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AR MyNotes

N o te b o o k :


C r e a te d :

15/11/2014 9:18 PM

Au t h o r :

Suhaimi Shaarani @ Tan

U p d a te d :

Definition of Educational Research

15/11/2014 11:48 PM

Definition of AR

To investigate practices in order to

fundamentally improve the way we
learn, know and describe our world
To investigate the behaviour of students,
teachers, administrators, parents and
other members of the community who
interact with educational institutions.

An inquiry involving a systematic process

conducted by the practitioner(teacher) with the
aim of improving his/her own classroom practice
in a practical & specific context

Characteristics of educational Characteristics of AR

begins with a question in
the mind of the researcher
requires a plan.
demands a clear statement
of the problem.
deals with the main
problem through
seeks direction through
appropriate hypotheses
deals with facts and their

conducted by a teacher/practitioner in the context of

his/her daily practice in his/her own classroom
in a systematic, cyclical process of planning, taking
action, observing & reflecting
participatory involves teacher as a participant
teacher as researcher

Comparing Research Type

In numerical and concrete data form
Focus on stastitical numbers
Usually conducted using standardized instruments eg:
Emphasizes on statistical tests
Large sample size

Data collected verbally, abstract.
Need transcribing.
Face to face interaction
Through interviews and observation
Observing behavioural actions
Small sample size
More decriptive and narrative

AR Issues

HOW to tackle the issues

AR lacks accuracy &

depth (rigour) & lacks

data collect from multiple sources e.g. teacher & student (different
perspectives) / student journal & student interview (same perspective but
diff sources)
multiple methods - depth (e.g. interviews) & breadth (e.g. survey the class)

AR findings cannot be

aim of AR is to improve the teachers own practice in his/her own practice

NOT to be generalised to the entire teaching arena.

Model is deficit model

not complete

AR is continuous process each cycle improves on the previous

Aims of AR
develop a reflective practitioner
builds a professional culture in the educational area (Sagor, 2000)
encourages positive change in the school
empowers the teacher to take action to improve own classroom practice
encourages educators to reflect on own practices
promotes a systematic process of testing new classroom ideas

AR Model: Lewin (1946) & Laidlaw (1992)

P plan plan action, review literature

Decide on the instrument to be used, whether to

develop by own, locate one and use it entirely

A action implement action

implement the treatment on the target group which

intends to achieve the objectives

O observe collect & analyse data

carry out the interview to get the respond about

implemented treatment

R reflect reflect on action taken & its impactfindings (& refine action for next cycle)

Reflection which reflecting on problems and progress

Start CYCLE 2 ... Revised Plan

AR Model: Kemmis

AR Model: Elliot

AR Model: Ebutt


Intro background, reflection on previous experience/current practice
Focus of investigation
criteria for deciding on focus relevance to school, practical, manageable, significant
helps researcher plan the action
may be a problem or something that the teacher wants to improve
describe the issue/problem
Research objectives & questions clear & unambiguous
Target group
Recommended action
Data collection methods
Data analysis methods
Implementation schedule & budget
Reflection on the past teaching experience,Theoretical framework
Issue of concern
Objective of action research
General objectives
Specific objectives ,
Research question
Literature review
Target group
Location of the study,
Academic performance
Recommended action
Plan of action,
Data gathering method,
Data analysis method
Implementing plan of action

The rights of students, parents, staffs and teachers
acquire consent
plan time frame
scale of research
Personal Bias
own position as researcher
influence over research subjects'
Types of Educational Research
Research Purpose of the




to increase understanding
of fundamental principles

it stimulates new ways of

thinking that have the
potential to revolutionize
and dramatically improve
how practitioners deal
with a problem

rarely helps practitioners

directly with their everyday


to solve practical
problems of the modern
world, rather than to
acquire knowledge for
knowledge's sake

to link research with

action in a form that
generates actionable

There are no characteristics


might be made relevant

and responsive to the
needs of researchers,
participants and the world
of work.
It provides a powerful
means of improving and
enhancing practice as
well as bridging the
theory-practice gap

difficult and time consuming.

Researchers and
participants need to
approach the method
carefully and ask searching
questions about whose
agenda is really
must also be transparent
about the limitations of their
research when presenting
the findings.

to bring about
Research development in his or her
practice by analysing
existing practice and
identifying elements for

Evaluation to make judgment about

Research its usefulness

Action research questions

Why am I collecting this data?

