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Chapter 2: STRAIN

WAEL I. ALNAHHAL, Ph. D., P. Eng

Spring, 2015

Introduction

Strain

the external forces applied on the body as well as the load

carrying capacity of the body

Applied

External Load

Internal

Loading

Determine Using

Equilibrium

Equations

Internal

Stresses

Deformations

Deformation of the material is the change in

geometry when stress is applied

Deformation is expressed by the displacement

field of the material

Strain is the deformation per unit length

Deflection is a term to describe the magnitude

to which a structural element bends under a

load

Deformation

When a force is applied to a body, the internally

generated stress will change the bodys shape and size.

These changes are deformation.

positions of 3 line segments

where the material is

subjected to tension.

Strain

1. Normal Strain

The elongation / contraction of a line segment per unit of length is

referred to as normal strain.

avg

s 's

=

s

If the normal strain is known, then the approximate final length is

s ' (1 + )s

+ line elongate

- line contracts

Units

Normal strain is a dimensionless quantity since it is a ratio of two lengths

Normal Strain

P

= = normal stress

A

2P P

=

=

2A A

P

A

= normal strain

L

=

L

=

2L L

Shear Strain

Change in angle between 2 line segments

that were perpendicular to one another

refers to shear strain.

nt =

lim '

B A along n

C A along t

>90 -shear strain

Shear Strain

Cubic element subjected to a shear stress will deform into a rhomboid. The

corresponding shear strain is quantified in terms of the change in angle between

the sides

A

B

While Shear Strain tends to change the Shape of a material

EXAMPLE 2.2

Example 2.3

The plate is deformed into the dashed shape. If, in this deformed shape, horizontal lines on

the plate remain horizontal and do not change their length, determine (a) the average

normal strain along the side AB, and (b) the average shear strain in the plate relative to the

x and y axes.

Solution:

Part (a)

Line AB, coincident with the y axis, becomes line after deformation, thus the length of

this line is

AB' =

(250 2)2 + 32

= 248.018 mm

AB

250

Solution:

Part (b)

As noted, the once 90 angle BAC between the sides of the plate, referenced from the

x, y axes, changes to due to the displacement of B to B.

Since

xy

xy = 2 then

' xy

3

= tan

= 0.0121 rad (Ans)

250 2

1

Example 2.4

CONCEPT QUIZ

1) The rectangular membrane has an

unstretched length L1 and width L2. If the

sides are increased by small amounts L1

and L2, determine the normal strain along

the diagonal AB.

L1

L2

A)

+

L1

L2

L1 + L2

C)

L1 + L2

L12 + L22

B)

L12 + L22

D)

(L

(L

2

1

+ L22

2

1

+ L22

2)

deformation shown by the dashed line.

Determine the average shear strain xy of the

plate.

A)

3

150

C)

150

200

B)

D)

17

1200

(150

3

2

+ 200 2

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