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ECE 7209 Techniques of Advanced Electromagnetics

University of Virginia
Spring 2015
Homework # 2
Due: Wednesday, February 10

1. Balanis, 1.43. The time harmonic complex field inside a source-free conducting pipe of rectangular cross-section (waveguide) shown below filled with free space is given by


( x )

ejz z ,
E = y E0 sin

( )2
z = 0 1

0 x a, 0 y b

E0 is a constant (amplitude) and 0 = 2/0 = 0 0 . For a section of waveguide of length

along the z -axis, determine the:
(a) corresponding magnetic field, H
(b) supplied complex power,
(c) exiting complex power,
(d) dissipated real power,
(e) time-average energy stored in the magnetic field, and
(f) time-average energy stored in the electric field
Verify that conservation of energy is satisfied, as required by Poyntings Theorem.
2. Consider the unit cube shown to the right:

which has all sides except the face at x = 0 covered by perfect conductors. If Ez = 100 sin (y)
and Hy = exp(j/6) sin (y) over the open face and no sources exist within the cube, determine (a) the time-averaged power dissipated within the cube and (b) the dierence between the
time-averaged electric and magnetic energies within the cube.
3. The fields radiated by a small electric dipole antenna located at the origin are found to be,

I0 h jkr {( 2
2 )

cos r + j +

I0 h jkr (

jk +

where = /, I0 is the rms current at the feed of the antenna, and h is the length of the
(a) Find the Poynting vector for the antenna and integrated it over a large (r )
spherical surface surrounding the antenna to find the average power radiated.
(b) The radiation resistance of the antenna is defined to be the equivalent resistance that
would dissipate the same average power as the antenna radiates. In other words,

Prad = |I0 |2 Rrad ,

where Prad is the average power radiated by the antenna and Rrad is the radiation
resistance. Find the radiation resistance for the small dipole

4. Two metal objects are embedded in a weakly conducting medium with conductivity of , as
shown below,

(a) Show that the resistance between the objects is related to the capacitance of the arrangement



(b) Suppose that a battery was connected between object (1) and object (2) and that they were
charged up to a potential dierence of V0 volts. If you disconnect the battery, the charge will
gradually leak o. Show that the voltage between the objects decays exponentially and find the
corresponding time constant. This time constant is known as the relaxation time constant.
5. Balanis, 2.24. Show that the relaxation time constant for copper ( = 5.76107 S/m, r = 1)
is much smaller than the time period in the microwave (110 GHz) region and is comparable to
the period of x-rays (0 110
A). Consequently, good conductors cannot maintain a charge
distribution long enough to permit propagation of a wave more than a very short distance (the
skin depth) at microwave frequencies. X-ray propagation through a conductor, however, is
possible because the relaxation time is comparable to a period of the wave.
6. Show that the average field inside a sphere of radius R, due to all the charge within that sphere

avg = 1
40 R3
where p
is the total dipole moment. To demonstrate this, follow the method outlined below:
(a) Show that the average field due to a single charge q at point P inside the sphere is the
same as the field at P due to a uniformly charged sphere with = q/( 43 R3 )

40 ( 3 R3 )

r dv

r is the vector from P to dv .
(b) The latter may be found from Gausss Law. Express the answer in terms of the dipole
moment of q .
(c) Use superposition to generalize to an arbitrary charge distribution.
(d) What is the average field, within the sphere, due to all the charge outside the sphere?

= 0 e E
. If the material
7. In a linear dielectric, the polarization is proportional to the field, P
consists of atoms (or nonpolar molecules), the induced dipole moment of each one is likewise

. Find the relation between the atomic polarizability and

proportional to the field p
= E
the susceptibility e .
(dipole moment density) is p (the dipole moment for an atom)
Some Discussion: Because P
=Np = N E
, ones first inclination may be to say that,
times the density of atoms (N ), P
e =


This is close (if the density of atoms is low), but not quite correct. There is a subtlety in this
in the expression for P above is the total macroscopic electric
problem. By definition, the field E
field i.e., the field due to everything. However, the field in the expression for p
(which defines
) is the field due to everything else except the particular atom under consideration! It would
be clearer to write the relation as,

p = N E
else is the electric field due to everything except the atom in question. Thus we need to
where E
and E
else . To do this, assume the space allotted to
find the relation between the total field E
each atom is a sphere of radius R centered on that atom and that the total macroscopic field
self + E
else , where E
self is the average field over the sphere due to
can be expressed as E
the atom itself. Using the result of problem 5, show that,
= 1 N E
and use this to show that

30 ( r 1 )
N r + 2

This final expression is the Clausius-Mosotti formula (see Balanis, p. 79).