Thickness of die back plate.
Thickness of bottom plate.
Thickness of top plate.
Thickness of stripper plate.
Thickness of punch holder.
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Design and analysis of combination press tool for c shaped clamp


Thickness of punch back plate.
Length of piercing punch.
The Maximum Length of a punch.

4.2 Study of Component Clamp


Component study is the first step in tool design process. Component study gives the details about
the material to be used properties and application of the component. It also helps in identifying
the critical dimensions related to the component which has to be achieved; hence more emphasis
can be given to such areas while designing the tool. Figure 4.1 gives the details of component for
which a combination tool needs to be designed. Table 4.1 gives the component specifications and
its properties.
2D drawing of clamp
Table 4.1 Component Hinge specifications
Details
Material
Thickness
Chemical composition

Specification
Stainless Steel 409L
1.5mm
Carbon : 0.012%, Nickel : 0.15%, Chromium :
21.5%, Molybdenum : 0.030 % Nitrogen:

Shear strength
Ultimate Tensile strength

0.009%
400 N/mm
500 N/mm

4.3 Blank Development of clamp


In the Hinge, the curled portions were unwrapped to establish the sequence of operations and
dimensions of the strip required. The sequence of operations on a strip and details of each
operation must be carefully developed to ensure the safe design. Calculation of bending
allowance is essential to estimate the required flat work piece length to make a bend. The curved
neutral plane of the bend area is the bend allowance. To make a bend as shown in the Fig. 4.1 the
length of the blank is determined as follows.
L = L1 + L2 + A,
Where,
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L= Length of the flat blank required to make bend (mm)
L1= Length of bend leg1 (mm)
L2= Length of bend leg2 (mm)
A= Bend allowance (mm) = [(*) 180] * [IR + (k*t)]
- Area of bend,
k- Correction factor= 0.33 if R<2t.

Fig. 4.2 Bend allowance [53]

Bend developed length of hinge when curls were unwrapped as shown in Fig 4.3 is determined
as follows:

DEVELOPED LENGTH
L1 = 21.5mm
L2 = A/180(I.R + Kt/2)
= x90/180(4 + 0.5x1/2)
L2= 7.06mm

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Design and analysis of combination press tool for c shaped clamp


Where,
A = Angle of bend
I.R= Internal radius
K = Correction factor
Limits of K
R 2t = 0.5
R 2t = 0.3
L3 = 10mm
L4 = A/180(I.R + Kt/2)
= x180/180(12.5+0.5x1/2)
L4 = 40.84mm
L5 = L3 = 10mm
L6 = L6 = 7.06mm
L7 = 21.5mm
Total length = L1+L2+L3+L4+L5+L6+L7
= 21.5+7.06+10+40.84+10+7.06+21.5
= 117.96mm
L = 118mm
Fig 4.3 Blank development of clamp

4.4 Strip Layout (material Utilization)


In the design of blanking parts from a strip of material, the first step is to prepare the layout, that
is, to layout the position of the work pieces in the strip and their orientation with respect to one
another. While doing so, the major consideration is the economy of material. Another important
consideration in strip layout is the distance between the blanks and the strip edge and distance
between blank to blank.
The different types of strip layout are
1. Narrow run
2. Wide run
3. Angular run
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Design and analysis of combination press tool for c shaped clamp


The formula used to calculate material utilization.
% Area of utilization = Area of blank x No of rows x 100
Pitch x Strip width
= (2520 1/21.5 125)100
= 95.29%

4.5 Force Required Calculation


4.5.1 Cutting or Shearing force calculation (Fs)
Piercing (S.F) 1
(S.F) 1 = L1 t Fs
= 31.4 1 40.77
(S.F) 1 = 1.28T

L1 = D
= (5) 2
= 31.4mm

Where,
t = thickness of sheet (mm)
D = diameter of hole (mm)
FS= shear strength (kg/mm2)
Blanking (S.F) 2
(S.F) 2 = KL2tFS
1000
= 1.2 280 1 40.77
1000
(S.F) 2= 14T
Where,
K = Factor of Safety
L2 = Cut length (mm)
t = Thickness (mm)
FS = Shear Strength (kg/mm2)