How is the data related to the study question?

What will the data tell us about students learning and teaching

What exactly am I collecting?

What kind of data will give me the best information about students
learning and teaching strategies?
How can I gather data on the same question in different ways, from
different sources, and at different times (triangulation).

Where am I going to collect it?

What kind of a sample is needed?

Do I need to identify the student for long-term tracking?

When am I going to collect it and

for how long?

How much data is needed?

How periodic should the collection be?

Who is going to collect it?

Is data being collected by myself or will others be involved?

How will data be collected,

analyzed and findings shared?

Has a time line been established?

Where and how will the data be stored?
Has the criterion for analyzing the data (rubrics, implementation
logs) been established before the data is collected?
What approach will be used for recording, displaying, and sharing

The Action Research Process

Step 1: Identifying issues and developing questions Should reflect an issue of importance to you as a teacher.
Can impact student learning, seek to develop new teacher habits, or address an
important issue such as parent involvement.
Step 2 - Learning more about your issue
Consider at least three sources of research
refine your research question
identify new strategies and interventions.
Step 3 - Developing a strategy for your study
Decide how you want to approach the study.
It is the "what" or "how" of your study.
Step 4 - Gathering and analyzing data
Think about what overt, observable behaviours you can measure
to determine if your intervention has an impact.
Step 5 - Taking action and sharing your results
Return to your questions.
Were they answered?
Were the results what you expected?
Who do you want to share your findings with?
Can your results inform others in your school?
Step 6 - Personal Reflection
Take a few moments to consider the process.
Relates to the truthfulness of the data.

Measure the specific phenomenon that you are claiming to study.

Relates to your claim that the data you have collected is accurate.
Your findings are less credible or reliable if the number of participants is small or the number
of times data was collected is limited.
Data Collection Method: Surveys and Questionnaires
Useful tools for collecting data from a large number of people.
Questions must be limited to the research question and design.
Field test the questions with three to five people.
Provide a short explanation of the research study, explain the purpose of the questionnaire
and how the data will be used.
The formats of different questions will yield different types of data.
Using a computer may save time in organizing and analysing the data.


Efficient means of gathering large amounts of data

Respondents can be anonymous - Rating scales
yield data that can be displayed in tables and charts
Useful for pre- and post-intervention data gathering

Not a good source of quantitative data;

best used to identify trends or themes
Can lack the richness of personal
interviews or direct observation
Open-ended questions are time
consuming to analyze
Questions must be worded clearly to
avoid misinterpretation

Data Collection Method: Interview

Interviews are purposeful conversations between the respondents and researcher. Plan the
interview by developing a set of questions that focus on the research problem you have
Field test the interview questions with three to five people not involved in the study.
Group interviews can work well with students, depending on the research question.
During the interview, take time to develop a rapport with respondents. Consider taping the
interview (with the permission of your participants).
Provides the opportunity for in depth
conversation with respondents
Can yield rich data
Questions can be clarified if necessary
Researcher can ask additional questions
Useful for gathering data from younger student

Interviews and data analysis can be time
If the interview is poorly planned, the data may
be difficult to analyze
Respondents do not have anonymity
Possibility of interviewer bias
Data does not lend itself easily to quantification

Data Collection Method: Observation

looking with a purpose
are very effective when combined with other data-collection methods.
Develop an observation plan and a data-collection template.
Conduct observations at different times of the day.

Consider asking a colleague to conduct the observation.

Consider using a camera or video tape when ethically appropriate.
Be aware that the observers presence can affect the process.
Provides a holistic picture
Is effective in classroom and playground situations Can
document non-verbal behaviours
Increases the researchers sensitivity to multiple

It might be difficult to isolate
specific behaviours
Must use multiple
observations for validity
Time consuming and labour
May be distracting to

Data Collection Methods

Field notes
Anecdotal records

Data collection considerations

getting consent/permission, respecting privacy, anonymity
research objectives
need to match so that data collected is relevant
deals with consistency of findings
deals with accuracy of data collected & findings
how to avoid bias? e.g. interviews interview both genders/ a representation from
each age grp, etc.