You are on page 1of 2


Breathing, which isprimarily concerned with maintaining life, is secondarily a force
assisting in vocalization.It consists of two phases --- inhalation and exhalation.
Serve as the reservoir of air
As you inhale, fill the lungs comfortably in preparation for speaking.
A large sheet of muscle separating the chest cavity from the abdomen
Forms the floor of the chest and the roof of the abdomen
Gives pressure to the breath stream
BREATHING EXERCISE: 1. Sit up straight. Exhale. 2. Inhale and, at the same
time, relax the belly muscles. Feel as though the belly is filling with air. 3. After
filling the belly, keep inhaling. Fill up the middle of your chest. Feel your chest and
rib cage expand. 4. Hold the breath in for a moment, then begin to exhale as
slowly as possible. 5. As the air is slowly let out, relax your chest and rib cage.
Begin to pull your belly in to force out the remaining breath. 6. Close your eyes,
and concentrate on your breathing. 7. Relax your face and mind. 8. Let
everything go. 9. Practice about 5 minutes.
Phonation takes place whenvoice is produced in speaking as the expiratory air
stream from the lungs goes up through the trachea or windpipe to the larynx.
Principal organ of phonation Found at the top of the trachea Protuberance is
known as the Adams apple
Vocal Cords
A pair of bundles of muscles and cartilages Open and close at various degrees
Also known as windpipe Passageway of air going up from the lungs
PHONATION EXERCISE; Think about blowing out birthday candles. Begin to
blow and then turn the breath into an "ooo" sound on a comfortable pitch. Feel the
tone begin in the breathing muscles. Repeat
The voice produced in phonation is weak. It becomes strong and rich only when
amplified and modified by the human resonators. Resonation is the process of voice
amplification and modification.
Common passageway for air and food Located behind the nose and mouth and
includes the cavity at the back of the tongue
Divisions of the pharynx:
Nasal pharynx Oral pharynx Laryngeal pharynx
Consists of the external and internal portions
Nostrils openings of the external nose
Nasal cavity internal nose; directly behind the external nose through which the air
passes on its way to the pharynx

Septum divides the external and internal nose into two separate passageways
Divided into the vestibule and the oral cavity proper
Vestibule felt by placing the tongue tip outside the teeth but inside the lips.
Oral cavity felt by retracting the tongue, closing the jaws and moving the tongue
rESONATORS: Upper part of the larynx, Oral pharynx cavity, Nasal cavity
RESONATION EXERCISE: Read the black syllables softest and the red syllables
loudest.Pa pa pa pa pa pa pa pa paMa ma ma ma ma ma ma ma maLa la la la la la
la la laTa ta ta ta ta ta ta ta taBa ba ba ba ba ba ba ba baFa fa fa fa fa fa fa fa faVa
va va va va va va va va
Articulation occurs when thetone produced in the larynx ischanged into specific
sounds. This is the result of themovement of the articulators towards the
points of articulation.
Highly flexible Can be moved into numerous positions essential to articulation
Serve as important surfaces in articulation Embedded in the alveolar ridge or
gum ridges of the oral cavity
Also known as the hard palate Bony roof of the mouth Serves as an important
surface against which the tongue makes contact
Small nub on the lower border of the soft palate Movable tip at the midline of the
free border of the soft palate
Also known as the soft palate Separates the nasal pharynx from the oral cavity
A flexible curtain attached along the rear border of the hard palate
Flexible organ consisting of muscles, glands and connective tissues
Parts of the tongue: Apex or tip Blade Front Center Back root
Articulators; Lower jawUvula Lower lip Velum Tongue
Points of Upper articulation
-Upper lip
-Upper teeth
-alveolar ridge
-Hard palate
-Soft palate