4.5.2 Bending Force (Fb)

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Design and analysis of combination press tool for c shaped clamp


Fb = k L S u t 2
W
= 2.66 20 50 12
27
Fb = 0.098T
Where,
k = die opening factor
For U bending
k= 2.66 for W= 8t
k= 2.40 for W= 16t
L= distance between supports (mm)
Su= ultimate tensile strength (kg/mm2)
W= width of dent up portion (mm)
Bending force (thumb rule) (Fb)
Fb = 20%of cutting force
= 0.2 15
Fb = 3T
4.5.3 Stripping force Calculation
S = (L t Fs) x 0.20
= 2802 40.77 0.20
1000
S = 2.25T
Where,
S = stripping force (T)
t = material thickness (2mm)
L= total cutting length (280mm)
Fs= Shear strength (40.77kg/mm2)
4.5.4 Press force (P)
P = S.F1 + S.F2 + Fb + S
= 1.28 + 14 + 3 + 2.25
P = 20.53T
Safety= 25%press force
= 0.25(21)
= 5T

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Design and analysis of combination press tool for c shaped clamp


Total force required (F)
F = Press force + Safety
= 21 + 5
F= 26T
The press selected was 63T SNX press.

4.6 Press Tool Calculation


4.6.1 Calculation of cutting clearance
Cutting clearance (c)
Formula method = 0.005t Fs
= 0.005 140.77
= 0.03mm/side
Percentage method = 5% of sheet thickness
= 0.05 1
= 0.05mm
Where,
t = thickness (mm)
Fs=shear strength (kg/mm2)
4.6.2 Thickness of die plate
Td = 3F
= 330
= 3 cm
Td = 40mm
The plate selected was 40mm as it was the nearest standard available.
4.6.3 Thickness of die back plate
Tdbp = (0.5~0.8) Td
= 0.5 40
Tdbp = 20mm
The standard 20mm plate was selected.
4.6.4 Thickness of bottom plate

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Design and analysis of combination press tool for c shaped clamp


Tbp = (1.25~1.75) Td
= 1.25 40
Tbp = 50mm
The standard 50mm plate was selected.
4.6.5 Thickness of top plate
Ttp = (1.25~1.75) Td
= 1.25 40
Ttp = 50mm
The standard 50mm plate was selected.
4.6.6 Thickness of stripper plate
Tsp = (0.6~0.8) Td
= 0.6 40
= 24mm
Tsp= 30mm
The standard 30mm plate was selected.
4.6.7 Thickness of punch holder
Tph = (0.6~0.8) Td
= 0.6 40
= 24mm
Tph = 30mm
The standard 30mm plate was selected.
4.6.8 Thickness of punch back plate
Tpbp = (0.5~0.8) Td
= 0.5 24
= 12mm
Tpbp = 20mm
The standard 20mm plate was selected.

4.7 Types of fits used in Press Tool


When two parts are to assemble, the relation resulting from the difference between the sizes
before assembling is called fit. A machine part when manufactured has a specified tolerance.
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Design and analysis of combination press tool for c shaped clamp


Therefore, when two mating parts fit with each other, the nature of fit is dependent on the limits
of tolerances and fundamental deviations of the mating parts. The types of fits employed in this
tool are described in the table 4.5 given below.
Table 4.5 Fits used in press tool
Sl no:

Type of fit

Tool Elements
H7/g6 (sliding fit)

Blanking punch and Stripper


Piercing punch and Stripper

Guide pillar with Bottom plate

Guide pillar with Guide bush

H7/p6 (press fit)


H7/g6 (sliding fit)

Punch with Punch holder

H7/k6 (light key fit)

Pilot with Stripper

H7/g6 (sliding fit)

Direct Pilot with Punch

H7/p6 (press fit)

Pilot with Punch holder

H7/k6 (light key fit)

Dowels with stripper plate

H7/m6 (medium drive fit)

10

Dowels with Die plate

H7/m6 (medium drive fit)

11

Dowels with Bottom plate

H7/m6 (medium drive fit)

12

Dowels with Top plate

H7/m6 (medium drive fit)

13

Dowels with Punch holder plate

H7/m6 (medium drive fit)

14

Stopper with die plate

H7/k6 (light key fit)

15

Guide bush with Top plate

H7/p6 (press fit)

16

Finger stopper and slot in Stripper plate

H7/g6 (sliding fit)

17

Punch and Die

Cutting clearance fit

H7/g6 (sliding fit)

4.8 Machine specification


The specifications of a 63T machine which can withstand the calculated press tonnage are given
in Table 4.4 below. The schematic sketch of C frame press machine with terminology and a
photograph of SNX63 press machine are shown in the fig 4.8(a) and 4.8(b) below.

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Design and analysis of combination press tool for c shaped clamp

Fig 4.8(a) schematic sketch of C frame press machine [10]

Fig 4.8(b) Press machine SNX63 [courtesy: Adithya Tools, NTTF]


Table 4.2 Machine specification
Model

SNX63

Tonnage (T)

63

Strokes per minute (SPM)

100

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Die height (mm)
Tool bore (mm)
Bolster area (mm2)
Bolster thickness (mm)
Floor to top of bolster (mm)
Main motor (H.P)

300
50.8
900520
120
870
7.5

4.9 PRESS TOOL DESIGN


4.9.1 2-Dimensional Drawings of combination Press Tool
4.10 Summary
This chapter describes the preparation of strip layout for hinge, calculation of shearing, bending,
stripping, and press force required, determination of cutting clearance required between punch
and die and design of press tool elements are determined. The specifications of the machine to be
accommodated are also discussed in this chapter. The 2 D drafting and 3D modelling are also
shown in this chapter. The importance of above calculations is explained within it. The materials
selected are given in bill of material for top half, bottom half and standard items as shown in
Appendix I.

CHAPTER 5
FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF PRESS TOOL ELEMENTS
Finite element analysis (FEA) is a computerized method for predicting how a product reacts to
real-world forces, vibration, heat, fluid flow, and other physical effects. Finite element analysis
shows whether a product will break, wear out, or work the way it was designed. It is called

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analysis, but in the product development process, it is used to predict what is going to happen
when the product is used.
FEA works by breaking down a real object into a large number (thousands to hundreds of
thousands) of finite elements, such as little cubes. Mathematical equations help predict the
behavior of each element. A computer then adds up all the individual behaviors to predict the
behavior of the actual object.

5.1 Structural analysis of Punches and Die Inserts


The objective of carrying out structural analysis on punches and die inserts was to determine
whether the stress, strain and shear stress induced in punches and die inserts as a result of the
load applied was within the permissible limit.

5.2 Types of Engineering Analysis


The different types of engineering analysis are.

Structural analysis consists of linear and non-linear models. Linear models use simple
parameters and assume that the material is not plastically deformed. Nonlinear models

consist of stressing the material past its elastic capabilities.


Vibration analysis is used to test a material against random vibrations, shock, and
impact. Each of these incidences may act on the natural vibration frequency of the

material which, in turn, may cause resonance and subsequent failure.


Fatigue analysis helps designers to predict the life of a material or structure by showing
the effects of cyclic loading on the specimen. Such analysis can show the areas where
crack propagation is most likely to occur. Failure due to fatigue may also show the
damage tolerance of the material.

5.3 Finite Element Analysis of Punches


5.3.1 Piercing punch

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Fig 5.1 Piercing punch


Element type: Tetrahedrons
Element size: 1 mm
Applied load: 6300 N
Area: 19.63 mm2
No of nodes: 1142
No of elements: 543
Equivalent (Von-Mises) Stress

Fig 5.2 Equivalent (Von-Mises) Stress in piercing punch


Equivalent Strain

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Fig 5.3 Equivalent Strain in piercing punch


Shear stress

Fig 5.4 Shear stress in piercing punch

Table 5.1 Piercing punch ANSYS results


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Objective
Equivalent (Von-Mises) Stress
Equivalent Strain
Shear stress

Maximum
320.22MPa
0.0016462
158.71MPa

Minimum
12.965MPa
0.000122
-554.57MPa

5.3.2 Blanking punch

Fig 5.5 Blanking punch


Element type: Tetrahedrons
Element size: 1 mm
Applied load: 134400N
Area: 2320 mm2
No of nodes: 5100
No of elements: 2925
Equivalent (Von-Mises) Stress

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Fig 5.6 Equivalent (Von-Mises) Stress in blanking punch

Equivalent Strain

Fig 5.7 Equivalent strain in blanking punch


Shear stress
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Fig 5.8 Shear stress in blanking punch


Table 5.2 Blanking punch ANSYS results
Objective
Equivalent (Von-Mises) Stress
Equivalent Strain
Shear stress

Maximum
67.663MPa
3.3x10-4
18.846MPa

Minimum
1.0822MPa
1.7x10-5
-21.44MPa

5.3.3 Bending punch

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Fig 5.9 Bending punch


Element type: Tetrahedrons
Element size: 1 mm
Applied load: 30,000N
Area: 1614 mm2
No of nodes: 3803
No of elements: 2098

Equivalent (Von-Mises) Stress


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Fig 5.10 Equivalent (Von-Mises) Stress in bending punch


Equivalent Strain

Fig 5.11 Equivalent strain in bending punch


Shear stress

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Fig 5.12 Shear stress in blanking punch


Table 5.3 Bending punch ANSYS results
Objective
Equivalent (Von-Mises) Stress
Equivalent Strain
Shear stress

Maximum
47.17MPa
2.4x10-4
12.577MPa

Minimum
0.33628MPa
2.5x10-6
-11.99MPa

5.4 Theoretical Calculation


5.4.1 Piercing punch
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Unit Stress () = force/ area =6300/19.63 = 320.8 MPa
Unit Strain (e) = stress/ Youngs modulus = 320.8 / 210 x 103 = 1.604x10-3
Maximum shear stress() =(1/2) x Equivalent (Von-Mises) Stress =329.22/2 = 164.61MPa

5.4.2 Blanking punch


Unit Stress () = force/ area =134400/2320 = 57.93 MPa
Unit Strain (e) = stress/ Youngs modulus = 57.93/ 210 x 103 = 2.8x10-4
Maximum shear stress() =(1/2) x Equivalent (Von-Mises) Stress =67.663/2 = 33.8315MPa

5.4.3 Blanking punch


Unit Stress () = force/ area =29430/1614 = 18.39 MPa
Unit Strain (e) = stress/ Youngs modulus = 18.39/ 210 x 103 = 6.1x10-5
Maximum shear stress() =(1/2) x Equivalent (Von-Mises) Stress =47.17/2 = 23.585MPa

5.5 Results

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The comparison of analysis and theoretical results are tabulated in the below table 5.4 shows the
results.
Table 5.4 Results
Sl. no.

1.

2.

3.

Description

Piercing punch

Blanking punch

Bending punch

Analysis result

Theoretical result

Stress

329.22MPa

Stress

320.8MPa

Strain

1.6x10-3

Strain

1.60x10-4

Shear stress

158.71MPa

Shear stress

164.61MPa

Stress

67.66MPa

Stress

57.93MPa

Strain

3.3x10-4

Strain

2.8x10-4

Shear stress

18.846MPa

Shear stress

33.83MPa

Stress

47.77MPa

Stress

18.39MPa

Strain

2.4x10-4

Strain

6.1x10-5

Shear stress

12.577MPa

Shear stress

23.5MPa

5.6 Summary
Finite element analysis of press tool elements deals with determination of stresses, strains and
shear stresses induced in punches for the load applied. Analysis was carried out in ANSYS work
bench 14 software and Solid 187 element was used for meshing of punches. After the Finite
element analysis was carried out on the critical elements of press tool it was observed that the
resultant stress and strain values were well within the allowable yield stress (i.e. 1650 Mpa) of
the material. The results obtained from Finite element analysis were compared with theoretical
values and were found to be approximately nearer. Table 5.4 shows the results.

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